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Stop Herpes Now

You'll discover: What foods are bad for you, encouraging outbreaks. What foods are good for discouraging outbreaks. The connection between genital herpes and stress. What herbs actually suppress the herpes virus. How to heal your body naturally and safely. How to manage stress in your life.

Stop Herpes Now Overview

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Author: Dr. David Hogg
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Herpes Zoster Oticus Varicella Zoster Chicken

Incidence of facial nerve involvement. Herpes zoster oticus, also termed Ramsay Hunt syndrome, is a specific subset of varicella-zoster reactivation. Patients with herpes zoster oticus present with the classic triad of otalgia, auricular vesicles, and facial paralysis. Patients may also develop other cranial neuropathies, as well as hyperacusis and sensorineural hearing loss. In fact, facial nerve involvement is so common with varicella-zoster reactivation that it remains second only to Bell's palsy as the most common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis in the United States. Treatment is with valacyclovir 1000 mg t.i.d. for seven days, as well as prednisone 1 mg kg day (divided) tapered over 7 to 10 days. Sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo may be present with herpes zoster oticus but not with Bell's palsy. The prognosis is poorer than for Bell's palsy, with only 50 demonstrating satisfactory improvement. The course of facial nerve paralysis evolves more slowly, over three...

Herpes simplex type 1 HSVt

Between herpes and cancer of the cervix new studies show that genital herpes probably has no role in cervical cancer. Treatment The antiviral drug acyclovir (Zovirax) became available in the 1980s to reduce the number and severity of attacks, but it is not a cure, since it does not kill the virus. Available in ointment, capsule, liquid, and IV forms, capsules are usually used to treat primary genital herpes or a severe recurrence, or to suppress frequent recurrences. Taking acyclovir at the first sign of a recurrence that is, during the tingling phase before lesions begin can shorten the healing time from four to five days to one day. People with more than six recurrences in a year can take daily acyclovir to prevent recurrence. Most patients don't take acyclovir for more than three years. Very few people report side effects with this drug. IV acyclovir is given for severe primary herpes for hospitalized patients. It is also given to babies born with or exposed to herpes during birth....

Herpes Simplex Virus Type

One study using a combination of acyclovir and cloves administered orally found this to be superior to acyclovir alone in the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection (Kurokawa et al 1995). The combination significantly reduced the development of skin lesion and or prolonged survival times of infected mice and reduced viral loads.

Herpes Infection

Based on the herb's antiviral activity against HSV-1 in vitro, it is also used in the treatment of herpes infections. Genital herpes A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial conducted over 1 year investigated the effects of an extract of the plant and root of E. purpurea (Echinaforce 800 mg twice daily) on the incidence and severity of genital herpes outbreaks in 50 patients (Vonau et al 2001 ). The study found no statistically significant benefit compared with placebo after 6 months of therapy.

Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a virus that causes painful blisters which burst and turn into sores on the skin. Herpes is spread when the sore on one person touches another person's skin usually during sexual intercourse. Genital herpes usually affects the genitals or anus. Rarely, the sores may spread to the mouth during oral sex. Note Some sores on the mouth called cold sores are caused by another type of herpes. These sores may be passed from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex.

Herpes and pregnancy

It is possible for herpes to be passed from mother to baby. This usually happens during delivery if the mother has herpes sores on the vagina at the time of birth. A first-time infection during pregnancy is even more likely to pass to the baby. For this reason, a woman in labor with an active herpes sore should give birth in a hospital, usually by caesarean surgery. The risk of passing herpes during delivery can be reduced or prevented by treating a first-time herpes outbreak immediately with acyclovir, whenever during pregnancy it occurs. A woman who already has had herpes can use acyclovir daily during the last month of pregnancy.

Cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a large DNA virus of the Herpes virus group. It is estimated that 50 to 80 of adults have prior evidence of CMV infection (58). The infection is usually subclinical when contracted by immunocompetent infants and adults and infrequently may lead to a mononucleosis-type syndrome. However, significant sequelae exist from in-utero infections as well as infections in immunocompromised patients.

Herpes Simplex

Overall, application of zinc preparations greatly reduces or eliminates recurrence of genital herpes infections and resolves symptoms of herpes simplex infections (Kneist et al 1995, Finnerty 1986). Zinc sulfate gel applied every 2 hours was a more effective treatment than placebo in herpex simplex labial is in a double-blind study of 80 subjects (Kneist et al 1995). Another study of 200 volunteers with herpes simplex found that 0.25 zinc sulfate solution started within 24 hours of lesion appearance and applied 8-10 times daily cleared lesions within 3-6 days (Finnerty 1986). A randomised placebo-controlled study using a weak zinc solution (0.05 or 0.025 zinc sulfate) found no effects on frequency, duration or severity of herpes attacks, suggesting that stronger concentrations are required for effectiveness (Graham et al 1985).

