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Six Steps to Sleep Review

Six Steps to Sleep Review

The Migraine And Headache Program Review

The Migraine And Headache Program Review

Guilt Free Deserts Review

Guilt Free Deserts Review

Parenting Children With Asperger's And High-functioning Autism

Parenting Children With Asperger's And High-functioning Autism

The smoothie Detox challenge by Drew Sgoutas Review

The smoothie Detox challenge by Drew Sgoutas Review

The Secret Survey Review

The Secret Survey Review

The Psoriasis program-permanent Psoriasis solution by Eric Bakker Review

The Psoriasis program-permanent Psoriasis solution by Eric Bakker Review

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Review

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Review

Reiki Solas Online Reiki Training Review

Reiki Solas Online Reiki Training Review

MindBody Matrix Pain Cream

MindBody Matrix Pain Cream

High Carb Fat Loss Review

High Carb Fat Loss Review

Wake Up Lean Review

Wake Up Lean Review

Articles

Blood vessels of the head and neck

Blood is supplied to parts within the neck, head and brain through branches of the subclavian and common carotid arteries. The common cartoid artery extends from the brachiocephalic artery. It extends on each side of the neck and divides at the level of the larynx into two branches The internal carotid artery passes through the temporal bone of the skull to supply oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, forehead and part of the nose. The external carotid artery is divided into branches (facial,...

The Biological Domain

The biological domain concerns those factors within the body that influence or ar influenced by personalit . This domain is not any more fundamental than the other domains, nor is knowledge about this domain any closer to the truth about personality than knowledge in other domains. This domain simply represents one perspective on the nature and consequences of personality. There is a long history of speculation and theorizing about the relation between the body and the mind. Some of this...

Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development

Freud believed that all persons passed through a set series of stages in personality development. Each of these stages involves a conflict, and how the person resolve this conflict gives rise to various aspects of his or her personalit . So, in psychoanalytic theory, the source of individual differences lies in how the child comes to resolve conflicts in each of the stages of development. The end result, after going through all the stages, is a fully formed personality . Because all of this...

Shellfish poisoning paralytic 245

Associated in particular with eating mussels, oysters, and scallops. Symptoms Symptoms appear between a few minutes to three hours after ingestion, and include gastrointestinal problems accompanied by muscular weakness, chills, headache, and fever. Recovery is rapid and death is rare. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on observing symptoms and recent dietary history. Treatment There is no antidote for this type of shellfish poison, but most people recover on their own. shellfish poisoning,...

Plate Ii Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia From the photographic archive of

Plate IIA Paleness of the lower branch of the anthelix Plate IIA Paleness of the lower branch of the anthelix delimited by two telangiectasia in a 65-year-old male with herniation of the L4-L5 intervertebral disk. The telangiectasia lying behind and a third telangiectasia on the upper branch of the anthelix are aligned with Nogier's point zero. Plate IIB Hyperemia of the lower branch of the anthelix in a 63-year-old female suffering from chronic backache. Point zero has been marked with ink....

Total Energy Expenditure and its Components

It is customary to consider energy expenditure as being made up of three components the energy spent for basal metabolism (or basal metabolic rate), the energy spent on physical activity, and the increase in resting energy expenditure in response to a variety of stimuli (in particular food, cold, stress, and drugs). These three components are depicted in Figure 4. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) or Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) This is the largest component of energy expenditure accounting for...

Pathophysiology of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus occurs when circulating insulin levels are inadequate to lower elevated blood glucose concentrations. This condition includes a spectrum of metabolic abnormalities that range from the effects of mild insulin deficiency (i.e., hyperglycemia) to the effects of marked and prolonged insulinopenia (i.e., ketoacidosis and fluid and electrolyte depletion). Diabetic ketoacidosis, which is the most severe acute manifestation of insulin deficiency, is almost entirely...

Metabolism of Dietary Nucleic Acids in Humans

The normal human diet is rich in both DNA and RNA since food is derived from once-living organisms. The metabolism of these exogenous nucleic acids follows a similar pattern to the intra-cellular process described previously, but the bacterial flora of the intestine are the first point of attack. This digestion is rapid. Studies in pigs (confirmed by later studies in humans) demonstrated that up to 50 of radiolabeled dietary purine was degraded and lost as carbon dioxide gas within 30 min, with...

Research Designs in Personality

In this chapter, we have examined the types of personality measur es and the means for evaluating the quality of those measures. The next step in personality research is to use these measures in actual research designs. Although the variations are nearly infinite, there are three basic research designs in the field of personality psycholog experimental, correlational, and case study . Each has strengths and weaknesses. Each provides information that complements the information provided by the...

Techniques for Liver MR Imaging

1.2 MR Imaging Techniques and Concepts 1.2.3 The Uncooperative Patient Examination Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is establishing a role as a primary diagnostic technique with evidence showing MR to have advantages over computer tomography CT as regards diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for many pathologies of solid organs, bile and pancreatic ducts, bowel, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum. MRI is particularly well-suited to the evaluation of liver pathology due to an ability to generate...

Skill Deficits Versus Performance Deficits

Social skills problems can result from a skill deficit, in which the child does not know what to do in a social situation and needs to learn the skills to become socially competent. Social challenges can also have nothing to do with a lack of skills. According to a leading authority, Dr. Russell Barkley, children with ADHD typically do not have a skill deficit, but rather a performance deficit. They know what they are supposed to do and the appropriate social skills, but fail to apply or...

