Reviews

Six Steps to Sleep Review

Six Steps to Sleep Review

The Migraine And Headache Program Review

The Migraine And Headache Program Review

Guilt Free Deserts Review

Guilt Free Deserts Review

Parenting Children With Asperger's And High-functioning Autism

Parenting Children With Asperger's And High-functioning Autism

Blood Sugar Miracle Review

Blood Sugar Miracle Review

The Healthy Gut Plan by Laura Thompson: An honest review

The Healthy Gut Plan by Laura Thompson: An honest review

How To Improve Diabetic Kidney Disease

How To Improve Diabetic Kidney Disease

The smoothie Detox challenge by Drew Sgoutas Review

The smoothie Detox challenge by Drew Sgoutas Review

The Secret Survey Review

The Secret Survey Review

The Psoriasis program-permanent Psoriasis solution by Eric Bakker Review

The Psoriasis program-permanent Psoriasis solution by Eric Bakker Review

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Review

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Review

Reiki Solas Online Reiki Training Review

Reiki Solas Online Reiki Training Review

Articles

Categorical versus Dimensional Approach to Emotion

Emotion researchers can be divided into two camps based on their answers to the following question What is the best way to think about emotions Some suggest emotions are best thought of as a small number of primary and distinct emotions anger , joy, anxiety, sadness . Others suggest that emotions are best thought of as broad dimensions of experience e.g., a dimension ranging from pleasant to unpleasant . Those who think that primary emotions are the key are said to take the categorical...

Fiberoptic transillumination FOTI and digital imaging fiberoptic transillumination DIFOTI

Fiber-optic transillumination (FOTI) and digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) have been introduced to improve early detection of carious surfaces and have been accepted by clinicians as a supplementary tool during clinical examinations. FOTI (Figure 10) device is a practical, easy, fast and inexpensive method of imaging teeth in the presence of multiple scattering. It is based on the changes in the scattering and absorption phenomenon of light photons that increases the...

Metal Activated Enzymes versus Metalloenzymes

Enzymes that depend on metal ions as cofactors fall into two categories metal-activated enzymes and metalloenzymes. As the name implies, metal-activated enzymes are prompted to greater catalytic activity by the presence of a mono- or divalent metal ion exterior to the protein (in the assay medium). The metal may activate the substrate (e.g., Mg2+ with ATP), engage the enzyme directly, or enter into equilibrium with the enzyme exploiting its ionic charge to render a more favorable substrate...

Can 600 Mcg Of Misoprostol And 300mg Of White Quinine Cause Abortion

For malaria (see p. 98), give 600 mg by mouth once a day for 2 days. Then on the third day, give 300 mg. artemisinin, clindamycin, quinine, others. WARNING In many parts of the world, chloroquine no longer stops malaria. People with epilepsy should not use chloroquine. Clindamycin is a strong antibiotic. In this book, we only describe how to use it to treat malaria. Side effects Diarrhea, vomiting, rash, metallic taste in the mouth. May cause yeast infection in women or diaper rash in children....

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Self Help Approach

As with many other physical and mental problems, self-help approaches for sexual dysfunctions have been pursued throughout human history. Examples include herbal and animal medicines that have been passed on through generations and were believed to enhance male potency and female erotic responsiveness, to delay male ejaculation, or to relieve sexual pain. General models of help-seeking behavior (Dean, 1989 Wills & DePaulo, 1991) have been applied to sexual dysfunctions (Catania et al.,...

What Is A Prolapsed Disc

A 'slipped' disc is a localised bulge in the back wall of a disc. It is caused by the devitalised nucleus losing cohesion and trying to escape through a chink in the cracking disc wall (anulus). The condition needs explaining because for years it has taken the blame as the main perpetrator of back mischief. In the 1930s, 'slipped discs' were nominated as the chief cause of back trouble, and this limited view of what goes wrong has held sway, almost to the present day. It was thought that a disc...

Asthenia And Familial Hypertension And Diabetes

Asthenia (Greek asthenes, without strength) is a very common symptom and several patients from my group complained of symptoms such as tiredness or fatigue. As we know, asthenia may have different causes but is commonly associated with chronic pain, depression, sleep disorders, fibromy-algia and of course with infectious diseases or chronic disorders of the heart, lung or kidney. If we simply compare ESRT and PPT in a group with this symptom we can see that the first diagnostic method shows...

What does a neurologist do

The neurologist will want to know why you came, your medical history, your family history (especially a history of PD or tremor), and what, if anything, in your social and work history may have contributed to your symptoms. Bring a summary of your medical history, including serious and chronic illness, hospitalizations, surgeries, allergies, medications taken, family and personal background, occupational risks, and lifestyle risks. If what you have to talk about is difficult to discuss,...

Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development

Freud believed that all persons passed through a set series of stages in personality development. Each of these stages involves a conflict, and how the person resolve this conflict gives rise to various aspects of his or her personalit . So, in psychoanalytic theory, the source of individual differences lies in how the child comes to resolve conflicts in each of the stages of development. The end result, after going through all the stages, is a fully formed personality . Because all of this...

Defense Mechanisms in Depression

Psychoanalytic theorists have considered the possibility that certain defenses (i.e., internal or behavioral means of averting painful feelings or threatening unconscious fantasies) either may be specifically mobilized by depressive affects or may predispose individuals to the development of depressive syndromes (Brenner 1975 Jacobson 1971). Bloch et. al (1993) described three possibilities in this regard 1) defenses may become structured in response to a chronic mood disturbance 2) maladaptive...