Herpes

The herpes simplex virus causes sores in and outside of the mouth, in the genital areas, as well as other parts of the body. A sign of eruption is a tingling sensation followed by blisters that eventually crust over and disappear. The virus lives in nerve cells, protected from immune-system defenses, and remains dormant most of the time for life. The virus is contracted by skin to skin contact. Triggers that can cause an outbreak are fatigue, viral infections, sunlight, menstruation, and stress. In some people, foods high in the amino acid arginine can bring about an eruption the highest amounts are found in chocolate, nuts, and gelatin. To test for sensitivity to arginine, eat a handful of nuts or chocolate and see if there is a reaction overnight. Shingles or herpes zoster, which is the same virus that causes chicken pox, is characterized by a painful rash usually on one side of the body. Nerve pain, called postherpetic neuralgia, may persist after the rash has disappeared and can...

Herpes genital

Sometimes the virus infects the finger, causing painful blisters called herpetic whitlows. In patients with a preexisting skin condition, such as dermatitis, the virus may cause an extensive rash of blisters called eczema herpeticum. Other Herpes Viruses Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) A close cousin of the herpes simplex virus, the varicella-zoster virus is responsible for two other skin blistering disorders first chicken pox, and later shingles (or herpes zoster), an acute inflammatory infection that produces painful blisters on the skin over the sites of nerves. Although shingles is most common in adults over age 50, it can occur in children who have already had chicken pox. Like the herpes simplex virus, the varicella-zoster virus can affect the eyes or the brain in addition to the skin. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) This herpes virus is associated with acute infectious mononucleosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Mononucleosis, also known as the kissing disease, is spread by saliva and...

Herpes genital 253

Herpes simplex virus type II causes 85 percent of genital herpes cases. Type I, which causes most herpes infections above the waist, is responsible for the other 15 percent. The infection is spread by contact with the genital secretions of a person with an active lesion. It is possible, however, for a person with no active lesion to shed virus and infect a sex partner. The virus can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface on the body. For example, a person with a cold sore who engages in oral sex can transmit genital herpes to a partner. Neonatal herpes is the term for a herpes infection in newborns that is acquired from an infected mother during birth. Only about 40 percent of patients with herpes ever have symptoms. When they do, the first appearance of herpes lesions is the worst, with many painful lesions lasting up to 10 days it may take two to three weeks to completely recover from this first attack. When the sores fade away, the virus remains behind. The virus is now latent....

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex is an inflammatory viral disease that manifests itself as ulcers in the mouth and gingival tissues. The gums can become inflamed, especially in the region of the ulcers. If you have a severe occurrence of the virus, then you should seek medical advice to see if there are other underlying factors causing this condition. Herpes simplex can be chronic and latent, returning later in life. The gums can become inflamed, especially in the regions of the ulcers.

Tropism for Dividing Cells in Cancer Gene Therapy

The selectivity of MuLV for dividing cells has been exploited in a phase III clinical trial that tested the efficacy of a suicide gene therapy approach to treating glioblastoma multiforma, a malignant brain tumor (77). The rationale of such gene therapies is to insert a gene capable of killing cells into the tumor while protecting the normal brain cells. The vector contains the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (TK) gene, which is able to phosphorylate the drug ganciclovir, resulting in a toxic derivative that is incorporated into DNA. The vector is produced in situ in the residual tumor and peritumor areas, following surgical resection of the tumor, by the injection of a mouse producer cell line that generates the retroviral particles. Although both tumor cells and healthy cells in the area of a growing brain tumor could potentially be transduced, only the tumor cells themselves and the vasculature supplying blood to the tumor are considered likely targets as they will be actively...

Differential Diagnosis

Multiple diseases can present with findings similar to those seen with Adamantiades-Behget's disease and should be considered when a patient presents with recurrent oral or genital ulcers, inflammatory eye disease, or other manifestations of vasculitis. Included in the differential diagnosis are systemic lupus erythematosus (Chapter 1), seronegative spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's or ulcerative colitis) (Chapter 20), herpes or other viral infections (Chapter 10), other forms of vasculitis (Chapter 8), and inflammatory skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris or pemphigoid lesions (Chapter 37). All patients presenting with oral and genital ulcerations should undergo testing for herpes simplex virus using culture or polymerase chain reaction methods, to ensure that viral infection is not present.

Vectors with Modified Tropism

Many vectors use the CMV immediate early promoter enhancer, which was chosen on the basis that it directs a high level of transgene expression and is expressed in most tissues studied. However, often expression in a specific tissue or cell type is more desirable and expression in other tissues might be toxic. Therefore, the promoters of genes specific to a cell type have sometimes been used for specific applications (118-120). For example, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) are tumor-specific antigens that are not expressed by normal cells. When a therapeutic gene is expressed from an Ad vector with an AFP promoter, expression should be confined to specific tumor cells expressing AFP and not normal cells. Kaneko et al. (118) showed this theory to be correct and further demonstrated that the expected selectivity is maintained in vivo. In this context, the vector Av1AFPTK1 expressing thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus (HSV-TK) from the AFP promoter can prevent...