Can 600 Mcg Of Misoprostol And 300mg Of White Quinine Cause Abortion

For malaria (see p. 98), give 600 mg by mouth once a day for 2 days. Then on the third day, give 300 mg. artemisinin, clindamycin, quinine, others. WARNING In many parts of the world, chloroquine no longer stops malaria. People with epilepsy should not use chloroquine. Clindamycin is a strong antibiotic. In this book, we only describe how to use it to treat malaria. Side effects Diarrhea, vomiting, rash, metallic taste in the mouth. May cause yeast infection in women or diaper rash in children....

Categorical versus Dimensional Approach to Emotion

Emotion researchers can be divided into two camps based on their answers to the following question What is the best way to think about emotions Some suggest emotions are best thought of as a small number of primary and distinct emotions anger , joy, anxiety, sadness . Others suggest that emotions are best thought of as broad dimensions of experience e.g., a dimension ranging from pleasant to unpleasant . Those who think that primary emotions are the key are said to take the categorical...

Focused Auditory Attention

The British scientist Colin Cherry was working in an electronics research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but became involved in psychological research. What fascinated Cherry was the cocktail party problem how are we able to follow just one conversation when several people are all talking at once Cherry (1953) found that this ability involves using physical differences (e.g., sex of speaker voice intensity speaker location) to maintain attention to a chosen auditory...

What does a neurologist do

The neurologist will want to know why you came, your medical history, your family history (especially a history of PD or tremor), and what, if anything, in your social and work history may have contributed to your symptoms. Bring a summary of your medical history, including serious and chronic illness, hospitalizations, surgeries, allergies, medications taken, family and personal background, occupational risks, and lifestyle risks. If what you have to talk about is difficult to discuss,...

Standardized Extracts of Indian Herbs used in India

Powder Paste Alkaloids 0.15 , Tannins 2.4 -4 Powder Glycosides 15 , Alkaloids 1 Powder Paste Tannins 5 , Mucilage 10 -15 Powder Paste Alliin 1.5 -2.5 by HPLC Powder Paste Gel Gum Aloin 1.5 3 1 , Polysaccharides 50 200 1 Powder Paste Shagaol gt 4 by HPLC Powder Paste Andrographolides gt 10 Powder Paste Bacosides 15 -50 , Alkaloids 5 Powder Paste Boswellic acids gt 50 Powder Paste Polyphenols gt 45 by HPLC Powder Paste Asiaticosides gt 10 , Powder Paste Flavones gt 4 , Vol. Oil 1 Powder Acidity...

Betablocker and diuretic combinations

Several beta-blocker and diuretic combinations were marketed a number of decades ago when beta-blockers became available in the USA (Figure 12). In most of these fixed combinations, the beta-blocker is combined with 25 mg, or even 50 mg, of HCTZ (or the corresponding dose of a thiazide derivative), a dose that, by today's standard, would have to be considered high. It has been learned that HCTZ doses of 12.5 mg, and even 6.25 mg, lower BP and cause fewer endocrine metabolic adverse effects than...

Differences between effleurage and stroking

Effleurage must always follow the direction of venous return back to the heart and the direction of lymphatic drainage towards the nearest group of lymphatic nodes. Stroking may be performed in any direction. The pressure during effleurage may be light, moderate or heavy, but always increases at the end of the stroke towards the lymphatic nodes. The pressure of stroking is selected at the commencement and is maintained throughout. It also may be light, moderate or heavy pressure depending on...

Sources of Personality Data

Perhaps the most obvious source of information about a person is self-report data (S-data) the information a person reveals. Clearly , individuals may not always provide accurate information about themselves for a variety of reasons, such as the desire to present themselves in a positive light. Nevertheless, the journals that publish the latest research in personality reveal that self-report is the most common method for measuring personality. Self-report data can be obtained through a variety...

Laser Auriculo Diagnostic

Paul Nogier (1908-1996) would today be very proud to see how many 'adoptive children' he has around the world. In my opinion, ear acupuncture is one of the most intriguing discoveries of the last 50 years. Two lessons have ensued from Nogier's experience the first is that even a single physician, without expensive and sophisticated instruments, can perform good research, following his clinical instinct and rigorously analyzing his observations. The second is that every revolutionary approach in...

The Neo Analytic Movement

As proposed by Freud, classical psychoanalysis is a detailed and comprehensive theory, developed in the early 1900s, of the totality of human nature. Many of Freud' s ideas are out of date however , contemporary psychoanalyst Drew Westen (1998) argues that they should be out of date after all, Freud died in 1939 and he has been slow to undertake further revisions (p. 333) of his theory . Westen goes on humorously to note that Freud, like Elvis, has been dead for a number of years but continues...

Neurotransmitters and Personality

Whereas Zuckerman's theory concerns levels of MAO, which breaks down neuro-transmitters, other researchers hypothesize that levels of neurotransmitters themselves are responsible for specific individual di ferences. Neurotransmitters are receiving a great deal of attention as possible sources of personality dif ferences. One neurotransmitter, dopamine, appears to be associated with pleasure. For example, animals will work to obtain doses of dopamine, much as they would work to obtain food. As...

Shared versus Nonshared Environmental Influences A Riddle

With all of the findings on the moderate heritability of so many personality charac teristics, it is important not to lose sight of one important fact the same studies that suggest moderate heritability also provide the best evidence for the importance of environmental influences. If many personality characteristics show heritabilities in th range of 30 to 50 percent, this means that the same characteristics show a substantial degree of environmentality as much as 50 to 70 percent. This...

Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious

The goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious. Mental illness, problems with living, and unexplained physical symptoms can all be viewed as the result of unconscious conflicts. Thoughts, feelings, ur ges, or memories have been forced into the unconscious, because of their disturbing or threatening nature. Due to the dynamic nature of the human mind, these conflicts or restrained u ges may slip out of the unconscious in ways that cause trouble. They often obtain expression as...

