Natural Remedies for Cancer

Do I Have Cancer

This ebook from medical practitioner and family doctor Dr. Parajuli gives you all of the signs and symptoms that you need to know in order to catch cancer in the very early stages and protect yourself from it. You don't have to worry about if you have cancer anymore, and better yet you don't have to spend thousands of dollars to make sure of that either! All it takes is a bit of knowledge and you are on your way! This book also teaches about other aspects of cancer patients, such as how to live with different kinds of cancer, how to prepare yourself mentally to accept this reality if it IS a reality for you, and how to deal with doctors and insurance companies. This book is easy to read and in PDF format, so you don't have to worry at all about reading it. Make it easy on yourself! More here...

Do I Have Cancer Overview

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Author: Dr. Parajuli
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My Do I Have Cancer Review

Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Cancer Clinical Trials Proactive Strategies

Cancer Therapy Evaluation Proaram CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS PROACTIVE STRATEGIES Cancer Treatment and Research Freireich, E.J, Kantarjian, H. (eds) Molecular Genetics and Therapy of Leukemia. 1995. ISBN 0-7923-3912-6. Cabanillas, F., Rodriguez, M.A. (eds) Advances in Lymphoma Research. 1996. ISBN 0-7923-3929-0. Miller, A.B. (ed.) Advances in Cancer Screening. 1996. ISBN 0-7923-4019-1. Hait, W.N. (ed.) Drug Resistance. 1996. ISBN 0-7923-4022-1. Foon, K.A., Muss, H.B. (eds) Biological and Hormonal Therapies of Cancer. 1998. ISBN 0-7923-9997-8. Noskin, G. A. (ed.) Management of Infectious Complications in Cancer Patients. 1998. ISBN 0-7923-8150-5. Bennett, C. L. (ed.) Cancer Policy. 1998. ISBN 0-7923-8203-X. von Gunten, C.F. (ed.) Palliative Care and Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients. 1999. ISBN 0-7923-8525-X Burt, R.K., Brush, M.M. (eds) Advances in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. 1999. ISBN 0-7923-7714-1. Angelos, P. (ed.) Ethical Issues in Cancer Patient Care 2000....

The Genetics of Pancreatic Cancer

Globally, pancreatic cancer is considered a rare cause of cancer. More than 250,000 new cases, equivalent to 2.5 of all forms of cancer, were diagnosed in 2008 worldwide (Ferlay et al., 2008, 2010). Pancreatic adenocarcinoma currently represents the fourth most common cancer causing death in the United States and in most developed countries (Jemal et al., 2009, 2011). Despite advances in medical science, the overall prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains poor and five years survival is only 4 (Jemal et al., 2006). Those diagnosed early, with tumor limited to the pancreas, display a 25-30 five years survival following surgery (Ryu et al., 2010). It has been suggested that it takes at least 10 years from tumor initiation to the development of the parental clone and another five years to the development of metastatic subclones, with patients dying within two years thereafter, on average (Costello & Neoptolemos, 2011). Given the limited treatment options there has been considerable...

Cancer At The Cellular Level

Cancer cells are easy to kill using drug therapy however, they are hard to kill without damaging normal cells. This is because cancer cells rely on processes that are fundamentally similar to the processes used by normal cells. Their differences are in activity, not function. It is like two clocks one that keeps the right time and one that is fast. Both clocks use the same mechanisms, but one works at a higher speed. Any treatment that harms the structure of the fast clock, when given to the normal clock, would harm its structure as well. Regarding the cellular level then, the best way to inhibit a cancer cell (and to spare normal cells) is not to destroy its structural properties but to normalize the signals that drive it. These signals derive from its genetic instability, abnormal expression of genes, abnormal sig Part I is about these first four clusters and the natural compounds that inhibit them. Chapter 2 discusses the workings of DNA, the role of transcription factors in gene...

Why consider fatigue in cancer

In Western societies one in three people will experience cancer at some point in their lifetime, and one in four will die from it (Higginson 1997). In England and Wales there are 220 000 new cases of cancer per year, and around 140 000 deaths from cancer. Cancer accounts for around 22 of all deaths within developed countries and 9.5 of deaths within developing countries (Stjernsward and Pampallona 1998). In the future cancer is predicted to increase worldwide, with cancer of the lung, trachea and bronchus alone rising to the fifth most common form of death globally in 2020 (Murray and Lopez 1997a,b, 2000). In 2015 predictions estimate that almost 14 of deaths in developed countries and around 28 in developing countries will be due to cancer (Stjernsward and Pampallona 1998). Cancer affects people of all ages, from children and adolescents through to the very old, although most people who suffer cancer are in the older age groups, over 65 or 75 years of age (Higginson 1997). Cancer is...

Anticarcinogenic Effects

Both in vitro and animal studies indicate that astragalus may have a role as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of some cancers. In vivo studies have shown that astragalus extract exerts anticarcinogenic effects in carcinogen-treated mice, mediated through activation of cytotoxic activity and the production of cytokines (Kurashige et al 1999). An extract of the root (90 and 180 mg kg) prevented the development of preneoplastic lesions and delayed hepatic cancer in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat model (Cui et al 2003). The saponin, astragaloside IV, can increase the fibrinolytic potential of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells by downregulating the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (Zhang et al 1997). Another constituent (astragalan) increased the secretion of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta (Zhao and Kong 1993).

Novel Biomarkers in Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma( PDAC) cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancers, and the fifth most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in Western society. Pancreatic cancer is well known for high metastatic potential, early local invasion and poor outcome. The overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5 , respectively 10-30 for R0 resection (Huang et al., 2010). Less than 10 of newly diagnosed pancreatic cancers could be detected in early-stage (Takayama et al., 2010). Clinical research in the field of cancer biomarkers is essential in understanding the biology and the heterogeneity of cancer disease. The factors involved in early PDAC development remain unknown. The detection of pancreatic cancer at early stages, the prediction of the potential resectability, or response to therapy are the current major challenges in improving the clinical outcome of PDAC. Therefore, predictive markers of responsiveness to adjuvant therapy would allow patients selection to...

The Qualitative Burden Of Cancer Survivorship From The Patients Perspective

To better understand the magnitude of the qualitative burden of cancer from the patient's perspective, the LAF conducted an open invitation Internet-based survey posted on the LAF Web site (http www.laf.org). The survey was a large-scale battery of 83 queries about pathological and psychosocial topics such as medical support, emotional support, patient attitude, secondary health problems, financial issues, social relations, employment problems, and concerns about activities of daily living. From October 1-6, 2004, 1024 self-identified cancer patients responded and completed the survey. Demographics of the responders (shown in Table 1) indicated that most were Caucasian, married, college graduates, and living in or near a city. Ninety percent of responders had medical insurance and 57 had annual income greater than 50,000. Most of the responders were remote from cancer therapy with 73 more than 2 years from diagnosis and 45 as long-term survivors more than 5 years from diagnosis. Only...

Normal Cells and Cancer Cells

Normal cells and cancer cells are different in several ways. Normal cells reproduce themselves exactly and stop reproducing when they are supposed to. They self-destruct when they have completed their job or if they become damaged. Cancer cells keep on reproducing and do not obey signals to stop. A human colon cancer cell undergoes mitosis (division). Unlike normal cells, cancer cells do not die, but continue to divide. They have been called immortal because they refuse to die on their own. Normal cells stick together. Cancer cells do not, which allows them to become detached from their neighboring cells. Finally, normal cells mature and become specialized in doing their job. Cancer cells remain immature and even become more immature or primitive over time they do not perform any helpful function in the body.

How important is fatigue in cancer

Fatigue is important for patients with cancer at all stages of their illness, for some at diagnosis and for many during treatment. It occurs 80 to 99 of those receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both (Curt et al. 2000) and in 20 to 90 as the disease progresses. In the last week of life it is the most common symptom (Coyle et al. 1990 Edmonds et al. 1998 Connill et al. 1997). These variations in prevalence exist because epidemiological information about cancer fatigue is often poor. A previous lack of a consensus around the definition of fatigue and very varied methods of detection, assessment, and monitoring of fatigue, as well as the different populations studied, means that very different levels of fatigue are reported.

Cancer Genes as Potential Targets of Therapeutic Gene Silencing

Cancer is a genetic disease, arising from the cellular accumulation of genetic alterations, which enable the cells to evade their usual growth control 6 . These cells have the ability to spread and grow in distant sites or to propagate indefinitely and can be fatal for the individual organism in which they occur. There are several sequential steps which are necessary for the development of a tumorigenic phenotype, where selective proliferative advantages are gained, transforming normal cells into cancer cells 7 . The types of genetic alterations that can occur are described below.

Breast Cancer Biology And Behavior

There is growing understanding of the importance of the interactions between cells, and between cells and the surrounding stro-mal environment. Breast cancers frequently exhibit altered cell adhesion molecule expression, have altered matrix protein expression, changes in the cellular components of the tumor microenvironment, and extensive remodeling of the stroma. Chapter 5 focuses on key changes in cell adhesion molecules and stromal components, which have been shown to modulate breast cancer cell function, the potential for such features to act as prognostic and predictive factors for behavior, and the opportunity to use such alterations as therapeutic targets. p53 is well recognized as 'guardian of the genome', and alterations to the gene are common in cancers, including breast cancer. The precise clinical importance of p53 in breast cancer as a prognostic factor or predictor of disease response remains controversial and is discussed in Chapter 12, which concludes that substantial...

Anticarcinogenic Activity

Observational epidemiological studies have consistently shown a relationship between dietary beta-carotene intake and low risk of various cancers (Cooper et al 1999b, Pryor et al 2000). In animal studies beta-carotene has been found to be chemoprotective, with inhibition of spontaneous mammary tumours (Fujii et al 1993, Nagasawa et al 1991), as well as prevention of skin carcinoma formation (Ponnamperuma et al 2000), UV-induced carcinogenesis in mice (Epstein 1977, Mathews-Roth 1982) and oral cancer in laboratory and animal models (Garewal 1995). Studies in ferrets suggest that the beta-carotene molecule becomes unstable in smoke-exposed lungs and that when given with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid to stabilise the beta-carotene molecule, there is a protective effect against smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia (Russell 2002). A review of carotenoid research by the International Agency for Research on Cancer suggests there is sufficient evidence that beta-carotene has...