Utilization of Upper Windows of Absorption

A few important drugs show an apparent window of absorption, with best permeability in the duodenal segment. Since transit through this region of the gut is very rapid - typically less than 5 min - the formulator must attempt to keep the delivery device for a prolonged period of time in the stomach such that the first segment of intestine is continually bathed in drug. A simple test was proposed to test the usefulness of gastroretentive devices - simply sipping a formulation over a prolonged period to examine a change in the pharmacokinetic parameters 13 . Lewis describes an example of this maneuver and compared the exposure following an oral IR formulation of acyclovir with a solution of the drug sipped over 4 h 14 . The AUC0-inf was doubled for the sipping administration compared to the simple tablet administration.

Pallida Echinacea Purpurea

No clear active ingredient within Echinacea plants has yet been identified. This has resulted in great variability in content of marketed products. Research has suggested that these plants may exert their activity through stimulation of cytokine production (24,25) but a clear, specific mechanism of action has yet to be defined. A number of clinical trials have been done on different preparations of echinacea for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory infections. Some studies suggest that the duration of colds may be reduced by up to 3 days (26,27) while others have shown no significant effect (28). Conflicting results also exist for use of echinacea for the prevention of respiratory infections (28,29). A recent Cochrane review analyzed 16 randomized clinical trials of echinacea for both treatment and prevention of the common cold (30). Definitive conclusions regarding efficacy were unable to be reached owing to study limitations and variation in species of plant studied,...

Adapterbased Targeting

The first in vitro demonstration of Ad targeting via the adapter modality resulted in CAR-independent, folate receptor-mediated cellular uptake of the virion by cancer cells over-expressing this receptor (39). This was accomplished using a bispecific conjugate consisting of a neutralizing Fab chemically linked to folate. A similar targeting adapter consisting of the same Fab fused to FGF2 was used to target Ad vectors to FGF receptor-positive Kaposi's sarcoma and ovarian cancer substrates (40-42). Upon intraperitoneal injection of Ad-Fab-FGF2 coding for herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) into tumor-bearing mice, survival was prolonged (43). Importantly, decreased hepatic toxicity was demonstrated (44,45). Other Fab-ligand conjugates have been targeted against epithelial cell adhesion molecule, tumor-associated glycoprotein 72, EGFR, CD-40, and others (32,46-52).

Promotes Wound Healing

An ointment containing 5 calendula flower extract, as well as an ointment containing two different fractions of calendula extract combined with allantoin, has been shown to stimulate physiological regeneration and epithelisation in experimentally induced surgical wounds. The effect is thought to be due to more intensive metabolism of glycoproteins, nucleoproteins and collagen proteins during regeneration of the tissues (Klouchek-Popova et al 1982). A combination of calendula, Actium lappa and Geranium robertlanum has been shown to improve healing of ulceration in 52 patients suffering herpetic keratitis compared with treatment with acyclovir alone (Corina et al 1999).

Communicablecontagious disease

Treatment There is no cure for recurrent fever blisters. For mild symptoms, the sore should be kept clean and dry and it will heal itself. For particularly virulent outbreaks, the antiviral drug acyclovir may relieve symptoms. Otherwise, there are a range of nonprescription drugs available containing some numbing agent (such as camphor or phenol) that also contain an emollient to reduce skin cracking. Some studies have suggested that zinc may help prevent outbreaks because the zinc interferes with herpes viral replication. Studies found that both zinc gluconate and zinc sulfate helped speed up healing time, but zinc gluconate was less irritating to the skin. Both zinc products are available at health food stores.

Clinical Manifestations

Uveitis occurs in a wide variety of systemic diseases including those described herein and in other chapters of this book. Several associated diseases are of primary clinical interest, although individually they are relatively uncommon or even rare in the usual practice of a head and neck specialist. Sarcoidosis is a common cause of anterior, intermediate, and posterior uveitis, which is covered in more detail later in this chapter. Other diseases causing uveitis are described in other chapters of this book and include Behcet's disease, relapsing polychondritis, syphilis, Lyme disease, cat-scratch disease, tuberculosis, fungal infection, and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes viruses.

Platelet transfusions

As with other blood products, platelets are capable of transmitting infections hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, and HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). The chance of contracting these infections, although small, is the reason that platelet transfusions are also given only when absolutely necessary. Because uncontrollable bleeding can be life threatening, prevention is paramount. Platelet transfusions usually take less than an hour.