The Severe Superego and Guilt

Along with narcissistic vulnerability and related affects of shame, helplessness, or reactive anger, conscious or unconscious guilt often cripples depressed patients. Some patients reveal deep-seated feelings that they are bad or unworthy and are prone to attacking themselves through self-criticisms or punishments when they sense that they are behaving in an aggressive, competitive, or overly sexual manner. Examples of this are the cases of Ms. G in Chapters 4 (Getting Started With...

Taxonomies of Personality

Over the past century, dozens of taxonomies of personality traits have been proposed. Many have been merely lists of traits, often based on the intuitions of personality psychologists. As personality psychologist Robert Hogan observed, the history of personality theory consists of people who assert that their private demons are public afflictions Hogan, 1983 . Indeed, two editors of a book on personality traits Londo amp Exner, 1978 expressed despair at the lack of agreement about a taxonomy of...

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases

Acetaminophen (Trade names Tylenol, Datril, Temora, Volatile) Over-the-counter painkiller and fever reducer used in many nonprescription pain relievers. Often prescribed for mild to moderate pain or fever, it cannot treat inflammation. It is given by mouth and may cause stomach upsets. Side Effects Allergic reactions. Overdose can cause fatal liver problems. acyclovir (Trade name Zovirax) An antiviral drug prescribed for the treatment of herpes simplex, shingles, and chicken pox that is...

Personality Revealed through Perception

Most people assume there is reality out there and that the representation we have of it in our minds is a precise duplicate, a flawless perception of the facts. This is simply not true the perceiver contributes to the mental representations such that, even in perception, there are dif ferences between people in what they see when they look at a scene. In this chapter , we will expand on this notion and cover two topics that explore individual dif ferences in perception. These topics show how...

Peer Social Status and Emotion Regulation

In addition to having close friends and belonging to a group, children also value acceptance by larger peer groups such as their school classmates, neighborhood playmates, or members of their athletic teams. Sociometric status refers to the degree of a child's social acceptance by a group, as determined by nominations from other group members. Moreno (1934) pioneered the study of sociometry by visiting school classrooms and asking children to vote for those they would most like to sit beside....

Primary and Secondary Appraisal

Not all people respond to stressors in the same way . Two people can experience the same event, yet one is devastated and completely overwhelmed, whereas the other accepts the event as a challenge and is mobilized into positive action. Dif ferences between people in how they respond to the same event are possible because stress is not out there in the environment. Rather, stress is in the subjective reaction of the person to potential stressors (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). This is worth...

Type A Personality and Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability in the United States. Health professionals have been searching for the factors that put people at risk for this disease. Known risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease include high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, family history of heart disease, inactive lifestyle, and high cholesterol. In the 1970s, physicians began to consider a new risk factor , a specific personality trait. As mentioned in Chapter...

The Social and Cultural Domain

In the social and cultural domain of knowledge, there is an emphasis on the public aspects of personality. The assumption here is that personality is not something that is only in the heads of people, or residing only in their nervous systems or carried in their genes. In this domain, the emphasis is on personality as it is af fected by and expressed through social institutions, social roles and expectations, and through relationships with other people in our lives. We saw in Chapter 3 that...

Metal Activated Enzymes versus Metalloenzymes

Enzymes that depend on metal ions as cofactors fall into two categories metal-activated enzymes and metalloenzymes. As the name implies, metal-activated enzymes are prompted to greater catalytic activity by the presence of a mono- or divalent metal ion exterior to the protein (in the assay medium). The metal may activate the substrate (e.g., Mg2+ with ATP), engage the enzyme directly, or enter into equilibrium with the enzyme exploiting its ionic charge to render a more favorable substrate...

Medications and Their Effects on Gum Disease

You may be unaware that certain medications can cause changes to your gum tissue and promote gum disease. The most common of these are antiseizure medications taken for epilepsy. Dilantin, for example, is a drug that can create gingival overgrowth, which has the appearance of thickened tissue and loosened gums. Antidepressants such as Paxil, Elavil, and Zoloft create gingival overgrowth and swellings throughout the mouth. Studies have shown that these changes take place on a cellular level and...

Genotype Environment Correlation

Perhaps even more interesting than genotype-environment interaction is the concept of genotype-environment correlation, the differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments. Consider, for example, a child who has a genotype for high verbal ability . Her parents may notice this and provide her with lots of books to read, engage in intellectual discussions with her , and give her word games and crossword puzzles. Parents of children with less verbal skill,...

Ive been told that because I had a melanoma I cant take Sinemet Is this true

Shortly after levodopa's release, the author of this book, Dr. Abraham Lieberman, saw a person with PD who developed a recurrence of his melanoma after 4 months of treatment with levodopa. Melanoma is a pigmented cancer of the skin. If not recognized and treated, it can metastasize (spread) almost everywhere in the body, which can be fatal. However, even if a melanoma is recognized and removed, years later it can reappear. Melanoma contains an enzyme, tyrosine oxidase, that can use levodopa as...

Intentional Additives

Chemicals that are intentionally introduced into foods to aid in processing, to act as preservatives, or to improve the quality of the food are called intentional additives. Their use is strictly regulated by national and international laws. The National Academy of Sciences (1973) has listed the purposes of food additives as follows to improve or maintain nutritional value to enhance consumer acceptability to make the food more readily available to facilitate preparation of the food The use of...