Cancer Healing and the Immune System

The immune system consists of many types of cells carried by the blood to different parts of the body. There are neutrophils, eosinophils, mono-cytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells that we believe help to keep cancer cells in check. If this theory is right, then boosting one's immune system will help reduce the risk of cancer and perhaps cancer recurrence. It is believed that at any given time there are stray cancer cells in healthy people whose immune systems are strong enough to overcome the cancer cells. Thus, these people don't develop cancer as a disease. The immune system is also responsible for inactivating free radicals, which are highly active oxygen molecules that contain unpaired electrons. Some scientists think that having an excessive amount of free radicals heightens a person's risk of cancer. The free radicals are neutralized (inactivated) by antioxidants. Although it is not entirely clear to what extent the immune system helps to prevent initial and recurrent...

Cancer At The Level Of The Organism

Part II focuses on the procancer events that occur at the level of the organism and the natural compounds that may inhibit them. These events, which consist of interactions between a population of cancer cells and the body, fall into three primary clusters events that facilitate angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and immune evasion. In Chapter 7 we discuss the basics of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels. These vessels provide the cells of a tumor not only nutrition and oxygen but also access to the circulation, thereby allowing metastasis. Natural compounds that inhibit angiogenesis are discussed in Chapter 8. In Chapters 9 and 10 we turn our attention to cancer invasion the spread of cancer cells into adjacent areas and metastasis the spread of cancer cells into distant locations via the blood or lymph. We then consider the immune response against cancer, discussing the basics of the immune system in Chapter 11 and natural compounds that affect it in Chapter 12. As in...

Cancerabnormal cell division

Cancerous diseases are characterised by the growth of abnormal cells that invade surrounding tissues and metasasis (the spread of cancerous cells to other parts of the body). Tumours may be cancerous and sometimes fatal, or they may be quite harmless. A cancerous growth is called a malignant tumour and a non-cancerous growth is called a benign tumour. Benign tumours do not spread to other parts of the body but they may be removed if they interfere with a normal body function or are disfiguring. Cancers are classified according to their microscopic appearance and the body site from which they arise. The name of the cancer is derived from the type of tissue in which it develops. Most human cancers are carcinomas, malignant tumours that arise from epithelial cells. Melanomas, for example, are cancerous growths of melanocytes, the skin cells that produce the pigment melanin. Sarcoma is a general term for any cancer arising from muscle cells or connective tissues. For example, osteogenic...

Similarity Of Angiogenesis In Wound Healing And Cancer

Wound healing is a normal process we are all familiar with, and the factors that stimulate angiogenesis in wound healing and cancer are the same.23 Indeed, the surgical wounding of tissues next to implanted tumors has been reported to increase tumor growth and angio-genesis in mice.24 In addition, wound fluid itself stimulates tumor angiogenesis as well as cell proliferation in vivo.23 Angiogenesis during wound healing and angio-genesis during cancer are so similar that some researchers have described cancer as a wound that will not heal. 2526 Not surprisingly, one study observed that when tumor cells were implanted into injured tissue in rodents, normal wound healing was inhibited, and an open, persistent wound developed that continued to form blood vessels.23 The primary difference between tumor angiogenesis and wound angiogenesis is that the former is driven by abnormal signals and continues unabated,

Prevention Of Colorectal Cancer

High dietary intake of calcium has demonstrated a reasonably consistent risk reduction of between 15 and 40 for colorectal cancer. Clear parameters for dosing are not yet available, with some studies showing no further benefit above Calcium 155 A 2005 Cochrane review examining the effect of supplementary calcium on the incidence of colorectal cancer and the incidence or recurrence of adenomatous polyps included two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with a pooled population of 1346 subjects. The doses of supplementary elemental calcium used were 1200-2000 mg day for 3-4 years. The reviewers concluded that while the evidence to date appears promising and suggests a moderate degree of prevention against colorectal adenomatous polyps, more research with similar findings is required before this can be translated into any preventative protocol (Weingarten et al 2005).

Future targets in pancreatic cancer

Because attempts at improving survival in pancreatic cancer with cytotoxic and biologic therapy have been modest at the most thus far, newer strategies of targeting the core signaling pathways implicated in pancreatic cancer are needed. Previously, genetic mutations affecting genes such as TP53, KRAS, CDKN2A and SMAD4 were known to be associated, but a more recent genome-wide analysis has identified a broader range of aberrant pathways implicated in pancreatic cancer growth. 46 In most of the 24 cancers examined in this series, the majority of the genetic mutations were felt to be disrupting one or more of 12 core signaling pathways. In pancreatic cancer, aberrations can occur in signal transduction and other pathways that promote cell survival and allow proliferation. These include KRAS, 47 PI3K Akt mTOR, 49-50 EGFR, 52 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) (which is co-expressed with Src), 52 hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). 53 There are...

Prevalence how common is fatigue in cancer

The simple answer to this question is 'very'. However, there are a number of important obstacles to determining the prevalence of fatigue in cancer patients. In part it is difficult to gain a reliable picture of the prevalence of fatigue in cancer because most studies which look at fatigue in cancer assess the symptom in special groups. Table 1.1 describes some of the factors which might lead to variation in rates of fatigue in cancer patients. It is likely that the prevalence of fatigue in cancer patients varies significantly according to site and type of cancer, stage of disease, presence of medical co-morbidity (anaemia, infection, metabolic disturbance), and psychiatric disorders (especially depression and anxiety). Table 1.1 Factors likely to affect the prevalence of fatigue reported in cancer patients Table 1.1 Factors likely to affect the prevalence of fatigue reported in cancer patients Site of cancer Type of cancer Medical complications of cancer anaemia, infection, metabolic...

Prostate cancer in the world

Cancer is an important public problem and is considered a national health priority area in several countries due to the burden that it places on the individual, families and the community 1, 2, 31 . The World Health Organization (WHO) develops strategies towards the prevention, research, education and control of the cancer. Important medical developments and relevand scientific findings have permitted that people with cancer can survive with their disease and with the side effects of their disease and its treatment for longer 31 . The high relevance of the cancer in public health and research activity can also be demonstrated by the number of scientific research identified in the database system PubMed (a service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health) 32 . It is possible to see in the Table I, the number of publications in the PubMed related to cancer and cancer and some organs. It is possible to identify in the Table I approximately 2 700 000 full...

Risk factors for fatigue in cancer

If fatigue is strongly related to cancer, are there other risk factors among cancer patients which predict who is most likely to suffer from fatigue The literature here Table 1.2 Key studies assessing prevalence of fatigue in cancer patients Table 1.2 Key studies assessing prevalence of fatigue in cancer patients 913 cancer patients recruited by advertisements. Had to have received treatment for cancer in previous 2 years 434 newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer. Consecutive sample from two tertiary referral clinics in Manitoba, Canada Consecutive sample of 1000 advanced cancer patients (mixed diagnoses) referred to a palliative care services in Cleveland, Ohio 499 mixed cancer patients identified from inpatients and outpatients in four Swiss hospitals 50 consecutive patients receiving radiotherapy for lung cancer in a cancer centre in Rochester, USA 650 patients entering a UK multicentre randomized trial into the treatment of lung cancer Convenience sample of 104 patients with...

Colorectal cancer47 010

Number of publications in the PubMed with keywords related to cancer PCa is the most common solid cancer in men worldwide and is the most common of all cancers in the North America. In an epidemiological study was reported that the estimated PCa incidence rates remain most elevated in North America, Oceania, and Western and Northern Europe. Mortality rates tend to be higher in less developed regions of the world including parts of South America, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing PCa incidence rates were observed in 32 of the 40 countries examined, which clearly demonstrates the increasing problem related to this disease, that it would be not desirable. However, PCa mortality rates decreased in 27 of the 53 countries under study, whereas rates increased in 16 and remained stable in 10 countries 2, 15, 33, 34 .

Cancerrelated fatigue and psychological distress depression and disability

Whereas physical markers of fatigue in cancer patients have been difficult to demonstrate consistently, the evidence for an association with depression and anxiety (reviewed in Chapter 10) is overwhelming. Indeed, it is difficult to find studies which have measured cancer-related fatigue and any measure of psychological distress which do not report an association. Thus Fulton (1997) reported an association between fatigue and anxiety and depression measured on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith 1983), Irvine et al. (1994) and Cimprich (1999) found associations with low mood and fatigue, Schneider (1998) found an association with fatigue and depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al. 1961) and Broeckel et al. (1998) showed a strong association between fatigue and common psychiatric diagnoses such as depression and anxiety. Other studies showed similar associations on a variety of measures (Smets et al. 1996, 1998a,b Akechi et al. 1999 Cimprich...

The importance of the early diagnosis of the prostate cancer

Concerning to the recurrent PCa, a key treatment decision is based on whether the disease is only localized in the prostate fossa. If the sites of cancer in the early phase of recurrent disease were known, patients would be treated properly, leading to fewer side effects, a better prognosis with curative approache, and reduced treatment cost. Nuclear medicine imaging has been considered a reliable technique to be used with this purpose and an important aspect of the nuclear imaging that should be understood is that this type of imaging demonstrates physiology rather than anatomy 4, 6, 10, 11 . PET is a nuclear medicine technique for tumor imaging. The radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG was firstly introduced to image brain tumors. Along the time, this radiopharmaceutical has been widely accepted and it was considered a highly effective and successfully way to image several types of cancers. In consequence, investigations using 18F-FDG were performed to evaluate the use of this...