The Severe Superego and Guilt

Along with narcissistic vulnerability and related affects of shame, helplessness, or reactive anger, conscious or unconscious guilt often cripples depressed patients. Some patients reveal deep-seated feelings that they are bad or unworthy and are prone to attacking themselves through self-criticisms or punishments when they sense that they are behaving in an aggressive, competitive, or overly sexual manner. Examples of this are the cases of Ms. G in Chapters 4 (Getting Started With...

Metabolism of Dietary Nucleic Acids in Humans

The normal human diet is rich in both DNA and RNA since food is derived from once-living organisms. The metabolism of these exogenous nucleic acids follows a similar pattern to the intra-cellular process described previously, but the bacterial flora of the intestine are the first point of attack. This digestion is rapid. Studies in pigs (confirmed by later studies in humans) demonstrated that up to 50 of radiolabeled dietary purine was degraded and lost as carbon dioxide gas within 30 min, with...

Evaluation of treatment

After each treatment it is important to assess how effective the treatment has been. You must decide whether the treatment has produced the effects that you were expecting, and whether the goals you set at the beginning have been met. In order to evaluate the treatment you will need to obtain feedback this means gathering all the information you can, which will indicate the effectiveness of the treatment. Knowledge of the results of the treatment will enable you to make changes or modifications...

Skill Deficits Versus Performance Deficits

Social skills problems can result from a skill deficit, in which the child does not know what to do in a social situation and needs to learn the skills to become socially competent. Social challenges can also have nothing to do with a lack of skills. According to a leading authority, Dr. Russell Barkley, children with ADHD typically do not have a skill deficit, but rather a performance deficit. They know what they are supposed to do and the appropriate social skills, but fail to apply or...

Teaching Social Skills Through Cooperative Learning

Section 1.7, ADHD and Social Skill Interventions, addressed the social challenges and difficulties with interpersonal relationships that are common among children teens with ADHD. It was explained that some children have social skill deficits in which they have not learned how to perform a specific social skill. However, typically children with ADHD do not have a skill deficit, but a performance deficit. Due to their problems with inhibition and self-control, they know what they are supposed to...

Static Biochemical Tests

Static tests measure chemically the content of nutrients, their active or inactive metabolites, or other related components in tissues and urine. The choice of tissue or fluid depends on the information required short-term or long-term status, body pool or tissue store and on the condition of the subject. Various confounding factors affect static biochemical tests. Some are of a general kind, such as age, sex, ethnic group, physiological and hormonal status, seasonality, elevation, and thus...

The Biological Domain

The biological domain concerns those factors within the body that influence or ar influenced by personalit . This domain is not any more fundamental than the other domains, nor is knowledge about this domain any closer to the truth about personality than knowledge in other domains. This domain simply represents one perspective on the nature and consequences of personality. There is a long history of speculation and theorizing about the relation between the body and the mind. Some of this...

Inflammatory skin conditions

Dermatitis literally means inflammation of the skin. Contact dermatitis is caused by a primary irritant which causes the skin to become red, dry and inflamed. Substances which are likely to cause this reaction include acids, alkalis, solvents, perfumes, lanolin, detergent and nickels. There may be skin infection as well. This is a mild to chronic inflammatory skin condition characterised by itchiness, redness and the presence of small blisters that may be dry or weep if the surface is...

The Neo Analytic Movement

As proposed by Freud, classical psychoanalysis is a detailed and comprehensive theory, developed in the early 1900s, of the totality of human nature. Many of Freud' s ideas are out of date however , contemporary psychoanalyst Drew Westen (1998) argues that they should be out of date after all, Freud died in 1939 and he has been slow to undertake further revisions (p. 333) of his theory . Westen goes on humorously to note that Freud, like Elvis, has been dead for a number of years but continues...

Genotype Environment Correlation

Perhaps even more interesting than genotype-environment interaction is the concept of genotype-environment correlation, the differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments. Consider, for example, a child who has a genotype for high verbal ability . Her parents may notice this and provide her with lots of books to read, engage in intellectual discussions with her , and give her word games and crossword puzzles. Parents of children with less verbal skill,...

Research Designs in Personality

In this chapter, we have examined the types of personality measur es and the means for evaluating the quality of those measures. The next step in personality research is to use these measures in actual research designs. Although the variations are nearly infinite, there are three basic research designs in the field of personality psycholog experimental, correlational, and case study . Each has strengths and weaknesses. Each provides information that complements the information provided by the...

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases

Acetaminophen (Trade names Tylenol, Datril, Temora, Volatile) Over-the-counter painkiller and fever reducer used in many nonprescription pain relievers. Often prescribed for mild to moderate pain or fever, it cannot treat inflammation. It is given by mouth and may cause stomach upsets. Side Effects Allergic reactions. Overdose can cause fatal liver problems. acyclovir (Trade name Zovirax) An antiviral drug prescribed for the treatment of herpes simplex, shingles, and chicken pox that is...

Should I take a drug holiday

If you're thinking vacation, don't think drug holiday it's not a vacation. Before dopamine agonists were available as alternatives to L-dopa, and before Clozaril, Geodon, and Seroquel, were used to treat the psychiatric complications of L-dopa, drug holidays temporary withdrawal of L-dopa to counteract side effects such as dyskinesia and psychosis were the rage. The holiday purged or cleaned the brain of excess L-dopa, but unfortunately it nearly did in the patient, as well. The holiday was...

Point Zero And The Principle Of Alignment According To Paul Nogier

The same results were found comparing the total number of correctly identified sectors (P< 0.001) and their proportions on the three different parts of the ear. The conclusions of the above evaluation (submitted for publication) are as follows The SG is based on point 0 which was considered by Nogier to be the geometrical center of the ear. It is located on a distinct notch where the horizontal concha ridge meets the vertically rising helix root (see Fig. 5.10). It is noteworthy that the...