Diagramming The Cognitive Case Conceptualization And Presenting It To The Patient

To aid in the development of the cognitive case conceptualization, it may be useful for clinicians to diagram the conceptualization. Such a diagram can be useful in organizing the information available about the patient. J. S. Beck (1995) provided a Cognitive Conceptualization Diagram that we believe is particularly useful in mapping information about the patient. This diagram includes spaces for depicting the relationship between automatic thoughts, and emotional and behavioral reactions, as...

Jatamansi nardostachys grandiflora dc valerianaceae

Fedia grandiflora Wall. ex DC Nardostachys gracilis Kitamura Nardostachys jatamansi auct. Patrinia jatamansi auct. Valeriana jatamansi Wall. fide DEP EFS Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits camphire with spikenard. FIGURE 1.71 Jatamansi Nardostachys grandiflora . FIGURE 1.71 Jatamansi Nardostachys grandiflora . With names such as spikenard Nardostachys and nard Cymbopogon long confused, it is difficult to know which was meant in biblical texts, but most biblical...

Six Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature

The various views of researchers in personality stem not from the fact that one perspective is right and the others wrong but, rather , from the fact that they are studying different domains of knowledge. A domain of knowledge is a specialty area of science and scholarship, in which psychologists have focused on learning about some specific and limited aspects of human nature. A domain of knowledge delineates the boundaries of researchers' knowledge, expertise, and interests. To a lar ge...

Three Levels of Personality Analysis

Although the definition of personality used in this book is quite broad and encom passing, personality can be analyzed at three levels. These three levels are well summarized by Kluckhohn & Murray , in their 1948 book on culture and personality , in which they state that every human being is, in certain respects, 1. Like all others (the human nature level). 2. Like some others (the level of individual and group dif ferences). 3. Like no others (the individual uniqueness level). Another way...

Teaching Social Skills Through Cooperative Learning

Section 1.7, ADHD and Social Skill Interventions, addressed the social challenges and difficulties with interpersonal relationships that are common among children teens with ADHD. It was explained that some children have social skill deficits in which they have not learned how to perform a specific social skill. However, typically children with ADHD do not have a skill deficit, but a performance deficit. Due to their problems with inhibition and self-control, they know what they are supposed to...

Control of pancreatic juice secretion

The control of exocrine secretion of the acinar cells of the pancreas is via peptides, such as the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin, and somatostatin, which acts mainly as a paracrine factor, and via neurotransmitters. The main hormones involved in stimulating secretion of pancreatic juice are secretin, which stimulates the secretion of the alkaline aqueous component, and cholecystokinin (CCK), which stimulates the secretion of the enzyme component. These hormones are produced in the...

Who Is Qualified to Diagnose Autism Spectrum Conditions

The types of professionals most often making such diagnoses are psychologists and psychiatrists, particularly those trained in childhood disorders. Other types of doctors, such as neurologists, pediatricians, and general practitioners (sometimes called family practice doctors), may also see your child for a diagnostic evaluation. Additionally, social workers are trained in the diagnostic process and how to use the DSM-IV, so they are qualified to make diagnoses. Other professionals, such as...

Physical Activity Level PAL

While METs describe activity intensities relative to a resting metabolic rate (RMR), the physical activity level (PAL) is defined as the ratio of total energy expenditure (TEE) to basal energy expenditure (BEE). Thus, the actual impact on PAL depends to some extent on body size and age, as these are determinants of the BEE (Figure 12-1). The impact of these factors can be judged by examining the ratio of MET (extrapolated to 24 hours) to BEE. It is noteworthy that the errors that this...

What does an endoscopy show when patients have GERD

Patients with chronic GERD symptoms undergoing endoscopy have been studied by Winters and colleagues. In a report published in Gastroenterology in 1987, the authors found that of approximately 100 patients with longstanding or chronic GERD who had an upper endoscopy, 42 were normal, 45 demonstrated erosive esophagitis, and 12 had Barrett's esophagus. So, it is reassuring that more than 40 of patients were found to be normal however, it is the other nearly 60 of patients who have a positive exam...

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Self Help Approach

As with many other physical and mental problems, self-help approaches for sexual dysfunctions have been pursued throughout human history. Examples include herbal and animal medicines that have been passed on through generations and were believed to enhance male potency and female erotic responsiveness, to delay male ejaculation, or to relieve sexual pain. General models of help-seeking behavior (Dean, 1989 Wills & DePaulo, 1991) have been applied to sexual dysfunctions (Catania et al.,...

Person Situation Interaction

We first looked at the topic of person-situation interaction in Chapter 1. In this sec tion, we will examine this topic in a bit more detail, focusing on interactionism as a response to Mischel' s challenge to trait consistency . As Mischel' s debate with trait psychologists made clear , there are two possible explanations for behavior , or why people do what they do in any given situation 1. Behavior is a function of personality traits, B fP). 2. Behavior is a function of situational forces, B...

Male Sterilization Vasectomy

Vasectomy, the sterilization procedure for men, is simpler and safer than female sterilization and is usually performed in a doctor's office or a clinic. A vasectomy takes approximately 20 minutes, is almost 100 percent effective, has few complications, and is permanent. Some 500,000 vasectomies are performed each year. The term vasectomy means cutting the two vasa deferentia, the sperm ducts, that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis. A small portion of each duct is usually removed and...

Erotic Transference And Countertransference Gender Variations

Insofar as we view transference as a response to our deepest human needs and anxieties , we might expect there to be no gender difference in transference manifestations. Nonetheless, although many analysts contend that transference love is gender-blind, I believe it to be more common among women, particularly women in treatment with men. At the same time, the erotic countertransference the feelings of love the therapist has for a patient appears to be more commonly a problem for male...