Prevention of Birth Defects

Because several birth defects are caused by infections, prevention initiatives also emphasize immunization and information. For example, because of widespread vaccination for rubella (German measles), the birth defects caused by this infection rarely occur in the United States. Information about the risk of birth defects resulting from maternal infection with syphilis or other sexually transmitted diseases may stimulate the development of services to help women at greatest risk. Cytomegalovirus, the most common of the congenital viral infections, affects almost 40,000 infants each year. It can be passed through bodily fluids, such as saliva, blood, and breast milk. It is often passed to a pregnant woman from a child who is infected but is not showing symptoms for example, an infected child may sneeze and then touch a pregnant woman, thus infecting her. An infant born to a mother who has contracted cytomegalovirus is at an increased risk for mental retardation and vision or hearing...

Biology of AAV Life Cycle

Virus, generally an adenovirus or a herpes-virus (1). AAV has both a broad host range and wide cell and tissue specificity, and replicates in many cell lines of human, simian, or rodent origin provided an appropriate helper virus is present. There may be some limitations to AAV tissue specificity in vivo or at least some significant differences in efficiency of transduc-tion of different tissues and organs. These limitations may reflect the receptor and coreceptors apparently used by different AAV serotypes for entry into cells as well as cellular trafficking of AAV. This aspect of AAV biology is becoming of increasing importance for development of AAV vectors. A second set of parameters that may impact AAV tissue and organ specificity and its replication reflect the nature of the helper function provided by helper viruses.

Complementation Systems

Herpes simplex virus also can be used in production of AAV vectors by generating 2 types of HSV AAV hybrid viruses. One approach (117,118) uses an HSV AAV hybrid virus in which the AAV rep-cap genes, under control of their native promoters, were inserted into the HSV genome. This HSV AAV rep-cap virus could generate AAV vector when

Child Welfare League of America CWLA A

Chlamydia The most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States, infecting more than 4.5 million people each year. It is a serious but easily cured disease that is three times more common than gonorrhea, six times more common than genital herpes, and 30 times more common than syphilis. Between 1988 and 1992,

Introduction A General Overview

Targeting, modifications to increase transgene stability, regulation of gene expression, and circumvention of undesirable immune responses. Delivery of transgenes into target cells can be accomplished using either viral or nonviral vectors, with viral strategies remaining the most prevalent in human clinical trials. Virus-mediated gene delivery requires efficient methods for vector construction, vector production, and target cell infection. In this chapter, the relative merits and potential applications of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors are discussed. In the context of vector development, the natural history of HSV infection in the host is reviewed, highlighting unique features of the virus biology. Remaining potential pitfalls and approaches to their solution are also discussed.

Advantages of HSV Vectors

Although each viral gene transfer vector possesses distinct attributes, successful gene therapy will require construction of gene transfer vectors that are tailored to specific applications. The human herpes viruses represent promising candidate vectors for several types of gene therapy applications that include neuropathological disorders, cancer, pain control, autoimmune syndromes, and metabolic diseases. Herpes viruses are large DNA viruses, with the potential to accommodate multiple transgene cassettes, that have evolved mechanisms that allow lifelong persistence in a nonintegrated latent state without causing disease in an immune-competent host. Among the herpes viruses, HSV-1 is an attractive vehicle for gene transfer to the nervous system because natural infection of humans results in a usually benign, lifelong persistence of viral genomes in neurons. This latent state is characterized by the absence of lytic viral protein expression, and the pres ence of these latent genomes...

Environmental Factors

Many viruses have been implicated in the patho-genesis of T1D they may have a direct effect on 0 cells by infection and cell lysis, or alternatively they may act as triggers to the autoimmune process. Among the viruses that have been implicated in humans are coxsackie A, coxsackie B, rubella, cytomegalovirus, mumps, and Epstein-Barr viruses. The enteroviruses (Coxsackie A, Coxsackie B, and Echovirus) are the most commonly associated viruses with diabetes and serve as a major trigger for T1D in the young possibly by induction of islet cell antibodies. The evidence for viral involvement in type 1 diabetes came from several sources, including anecdotal case reports, epidemiological studies, seasonal incidence studies, and animal models. There is data to support the theory that enterovirus infection either accompanies or precedes the development of T1D in young people in many instances.

Beneficial Effect of AntiIFNy in Possibly NonTh1Mediated Skin Diseases

1.6.1 Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 IFN is generally known to prevent viral replication. Recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 genital lesions, on the other hand, may be a special case in which dysregulated production of IFN-y appears to exert a pathological effect on the organism by paradoxically helping the virus survive or replicate (Singh et al. 2003). We have proposed that some viruses may belong to a special category in which IFNs or TNF-a production is dys-regulated, and in some cases these cytokines may help sustain the virus (Skurkovich et al. 1987). In this category may belong oncogenic viruses, the HIV, rubella virus, papillomavirus, possibly certain other viruses and bacteria, and some chemical agents. Herpes simplex virus type 2 may also belong in this class. IFN-y may also directly damage cells in this disease. Thus, removal of IFN-y, TNF-a, or IL-1 may help destroy the viruses or other agents sustained by these cytokines and ameliorate the condition. We have very...