Cancer Trials Support Unit Ctsu

In an attempt to improve the rate of accrual to phase 3 trials, and to leverage advances in technology and communications, NCI created the Cancer Trials Support Unit. Its primary goals are to centralize regulatory support for Cooperative Group trials, previously maintained separately by the eight adult Cooperative Groups, and to establish a national network of physicians who can participate in NCI sponsored phase 3 adult cancer treatment trials, without regard for their individual Group affiliation. The CTSU has increased physician and patient access to Phase 3 adult cancer treatment trials, the majority of which are led by the Cooperative Groups. Cooperative Group members are able to enroll eligible patients for any trial on the CTSU menu that is not available through their own Cooperative Group. For example, if a SWOG member is interested in a study on the CTSU menu that is being conducted by GOG, the SWOG member can open the study at their site through the CTSU. The steady increase...

Physiotherapy procedures in the management of the patient with prostate cancer

Patient after prostate cancer surgery undergoing electrotherapy Figure 4. Patient after prostate cancer surgery undergoing electrotherapy poorly controlled lymphoedema and or orientation of the patient) and decreased need for costly and at times uncomfortable pressure garments (iv) Improving local and general exercise capacity (prevention of loss of body weight and managing the side effects of the disease, medication and surgery) (v) Shortening the period of time of UI after RP and (vi) Affecting quality of life factors for all patients with cancer and their carers and families. These all provide examples where physiotherapy intervention contributes considerably to the health care provision and demonstrate how the various disciplines allied to medicine are working together to either bring the now healthy individual back to normal life and re-integration to the society, or improve the quality of life of patients that have to live with cancer as a chronic disorder and those...

Adults Dealing with Cancer

Fred had been doing quite well, with his cancer officially in remission for quite some time. Lately, he had been having some pain in his abdomen, and he was beginning to feel worried that something might be seriously wrong. He called his doctor who ordered tests and a follow-up office appointment. Fred came to group a few days before the tests, openly expressing his fear and anxiety about a possible recurrence of his cancer. The group offered him, in this case, the group stone that had lived in this group for many years, serving the transitional object purpose. Group members passed the stone around, each person holding it for several minutes to pray, symbolically give it energy, or whatever form of supportive thoughts or feelings that member felt appropriate. Fred then took the stone with him when he had his tests and doctor's appointment, reporting later that the stone helped him remember all the others in group who had dealt with similar scenarios with success.

Proposed Model of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

Recent clinicopathologic and molecular genetic studies as previously discussed provide the basis for a more comprehensive model of ovarian carcinogenesis, which proposes that there are two main pathways of tumorigenesis, corresponding to the development of type I and type II tumors (Tables 2-1 and 2-2 and Fig. 2-1). Note that Figure 2-1. A simplified diagram of types I and II ovarian epithelial cancers. CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia MPSC, micropapillary serous carcinoma SBT, serous borderline tumor. type I and type II tumors describe pathways of tumorigenesis and are not specific histopathologic terms. Thus, they are not designed to replace the conventional terminology in pathology reports. Rather, the proposed model provides another view to classify ovarian epithelial tumors that may have clinical or translational implications in studying ovarian cancer.

Cancer Causes Heredity or Environment

It has been established by experts that cancers can be familial, or inherited, or sporadic, occurring at random in the population. Although most tumors arise in people with no family history of the disease, there is good reason for researchers to study both causes. Damaged or mutated genes can be inherited. When doctors establish a patient's medical history, they ask about close relatives who have had cancer and what kind of cancer they had. Doctors know that some types of mutated genes can be passed from parents to children. They are aware that patients with a family history of certain cancers are more vulnerable to that type of cancer. But they also know that although patients with a family history of cancer are at higher risk, they are not destined to develop cancer. Sometimes cancers that occur in several family members are just coincidental. They might also be caused by something in the shared environment. Compared to tumors that occur sporadically, the actual number of cases of...

Sources of Evidence Linking Diet and Cancer

Laboratory scientists have known since the early twentieth century that various nutritional manipulations can influence the occurrence of tumors in animals. Despite this discovery of the relationship between diet and cancer in animals, widespread interest in the study of diet and cancer in humans did not develop until more recently when the large international differences in cancer rates were correlated with variations in dietary factors. In fact, investigators have found strong correlations between estimated per capita fat consumption and breast cancer rates internationally, raising the possibility that dietary fat may have an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. Other observations such as those demonstrating that migrating populations adopted, sooner or later, the cancer rates of their new host population strengthened the evidence that international differences were the result not of genes, but of noninherited factors, including diet. The study designs used to...

Cancer of the Head and Neck

Cancer of the head and neck can cause gum problems and excessive bleeding. If you have been treated with chemotherapy, you will notice that your gums will bleed easily and you may also be prone to infection. If you have been undergoing radiation treatment, you may find that your mouth is always dry. This condition is called xerostomia. Dry mouth can cause more plaque retention and make your teeth prone to decay, especially if your gums have receded to the point where the roots are exposed.

Summary of Known Relations between Diet and Cancer

A wealth of studies since the 1970s have clearly documented the relations between diet and a growing number of cancers (Table 2). Convincing evidence based on consistent findings from epidemiological studies conducted in diverse populations now shows that diet is an established cause of prostate, breast, digestive tract, airway, and urinary tract cancers. With these rich epidemiological data we can more confidently conclude that some 30 of cancer is attributable to diet. Public health officials have taken the accumulated evidence and developed strategies for minimizing cancer risk. Among these recommendations is a diet high in vegetables, fruits, and legumes and low in red meat, saturated fat, salt, and sugar. They suggest that carbohydrates be consumed as whole grains such as whole meal bread and brown rice rather than as white bread and rice. Any added fats should come from plant sources and should be unhydrogenated, an example being olive oil, which may potentially be beneficial....

Small Intestine Cancer

Cancer of the small intestine is very rare the age-adjusted incidence is approximately 1.4 per 100 000 less than 2 of all gastrointestinal malignancies. The incidence of small intestine cancer is higher in Maori of New Zealand and There are four types of small intestine cancer, each with unique characteristics adenocarcinoma, carcinoid, lymphoma, and sarcoma. In Western developed countries, approximately 30-40 of small intestine cancer is adenocarcinoma, predominantly in the duodenum, and carcinoid and lymphoma occur more often in the jejunum or ileum, whereas sarcoma may develop anywhere in the small intestine. In developed countries, lymphoma is very rare and occurs more often in older people with relatively good survival. In contrast, in developing countries, lymphoma is the main type of small intestine cancer, and it occurs more often in younger individuals, anywhere in the small intestine, with poor survival. Hence, prognosis of small intestine cancer depends on the type,...

Concomitant prostate cancer screening in the patient preparing for an APR

Patients scheduled to undergo APR represent a patient population in which prostate cancer screening may be indicated. Most cases of rectal cancer are diagnosed after 50 years of age 17 , and are in the same age category of men at risk for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, the stage of rectal cancer should be taken into consideration when considering screening the same individual for prostate cancer Stage T1 and T2 rectal tumors treated with APR have a 90 5-year survival, while stage T3 and T4 tumors are generally treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and or radiation and generally have a 5-year survival of 50 and 25 , respectively 17 . Thus, prostate cancer screening in patients with advanced disease should be avoided. Terris and Wren previously described a prostate cancer-screening program for 19 consecutive men scheduled for APR for colorectal carcinoma with no history of prostate cancer 18 . Screening included serum PSA and DRE and those with suspicious findings underwent...

Mechanisms of Carcinogenicity

Chemical carcinogens induce neoplasia by a wide range of mechanisms involving either interaction with the hereditary material of the organism or interference with one of the many cellular control systems. The former compounds, known as geno-toxic carcinogens, interact directly with DNA, resulting in a permanent heritable change to a cell following replication (i.e., an altered genotype). In contrast, nongenotoxic (epigenetic) carcinogens do not interact directly with DNA but cause cancer by other mechanisms. The enzyme system considered to be mainly involved in the activation of chemicals to carcinogenic species is the so-called mixed function oxidase system. This enzyme complex is centered on cytochrome P450 and is present in most, if not all, of the organs of the body. The enzyme system consists of a very large family of related isoenzymes of differing substrate specificity and has a widespread distribution in the animal kingdom. Early work with this enzyme system suggested that...

Metabolic Activation of Epigenetic Carcinogens

Since there is no common mechanism describing the action of epigenetic carcinogens, generalizations concerning the effect of metabolism on the activity of chemicals acting by a nongenotoxic mechanism are not possible. The activity of a number of epige-netic carcinogens is reduced as a result of metabolic activation, although in the case of one group of epigenetic carcinogens that produce renal tumors in the rat by binding to and preventing the degradation of a specific kidney protein, alpha-2-microglobulin, metabolic activation is required for carcinogenic activity. Compounds acting by this mechanism include isophorone and D-limonene, which are present naturally in many fruits. Similarly, a wide range of structurally diverse chemicals induce liver tumors in rodents due to their ability to induce the proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes. Food contaminants such as phthalate diesters, which leach out of packaging materials, fall into this category, although no naturally occurring food...

Carcinogenicity Tests Animal Bioassays

As the mechanism of carcinogenesis in both humans and animals is not well understood, the only acceptable procedure for determining whether a chemical is likely to be a carcinogen is the examination of experimental animals exposed to the suspect material under carefully controlled conditions. This procedure relies on the assumption that animals will behave in essentially the same way as humans to carcinogen exposure, i.e., the mechanism of tumor induction will be similar in both animals and humans. Mechanistically based, short-term tests for carcinogenicity prediction not involving experimental animals are still a distant and elusive goal. The basic approach for carcinogenicity testing involves administering the test material to two suitable animal species for a considerable proportion of their natural lifespan. Because of their small size and relatively short life expectancy, the rat and mouse are the species of choice, although the hamster is occasionally used. In the US, inbred...