Crinum asiaticum L Amaryllidaceae Crinum Lily Spider Lily Bawang Tanah

Leaf blade of Crinum asiaticum Crinum asiaticum plant Leaf blade of Crinum asiaticum Crinum asiaticum plant Description Crinum asiaticum L. is a bulbous herb with a flowering stalk in the centre of the plant. The leaves are narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 0.5-1.5 m long, greenish and have a hairy texture. The flowering stem is about 1-1.2 m. Flowers are white, 6-12 in an umbel. Filaments are reddish. The fruit is irregularly globose, 4-5 cm across, with one or a few large green seeds. 1-4...

Human Pantothenic Acid Deficiency The Burning Foot Syndrome

In the 1940s, prisoners of war in the Far East who were severely malnourished showed, among other signs and symptoms of vitamin deficiency diseases, a new condition of paresthesia and severe pain in the feet and toes, which was called the burning foot syndrome or nutritional melalgia. Although it was tentatively attributed to pantothenic acid deficiency, no specific trials of pantothenic acid were conducted rather the subjects were given yeast extract and other rich sources of all vitamins as...

Clinical Manifestations

The primary episode of HSV-1 infection manifests after the patient is exposed to secretions containing viable HSV-1, which then incubate for three to six days. Mucocutaneous lesions, which can be painful, develop into vesicles that erupt for one to two weeks Fig. 4 . In many cases, areas of gingivostomatitis and surrounding skin lesions are prominent and FIGURE 3 Schematic representation of HSV replication within sensory ganglion cells shows centripetal and centrifugal migration and envelopment...

Weighing the pros and cons of biofeedback therapy

As you may expect, biofeedback therapy has both benefits and liabilities. Let me start with the bad news 1 Your health-insurance company may not provide coverage, so the sessions can be pricey. 1 Identifying a trained professional who has the equipment and who is competent to provide the therapy may be difficult. 1 The therapy takes time. Biofeedback improvements may not occur in the first few sessions, and it may take longer than you'd like before you see any results not a good thing if you're...

Food Pyramids Obesity And Diabetes

An estimated 60 of Americans are overweight and 25 are obese. Obesity can be measured in several ways. One method states that if a person weighs more than 20 of the ideal weight according to the height weight chart, the person is obese. This method does not take into account an athlete who may weigh more than a nonathlete because of muscle, not fat. Another method of measuring obesity is to measure percentage of body fat. If a person's body fat is more than 25 for a man or 30 for a woman, that...

What Is A Prolapsed Disc

A 'slipped' disc is a localised bulge in the back wall of a disc. It is caused by the devitalised nucleus losing cohesion and trying to escape through a chink in the cracking disc wall (anulus). The condition needs explaining because for years it has taken the blame as the main perpetrator of back mischief. In the 1930s, 'slipped discs' were nominated as the chief cause of back trouble, and this limited view of what goes wrong has held sway, almost to the present day. It was thought that a disc...

Causes Of An Acute Locked Back

A natural 'window of weakness' early in a bend Segmental stiffness predisposes to facet locking Muscle weakness contributes to facet locking A natural 'window of weakness' early in a bend All spines experience a natural vulnerability on bending until they get themselves properly braced. I believe that facet locking occurs when the spine is caught momentarily ill-prepared as it passes through a fleeting 'window of weakness' in the early part of range. Bracing happens when the muscles at the...

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

The most obvious lesions of the head and neck that can be seen in SLE are those involving the skin. The most characteristic dermatologic feature of lupus is the malar rash (Fig. 1). Also known as the butterfly rash, because of its shape across the cheeks and bridge of the nose, the malar rash is an erythematous and edematous eruption that classically spares the nasolabial folds. A similar rash may be seen on the forehead and chin. It may or may not result from exposure to sunlight, but is often...

Effects of massage on adipose tissue

Adipose tissue is a connective tissue composed mainly of specialised cells called adipocytes, adapted to store fat. It is found under the skin in the subcutaneous layer and around organs. Fat is the body's energy reserve. It is stored when energy intake is greater than energy output and utilised if energy intake is less than energy output. Therefore, the only way of losing fat is through sensible eating and increasing activity or exercise. However, massage is thought to help the dispersal of...

Evaluation of treatment

After each treatment it is important to assess how effective the treatment has been. You must decide whether the treatment has produced the effects that you were expecting, and whether the goals you set at the beginning have been met. In order to evaluate the treatment you will need to obtain feedback this means gathering all the information you can, which will indicate the effectiveness of the treatment. Knowledge of the results of the treatment will enable you to make changes or modifications...

Differences between ketamine and neardeath experiences

What seemed to be initially a largely anecdotal observation that ketamine and near-death experiences are sometimes the same has in fact turned out to be a valid line of enquiry for providing further suggestions about the nature of both these states. Many of the participants in all three groups shared the feeling of dying, of travelling at high speed along a tunnel, of entering another 'place'. Rare in both groups was the life review. However, I would now like to focus on the major differences...

Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment

Jeffrey Gray has proposed an influential alternative biological theory of personalit (Gray, 1972, 1990), called reinforcement sensitivity theory. Based on brain function research with animals, Gray has constructed a model of human personality based on two hypothesized biological systems in the brain. The first is the behavioral activation system (BAS), which is responsive to incentives, such as cues for reward, and regulates approach behavior . When the BAS recognizes a stimulus as potentially...