Six Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature

The various views of researchers in personality stem not from the fact that one perspective is right and the others wrong but, rather , from the fact that they are studying different domains of knowledge. A domain of knowledge is a specialty area of science and scholarship, in which psychologists have focused on learning about some specific and limited aspects of human nature. A domain of knowledge delineates the boundaries of researchers' knowledge, expertise, and interests. To a lar ge...

How to examine a womans vagina and womb

A pelvic exam is a way to learn what is happening inside a woman's vagina and womb. Doing a pelvic exam can help you learn if a woman is pregnant, and how many weeks she has been pregnant. if she has an infection in her womb or vagina. if she might have cancer of the cervix or womb. You also must do a pelvic exam to insert an intrauterine device (see Chapter 21) or to do manual vacuum aspiration (see Chapter 23) . This exam is not difficult to learn, and with practice, most people can do it. A...

Contraindications to passive movements

Examine the joints carefully and ask appropriate questions. If any of the following conditions are present then the treatment should not be carried out. Bone fractures avoid working on the affected limb until healing is complete the other unaffected limbs can be treated. Swelling of the joint swelling may indicate some damage to the joint and passive movements are contra-indicated. However, if there is no damage, swelling around the ankles may be due to an accumulation of tissue fluid passive...

Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment

Jeffrey Gray has proposed an influential alternative biological theory of personalit (Gray, 1972, 1990), called reinforcement sensitivity theory. Based on brain function research with animals, Gray has constructed a model of human personality based on two hypothesized biological systems in the brain. The first is the behavioral activation system (BAS), which is responsive to incentives, such as cues for reward, and regulates approach behavior . When the BAS recognizes a stimulus as potentially...

Diagramming The Cognitive Case Conceptualization And Presenting It To The Patient

To aid in the development of the cognitive case conceptualization, it may be useful for clinicians to diagram the conceptualization. Such a diagram can be useful in organizing the information available about the patient. J. S. Beck (1995) provided a Cognitive Conceptualization Diagram that we believe is particularly useful in mapping information about the patient. This diagram includes spaces for depicting the relationship between automatic thoughts, and emotional and behavioral reactions, as...

Shared versus Nonshared Environmental Influences A Riddle

With all of the findings on the moderate heritability of so many personality charac teristics, it is important not to lose sight of one important fact the same studies that suggest moderate heritability also provide the best evidence for the importance of environmental influences. If many personality characteristics show heritabilities in th range of 30 to 50 percent, this means that the same characteristics show a substantial degree of environmentality as much as 50 to 70 percent. This...

How Long Conceptrol Can Be Used After Expiration

As the name implies, a spermicide is a chemical compound that kills sperm. Spermicides are available in a number of forms that are safe and easy to use aerosol foams, gels or jellies that require an applicator, dissolvable suppositories, and dissolvable squares of film. The active ingredient in these products is nonoxynol-9, which works by damaging the surface membrane of the sperm cell. Like other barrier contraceptives, spermicides do not affect hormone levels in the body or change the...

Three Levels of Personality Analysis

Although the definition of personality used in this book is quite broad and encom passing, personality can be analyzed at three levels. These three levels are well summarized by Kluckhohn & Murray , in their 1948 book on culture and personality , in which they state that every human being is, in certain respects, 1. Like all others (the human nature level). 2. Like some others (the level of individual and group dif ferences). 3. Like no others (the individual uniqueness level). Another way...

Blood vessels of the head and neck

Blood is supplied to parts within the neck, head and brain through branches of the subclavian and common carotid arteries. The common cartoid artery extends from the brachiocephalic artery. It extends on each side of the neck and divides at the level of the larynx into two branches The internal carotid artery passes through the temporal bone of the skull to supply oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, forehead and part of the nose. The external carotid artery is divided into branches (facial,...

Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious

The goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious. Mental illness, problems with living, and unexplained physical symptoms can all be viewed as the result of unconscious conflicts. Thoughts, feelings, ur ges, or memories have been forced into the unconscious, because of their disturbing or threatening nature. Due to the dynamic nature of the human mind, these conflicts or restrained u ges may slip out of the unconscious in ways that cause trouble. They often obtain expression as...

Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

The posterior tibialis muscle is the deepest muscle of the posterior compartment and has both medial and lateral origins. The medial origin is on the posterior surface of the interosseous membrane and the lateral area of the posterior surface of the tibia. The lateral origin is on the upper two thirds of the posterior fibular surface, deep transverse fascia, and intermuscular septa. The muscle's insertion tendon runs from the calf muscle behind the medial mal-leolus to the navicular bone in the...

Dermatomyositis Polymyositis

DM also may include head and neck dermatologic manifestations that can have considerable diagnostic importance. Among these is the virtually pathognomonic heliotrope rash (Fig. 7). This lesion, which leads to edema and discoloration of the eyelids, takes its name from the deep purple flower of the heliotrope plant, although the lesion may vary in color from pink to red to brown. DM may also lead to an erythematous rash on many locations on the body, including the face and neck (Fig. 8). Nasal...

De Quervain Tenosynovitis

This injury is characterized by pain on abduction and extension of the thumb as a result of inflammation of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor polli-cis longus tendons. It can be caused by direct trauma, overuse, repetitive stress, excessive vibration, or movement involving sharp bending of the tendons. Treatment should include the inflamed tendons and related muscles on the hand and forearm. Dry needling acupuncture accompanied with thermo-therapy promotes satisfactory healing.