Non Cancer Health Care and Health Maintenance

The IOM report suggested in its title that many cancer survivors are lost in transition and that the quality of care suffers when patients and providers do not know what is expected after primary treatment ends. While much of the focus of research and guidelines has been on cancer surveillance, non-cancer health care is equally as, and in many cases more important than surveillance. Most patients diagnosed with cancer today are expected to survive it.28 Studies have shown that potentially preventable conditions like heart disease and diabetes are actually the greatest threat to life for many of these patients.83,84 As a result, despite the fact that a diagnosis of cancer tends to subjugate all other concerns for a while, preventive care and the management of other medical conditions may actually be more important in the long run. The end of primary treatment for cancer has been called a teachable moment.85 This recognizes that with significant events in a patient's life, there is the...

Candlelighters Childhood Cancer Foundation

A nonprofit foundation that offers a voice for pediatric cancer families and survivors to the general public, the medical community, government, schools, employers, and the media. Candlelighter's Childhood Cancer Foundation (CCCF) was founded in 1970 by concerned parents of children with cancer. The current 43,000 members include parents of children who are being treated or have been treated for cancer children with cancer survivors of childhood cancer immediate or extended family members bereaved families health care professionals and educators. CCCF's information clearinghouse can provide information on many aspects of childhood cancer, including quarterly publications, newsletters, and informative brochures. The group has a network of parent support groups in all states and on every continent, providing meetings, speakers, parent-to-parent visitation, summer camps, transportation, emergency funding, and publications. In addition, the foundation works with other cancer patient...

Carcinogens as a Cause of Cancer

Most cancers are not the result of inherited abnormal genes. They are the result of environmental factors. Some carcinogens have been known and understood for a long time. Others are being discovered through current research. The research is difficult because many cancers develop from the combined effects of more than one carcinogen on the DNA. Carcinogens enter the body through the skin or through the nose, mouth, or other openings. Sometimes it is apparent that people who work at particular jobs tend to get certain types of cancer. Experts study chemicals or other substances these people encounter in their work. The first step is to test the suspect substance on laboratory animals such as mice or rats. If a large percentage of the animals develop cancer, the researchers go on to evaluate the effect of the substance on people. They do this by comparing a group of people who have been exposed to the agent to a group of people who have not been exposed. If the exposed group has a...

Adhesion Proteins And Cancer Cell Migration

From the above, it should be clear that production of hyaluronidase or collagenase by tumor cells or other adjacent cells can lead to matrix digestion, which subsequently allows tumor cell invasion. One more aspect of this process is the mechanism by which tumor cells walk during invasion. It is useful to consider the close analogy between the migration of immune cells toward an infection site and the movement of cancer cells away from the central tumor. In both cases, the cells rely on the attraction of their surface adhesion proteins to other proteins in the extracellular matrix. Immune cells and cancer cells walk to their intended targets by gripping and then internalizing proteins of the ECM.4748 The legs of immune cells, fibroblasts, and some cancer cells appear to be RHAMM proteins (RHAMM receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility) and variants of the CD44 family of proteins. CD44 proteins are surface receptors for both hyaluronic acid and collagen, and they mediate...

Relationship of cancerrelated fatigue with sideeffects and symptoms of disease and treatment

There is fairly consistent evidence from studies of varying methodological quality that fatigue is related to many of the symptoms that accompany the experience of cancer and its treatment (Smets et al. 1993 Winningham et al. 1994 Nail and Winnigham 1995 Richardson 1995a). Symptoms linked with fatigue in the patient with cancer include pain, nausea, dyspnoea, and sleep disturbances. Table 2.3 lists these symptoms and a selection of the correlation coefficients reported in the literature. This highlights that the extent of the evidence is far from plentiful. Correlations between fatigue and other symptoms have only been assessed in a limited number of studies and the strength of these is inconsistent. This is not surprising as there is little similarity in the operational definitions adopted when measuring these symptoms, or in the context in which they are being assessed. However, based on the existing evidence, a degree of convergence is demonstrated. Because it is not wise to infer...

Environmental pollution and industrial carcinogenes

The discovery of smoking tobacco as a factor being strongly associated with lung cancer (more than 85 of lung cancers occur among smokers), has further emphasized the definition of other external factors that could probable cause cancer (that are termed carcinogenes) (American Cancer Society, 2007, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2009 Pearce, 1996, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2009). Accordingly, at least 150 chemicals and other agents, including ionizing radiation, occupational (workplace) and environmental airborne particles, some drugs, as well as foods and other consumer products, have been listed so far by IARC, as potential carcinogens (American Cancer Society, 2007, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2009 WHO, 2009). It is estimated, for example, that occupational exposure to microscopic airborne particles accounts for 8 of lung cancer, that is the most frequent form of occupational cancer (compared to 12 of deaths due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) (WHO, 2009). The...

Management of oesophageal cancer

Survival rates in oesophageal cancer are very poor (Clark et al. 2000) only 6 of patients with oesophageal cancer survive for five years following diagnosis. In patients with disease with no metastatic spread outside the oesophagus the five-year survival rate rises to between 15 and 20 . For disease confined to the oesophagus, surgery should be considered in fit patients. Surgery alone cures only 5-10 , but a combination of preoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy and radical surgery is associated with five-year survival of 30-50 in selected patients. Approximately 90 of the patients have extensive disease at presentation in these, treatment is palliative and based upon relief of dysphagia and pain. Surgically performed palliative procedures include excision and reconstruction or bypass. Endoscopically directed tumour ablation using laser therapy or alcohol injection and insertion of stents are the major methods of improving swallowing. Palliative radiotherapy may induce shrinkage of...

Cancer Invasion And Metastasis

Cancer is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by growth deregulation, cellular dedifferentiation and invasion. Cancer is the result of an accumulation of genetic alterations Cancer Metastasis, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms and Clinical Intervention, 73-119. 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. tumour-suppressor genes (4, 5, 6, 7). However, the distinction between both categories of genes implicated in tumour development has vanished (8, 9, 10). Although there is little doubt that these genetic alterations are the momentum of cancer development, it is our opinion that host cells are crucial for invasion and metastasis (Figure 2). Therefore, we consider invasion within a micro-ecosystem in which there is continuous molecular cross-talk between cancer cells and host elements, together establishing the tumour. Host elements implicated are inflammatory cells, immunocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix produced by them....

Drugs Of Abuse And Cancer

Animal data do not show that administering ALCOHOL alone causes cancer although there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde (the major metabolite of alcohol). When alcohol was administered to animals who were also exposed to known carcinogens, the animals who were given the alcohol had a higher rate of tumors of pituitary and adrenal glands, pancreatic islet cells, esophagus, and lungs. They also had higher levels of liver-cell (hepatocellular) carcinomas, liver angiosarcomas, and neoplastic nodules of the liver, as well as benign tumors of the nasal cavity and trachea. Cancers of the Digestive Tract. Epidemiological studies in humans have shown a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer of the digestive tract, primarily cancer of the oral cavity, the pharynx (nasopharynx excluded), and the larynx all two to five times more likely in alcoholics the esophagus two to four times more likely and the liver liver cancer was increased 50...

Prescription Drugs And Cancer

Very few drugs that are suspected of causing cancer in humans are used in contemporary medical practice. Those that are, however, fall into two significant categories alkylating agents that are used to treat cancer and birth control pills and other hormone preparations. Alkylating agents. These antineoplastic drugs include busulfan (Myleran), used to treat leukemia that has not responded to other drugs cyclophos-phamide (Cytoxan), an immunosuppressant used to treat ovarian cancer and malignant lymphoma melphalan (Alkeran) ifosfamide (Ifex), used to treat testicular cancer and Ewing's sarcoma cisplatin (Platinol), a drug derived from platinum and chlorambucil (Leukeran), used in the treatment of leukemia and Hodgkin's disease. All of these drugs have serious side effects ranging from liver toxicity to fibrosis of the lungs, as well as carcinogenic potential. Cyclophosphamide in particular increases a patient's risk of secondary cancers for several years after it has been discontinued....

Substance Abuse And Cancer Treatment

On the one hand, NARCOTIC and psychoactive drugs have an important role in cancer treatment. Cancer patients have used Cannabis sativa (marijuana) to reduce the nausea associated with chemotherapy. LSD has been used in treating psychological disturbances associated with cancer. Although it was once feared that cancer patients would become addicted to opioids given for pain control, a recent study showed that of 11,882 cancer patients On the other hand, preexisting abuse of these same substances complicates cancer treatment. A history of substance abuse may shorten a cancer patient s life expectancy and undermine the effectiveness of palliative care. Ongoing substance abuse disrupts the patient s relationships with physicians and other caregivers. As of 2000, the National Cancer Institute has issued guidelines for the clinical management of cancer patients with substance abuse histories. These guidelines include evaluation and treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders, evaluation of...

Global cancer statistics and calls for action 51 Global cancer statistics

Based on the GLOBOCAN estimates, about 12,7 million cancer cases and 7,6 million cancer deaths occured worldwide in 2008 and this trend continues to rise (Jemal et al., 2011). Proposed major reasons include 1) the ageing, alongside with growth, of the world population, as cancer affects older adults at the highest rates, and 2) an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, due to the processes of modernisation and globalisation (Jemal et al., 2011 WHO, 2009). Of this total cancer burden, 56 of the cases and 64 of the deaths have occured in the economically developing world. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing countries are half those registred in the developed world, the cancer mortality is generally similar (Jemal et al., 2011). The main reason for this dysproportion is in cancer survival rates, which tend to be poor in developing countries, mostly because of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment (American Cancer...