Special Action Office For Drug Abuse Prevention Saodap

A separate agency in the EOP from 1971 to 1975, SAODAP was responsible for providing leadership and coordination of all federal drug-abuse prevention activities (demand related) and to coordinate the demand-related activities with the supply-related efforts of law enforcement agencies. Directors. Jerome H. Jaffe, 1971-1973 (also Consultant to the President for Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs) Robert L. Dupont 1973-1975. Authorization and Role. Established by President Richard M. Nixon (E. O....

Cromone Mechanism of Action

The exact mechanism of action of cromolyn and nedocromil has not been determined. Multiple mechanisms involving ion channel blockade, blockade of signaling of heat shock protein or G-protein, or even blockade of capsaicin receptor have been identified. However, the final common mechanism appears to be an inhibition of mast cell activation. Studies have reported that the phosphorylation of a 78-kDa-molecular-weight protein prevents mediator release in mast cells (17). More specifically in rat...

Will you need a blood transfusion during labor

Blood transfusions are required in a very small percentage of births. Women do lose some blood during a routine labor and delivery. But it's not a lot generally not enough to warrant a blood transfusion. Women at high risk of needing a blood transfusion are those who have a known blood-clotting disease, have had bleeding problems with past births or have placenta previa. Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta is near or blocks the opening of the cervix. Sometimes, a blood...

Prentif Cervical Cap

The cervical cap is a small, deep latex cup with a firm but flexible rim around the open end. It is 1 1 4 to 1 1 2 inches long and looks like a large rubber thimble. It fits snugly over the cervix and the os, the tiny opening to the cervix Figure 5.1 . The cervical cap is similar to a diaphragm in that it does not cause any hormonal or chemical changes in the body. It has almost no side effects and does not interrupt lovemaking. When used for every single act of intercourse, the cap plus...

Speaking And Writing Compared

Spoken and written language both have as their central function the communication of information about people and the world, and so it is common-sensical to assume that there are important similarities between speaking and writing. On the other hand, children and adults often find writing much harder than speaking, suggesting there are major differences between the productions of spoken and written language. Speaking and writing will now be compared. The view that speaking and writing are...

The Adjustment Domain

This domain is dif ferent from the others discussed in the book so far. The first fi domains each referred to a collection of specific explanations of personalit . That is, each gave a perspective on, and a collection of knowledge about, the causes of personality and individual dif ferences. In this last domain the Adjustment Domain we examine some of the consequences of personality . We focus on adjustment because, in many ways, personality functions to help us adjust to the challenges and...

The specific emotions

In everyday life, the specific emotions are very important to us. We don't just feel 'emotional', we experience anger or sadness or joy or guilt, or whatever it might be. Emotions exist in quite discrete ways although they can also appear in very complex mixtures. So, for example, we might well experience sadness in a very pure form if our dog has just died or we might experience a complex mixture of sadness, anger, anxiety, jealousy and even guilt and shame if our relationship has just ended....

Manipulation Social Influence Tactics

Once social environments are selected, evocation does not exhaust the set of processes that link personality with the social world. Manipulation, or social influence, include all the ways in which people intentionally try to change the behavior of others. No malicious intent need be implied by the term manipulation, although such intent is not excluded either. A parent might influence a child not to cross between parked cars but we would not call this behavior malicious. Indeed, part of social...

Contemporary Views on the Unconscious

The idea of a motivated unconscious is at the core of classical psychoanalytic theory . Most contemporary psychologists also believe in the unconscious, although it is a different version of the unconscious than that found in classical psychoanalytic theory . Consider the views of psychologist John Bar gh, a social psychologist whose research on unconscious processes has had a lar ge impact on psychology People are often unaware of the reasons and causes of their own behavior . In fact, recent...

How to examine a womans vagina and womb

A pelvic exam is a way to learn what is happening inside a woman's vagina and womb. Doing a pelvic exam can help you learn if a woman is pregnant, and how many weeks she has been pregnant. if she has an infection in her womb or vagina. if she might have cancer of the cervix or womb. You also must do a pelvic exam to insert an intrauterine device (see Chapter 21) or to do manual vacuum aspiration (see Chapter 23) . This exam is not difficult to learn, and with practice, most people can do it. A...

Models of the Personality Illness Connection

Researchers have proposed several ways of thinking about how personality can relate to health. These models can take the form of diagrams of key variables, with the causal relations among those variables depicted by arrows. Models are useful to researchers in guiding their thinking about specific variables, and especially in thinking about ho those variables influence one another ( iebe & Smith, 1997). In most of the models we will discuss, one variable stress will be important. Stress is...

Can a person have both type 1 and type 2 diabetes at the same time

Generally speaking, we do not diagnose both disorders in the same individual. If people have type 1 diabetes, they are completely lacking effective circulating insulin. By definition, this is not the case in people with type 2 diabetes, so having the one disorder effectively rules out the other. However, people with type 1 diabetes may be prone to the same metabolic problems as those with type 2 diabetes. In other words, if people with type 1 diabetes gain weight, become sedentary, or are...

Brief History Of Biolistics And Gene Guns

Biolistic technology was originally developed in the area of plant genetics to introduce genes into target cells that were largely refractory to traditional methods of gene delivery (1). Biolistic lore holds that the gene gun was inspired by interactions between edible bonsai plants and squirrels, and the later involvement of an air rifle to control these interactions. Legend has it that in the course of those events, Dr. John Sanford made the pivotal extrapolation that if an air rifle could be...

Massage in ancient times

The earliest evidence of massage being used is found in the cave paintings of ancient cave dwellers. These wall drawings and paintings show people massaging each other. Various artefacts also found contain traces of fats and oils mixed with herbs. These indicate that lubricants may have been used, perhaps for healing, soothing or beautifying purposes. As early as 3000 bc, the Chinese practised massage to cure ailments and improve general health. Records of this can be found in the British...