Thoracolumbar Deformity Advances

Operative Treatment of Thoracolumbar Deformity Praveen V. MummanenP, Stephen L. Ondra0, Rick C. Sassoc a Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., b Department of Neurosurgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill., and c Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana Spine Group, Indianapolis, Ind., USA Surgical fusions to treat spinal deformity were first developed in the 1900s. In 1911, Hibbs 1 performed a noninstrumented, posterior...

Homeostatic Acu Reflex Point System

SYSTEMIC PATTERN OF ACU-REFLEX POINT SENSITIZATION From a physiologic perspective, there are two types of acu-reflex points ARPs homeostatic and symptomatic. Paravertebral ARPs, as clinically important ARPs, can be either homeostatic or symptomatic. According to both clinical experience and research, the sensitization of homeostatic ARPs follows an anatomically predictable pattern and sequence. This pattern of sensitization is found equally in all human beings for at least two reasons,...

Methods for Estimating Dietary Intake at the Household Level Household Budget Surveys

Techniques for estimating intake at the household level include the food account method, the inventory method, the household record, and the list recall method. These methods measure all foods and beverages available for consumption by a household or family group during a specified time period of between 1 and 4 weeks, although some last for 23 months. Wastage factors are sometimes applied. Household surveys provide data for per capita consumption of foods or nutrients, not intake for specific...

Viral infections of the skin

Herpes simplex is normally found on the face and around the lips. It begins as an itching sensation, followed by erythema and a group of small blisters which then weep and form crusts. This condition will generally persist for approximately two or three weeks but will reappear at times of stress, ill health or exposure to sunlight. This is a painful infection along the sensory nerves due to the virus that causes chickenpox. Lesions resemble herpes simplex with erythema and blisters along the...

The Hip Adductor Muscles

These adductor muscles swing the leg medially. All these muscles originate mainly from the pubis and are inserted into the posterior surface of the femur via the roughened ridge that extends along Iliofemoral I Descending part ligament Transverse part Iliofemoral I Descending part ligament Transverse part Reflected head Rectus i- femoris, Straight head J tendon Figure 12-2 The ligaments of the hip joint. Reflected head Rectus i- femoris, Straight head J tendon Figure 12-2 The ligaments of the...

Intentional Additives

Chemicals that are intentionally introduced into foods to aid in processing, to act as preservatives, or to improve the quality of the food are called intentional additives. Their use is strictly regulated by national and international laws. The National Academy of Sciences (1973) has listed the purposes of food additives as follows to improve or maintain nutritional value to enhance consumer acceptability to make the food more readily available to facilitate preparation of the food The use of...

Brief History Of Biolistics And Gene Guns

Biolistic technology was originally developed in the area of plant genetics to introduce genes into target cells that were largely refractory to traditional methods of gene delivery (1). Biolistic lore holds that the gene gun was inspired by interactions between edible bonsai plants and squirrels, and the later involvement of an air rifle to control these interactions. Legend has it that in the course of those events, Dr. John Sanford made the pivotal extrapolation that if an air rifle could be...

Primary and Secondary Appraisal

Not all people respond to stressors in the same way . Two people can experience the same event, yet one is devastated and completely overwhelmed, whereas the other accepts the event as a challenge and is mobilized into positive action. Dif ferences between people in how they respond to the same event are possible because stress is not out there in the environment. Rather, stress is in the subjective reaction of the person to potential stressors (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). This is worth...

Images Anatomy For Mri Liver Contrast

HCC following treatment by RF ablation. On the pre-contrast CT scan (a) a well-defined, slightly hypodense nodule (arrow) surrounded by a hypodense rim is demonstrated in segment VII of the right liver lobe. During the arterial phase (b) after contrast medium administration a markedly hyperdense area (arrowhead) is seen near the necrotic lesion. This area becomes isodense in the portal venous phase (c) and represents an APS post RF ablation Fig. 27a-c....

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

The most obvious lesions of the head and neck that can be seen in SLE are those involving the skin. The most characteristic dermatologic feature of lupus is the malar rash (Fig. 1). Also known as the butterfly rash, because of its shape across the cheeks and bridge of the nose, the malar rash is an erythematous and edematous eruption that classically spares the nasolabial folds. A similar rash may be seen on the forehead and chin. It may or may not result from exposure to sunlight, but is often...

Rocket eruca sativa mill brassicaceae

Brassica erucoides Roxb. Notes Rocket And one went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine, and gathered thereof wild gourds his lap full, and came and shred them into the pot of pottage for they knew them not. So they poured out for the men to eat. And it came to pass, as they were eating of the pottage, that they cried out, and said, O thou man of God, there is death in the pot. And they could not eat thereof. But he said, Then bring meal. And he cast it...

Auricular Therapy Segmental Innervation Internal Organ I

Fig. 4.9 (A) Biopsy section from ear lobe in the area of crease (A) the arrow indicates elastic-fiber tears (x100) (with permission). (B) Biopsy section from area of ear lobe crease (ELC) the arrow indicates pre-arteriolar wall thickening (x240) (with permission). There are, however, some aspects which have not been considered sufficiently and which require a careful and reliable standardization of the crease. The first is that the ELC was rarely evaluated by independent observers the second is...

Causes Of Facet Arthropathy

Disc stiffening allows the facet capsules to tighten Disc narrowing causes the facet joint surfaces to override A sway back causes the lower facets to jam Weak tummy muscles can jam the facets A shorter leg invokes a greater restraint role of the facets Disc stiffening allows the facet capsules to tighten The earliest form of stiffness of a facet joint may be nothing more than a fleeting protective spasm of its overlying multifidus muscle. A fluke odd movement or an awkward posture for a...