Detecting and Treating Cancer

Cie earlier a cancer is detected, the better a person's chances are of a full recovery. For many cancers, early treatment can prevent the cancer from growing, invading other organs, and spreading to other parts of the body. Unfortunately, cancer is not always easy to identify, since symptoms vary greatly and may be similar to symptoms of many other illnesses. Sometimes there are no symptoms at all. Before the mid-1950s cancer was called the silent killer. By the time they saw a doctor, most cancer patients already had advanced cancer that had spread to other parts of the body. Today, scientists are constantly finding new and better ways to detect, diagnose, and treat cancer. It is most important, however, for individuals to be aware of how they can help detect cancer at an early stage.

Child vs Adult Cancers

When cancer strikes children and young people, it affects them differently than it does adults. For example, young patients often have a more advanced stage of cancer when first diagnosed. While only about 20 percent of adults with cancer have evidence that the disease has already spread when it is diagnosed, 80 percent of children's cancer has already invaded distant sites at diagnosis. While most adult cancers are linked to lifestyle factors such as smoking, diet, or exposure to cancer-causing agents, the causes of most childhood cancers are unknown. Adult cancers primarily affect the lung, colon, breast, prostate and pancreas, while childhood cancers usually affect the white blood cells (leukemias), brain, bone, the lymphatic system, muscles, kidneys, and nervous system. While most adult cancer patients are treated in their local community, cancers in children are rarely treated by family physicians or pediatricians. A child with cancer must be diagnosed precisely and treated by...

QOL in Long Term Survivors of Breast Cancer

In total, 16 studies met our search criteria for breast cancer, all published after 1998. The studies are described in Table 1 and include our study,32 which will be discussed in greater detail following the general review. Quality of life was a primary outcome in all studies. Of the 16, five studies compared the QOL between breast cancer survivors and healthy or normal controls.4,41-44 Two of five also compared QOL outcomes between survivors who have experienced a cancer recurrence to those who have not.4,43 Three of the 16 studies compared QOL between breast cancer survivors receiving different types of treatment.2,45,46 Two of the 16 investigated the QOL between breast cancer survivors diagnosed at different ages47,48 another two studies compared QOL at time of diagnosis and follow-up32,49 and two more examined the impact of treatment on QOL.50,51 One study looked specifically at the role of ethnicity in QOL outcomes,52 while the final study examined the...

Comparisons Of Longterm Effects Of Diagnosis And Treatment By Cancer Site Breast Cancer And Hodgkins Disease

Was expected that type and frequency of the physical dimension of QOL would be explained by type of treatment, age at the time of treatment and time since diagnosis. It was also expected that social and psychological dimensions of QOL would be explained by differences in educational attainment. The sample was composed of 141 individuals (55 male) who participated in two different surveys conducted at Stanford University Medical Center. The initial interviews were conducted in-person while the 12-year follow-up interviews were self-administered both surveys were conducted when the individual came to the clinic for a routine check-up. The second study was a 5-year follow-up of a population-based cohort of 185 women who were younger 50 years of age at diagnosis of breast cancer and were cancer-free 5 years later. The initial survey was in-person, often in the women's home, and the 5-year follow-up was a telephone survey.32 Comparative findings are organized according to Ferrell and...

Longterm Effects Of Cancer Diagnosis And Treatment On Survivors Family Members

The literature on the effect of cancer diagnosis and treatment on family members is sparse.74 Of studies in this area, most have focused on the impact of cancer soon after diagnosis, during recurrence, or at the terminal phase of the disease.75-77 One study shows that partners of men with prostate cancer, generally from small convenience samples, report more distress than their sick partners, but also believe that their partners are more distressed. The only reviewed study of long-term prostate cancer survivors found that couples' health-related QOL was associated with marital satisfaction.61 Distress was inversely related to levels of family support. The men's focus of concern, on their sexual functioning (i.e., impotence), was not shared to an equal degree by their non-sick partners.78,79 The most relevant study included in our review focusing on family survivorship included families from 1 to 5 years posttreatment,80 thus making specific statements about the long-term effects of...

Future Study of Kinase Inhibitors in Treating Ovarian Cancer

Protein kinases are the largest superfamily of conserved genes in the genome, and many of the family members are implicated in human cancer development. The kinase genes participate in numerous and diverse signaling pathways affecting cellular growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility and survival all key characteristics of tumorigenesis. Essentially, all structural changes in protein kinases that lead to neoplastic transformation appear to deregulate (constitutively activate) protein kinase activity, providing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention (Table 2-6). For example, therapeutic molecules or proteins have been designed to aim directly Table 2-6. List of Kinase Genes That Are Promising as Therapeutic Targets for Cancer and Their Small Molecule Inhibitors Table 2-6. List of Kinase Genes That Are Promising as Therapeutic Targets for Cancer and Their Small Molecule Inhibitors Table 2-6. List of Kinase Genes That Are Promising as Therapeutic Targets for Cancer and...

Cancers Warning Signs

The American Cancer Society (ACS) recognizes seven warning signs that may indicate cancer The first letters of the seven signs spell caution. People who note one or more of these signs may not have cancer, but they should report their symptoms to their doctor. Another suspicious symptom is unusual tiredness, especially when it is combined with one of the seven signs listed by the ACS.

Mechanisms in Cancer

Reliable and easy methods are available to determine the effect of ROS and reactive nitrogen compounds by HPLS-MS MS analysis, especially as regards attacks on macromolecules such as DNA (4). In cancer research, we distinguish between agents that modify the DNA and generate a mutation. Such materials or synthetic chemicals are called mutagenic and genotoxic. There are chemicals or situations that enhance the development and growth of cells exposed to genotoxins. It is important to discriminate between these two classes of chemicals based on the permanence of their effect, and the doses and chronicity of exposure (5).

Role Of The Immune System In Cancer Prevention

Some researchers believe the immune system plays a critical role in preventing tumor development by searching out and destroying newly transformed cells. This process, known as immune surveillance, was first proposed by Ehrlich in 1909, and is supported by the following observations that associate immune depression with increased cancer risk 11'12 Approximately 40 percent of patients with immuno-suppression caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are likely to develop cancer. Common cancers include Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cervical cancer, and Hodgkin's disease. In organ transplant patients who receive immuno-suppressive drugs, the incidence of malignancies is increased about 3-fold. In some studies on kidney transplant patients, the incidence of cancer has been observed to be 7-fold higher than in the general population. Commonly, these malignancies include Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, sarcoma, and cancers of the skin, kidney, cervix, and liver....

Immune System In Cancer Treatment

The immune system's postulated role in preventing cancer by destroying cancer cells, along with other evidence, tells us it can also help destroy cells of established cancers. Its ability to do so, referred to as antitumor immunity, involves both the innate and adaptive immune systems. For example, recent evidence suggests the immune system may be capable of detecting the protein products of oncogenes on the cell surface immune responses to the HER-2 neu protein and mutated ras and p53 gene products have been re-ported.20,21 In addition, antibodies against the patient's own tumor have been identified in the sera of some patients with soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant melanoma, ovarian carcinoma, and lung cancer.22 The degree to which the immune system can destroy established cancers, however, has not been established. In general, the immune system may be more effective against small tumors and metastatic spread than against established solid tumors. What is clear is that the success of...

Preventive measures that can reduce the cancer burden

Based on the experience gained so far, it is considered that a substantial proportion of the cancer burden worldwide could be prevented if adequately implemented community-based programs for early cancer detection and treatment, tobacco control, cancer-related vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and health promotion campaigns (American Cancer Society, 2002 Commission of the European Communities, 2009 WHO, 2009) (Table 3). Avoidance of cancer-causing substances in the global environment and in consumer products Table 3. Primary prevention measures (taken before any sign of a disease occures) known to deal with the reduction in total cancer incidence

Use of Immunotherapy in Conventional Cancer Medicine

We now look at how immunotherapy has been used in conventional cancer medicine. From this discussion, we obtain ideas on how natural compounds might be used to produce some of the same effects on the immune system, and we also see how the use of natural compounds differs from that of most conventional immunotherapy agents. The primary distinction between conventional immunotherapy agents and natural immunostimulant compounds is that the former tend to be cells or cyto-kines activated or generated outside the body, then injected into it, whereas the natural compounds cause the body to produce its own activated cells and cytokines. Still, the research showing that externally administered cells or cytokines can have an effect on cancer implies that natural compounds have the potential to produce the same effect. The majority of human cancers exhibit low immuno-genicity, probably due to one or more of the immune-evading mechanisms described earlier. This does not mean, however, that...

Tea and Cancer Prevention

Mutations of the cellular DNA are a key step leading to cancer (5). Mutational events can be used as markers for environmental genotoxic products that might be possible cancer risks (32). This approach is effective in research on products that might have antimutagenic and, thus, likely anticarcinogenic effects. This method has been applied to study the effect of tea polyphenols from black tea and from green tea. It was found that both types of polyphenols decreased in a dose-related fashion the mutagenicity of different types of carcinogens (Table 3). In another series of bioassays, similar results were obtained, demonstrating the stability and reliability of these rapid tests in forecasting the chemopreventive potential of inhibitors such as tea extracts (Table 4) (33-35). Selenium potentiated the effect of green tea on the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo- 4,5-f quinoline (36). Parallel to the effects on DNA-reactive carcinogens, tea inhibited the formation of cancer of the...

Is it the cancer or its treatment

One of major unresolved issues is the extent to which fatigue is caused by the tumour and its effects (for example cachexia (Plata-Salaman 1996)), the treatments used (for example chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery), or an interaction between the two. Fatigue is a common presenting symptom of many different types of cancer (see Chapters 1 and 2) with little apparent difference in the incidence (except perhaps for haematological malignancies associated with severe anaemia), suggesting some commonality of mechanism associated with substances produced by, or in response to, the tumour (for example cytokines). In a study of 499 patients with cancer, Glaus (1998) found that reported fatigue was related to tumour type, with individuals with gynaecological cancers reporting more fatigue than patients with testicular cancer, who in turn reported more fatigue than patients with breast cancer. Fatigue was also influenced by stage of disease, with patients with metastatic disease reporting...

Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Syndromes Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are two genes initially discovered by studying families strongly suggestive of hereditary breast cancer. Thus, they are named breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2). Several hundred mutations have been reported in BRCA1 and BRCA2 since their identification.3 If the second allele loses its function within a cell (through accumulation of damage), cancer can develop owing to the inability of the cell to repair acquired abnormalities. Precisely why BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose specifically to breast and ovarian cancer is currently under investigation. In light of these roles for BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is interesting to note that women with BRCA-related ovarian cancer have a better response to cisplatin-based regimens than those with sporadic ovarian cancer.4 Cisplatin generates a highly reactive species after intracellular aquation. This species binds to DNA, causing intrastrand crosslinks primarily between adjacent guanines...

Mechanisms and models of cancerrelated fatigue

'Unknown' in this category are conditions or diseases where the origin of the fatigue is obscure (although this is changing rapidly), such as cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, viral, and bacterial infections, postsurgery fatigue, and CFS. It is possible that these types of fatigue have at least some mechanistic features in common. The emerging body of cancer-related fatigue knowledge can be combined with findings from other related fields (particularly exercise and CFS) to generate several models for the aetiology of cancer-related fatigue. None of the models is complete, but each is presented as a plausible and testable model to suggest (and hopefully stimulate) further research on the aetiology of cancer-related fatigue. For each we state the basic hypothesis, the key evidence upon which it is based, and suggest approaches to testing.

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

Features and Cancer Risks Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, was first identified in families with a significant history of young-onset colorectal cancer. The lifetime risk of this malignancy ranges from 25 to 75 , with an average age at diagnosis of colorectal cancer of 44 years. Almost 75 of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers present in the ascending (right) colon, and the risk of a metachronous colorectal cancer ranges from 1 to 4 per year. Although colorectal cancer is the predominant feature in HNPCC, this syndrome is associated with an increased risk of other malignancies as well. The second most common cancer is endometrial or uterine, with a lifetime risk of 30 to 60 , followed by ovarian cancer with a lifetime risk of 10 . Other associated cancers, with a lifetime risk generally of less than 10 , are stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, and biliary tract cancers. Synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers are suggestive...

Nasopharyngeal Cancer

In a study of 272 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer, half were treated with radiation therapy and half with radiation combined with the formula Yi Qi Yang Yin Tang. The five-year relapse rate was 68 percent lower for patients who received the combined therapy (12 percent versus 38 percent). Three- and five-year survival rates also significantly improved in the group that had the combined treatment (87 percent versus 66 percent at three years, and 67 percent versus 48 percent at five years).70 In a study on 197 patients with stage III and IV nasopharyngeal cancer, approximately half had radiotherapy in combination with Formula 1, and half received radiotherapy alone. After one year, survival was 91 percent in the combined treatment group and 80 percent in the one receiving only radiotherapy. After three years, the survival rates were 67 percent and 33 percent respectively, and after five years, they were 52 percent and 24 percent.71, 72 Although Formula 1 contains Astragalus, most of...

Screening of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of female mortality worldwide, with the mortality rate 10 times higher in developing countries, and 80 of new cases occuring in these regions, compared to the developed countries (Ferlay, 2010 Haie-Meder, 2010). This disparity is in connection with low level of knowledge about unsafe sex and inaccessibility to screening and treatment programs, for women in developing countries (Ferlay, 2010 WHO, 2009). The main problem, in developed countries, is still insufficient coverage of women in the generative age with the screening test (Commission of the European Union, 2007 Haie-Meder, 2010). Cervical cytology based on Pap smears remains the cornerstone of cervical cancer prevention programs, although this filed has rapidly been developing due to improved understanding of the natural history of the disease and technology innovations, such as liquid-based cytology, automated interpretation of Pap smears and testing for human papillomaviruses...

Small Cell Lung Cancer SCLC

Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) accounts for 20 to 25 of all bronchogenic carcinomas and is associated with the poorest survival of all histologic types 6 . SCLC is most often a lesion of the central portion of the lung but is occasionally found in the peripheral portions 2, 7 . In contrast to other major types of lung cancer, SCLC is highly sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which results in initial significant improvements in the survival of patients with this disease but the overall results remain unchanged in the following years due to development of drug resistance and death of the patients 8 . Yun et al 9 observed that the age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 person-years (standard Poisson regression analysis) for small cell carcinoma was 0.5 (95 CI 0.2-1.4) for never smokers, 3.5 (95 CI 0.4-27.3) for former smokers, and 11.1 (95 CI 1.5-82.9) for current smokers. In this study 9 83.6 , 14.5 , and 1.9 patients were current smoker, former smoker, and never...

Hrql Measures And Cancer Survivors

Both generic- and cancer-specific HRQL measures have been administered to heterogeneous and homogeneous samples of cancer survivors. Tables 1-3 provide a comprehensive list of frequently used measures with specific symptoms and HRQL domains and are included to help the user begin to select appropriate instruments for their purpose. While most investigators' needs can be more or less met by several of the available instruments, these tables enable one to consider coverage of the concepts of interest in a planned research or clinical program. This is followed by a brief review of these measures and their measurement characteristics, such as reliability and validity. The majority of these measures have been used in survivorship studies. A small group of additional measures has not been frequently used with cancer survivors, but have been included because they measure important content areas that are relevant to the survivorship experience.

Dietary Fiber and the Etiology of Cancers Colon and Rectum

This is one long-standing association that has been surprisingly problematic. Early studies on native Africans who consumed an unrefined diet showed them to have a very low incidence of this cancer. Although subsequent studies have shown a negative association between greater fiber intake and lowered risk, it has proved to be relatively weak. Indeed, in one US study there was no real association between fiber intake and cancer susceptibility. Some of the loss of significance seen in this evaluation may reflect the lack of allowance for confounding variables. For example, in a 6-year follow-up of women, the association between low fiber intake and the incidence of colon cancer disappeared after adjustment was made for meat intake. In another study of men, low fiber intake was an independent risk factor for the incidence of adenomatous polyps during a 2-year follow-up period. Fruit and vegetable fiber has been consistently associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, but the...

Dietary Fiber and the Etiology of Hormone Dependent Cancers

Cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, and prostate fall into the hormone-dependent classification. An association between hormonal status and cancer risk arose from observations of oestrogen deprivation and breast cancer and testosterone deprivation and prostate cancer. Nutritional influences on breast cancer have been studied extensively and several (but not all) studies show diminished risk with greater intakes of dietary fiber. The situation for other cancers, especially prostate cancer, appears to be rather unclear, but given the commonality of the proposed protective mechanisms, it is reasonable to expect that some linkage may be found. Male vegetarians have been reported to have lower testosterone and oestradiol plasma concentrations compared to omnivores, and inverse correlations of testosterone and oestradiol with fiber intake have been reported. Potential Mechanisms Indicating a Role in the Etiology of Hormone-Dependent Cancers metabolites. Direct binding of sex hormones...

Longterm Care For Cancer Survivors Inattention To Issues Impacting Hrql

Although health providers are taught measurement principles from the beginning of their clinical training (e.g., height, weight, vital signs), clinicians are not routinely taught how to measure patient-reported symptoms and health status across the cancer spectrum. Optimal cancer care throughout extended survivorship includes obtaining a complete picture of ones' physical and psychosocial health status however, assessment and subsequent communication about these issues in medical consultations is often limited.213-215 Oncology specialists may overlook symptoms due to training emphasis on cancer biology, productivity pressures, and a care reimbursement policy that offers incentives for procedures or drugs and disincentives for consultation time. Therefore, insufficient attention is paid to patient In 2005, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) conducted a 1-year demonstration project for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. CMS provided payment of 130 per encounter...

Screening of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the three major cancer sites in men commonly occures after 50 years of age, with incidence progressively increasing in later decades of life. Only males with positive family history of a disease (at least one blood relative father, grandfather, or brother) are at a higher risk even in age before 50 (American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer, 2011 ESMO Guidelines Working Group, 2011). Screening protocol include digitorectal examination (DRE) and PSA (prostate-specific-antigen) measuring in serum, in patients aged > 50 years, in those who refer symptoms of prostatism and urinary tract disorders, or in those who require screening. The decision on whether or not to have a prostate biopsy (performed by transrectal ultrasound, TRUS) should take into account PSA parameters, such as free (f) PSA, fPSA PSA ratio, DRE findings, prostate size, patient age, comorbidities, patient values and history of previous biopsy (American Cancer...

Programs of early cancer detection

In a general sense, screening program means systematic examination of the defined target population at average risk for developing some hazardous disease or undesirable medical event, or using scientifically justified tests that are appropriate to be applied as a public health measure (Table 6). Screening is organised periodically and at a long run, with the clearly defined aim to reduce the population burden of a disease and its unfavourable effects on the national health care system and economy. All activities in the program are fairly planned in an advance and performed according to the up to date standards of a medical care, with external finance assured. They include several subsequent steps, from promotional and educational activities, to screening, and a referal of subjects tested positive for further diagnostics and treatment. In concern to cancer, the early detection program is tending to become a part of more comprehensivelly shaped national strategies for cancer control,...

Reasons for testosterone measurement in prostate cancer

Testosterone measurement in prostate cancer patients has more than 40 years history 2 . Confirmation of castrate testosterone level is necessary before identifying prostate cancer as castration resistant. Castrate states are at present defined as serum testosterone level below 20 ng dl ( 0.69 nmol l) or below 50 ng dl ( 1.73 nmol l) 3 , but it was not always this way and different testosterone measurement methods have important implications. Need for controlling quality of chemical castration treatment of prostate cancer steams from reports of up to 15 castration failures 4,5 . This means LHRH treated patients may not reach castration levels of testosterone due to different reasons 6 , not only non-compliance, application failures, but also other reasons, for example problems with depot formulation resorption due to granuloma formation on injection site 7 or may simply need more frequent dosages 8 . Further reason for testosterone measurements in prostate cancer patients lies in...