Auricular Therapy Segmental Innervation Internal Organ I

Fig. 4.9 (A) Biopsy section from ear lobe in the area of crease (A) the arrow indicates elastic-fiber tears (x100) (with permission). (B) Biopsy section from area of ear lobe crease (ELC) the arrow indicates pre-arteriolar wall thickening (x240) (with permission). There are, however, some aspects which have not been considered sufficiently and which require a careful and reliable standardization of the crease. The first is that the ELC was rarely evaluated by independent observers the second is...

Parenchymal Pseudolesions

Hepatic pseudolesions are non-neoplastic abnormalities which may be sub-divided into parenchymal pseudolesions and vascular pseudolesions. Parenchymal pseudolesions include focal fatty change, focal sparing, inflammatory pseudotumor, confluent fibrosis, pseudotumor hypertrophy and hepatic peliosis. Vascular pseudolesions, on the other hand, are non-neoplastic hepatic pseudole-sions such as APS, THAD, and vascular abnormalities associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Non-neoplastic abnormalities...

Examples of Food Fortification Programs in Developing Countries

Despite the multiple limitations that affect food fortification in the developing world, there are several examples that confirm its feasibility and benefits. Vegetable Fats and Oil Fortified with Vitamin A and D Addition of vitamin A to margarine and other vegetable fats started in 1918 in Denmark, when cases of xerophthalmia were associated with the replacement of butter by margarine. Then, the practice of nutritional equivalence, that is emulating the nutritional composition of butter, was...

Is Agent Orange or the Gulf War Syndrome a cause ofPD

Some studies show that people who work or live in rural, agricultural areas are more likely to develop PD than people who live in urban areas. Rural people are more likely to work with herbicides or pesticides. A few pesticides, such as one called rotenone, can cause PD in mice. At present it is not known if this is so in humans. Agent Orange is the name of a herbicide developed for the military, primarily for use in Vietnam. The purpose of Agent Orange was to deny the enemy cover and...

Inflammatory skin conditions

Dermatitis literally means inflammation of the skin. Contact dermatitis is caused by a primary irritant which causes the skin to become red, dry and inflamed. Substances which are likely to cause this reaction include acids, alkalis, solvents, perfumes, lanolin, detergent and nickels. There may be skin infection as well. This is a mild to chronic inflammatory skin condition characterised by itchiness, redness and the presence of small blisters that may be dry or weep if the surface is...

Dermatomyositis Polymyositis

DM also may include head and neck dermatologic manifestations that can have considerable diagnostic importance. Among these is the virtually pathognomonic heliotrope rash (Fig. 7). This lesion, which leads to edema and discoloration of the eyelids, takes its name from the deep purple flower of the heliotrope plant, although the lesion may vary in color from pink to red to brown. DM may also lead to an erythematous rash on many locations on the body, including the face and neck (Fig. 8). Nasal...

Fiberoptic transillumination FOTI and digital imaging fiberoptic transillumination DIFOTI

Fiber-optic transillumination (FOTI) and digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) have been introduced to improve early detection of carious surfaces and have been accepted by clinicians as a supplementary tool during clinical examinations. FOTI (Figure 10) device is a practical, easy, fast and inexpensive method of imaging teeth in the presence of multiple scattering. It is based on the changes in the scattering and absorption phenomenon of light photons that increases the...

Scarlet Wisteria Tree Red Wisteria Daun Turi

Fruit of Sesbania grandiflora Sesbania grandiflora tree Fruit of Sesbania grandiflora Sesbania grandiflora tree Description Sesbania grandiflora Pers. is a tree that can grow to 8-10 m in height. The compound leaves are about 30 cm long with 12 to 20 pairs of rounded, narrow, oblong leaflets, 3-4 cm by 1 cm. Flowers are 5-10 cm by 3 cm, in pale pink, red, purple or white. The pods are 25-50 cm, slender, and cylindrical with many light brown to red brown seeds. 1 Origin Native to Malesia and...

Asthenia And Familial Hypertension And Diabetes

Asthenia (Greek asthenes, without strength) is a very common symptom and several patients from my group complained of symptoms such as tiredness or fatigue. As we know, asthenia may have different causes but is commonly associated with chronic pain, depression, sleep disorders, fibromy-algia and of course with infectious diseases or chronic disorders of the heart, lung or kidney. If we simply compare ESRT and PPT in a group with this symptom we can see that the first diagnostic method shows...

Defense Mechanisms in Depression

Psychoanalytic theorists have considered the possibility that certain defenses (i.e., internal or behavioral means of averting painful feelings or threatening unconscious fantasies) either may be specifically mobilized by depressive affects or may predispose individuals to the development of depressive syndromes (Brenner 1975 Jacobson 1971). Bloch et. al (1993) described three possibilities in this regard 1) defenses may become structured in response to a chronic mood disturbance 2) maladaptive...

Static Biochemical Tests

Static tests measure chemically the content of nutrients, their active or inactive metabolites, or other related components in tissues and urine. The choice of tissue or fluid depends on the information required short-term or long-term status, body pool or tissue store and on the condition of the subject. Various confounding factors affect static biochemical tests. Some are of a general kind, such as age, sex, ethnic group, physiological and hormonal status, seasonality, elevation, and thus...