What Is a Trait Two Basic Formulations

When you describe someone as impulsive, unreliable, and lazy, what specifically ar you referring to Personality psychologists dif fer in their formulations of what these traits mean. Some personality psychologists view these traits as internal (or hidden) properties of persons that cause their behavior. Other personality psychologists make no assumptions about causality and simply use these trait terms to describe the enduring aspects of a person's behavior. Traits as Internal Causal Properties...

Life Cycle Of Cordyceps

Cordyceps is composed of a fungus fruiting body and larva of the host, and its distribution is closely related to the distribution of the host. Many Cordyceps-related species have been found, which are based on different fungi growing on different insect hosts however, most of them are not considered as Cordyceps for clinical usage except C. sinensis, which is listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (3). China is the major producer of Cordyceps (4). In China, the parasitic complex of the fungus and...

Prentif Cervical Cap

The cervical cap is a small, deep latex cup with a firm but flexible rim around the open end. It is 1 1 4 to 1 1 2 inches long and looks like a large rubber thimble. It fits snugly over the cervix and the os, the tiny opening to the cervix Figure 5.1 . The cervical cap is similar to a diaphragm in that it does not cause any hormonal or chemical changes in the body. It has almost no side effects and does not interrupt lovemaking. When used for every single act of intercourse, the cap plus...

Sertoli Leydig Cell Tumors Androblastomas

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are rare, accounting for 0.2 of all ovarian tumors. Unlike granulosa-stromal cell tumors, they occur principally in women in the reproductive years with 75 occurring before age 40 and occurring less commonly during menopause or childhood. Similar to theca cells, SLCTs are usually hormonally active and secrete testosterone, thus resulting in androgen excess and potential virilization. The cause of SLCTs remains largely unknown because they originate from the...

FIGURE 16 Oral hairy leukoplakia associated with EBV Source From

(PCR) for CMV viral load in serum can be used, but the clinical utility of the test is not yet clear. Whether treatment is beneficial for oral ulcers caused by CMV is not clear. Ulcerative esophagitis-causing symptoms can be treated with IV antivirals such as ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir, followed by oral maintenance, usually with oral valganciclovir. Epstein-Barr Virus and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia. OHL has been encountered since the early epidemic and has been strongly linked to...

Person Situation Interaction

We first looked at the topic of person-situation interaction in Chapter 1. In this sec tion, we will examine this topic in a bit more detail, focusing on interactionism as a response to Mischel' s challenge to trait consistency . As Mischel' s debate with trait psychologists made clear , there are two possible explanations for behavior , or why people do what they do in any given situation 1. Behavior is a function of personality traits, B fP). 2. Behavior is a function of situational forces, B...

Cauterization Of The

It is not easy, even approximately, to identify exactly when cautery was first applied to the external parts of the ear auricle for therapeutic purposes. If we limit our research to ancient Europe, there are traces in folk medicine which indicate that the external ear also had some significance in the prevention of disease. One noteworthy folk tradition is the custom of wearing earrings to improve sight or to prevent eye disease. Sailors of the European coasts and mountaineers of the central...

Anthropometric Measurements Height

Height, or stature, is measured in adults and children over the age of 2 years using a stadiometer, a portable anthropometer, or a moveable headboard on a vertical measuring rod. The measuring device should be checked for accuracy using a standard 2-m steel tape. Subjects should be measured to the nearest 0.1 cm. Subjects, in minimal clothing with bare heads and feet, should stand straight, arms hanging loosely to the side, feet together and with heels, buttocks and shoulder blades in contact...

Longitudinal versus Cross Sectional Studies

By the very nature of their field of study, child development researchers are concerned with change that occurs over time. This fact brings to light another research design choice that must be considered longitudinal research versus cross-sectional research. Longitudinal studies involve studying the same group of participants over a particular time period. Cross-sectional studies involved studying groups of participants in different age groups at the same point in time. It would seem that...

Jugular foramen syndrome

Jugular foramen syndrome (JFS) is an uncommon clinical entity that often presents a diagnostic and management challenge to the otolaryngologist. The purpose of this section is to define this syndrome and elucidate the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, and general treatment options for the syndrome. Various combinations of palsies of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI resulting from lesions in the area of the jugular foramen have been referred to as JFS. Eponyms...

Contemporary Views on the Unconscious

The idea of a motivated unconscious is at the core of classical psychoanalytic theory . Most contemporary psychologists also believe in the unconscious, although it is a different version of the unconscious than that found in classical psychoanalytic theory . Consider the views of psychologist John Bar gh, a social psychologist whose research on unconscious processes has had a lar ge impact on psychology People are often unaware of the reasons and causes of their own behavior . In fact, recent...

Severe Malnutrition and Reductive Adaptation

The acute phase response to an infection is muted in severe protein-energy malnutrition in part of a process referred to as 'reductive adaptation,' whereby the structure and function of cells or tissues cannot be maintained due to the limited supply of energy resulting from decreased nutritional intake. Protein synthesis from amino acids is highly energy-dependent and proteins have a wide variety of structural and functional roles in the body, including the cytokines that initiate the acute...

Ruta graveolens L Rutaceae Herb of Grace Common

Ruta graveolens herb Ruta graveolens leaves Ruta graveolens herb Ruta graveolens leaves Description Ruta graveolens L. is a glabrous herb with stem that can grow up to 14-45 cm. Lower leaves are more or less long-petiolate with ultimate segments 2-9 mm wide, lanceolate to narrowly oblong. Inflorescence is rather lax pedicels are as long as or longer than the capsule bracts are lanceolate, leaf-like. Sepals are lanceolate and acute. Petals are oblong-ovate, denticulate and undulate. Capsule is...