Prostate cancer incidence will increase in future

Prostate cancer is already most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the developed world. As a cause of death among males, it is second in the USA and third in Europe. Large increase in prostate cancer incidence in recent years is not only due to availability of PSA (biochemical marker, which is useful for screening purposes) and due to better awareness of doctors and population at large, but in large part also due to changes in population pyramid and increased life expectancy. As breast cancer, which is most common in females over 60 years of age, also prostate cancer is cancer of older people. For example, in Slovenia (which may be in health related issues regarded somewhere in-between developed western and less advanced other parts of the world), incidence of prostate cancer increased 50 from 2000 to 2011 14 . At the same time, population at main risk (males above age 60) increased 28 . Therefore more than half of increase of prostate cancer incidence can not be attributed to,...

Real Time Symptom Monitoring With Cancer Survivors

The use of computer adaptive tests with cancer survivors would minimize burden and help focus assessment. It has potential to sharpen measurement precision with a minimum number of questions255 and has several unique advantages (1) compared to paper-and-pencil tests, computer adaptive testing technology is efficient, requiring fewer questions to arrive at an accurate estimate (2) it allows respondents and providers to receive immediate feedback on the person's HRQL status (3) with its IRT underpinnings, it allows users to communicate with one another in a common language and metric (4) the problem of excessive floor or ceiling effects is greatly reduced (yielding scores that promote accurate selection and classification decisions and reducing respondent boredom or frustration) and (5) since computer adaptive testing automates test administration, scoring and recording, human error is eliminated. For example, completed and ongoing projects in our research lab utilize computer data...

Need for hormonal treatment of prostate cancer may not decrease in future

Despite facts about prostate cancer incidence, presented in section 4 and despite undeniable proof that population based PSA prostate cancer screening reduces mortality due to prostate cancer 16 , it seems some professional bodies, like U.S. preventive services task force 17,18 recently advised against screening. Further, among young UK general practitioners, during non-formal conversation, in year 2012, one can easily hear claims like PSA - oh I thought it is NOT for screening, it is only for follow up purposes, only for patients, who have diagnosis of prostate cancer already (personal experience). With this recent trend by policy-makers, it seems hopes of urologists, who treat prostate cancer patients, that we will in the future find only very few patients, who will present with stage of disease, where nothing else but hormonal treatment would be possible or hormonal treatment will become necessary during the course of their disease, are dispelled. As it seems focus of attention is...

Ovarian Cancer Prevention

Both chemoprevention and prophylactic surgery have been explored as methods of preventing ovarian cancer. Chemoprevention involves the use of drugs, vitamins, or other agents to avert or delay the development of or recurrence of a malignancy. Prophylactic surgery is performed to remove a normal-appearing organ in order to prevent the future development of a primary cancer from that particular site. These preventive pathways may be pursued in the general population or specifically in patients with a high risk of developing ovarian malignancies. To determine the appropriateness of preventive therapies, the benefits of avoiding malignancy in individual members of a population must be weighed against the costs of treatment to the entire population. The impact of averting a cancer event in part depends on the type of malignancy. Ovarian cancer is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage and is usually associated with worse overall survival than malignancies such as cervical cancer, for...

Hepatocyte Growth Factor And Met In Tumour Invasionmetastasis From Mechanisms To Cancer Prevention

Abstract Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand for c-met proto-oncogene product of receptor tyrosine kinase, exhibits powerful motogenic and angiogenic activities. The utilization of the HGF-Met system in cancer cells confers invasive and metastatic potentials. HGF potently enhances dissociation of cells, cell-matrix interaction, extracellular matrix breakdown, invasion, and angiogenesis, all critical events in the metastatic cascade. Tumour-stromal interaction mediated by HGF, aberrant expression of Met, autocrine or mutational activation of Met are tightly associated with carcinogenesis and malignant progression in a wide variety of tumours. Notably, NK4, the four kringle-antagonist for HGF-Met signaling inhibited tumour invasion and metastasis. The possibility has arisen that an HGF-antagonist can serve as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer patients. In normal tissues, HGF supports dynamic tissue remodeling for regeneration and the clinical application of HGF for...

Support groups for children with cancer

Many pediatric hospitals have ongoing support groups for children with cancer. Often these are run by experienced pediatric social workers, who know how to balance fun with sharing feelings. For many children, these groups are the only place where they feel completely accepted, where most of the other kids are bald and have to take lots of medicine. The group is a place where children or adolescents can say how they really feel, without worrying that they are causing their parents more pain. Many children form wonderful and lasting friendships in peer groups. I went to Junior Candlelighters, which was very helpful. The gal who facilitated the group was a survivor of osteosarcoma and had had her leg amputated. Yet, she skied, she drove, she did everything. I always thought, If Patty can do it, I can, too. If she can live so well without a leg, I should be able to put up with having a cancer in my blood. All four of my kids have been going to the support groups for over seven years now....

Determinants Of Exercise In Cancer Survivors

Given the low exercise participation rates in many cancer survivor groups both during and after treatments, researchers have turned their attention to understanding the determinants of exercise in cancer survivors. Most early research was descriptive and atheoretical, selecting various demographic, medical, and psychosocial constructs to test as correlates and predictors of exercise behavior. Most recent research has applied one of the currently validated social cognitive models of human motivation and behavior to facilitate understanding. The two models that have been applied most often to exercise in cancer survivors have been the theory of planned behavior19 and social cognitive theory.20 3.1. Social Cognitive Models Applied to Exercise in Cancer Survivors 3.2. Literature Review of Exercise Determinants in Cancer Survivors Seventeen studies to date have examined social cognitive determinants of exercise in cancer survivors using a validated theoretical model (Table 1). Fourteen (82...

Immune target and Immune response in pancreatic cancer

Cancer is fundamentally a gene associated disease, it has become increasingly clear that some genomic instability and aberrant gene expression lead to biologic behaviour abnormality in tumor cells. In pancreatic cancer, Several genes have high mutation rate in different phase, so the tumor cell may express abnormal antigens that make them immunologically distinct and potential targets for the host immune system. K-Ras The mutation of K-ras oncogene (homologous to the ras gene of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus) occurs in 75-100 of pancreatic cancer(6). With the progression from minimally dysplasia epithelium(PanIN 1A, 1B) to more severe dysplasia(PanIN 2, 3) and invasive cancer(7), the mutation rate of K-ras oncogene is increaseing successively, denotes k-ras oncogene plays a very important role in tumor origination and progression . Picture 1. Associated genes in pancreatic cancer progression. from Paula Ghaneh, et al. Biology and management of pancreatic cancer. Gut 2007 56 1134-1152....

Exercise Behavior Change Interventions In Cancer Survivors

At present, few published studies have examined the effects of an exercise behavior change intervention in cancer survivors. Jones and colleagues37 examined the effects of two oncologist-centered interventions on self-reported exercise behavior in breast cancer survivors beginning treatment. During their initial treatment consultation, participants were randomized to receive either (a) an oncologist's recommendation to exercise, (b) an oncologist's recommendation to exercise plus a referral to a Kinesiologist, and (c) usual care (i.e., no recommendation). Results of this study indicated that participants receiving an exercise recommendation reported more exercise than those receiving usual care. The authors noted, however, that the initial treatment consultation may not be the opportune time to recommend exercise given the amount of information dispensed during this time and the stress level of the cancer survivor. Nonetheless, this trial suggests that advocating exercise behavior via...

Ovarian Cancer Chemoprevention in the General Population

Many investigations have evaluated the effect of oral contraceptive pills on ovarian cancer risk. The evidence supporting a protective influence of birth control pills on ovarian cancer risk has been obtained primarily from case-control studies. These investigations identify patients (cases) who have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women (controls) who do not have the disease. The two groups are then compared with respect to their exposure to oral contraceptive pills (a suspected protective agent). This allows for the generation of an odds ratio. However, attributable risk cannot be determined with this design. Adjustments can be made for confounding factors. Without an identification of these factors, however, these corrections cannot be performed. Hankinson and colleagues5 performed a meta-analysis including 20 epidemiologic studies that assessed the association between oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer. They reported a summary relative risk of ovarian cancer of 0.64...

Hgf In Cancer Invasion And Metastasis

While HGF exhibits multiple biological activities for remodeling and maintenance of tissues, HGF greatly affects behaviors of a wide variety of cancer cells. Biological activities of HGF on various types of cancer cells are summarized in Table 1. Consistent with Met receptor expression in normal epithelial cells, HGF targets many types of carcinoma cells (tumour originating from epithelial cells), whereas aberrant expression of the Met receptor has been noted in tumours originating from mesenchymal cells and hematopoetic cells. HGF is involved in malignant behavior of these tumour cells and exhibits distinct biological activities on cancer cells, depending on the cell type. It is noteworthy that HGF has bi-directional effects on proliferation of cancer cells. Consistently, tumor cytotoxic factor, originally identified as fibroblast-derived cytotoxic growth inhibitor for some types of cancer cells, was shown to be identical to HGF (16). Particularly, HGF inhibits proliferation of about...

Castrate testosterone values in different prostate cancer studies

Serum testosterone value around 1.735 nmol l or 50 ng dl as castrate level for the purpose of hormonal treatment of prostate cancer was used already in 1970'ties 2 . Later, some LHRH formulations were designed to achieve serum testosterone below this value in 95 of treated patients. It was accepted as standard value in guidelines 50 . Guidelines have at present gone even a step further and stated testosterone levels above 50 ng dl to be in-sufficient and additional hormonal manipulation to be warranted in such patients 3 . It is further generally accepted patients with surgical castration to have lower levels of testosterone - around 15 ng dl and certainly below 30 ng dl 51 . As surgical castration provides lower testosterone levels, there were always claims one should aim as low as possible with testosterone levels and should try to reach below 20 ng dl - for example in a small study of 38 patients, treated with LHRH agonists, Oefelein found 5 did not reach values below 50 ng dl and...