Therapeutic Applications Of G Lucidum

The goal of research in antiviral chemotherapy is the discovery of agents that are specific for the inhibition of viral multiplication without affecting normal cells. Undesired side effects and the appearance of resistant strains make the development of new antiviral agents an urgent requirement (111). G. lucidum has reported potential as an antiviral agent. Isolation of various water- and methanol-soluble, high-molecular-weight, protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP) from the carpophores of G. lucidum showed inhibitory effects on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2), and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain (VSV) in a tissue culture system. With the plaque reduction method, a significant inhibitory effect was seen at doses that showed no cytotoxicity (60,112-114). In addition, there was a marked syngergistic effect when PBP from G. lucidum was used in tissue culture in conjunction with the antiherpetic agents acyclovir or vidarabine and with interferon alpha...

Onset of AIDS and Decline

The point at which doctors say an HIV infection has turned into AIDS is defined by a patient meeting criteria set by the CDC. According to the CDC's current definition, a person is considered to have AIDS when he or she tests positive for HIV and has either a helper T cell count of less than two hundred cells per milliliter of blood (normal levels are between five hundred and eighteen hundred) or has at least one opportunistic infection. The most common opportunistic infections included in the CDC's definition of AIDS are some that had been diagnosed in the earliest AIDS patients Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cryptococcosis yeast infections (Candidiasis) of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, or lungs cytomegalovirus disease (CMV) and toxoplasmosis of the brain.

Optimization Of Targeted Delivery

Full-length cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter enhancer. Over 100 variations of the CMV promoter enhancer exist, and some variations produce greatly reduced or no gene expression in certain cell types (18). Even commercially available plasmids contain suboptimal CMV promoters enhancers, although these plasmids are advertised for use in animals. Furthermore, upon checking the company data for these plasmids, one would discover that these plasmids have never been tested in animals and have been tested in only 1 or 2 cultured cell lines. Conversely, plasmids that have been optimized for overall efficiency in animals may not be best for transfection of certain cell types in vitro or in vivo. For example, many investigators have shown that optimal CMV promoters enhancers produce gene expression at levels several orders of magnitude less in certain cell types. In addition, one cannot assume that a CMV promoter that expresses well within the context of a viral vector, such as adenovirus, will...

Detection Of Gene Expression

Furthermore, noninvasive detection of luciferase expression in vivo is not as sensitive as luminescence assays of cell or tissue extracts posttransfection. Recently, my colleagues tried cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera imaging on live mice after intravenous injection of other cationic liposomes complexed to plasmid DNA-encoding luciferase, and they were not able to detect any transfection. However, these liposomal delivery systems had been used to detect luciferase by luminescence assays of organ extracts. My colleagues detected luciferase expression by CCD imaging after intravenous injections of BIV DOTAP Chol-luciferase DNA-liposome complexes (44). Because the luciferase protein is short-lived, maximal expression was detected at 5 h posttransfection, whereas detection of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene expression using microPET imaging in the same mice was highest at 24 h posttransfection. In contrast to luciferase, the CAT protein accumulates over time,...

Classic Methods For Suicide Gene Transfer

The herpes simplex virus is capable of infecting cells and persisting indefinitely in a latent state. Vectors using the herpes virus have been constructed which are replication defective and capable of expressing recombinant genes for prolonged periods of time in animal models (80). These viruses are not completely defective and continue to express many viral proteins that can be cytopathic, a property that severely limits the herpes virus for present gene therapy applications.

Hepatitis D Virus HDV

Herpes Any of a variety of inflammatory skin conditions characterized by spreading or creeping small clustered blisters caused by the herpes simplex virus. Forms of the virus cause cold sores and the sexually transmitted disease genital herpes (see herpes, genital) characterized by blisters on the sex organs. The virus also causes many other conditions affecting the skin. More than 80 known viruses exist within the herpes family. of these, eight are known to cause disease in humans, the most common being herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. HSV1 and HSV2 look identical under the microscope, and either type can infect the mouth or genitals. Usually, however, HSV1 occurs above the waist, and HSV2 below the waist. In children, HSV2 is usually associated with infections of babies who acquire the disease during birth. However, there is a certain amount of overlap between the two, and conditions usually caused by HSV2 may be caused by HSV1, and vice versa. Both types are highly infectious, spread...