Taxonomies of Personality

Over the past century, dozens of taxonomies of personality traits have been proposed. Many have been merely lists of traits, often based on the intuitions of personality psychologists. As personality psychologist Robert Hogan observed, the history of personality theory consists of people who assert that their private demons are public afflictions Hogan, 1983 . Indeed, two editors of a book on personality traits Londo amp Exner, 1978 expressed despair at the lack of agreement about a taxonomy of...

The Machiavellian Personality

The term Machiavellian originates from an Italian diplomat, Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote a classic treatise, The Prince, in 1513 (Machiavelli,1966 1513). Machiavelli observed, in his diplomatic role, that leaders come and go, rising and falling as they gain and lose power. The Prince is a book of advice on acquiring and maintaining power, which Machiavelli wrote to ingratiate himself with a new ruler after the one that he had served had been overthrown. The advice is based on tactics for...

The skin hair and nails

1 In which of the following layers are epidermal cells constantly being reproduced a horny layer b basal cell layer c clear layer d granular layer 2 Desquamation occurs in which layer of the epidermis a horny layer b basal cell layer c prickle cell layer d clear layer 3 Which of the following is responsible for making the skin pigmentation darker a keratin b sebum c carotene d melanin 4 The type of sweat glands that are widely distributed throughout the body are a apocrine b eccrine c adipose d...

Crinum asiaticum L Amaryllidaceae Crinum Lily Spider Lily Bawang Tanah

Leaf blade of Crinum asiaticum Crinum asiaticum plant Leaf blade of Crinum asiaticum Crinum asiaticum plant Description Crinum asiaticum L. is a bulbous herb with a flowering stalk in the centre of the plant. The leaves are narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 0.5-1.5 m long, greenish and have a hairy texture. The flowering stem is about 1-1.2 m. Flowers are white, 6-12 in an umbel. Filaments are reddish. The fruit is irregularly globose, 4-5 cm across, with one or a few large green seeds. 1-4...

Sources of Personality Data

Perhaps the most obvious source of information about a person is self-report data (S-data) the information a person reveals. Clearly , individuals may not always provide accurate information about themselves for a variety of reasons, such as the desire to present themselves in a positive light. Nevertheless, the journals that publish the latest research in personality reveal that self-report is the most common method for measuring personality. Self-report data can be obtained through a variety...

Trigeminal Neuralgia On The

As regards the trigeminal system, there is a lack of consensus on the possible representation of this important nerve on the auricle. Durinyan did not report such representation at all whereas Nogier and Bourdiol located the fifth nerve on the border Fig. 5.26 Auricular points proposed by Raphael Nogier for the treatment of migraine (with permission). Fig. 5.26 Auricular points proposed by Raphael Nogier for the treatment of migraine (with permission). of the ear lobe (see Fig. A1.3). The...

Causes Of An Acute Locked Back

A natural 'window of weakness' early in a bend Segmental stiffness predisposes to facet locking Muscle weakness contributes to facet locking A natural 'window of weakness' early in a bend All spines experience a natural vulnerability on bending until they get themselves properly braced. I believe that facet locking occurs when the spine is caught momentarily ill-prepared as it passes through a fleeting 'window of weakness' in the early part of range. Bracing happens when the muscles at the...

Nightshades Jimsonweed Datura Belladonna Henbane

The nightshade family of plants includes some very popular foods tomatoes, sweet and hot peppers, eggplants, and potatoes. It also includes tobacco and some poisonous plants that are infamous because of their associations with crime, witchcraft, and black magic. Even their names are sinister henbane, mandrake, and deadly nightshade, for example. Nightshades look scary, too. They are rank, hairy plants with strange smells and peculiar flowers some have dangerous fruit. In North America the main...

The Biology of Reproduction

To understand the different methods of birth control that are available today and to choose the best one for you, you will need to know something about the male and female reproductive systems and the process of conception. This chapter outlines how the systems work and how conception takes place. The sexual organs of the male consist of the penis, scrotum, and testicles (on the outside), and the epididymis, the vas deferens, the prostate, and the urethra (on the inside) (see Figures 1.1 and...

Metabolic Consequences of Biotin Deficiency

The activities of biotin-dependent carboxylases fall in deficiency, resulting in impaired gluconeogenesis, with accumulation of lactate, pyruvate, and alanine, and impaired lipogenesis, with accumulation of acetyl CoA, resulting in ketosis. There are also changes in the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. A variety of abnormal organic acids are excreted by both biotin-deficient patients and experimental animals (as shown in Table 11.1). There is accumulation of the apoenzymes of...

Pathophysiology of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus occurs when circulating insulin levels are inadequate to lower elevated blood glucose concentrations. This condition includes a spectrum of metabolic abnormalities that range from the effects of mild insulin deficiency (i.e., hyperglycemia) to the effects of marked and prolonged insulinopenia (i.e., ketoacidosis and fluid and electrolyte depletion). Diabetic ketoacidosis, which is the most severe acute manifestation of insulin deficiency, is almost entirely...

The Representation Of The Nose On The

Another divergent location according to Nogier's and Chinese cartography is the representation of the nose. The main reason for this divergence may be related to the lack of any representation of this anatomical part on Bachmann's drawing of 1957. The olfactive point was added later by Nogier21 on the anterior part of the lobule approximately 1 mm behind the auricular insertion line on the lateral side, half way up the lobule (see Fig. A1.1). The Chinese, on the other hand, differentiated...

Allergic Conditions On The Auricle

The diagnostic clues offered by auricular diagnosis are, however, of two types the sensitization of some recurrent non-specific areas, regardless of the type of allergy, and the sensitization of some specific areas associated with the end organ involved in the allergic mechanism. We may therefore note that in a limited number of cases there is an evident sensitiza-tion of sectors 16, 17 and 18 on the scapha and on the aligned points on the helix. What was...