Should I take a drug holiday

If you're thinking vacation, don't think drug holiday it's not a vacation. Before dopamine agonists were available as alternatives to L-dopa, and before Clozaril, Geodon, and Seroquel, were used to treat the psychiatric complications of L-dopa, drug holidays temporary withdrawal of L-dopa to counteract side effects such as dyskinesia and psychosis were the rage. The holiday purged or cleaned the brain of excess L-dopa, but unfortunately it nearly did in the patient, as well. The holiday was...

Point Zero And The Principle Of Alignment According To Paul Nogier

The same results were found comparing the total number of correctly identified sectors (P< 0.001) and their proportions on the three different parts of the ear. The conclusions of the above evaluation (submitted for publication) are as follows The SG is based on point 0 which was considered by Nogier to be the geometrical center of the ear. It is located on a distinct notch where the horizontal concha ridge meets the vertically rising helix root (see Fig. 5.10). It is noteworthy that the...

Contraindications to passive movements

Examine the joints carefully and ask appropriate questions. If any of the following conditions are present then the treatment should not be carried out. Bone fractures avoid working on the affected limb until healing is complete the other unaffected limbs can be treated. Swelling of the joint swelling may indicate some damage to the joint and passive movements are contra-indicated. However, if there is no damage, swelling around the ankles may be due to an accumulation of tissue fluid passive...

Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

The posterior tibialis muscle is the deepest muscle of the posterior compartment and has both medial and lateral origins. The medial origin is on the posterior surface of the interosseous membrane and the lateral area of the posterior surface of the tibia. The lateral origin is on the upper two thirds of the posterior fibular surface, deep transverse fascia, and intermuscular septa. The muscle's insertion tendon runs from the calf muscle behind the medial mal-leolus to the navicular bone in the...

De Quervain Tenosynovitis

This injury is characterized by pain on abduction and extension of the thumb as a result of inflammation of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor polli-cis longus tendons. It can be caused by direct trauma, overuse, repetitive stress, excessive vibration, or movement involving sharp bending of the tendons. Treatment should include the inflamed tendons and related muscles on the hand and forearm. Dry needling acupuncture accompanied with thermo-therapy promotes satisfactory healing.

Thoracolumbar Deformity Advances

Operative Treatment of Thoracolumbar Deformity Praveen V. MummanenP, Stephen L. Ondra0, Rick C. Sassoc a Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., b Department of Neurosurgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill., and c Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana Spine Group, Indianapolis, Ind., USA Surgical fusions to treat spinal deformity were first developed in the 1900s. In 1911, Hibbs 1 performed a noninstrumented, posterior...

Homeostatic Acu Reflex Point System

SYSTEMIC PATTERN OF ACU-REFLEX POINT SENSITIZATION From a physiologic perspective, there are two types of acu-reflex points ARPs homeostatic and symptomatic. Paravertebral ARPs, as clinically important ARPs, can be either homeostatic or symptomatic. According to both clinical experience and research, the sensitization of homeostatic ARPs follows an anatomically predictable pattern and sequence. This pattern of sensitization is found equally in all human beings for at least two reasons,...

Methods for Estimating Dietary Intake at the Household Level Household Budget Surveys

Techniques for estimating intake at the household level include the food account method, the inventory method, the household record, and the list recall method. These methods measure all foods and beverages available for consumption by a household or family group during a specified time period of between 1 and 4 weeks, although some last for 23 months. Wastage factors are sometimes applied. Household surveys provide data for per capita consumption of foods or nutrients, not intake for specific...

Viral infections of the skin

Herpes simplex is normally found on the face and around the lips. It begins as an itching sensation, followed by erythema and a group of small blisters which then weep and form crusts. This condition will generally persist for approximately two or three weeks but will reappear at times of stress, ill health or exposure to sunlight. This is a painful infection along the sensory nerves due to the virus that causes chickenpox. Lesions resemble herpes simplex with erythema and blisters along the...

The Hip Adductor Muscles

These adductor muscles swing the leg medially. All these muscles originate mainly from the pubis and are inserted into the posterior surface of the femur via the roughened ridge that extends along Iliofemoral I Descending part ligament Transverse part Iliofemoral I Descending part ligament Transverse part Reflected head Rectus i- femoris, Straight head J tendon Figure 12-2 The ligaments of the hip joint. Reflected head Rectus i- femoris, Straight head J tendon Figure 12-2 The ligaments of the...

Images Anatomy For Mri Liver Contrast

HCC following treatment by RF ablation. On the pre-contrast CT scan (a) a well-defined, slightly hypodense nodule (arrow) surrounded by a hypodense rim is demonstrated in segment VII of the right liver lobe. During the arterial phase (b) after contrast medium administration a markedly hyperdense area (arrowhead) is seen near the necrotic lesion. This area becomes isodense in the portal venous phase (c) and represents an APS post RF ablation Fig. 27a-c....

Rocket eruca sativa mill brassicaceae

Brassica erucoides Roxb. Notes Rocket And one went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine, and gathered thereof wild gourds his lap full, and came and shred them into the pot of pottage for they knew them not. So they poured out for the men to eat. And it came to pass, as they were eating of the pottage, that they cried out, and said, O thou man of God, there is death in the pot. And they could not eat thereof. But he said, Then bring meal. And he cast it...

Causes Of Facet Arthropathy

Disc stiffening allows the facet capsules to tighten Disc narrowing causes the facet joint surfaces to override A sway back causes the lower facets to jam Weak tummy muscles can jam the facets A shorter leg invokes a greater restraint role of the facets Disc stiffening allows the facet capsules to tighten The earliest form of stiffness of a facet joint may be nothing more than a fleeting protective spasm of its overlying multifidus muscle. A fluke odd movement or an awkward posture for a...