Vehicles And Transduced Cells

The list is quite long for the array of vehicles being developed, both viral and nonviral, for the delivery of gene vectors. The details of such carriers are, of course, provided elsewhere throughout this book. There are 2 fundamentally different ways to track the biodistribution of delivered agents. One method is to track the sites of successful gene transfer expression (various methods described in this chapter) and the other method relies on directly labeling vehicles, DNA or cells with radionuclides, fluorescent dyes, or MR-compatible contrast agents. The latter method may give better spatiotemporal information with respect to distribution of the vehicles or DNA material used for therapy, but does not give any information with regards to the success of gene transfer. The latter method has been reviewed recently and includes the direct labeling of herpes virus with 111In, adenoviral knob with 99mTc, liposomes with 111In, double-stranded DNA by peptide-based chelates ( 99mTc PBC),...

Gastrointestinal Conditions Associated With Spasm And Nervousness

HERPES SIMPLEX TYPE I EXTERNAL USE The topical use of lemon balm preparations for HSV infection is very popular in Europe. Results from a randomised double-blind study in 66 subjects with a history of recurrent herpes labialis (> 3 episodes year) found that standardised lemon balm ointment (700 mg crude herb per gram) applied four times daily for 5 days significantly shortened healing time, prevented infection spread and produced rapid symptom relief (Koytchev et al 1999). Decreased symptoms and increased rate of healing were also observed in another double-blind study of lemon balm cream in 116 subjects (Woelbling & Leonhardt 1994).

Lymphocyte Genetransfer Studies

The use of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene and other ''suicide'' genes for gene therapy is discussed in Chapter 20. Introduction of the HSV-TK gene into a cell allows for the phosphorylation of nucleoside analogs such as ganciclovir. Once phosphorylated, ganciclovir becomes toxic to the cell as it is incorporated into DNA. There are 3 published hematopoietic cell gene therapy trials utilizing the HSV-TK. Lymphocytes were the target cells in both studies (115,116,117). In an attempt to make HIV therapy with autol-ogous cytotoxic T-cells safer, Riddell et al. transduced HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cells with the HSV-TK gene (115). The transduced cells could then be eliminated with ganciclovir treatment if toxicity were to arise from their presence. The vector used to transduce the lymphocytes also carried the hy-gromycin phosphotransferase gene. Unexpectedly, the transduced lymphocytes were rejected by a brisk host cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against the transduced...

Genetic Manipulation Of Cardiovascular Tissue

The transfer of genetic sequences exogenous to the human genome has been envisioned, such as the gene encoding thy-midine kinase (TK) from the herpes simplex virus. This has been used to enhance metabolic activation of the cytotoxic prodrug ganciclovir, which may be useful in treating vascular proliferative disorders such as restenosis (7). Scientists studying gene transfer technology have often relied on a class of genes known as reporter or marker genes. These genes encode proteins, such as a form of p-galactosidase found in E. coli (known as lacZ or p-gal) or a small fluorescent molecule known as green fluorescent protein (GFP), that can be detected easily via histochemistry, fluorescent microscopy, or other techniques that allow rapid identification and quantification of successful gene transfer.

Gene Therapy For Vascular Diseases

An example of a direct cytotoxic approach to the prevention of neointima formation is the transfer of a suicide gene such as the herpes simplex virus-TK (HSV-TK) gene into VSMCs. Using an adenoviral vector, HSV-TK was introduced into the VSMCs of porcine arteries rendering the smooth muscle cells sensitive to the nucleoside analog ganciclovir given immediately after balloon injury. After 1 course of gan-cyclovir treatment neointimal hyperplasia decreased by about 50 (7). More recently, Pollman and associates (50) induced endogenous machinery for VSMC ''suicide'' in a strategy designed to inhibit the growth or achieve regression of neointi-mal lesions. This strategy involved antisense ODN blockade of a ''survival'' gene known as Bcl-x, which helps protect cells from activation of programmed cell death, or apoptosis.

Transient Transgene Expression

The most powerful promoter allowing expression in all cell types is probably the immediate early promoter and enhancer of human cytomegalovirus, CMV (11). This promoter fused to lacZ drives expression in most tissues of the zebrafish embryo (12). Gibbs et al. (13) compared the CMV promoter with the SV-40 early promoter and the RSV-LTR promoter, each fused to the luciferase gene. The CMV promoter gave the strongest signal with the lowest concentration of luciferase reaction components, allowing positive fish to be raised to adulthood.

Vectors For Cancer Gene Therapy

Based on their tropism for neuronal tissues, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are in principle highly suitable for neurological cancer therapy. In general, they can infect dividing and nondividing cells. Similar to adenoviruses, cytotoxic genes must be deleted from the viral genome, and genes must be provided from helper viruses or cell lines in order to prevent unwanted toxicity if normal tissue is transduced. Successful attempts in this direction have been made (127-132). HSV has already been used in 5 clinical trials, and the intratumoral injection mode at least did not cause severe toxicity (see Section IV.D on Glioblastoma).