Thuja Occidentalis And Rosacea Aggravations

Aaron's rod see Verbascum hapsiforme ABC of resuscitation 270 abdominal cramps 80, 90 abdominal pain 106 Abies canadensis (Abies can.) 118, 276 Abies nig. 276 see also Resina piceae abnormal discharges 89 Abrotanum 276 see also Artemisia abrotanum abscesses, breast 201 absent periods 256-57 Absinthium 276 see also Artemisia absinthium Acanthia lectularia (Cimex) 118, 288 Acetic ac. acetic acid 276 see also Acidum aceticum Achillea millefolium (Millefolium) 118, 300 Acidum aceticum (Acetic ac.)...

Skin lesions disorders and diseases

It is very important to examine the skin thoroughly before giving massage. The skin can be affected by many problems, which must be identified prior to massage. Some will have to be avoided whereas others may need medical referral. If you have to encourage a client to see the doctor, you must do so in a very tactful manner and not alarm nor offend the client. Macule this is a mark or discoloured patch that lies flat on the skin. Papule this is a small elevated pimple. Vesicle this is a very...

Blood poisoning See septicemia

Blood transfusions The injection of blood from a healthy person into the circulation of a child whose blood is deficient in quality or quantity. Several different components of blood can be transfused into a child, but red blood cells are the most common type of blood product transfusion. There are several reasons why a child may require a blood transfusion, including a sudden loss of blood low hemoglobin count before, during, or after surgery severe heart or lung disease bone marrow failure or...

Clinical Manifestations

The primary episode of HSV-1 infection manifests after the patient is exposed to secretions containing viable HSV-1, which then incubate for three to six days. Mucocutaneous lesions, which can be painful, develop into vesicles that erupt for one to two weeks Fig. 4 . In many cases, areas of gingivostomatitis and surrounding skin lesions are prominent and FIGURE 3 Schematic representation of HSV replication within sensory ganglion cells shows centripetal and centrifugal migration and envelopment...

Barringtonia racemosa L K Spreng

Barringtonia racemosa fruits Barringtonia racemosa tree Barringtonia racemosa fruits Barringtonia racemosa tree Description Barringtonia racemosa L. K. Spreng is a small tree with large, simple leaves about 20 cm long. Flowers are large with numerous pinkish stamens. The fruit is ellipsoid, green, 8 cm long, and turns red upon maturity. 1,2 Origin Native to Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 3 Phytoconstituents Nasimalun A and B, barringtonin, Ri-barrigenol,...

Functional properties and toxicity

Nigella seed and oil are known to possess several pharmacological properties such as detergent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and expectorant. From ancient times, Nigella, because of its insect repellent properties, has been used as a seed spread in woollens and silk clothes to protect them from insects and used like moth balls. The presence of the carboxyl compound nigellone and non-carboxyl fractions are reported to protect guinea pigs against histamine-induced broncho-spasm and phenolic...

Eurycoma longifolia Jack Simaroubaceae Tongkat Ali Alis Umbrella Pasak Bumi

Eurycoma longifolia fruits Eurycoma longifolia tree Eurycoma longifolia fruits Eurycoma longifolia tree Description Eurycoma longifolia Jack is a small tree with compound leaves on branches that can grow up to 1 m long. The numerous leaflets are opposite or subopposite, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 5-20 cm by 1.5-6 cm, with smooth margins. Flowers are tiny, reddish, unisexual and are densely arranged. The drupes are ovoid with a distinct ridge, 1-2 cm by 0.5-1.2 cm and they turn dark reddish...

Standardized Extracts of Indian Herbs used in India

Powder Paste Alkaloids 0.15 , Tannins 2.4 -4 Powder Glycosides 15 , Alkaloids 1 Powder Paste Tannins 5 , Mucilage 10 -15 Powder Paste Alliin 1.5 -2.5 by HPLC Powder Paste Gel Gum Aloin 1.5 3 1 , Polysaccharides 50 200 1 Powder Paste Shagaol gt 4 by HPLC Powder Paste Andrographolides gt 10 Powder Paste Bacosides 15 -50 , Alkaloids 5 Powder Paste Boswellic acids gt 50 Powder Paste Polyphenols gt 45 by HPLC Powder Paste Asiaticosides gt 10 , Powder Paste Flavones gt 4 , Vol. Oil 1 Powder Acidity...

What are the side effects of Sinemet

Some of the side effects are not entirely side effects of Sinemet. Some (wearing off or on-off) result from progression of PD and the short duration of action of Sinemet some (dystonia, freezing) can be symptoms of PD (unrelated to drugs) or a side effect of Sinemet some (dyskinesia) are side effects of Sinemet and some (psychosis) are the effects of Sinemet and dopamine agonists temporarily unmasking an underlying dementia. Wearing off. After an optimal peak effect from Sinemet is attained the...

Techniques for Liver MR Imaging

1.2 MR Imaging Techniques and Concepts 1.2.3 The Uncooperative Patient Examination Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is establishing a role as a primary diagnostic technique with evidence showing MR to have advantages over computer tomography CT as regards diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for many pathologies of solid organs, bile and pancreatic ducts, bowel, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum. MRI is particularly well-suited to the evaluation of liver pathology due to an ability to generate...

Biliary Atresia Triangular Cord Sign

Same case as demonstrated in Fig. 9. MRCP demonstrates diffuse, hyperintense, round and cystic lesions, distributed in both lobes of the liver, with a flower tree appearance communication between sacculi and bile ducts (Fig. 11), which is positively demonstrated with Gd-BOPTA and other hepatobiliary contrast agents if contrast material is present within the sacculi and bile ducts during the hepatobiliary phase after administration (Fig. 12). Differential...