Cancer Prevention Studies

Some readers may be interested in the potential of selenium in cancer prevention as well as treatment. A number of studies have reported that low selenium levels are associated with increased cancer risk in hu-mans.52'53'54 Low levels have also been associated with increased risk of heart disease and reduced immune function.55 Associations with cancer risk appear to be particularly strong for breast, colon, and prostate cancers. Some examples follow, along with studies that suggest selenium supplementation can reduce cancer risk In a study on 321 subjects, 111 of whom later developed cancer, those with the lowest selenium levels were twice as likely to develop cancer as those with the highest levels. The association was strongest for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and prostate.23 A cohort study of 33,700 men reported that prostate cancer risk was reduced in men who had higher dietary selenium intake.24 In a study on women over 50, high blood levels of selenium were associated...

Cancerrelated fatigue

Fatigue is a subjective sensation of weakness, lack of energy, and tiredness (Stone et al. 1998). Fatigue and the term asthenia are related terms however, asthenia evokes even more clearly both the physical and mental components of fatigue sensation. The three components of fatigue perception (Barnes and Bruera 2002) are illustrated in Fig. 4.1. CRF has been reported in 70-100 of patients undergoing treatment (Morrow et al. 2002 Mock 2001) and it can persist for years after its completion (Morrow et al. 2002 Barnes and Bruera 2002). Up to 80 of all cancer patients experience fatigue (Smith and de Boer 2002). It is present in almost the same proportion of patients with cancer cachexia. Fatigue can precede weight loss, and this is probably, in a number of cancer patients, a direct consequence of treatment with chemotherapy (Servaes et al. 2002 Morrow et al. 2002 Richardson 1995 Ancoli-Israel et al. 2001), radiotherapy (Morrow et al. 2002 Richardson 1995 Visser and Smets 1998 Greenberg...

Direct testosterone assays and prostate cancer The verdict

Inaccuracy of present day direct testosterone assays is already recognized in the field of female and male testosterone replacement, in pediatrics 59 and should be recognized also in the field of prostate cancer. Until indirect testosterone assays applying mass spectroscopy become widely available, publications should set realistic values of castrate levels and precisely state measurement methods used. They may be universally available in the USA, but in Europe, even western university hospitals are not quick in replacing direct immuno-as-says with gas chromatography methods - for example in Ghent they changed only recently, also for reasons like one can not publish any more anything about testosterone without this method. And even mass spectrometry methods show significant errors and inconsistencies. On the upside, direct chemiluminescent assays do measure something. They can unmask occasional testosterone outlier (skipped dose of drug, granuloma formation or an individual in need...

The Relationship between Diet Physical Activity and Cancer

While the exact mechanisms by which diet is related to cancer have not been completely understood, research has shown that food plays a role in cancer prevention. For example, populations whose diet includes at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day have lower rates of some of the most common cancers. Fruits and vegetables contain many antioxidants and phytochemicals, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and beta-carotene, which have been shown to prevent cancer. It is not completely clear, however, whether it is individual phytochemicals, or a combination of them, or the fiber in fruits and vegetables that result in reduced risk of cancer. Studies have shown the risk of prostate cancer drops for men who eat tomato products, possibly because of the phytochemical lycopene. In addition, it has been shown that colon cancer declines among those who drink green tea, which contains antioxidants and phytochemicals, and who regularly eat soy products and foods rich in selenium, an...

Carcinogenesis and invasionmetastasis via activation of Met receptor

Establish the autocrine loop of the HGF-Met receptor Expression of HGF in Metpositive (but HGF-negative) epithelial cells, or expression of Met receptor in HGF-positive (but Met-negative) mesenchymal cells. When the HGF gene was stably expressed in a murine hepatic epithelial cell line, the cells showed a scattered phenotype, were capable of growing in soft agar and were tumourigenic in nude mice (152). Similarly, transfection of HGF in non-parenchymal liver epithelial cells resulted in establishment of the HGF-Met autocrine loop, and importantly, these cells exhibited invasive behavior and metastasized to the lung in nude mice (153). On the other hand, stable expression of the Met receptor gene in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts conferred tumourigenic and invasive characteristics in nude mice (154-156). Similarly, expression of the Met receptor gene in mouse 127 cells and human leiomyosarcoma cells resulted in establishment of the HGF-Met autocrine loop and concomitant progression from...

Nutrition for People with Cancer

People with cancer often have increased nutritional needs. As such, it is important for them to consume a variety of foods that provide the nutrients needed to maintain health while fighting cancer. These nutrients include protein, carbohydrates, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals. Nutrition suggestions for people with cancer often emphasize eating high-calorie, highprotein foods. Protein helps to ensure growth, repair body tissue, and maintain a healthy immune system. Therefore, people with cancer often need more protein than usual. Great progress has been made in the fight against cancer, and cancer detection and treatments have improved significantly. However, there is a disparity in cancer death rates between developed and developing countries. Between 80 and 90 percent of cancer patients in developing countries have late-stage and often incurable cancer at the time of diagnosis. A growing body of evidence shows that simple changes in diet and lifestyle can help prevent many...

Protective Effects Against Cancer

A 2001 critical review of the epidemiological evidence suggests a preventive effect for garlic consumption in stomach and colorectal cancers, but not other cancers (Fleischauer & Arab 2001). In regard to gastric cancer protection, case-control studies suggested a protective effect for raw and or cooked garlic when eaten at least once a week whereas protective effects against colorectal cancer seem to require at least two servings of garlic per week. A similar view was reported in a 2003 review by Ernst, which stated that the weight of evidence to support the use of allium vegetables, such as garlic, in cancer is clearly positive. Intervention study in colorectal cancer A preliminary double-blind, randomised clinical trial in patients with colorectal adenomas-precancerous lesions of the large bowel produced promising results with the use of high-dose aged garlic extract (AGE 2.4 miyday) (Tanaka et al 2006). The study of 51 patients measured the number and size of adenomas at...

Peptic ulcer and gastric cancer

About 15 of infected individuals will develop peptic ulcer (duodenal or gastric) or gastric cancer as a long term consequence of infection. The outcome of infection depends mainly on the severity and topography of histological gastritis, which may be determined by the age at which infection is acquired. Infection in infancy is thought to lead to pangastritis, whereas acquisition in later childhood may lead to a predominantly antral gastritis only. In contrast, pangastritis, with an inflamed corpus, is associated with the loss of acid secreting cells, which leads to an increased risk of gastric ulcer and gastric cancer similar to that seen with autoimmune gastritis in pernicious anaemia.

Breast Cancer Survivors

In one study of 222 survivors who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection as part ofbreast cancer surgery, 72 reported shoulder arm pain. Present pain intensity was a significant predictor of quality of life measured by the EORTC QLQ-C308 with (P 0.29 p < 0.001). Pain discomfort affect (P 0.42 p < 0.001), sensation of pain (P 0.289 p < 0.001), and pain disability for self care (P 0.261 p < 0.001) were important predictors ofpsychological distress as measured by the Mental Health Inventory.9,10 In another study, 55 survivors were surveyed with a health-related quality of life instrument, the RAND-36,11 at a mean follow-up of 2.7 years from surgery, 60 reported pain and reduction of grip strength. Shoulder pain was a significant factor for the domains of social functioning (p -2.9 95 CI -5.0, -0.8), mental health (P -2.3 95 CI -4.1, -0.5), vitality (P -3.8 95 CI -5.8, -1.8), pain (P -0.55 95 CI -7.1, -3.9), health perception (P -4.5 95 CI -6.3, -2.7), and health change (P...

Overview of the Roles of Imaging in Ovarian Cancer

Imaging is an integral part of ovarian cancer detection, diagnosis, management, and treatment follow-up. A number of imaging modalities are available, and a variety of new techniques, especially molecular imaging approaches, are being developed. Each imaging modality has its unique advantages and limitations therefore, evidence-based use of imaging is essential for achieving the greatest possible benefit without over- or underuse of specific modalities. Since imaging is a continuously advancing field, it is important for clinicians to keep abreast of new developments and revise aspects of their clinical practice in line with these developments. Briefly, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are established imaging modalities in the evaluation of ovarian cancer, and positron emission tomography (PET) is an emerging modality. In terms of screening for ovarian cancer, established clinical guidelines are available to guide the selection of appropriate...

Aberrant expression of Met receptor in cancers

At least two distinct mechanisms by which the Met receptor is over-expressed in cancers could be considerable, i.e., transcriptional activation or amplification of the c-met gene. In case of colorectal cancers, over-expression of the Met receptor was related to transcriptional activation in 90 of the primary tumours, whereas 8 among 9 cases of metastases of colorectal cancers accompanied amplification of c-met gene (189). Amplification of the c-met gene may possibly occur more frequently in late stage metastatic tumours than in primary tumours, presumably due to chromosomal instability in advanced cancers. Table 3, Expression of Met receptor in cancers_ Colorectal cancer over-expressed higher in metastatic tumours 188, 189 Gastric cancer over-expressed and related to the increase in 62, 192 disease state over expressed and higher in diffuse and high grade invasive cancers Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Thyroid cancer expressed and higher in advanced cancers Figure 7....

The role of family physicians in programs of early cancer detection

In terms of organization, two extreme early cancer detection program forms are possible, either that supplied by governmental and public health institutions, or that based on the central role of family physicians in programs implementation. By working at the interface of the health care system and the population, family physicians are in the specific position that enables them an opportunity to promote a vast array of preventive activities, in a proactive and a patient-oriented manner (Summerton, 2002). That means that the doctor recognises medical needs of the groups and individuals, encourages them to take preventive measures and manages the screening protocols, in contrast to the approach where the doctor generally responds to the patients requests. Moreover, the possibility of having an insight into specific characteristics of each patient, enables family physicians to select an appropriate way to present the preventive measures to a patient, and to create activities, in order to...

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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