Specific Dietary Interventions

Increasing evidence has demonstrated that adequate dietary lipids are extremely important not just for their caloric value but also for their immune-modulatory effects. Lipids may prevent allergic sensitization by downregulat-ing inflammatory response (n-3 but not n-6 long-chain fatty acids) whilst protecting the epithelial barrier, regulate immune function and modify the adherence of microbes to the mucosa, thereby contributing to host-microbe interactions. Medium-chain (8-12 carbons) fatty acids (MCT) seem to have more strongly antiviral and antibacterial properties (against Rous sarcoma virus, herpes simplex virus, H. influenzae and group B streptococcus) than long-chain triglycerides 30 . According to a recent Cochrane review, there is no evidence of differences between MCT and long-chain triglycerides in short-term growth, gastrointestinal intolerance, or necrotizing enterocolitis 31 .

Neurological Evidence On Concepts

A third, and perhaps most surprising, finding from the neurological literature is evidence that patients have deficits in their knowledge of specific categories of objects. For example, Dennis (1976) has reported a patient who had difficulties only with the category body parts. Warrington and Shallice (1984) have studied patients with similar deficits following damage to the medial temporal lobes, arising from herpes simplex encephalitis. These patients were very good at identifying inanimate objects by either verbal description or picture but were considerably poorer on objects that were living things or foods. More specifically, Hart, Berndt, and Caramazza (1985) have reported a patient, MD, with a deficit specific to the naming and categorisation of fruits and vegetables. Even though lesioned connectionist models manifest these sorts of deficits (see Plaut & Shallice, 1993), some researchers have argued that they may be artefactual (see Funnell & Sheridan, 1992 Parkin &...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

There are many types of STDs which can affect youth and over half of STDs occur to adolescents (1,3,29-31). The majority of STDs involve individuals aged 15 to 29 years. Each year, 1 in 20 adolescents in the world obtains a curable STD (3). STDs can be asymptomatic and youth often do not seek treatment even if symptomatic. Adolescents are less likely than adults to use protection (i.e., condoms). The most common STDs among youth are infections due to human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. HPV is main cause of cervical cancer in females under 30 years of age and the recently developed HPV vaccine can prevent 70 of these cervical cancers.

Hazard Identification

6 months in people with herpes infections have, in general, not found or reported any adverse effects (DiGiovanna and Blank, 1984, 1985 Griffith et al., 1978, 1987 McCune et al., 1984 Milman et al., 1980 Simon et al., 1985 Thein and Hurt, 1984). The one adverse effect was an upset stomach in 3 of 27 patients given 3 g d of L-lysine hydrochloride for 6 months and in 1 of the 25 controls (Griffith et al., 1987).

Cutaneous Gene Therapy for Skin and Systemic Disorders

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) were once considered poor vectors due to their limiting packaging size (about 4.7 kb). However, the requirement for a helper virus (adenovirus or herpesvirus) for productive infection makes them one of the safest viral vectors (39). Currently, recombinant AAVs have a high safety profile because 96 of the AAV genome has been removed. AAVs can transduce a great variety of human cell types, both in vitro and in vivo (40). AAVs can exist in both integrated and non integrated forms, and are able to transduce replicating and nonreplicating cells (25,41). AAVs do not induce a strong innate immunologic or a cytotoxic T cell response, and long-term expression of the transgene is possible (42). However, they induce an antibody response, and the transfection efficiencies are usually low (42).

Varicellazoster immune globulin VZIG An

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) A member of the family of herpes viruses, which causes the diseases varicella (chicken pox), and herpes zoster (shingles). When the virus enters the upper respiratory tract of a nonimmune host, it produces skin lesions of chicken pox. The virus then passes from skin to sensory ganglia, where it establishes a latent infection. When the patient's immunity to HSV fades away, the virus replicates within the ganglia and results in shingles (herpes zoster).

Adenoviruses As Vectors For Gene Therapy

The first clinical example of a replicating viral vector delivering a transgene was recently published by Freytag et al. (30). These investigators constructed a derivative of dl1520 in which a fusion gene of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) and Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) is

AIDSHuman Immunodeficiency Virus

Central nervous system disease is present in 69 of cases, with the peripheral nervous system affected in 8 of HIV cases. Of the peripheral nervous system dysfunctions, the facial nerve is most common, found in approximately 5 of patients (61). A similar study of 170 AIDS patients found a 4.1 incidence of facial paralysis (62). Facial paralysis is abrupt in onset and usually unilateral (63). The mechanism of facial nerve injury may be a direct effect of the neurotropic virus, secondary involvement due to parotid or other neoplastic processes, or immunosuppression leading to reactivation of herpes zoster or other viruses. Multidrug therapy is the current standard therapy for HIV infection. Reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors are effective and block HIV replication fusion inhibitors are also used and block HIV entry into the cell. The prognosis for facial paralysis is good, with the majority of patients having complete or near-complete recovery of facial function (64).