Jatamansi nardostachys grandiflora dc valerianaceae

Fedia grandiflora Wall. ex DC Nardostachys gracilis Kitamura Nardostachys jatamansi auct. Patrinia jatamansi auct. Valeriana jatamansi Wall. fide DEP EFS Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits camphire with spikenard. FIGURE 1.71 Jatamansi Nardostachys grandiflora . FIGURE 1.71 Jatamansi Nardostachys grandiflora . With names such as spikenard Nardostachys and nard Cymbopogon long confused, it is difficult to know which was meant in biblical texts, but most biblical...

The Myth Of The Meth Diet

In our current world of stick-thin fashion models and clothes that come in size 00, the pressure to be thin is on the minds of many young people. The truth, however, is that everyone's body is different, and not everyone is meant to be a size 00. A person's size does not matter if that person is healthy and happy. It also takes time and effort to lose weight in a healthy way. But because society pressures them to be thin, some young people turn to methamphet-amine use as an easy way to lose...

Do You Have Fibromyalgia A Self Test

Only your physician can diagnose you with fibromyalgia and then treat you. Reading this book is a very good idea, but it still doesn't really cut it when it comes to making an actual diagnosis in your own individual case. What I can give you is a simple self-test to use to help you determine if you may have fibromyalgia syndrome. Grab a scratch piece of paper and jot down your answers to the following yes or no questions. Then, read my analysis at the end of the list. If you think that you may...

Can a person have both type 1 and type 2 diabetes at the same time

Generally speaking, we do not diagnose both disorders in the same individual. If people have type 1 diabetes, they are completely lacking effective circulating insulin. By definition, this is not the case in people with type 2 diabetes, so having the one disorder effectively rules out the other. However, people with type 1 diabetes may be prone to the same metabolic problems as those with type 2 diabetes. In other words, if people with type 1 diabetes gain weight, become sedentary, or are...

Discovering and Challenging Change Blocking Beliefs

You may not be aware that people hold many beliefs about change. For example, some people believe that change is frightening. Others think they don't deserve to be happy and therefore don't change their lives to improve their situations. By stealing your motivation to change, assumptions such as these can keep you stuck in a depressed or anxious state. And, unfortunately, most people aren't aware of when and how these underlying assumptions can derail the most serious and sincere efforts for...

Maria Trebens Take On Parlinsons Diseas

The small-flowered willowherbs are a specific remedy for prostate problems, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BHP). Plants in this informal group help shrink the tissues, arrest cell proliferation, and normalize urinary function. Small-flowered willowherbs are also effective for a wide range of bladder and urinary problems, for women as well as men, with the astringent and diuretic action serving to tone and also detoxify the urinary tract. Description Perennials growing up to about 2 ft,...

Benign Biliary Neoplasms 731

Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic neoplasm that represents less than 5 of all intrahepatic cysts of biliary origin that arise from intra- and extrahep-atic bile ducts 27 . This neoplasm may occur anywhere along the intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts, although about 80 of lesions are found partly or completely within the liver. The cause of biliary cystadenoma is unknown, although it could be related to a congenital anomaly of the biliary primitive bud. This neoplasm can be classified as...

Cervical Spondylosis Spur Formation

Cervical spondylosis is a chronic degeneration of the vertebrae and discs of the neck. Bone spurs, or osteophytes, are bony projections that form along joints and are often associated with arthritis. Such spurs can rub against nearby nerves or occasionally on the spinal cord, causing pain and limitation in joint motion. The degeneration results from wear on the bones of the cervical spine over time. Aging, repetitive stress on joints, reduced flexibility of ligaments, and tissue inflammation...

Who uses stimulants and Why they Do it

Illegal use of stimulant drugs is widespread and affects many parts of modern society. There is little information available about the abuse of methylphenidate because agencies have only been collecting national data for about six years. Although methylphenidate abuse remains a problem, results from a U.S. study called Monitoring the Future show an overall decrease in use by high school students. That same study, which examined drug use data from 2001 to 2003, suggested that the number of...

Neurotransmitters and Personality

Whereas Zuckerman's theory concerns levels of MAO, which breaks down neuro-transmitters, other researchers hypothesize that levels of neurotransmitters themselves are responsible for specific individual di ferences. Neurotransmitters are receiving a great deal of attention as possible sources of personality dif ferences. One neurotransmitter, dopamine, appears to be associated with pleasure. For example, animals will work to obtain doses of dopamine, much as they would work to obtain food. As...

What is downward drift

There is no difference in the prevalence of schizophrenia between men and women however, the age of onset is affected. Men tend to develop it between 15 and 25 years of age and women between 25 and 35 years of age. Having a first degree relative with schizophrenia increases a patients' risk of schizophrenia tenfold. Being born in the cold winter months or in an area of high population density have also been associated with increased risk (though less so). This is the tendency of schizophrenics...

Communication Eloquent but Inarticulate

In addition to social difficulties, autism spectrum disorders usually involve communication problems. In fact, the most prominent feature of classic autism, at least in the minds of most people, is the inability to speak. What is less well understood is that even those with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism experience some difficulties with communication. This, it turns out, is one of the most confusing parts of the diagnostic puzzle and often leads to misdiagnoses when the child is...

Closer Look The Six Myths of Self Esteem

Most people naturally try to enhance and protect their self-esteem, believing that it is important to psychological health. In America in the past decade there has been a growing national concern with developing self-esteem, believing it is related to all manner of good things in life. For example, the State of California set up a task force on self-esteem, which ultimately produced a report entitled The Social Importance of Self-Esteem. In it the task force argued that many if not most of the...