Although the definition of personality used in this book is quite broad and encom passing, personality can be analyzed at three levels. These three levels are well summarized by Kluckhohn & Murray , in their 1948 book on culture and personality , in which they state that every human being is, in certain respects,
1. Like all others (the human nature level).
2. Like some others (the level of individual and group dif ferences).
3. Like no others (the individual uniqueness level).
Another way to think of these distinctions is that the first level refers to "universals (the ways in which we are all alike), the middle level refers to "particulars" (the ways in which we are like some people but unlike others), and the third level refers to "uniqueness" (the ways in which we are unlike any other person) (see T able 1.1).
The first level of personality analysis describes human nature in general—the traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are possessed by everyone or nearly everyone. For example, nearly every human has language skills, which allow him or her to learn and use a language. All cultures on earth speak a language, so spoken language is part of the universal human nature. At a psychological level, all humans possess fundamental psychological mechanisms—for example, the desire to live with others and belong to social groups—and these mechanisms are
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