Consequences of Adolescent Sexual Behavior

One sexual encounter can lead to pregnancy or an individual's sexually transmitted infection. AGI finds that every time a teenage woman has sex she has a 1 percent risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a 30 percent risk of contracting genital herpes, and a 50 percent risk of contracting gonorrhea. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) reports that although adolescents (ages fifteen to nineteen) represent less than 16 percent of the population of reproductive age (ages fourteen to forty-four), youth account for almost 27 percent of new STI infections (4 million of 15 million new STIs). Based on the 1999 YRBS, female adolescents (ages fifteen to nineteen) had the highest rate of chlamydia (about 2,484 per 100,000) and gonorrhea infection (534 cases per 100,000) among all U.S. women (404.5 cases per 100,000 and 130 cases per 100,000, respectively).

Gene Therapy for AD Gene Delivery

There are 3 major issues in the introduction of DNA for large molecules such as trophic factors to the brain. First, the CNS exists in a privileged environment that is sheltered from the rest of the body, including the immune system, by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Second, most neurons in the adult CNS are postmitotic and therefore do not easily incorporate new DNA once introduced. Third, trophic factors need to be selectively targeted to the intended anatomical region or cell population. The BBB excludes most gene therapy vectors. Naked DNA, most viruses, and all but a few cells will not cross into the brain unassisted. Viruses that can penetrate the BBB and transduce CNS cells include herpes viruses, retrovi-ruses, adenoviruses, and AAVs. However, these viruses lack the transduction efficiency and target selectivity for individual cell populations necessary to make them useful in the treatment of AD.

Recommendations for Vaccinations in Children with Rheumatic Disease

Most routine vaccinations are okay, but avoid rubella if the child has a positive titer. Do not give any live-virus vaccines (e.g., chicken pox herpes zoster and smallpox), as there is risk of disease and Reye's syndrome. Child with arthritis who is on immunosuppressive medications (corticosteroids, etanercept, infliximab, anakinra, adalimumab) or cytotoxics (methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine) Do not give the child any vaccinations. However, there are data suggesting that pneumococcal vaccine should be given if it hasn't already been. No live-virus vaccinations should be given to siblings or household contacts. Child with active arthritis within the past six months (no matter what the medications) No vaccinations should be given to the child (note that not all doctors agree on this). This has to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis when issues such as college dormitory life, travel, or risk of epidemic exposure arise.

Dopamine Synthesis Gene Therapy

Later studies accomplished the delivery of such genes directly to striatal cells with viral agents. A study by During et al. demonstrated that direct striatal transmission of tyrosine hydroxylase to rats by defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) produced substantial increases in levodopa and dopamine (as measured by striatal microdialysis), and produced a 60 reduction in amphetamine-induced spinning behavior which was maintained for a full year after treatment (86). Another study demonstrated the adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) in a rat model of PD. Transfer of the AADC gene restored dopamine production from 5 to 50 of normal in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In these rats, behavioral effects were also noted, but this required the administration of systemic levodopa, although in smaller doses (87).

Genetic Delivery of Neurotrophins

Numerous studies have demonstrated success of viral GDNF therapy in rats. Several viral vectors have been used to deliver GDNF to the striatum and SNc, including adenovirus, AAV, herpes virus, and lentiviruses. Of these, herpes viruses were noted to be problematic, providing only limited benefit and demonstrating significant toxicity related to purification methods (97). The other models have demonstrated the ability to generate stable and sufficient quantities of GDNF, to maintain or restore tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and, in several cases, to improve parkinsonian behavioral correlates (98,99).

Hivaids Complications

Contributing to weight loss and wasting is malabsorption (the failure of nutritional substances to be absorbed in the intestines). Malabsorption occurs in advanced cases of HIV infection when gastrointestinal disease is present. Diseases that can cause malabsorption in HIV AIDS patients include Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium avium complex, and cryptosporidiosis. Malabsorption may require an alternative to oral nutrition.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

The systemic manifestations and those related to the head and neck are numerous. In general, they are associated with a specific immuno-deficient disorder caused by the retroviral infection disseminated mycobacterial infection, cytomegalovirus infection, disseminated fungal infection, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), Kaposi's sarcoma, and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, to name several.

Proof of Concept Mimicking the Performance of a Gastric Retentive Formulation

It is relatively simple to determine the potential benefit of a GRF without actually designing a dosage form. An excellent literature example of this type of clinical study was performed using Acyclovir by Lewis et al. 5 as shown in Fig. 17.2. Lewis found that use of a simple sipping method was extremely beneficial. These investigators dosed 400 mg of acyclovir via an oral immediate release tablet (2 x 200 mg tablets), a duodenal infusion (500 mL of a 5 dextrose solution, constant infusion rate over 4 h) and a sipped solution (10.4 mL of the 500 mL 5 dextrose solution every 5 min over 4 h). Both the duodenal infusion and sipping methods provided AUCs almost twice that of the tablets. The sipping technique is an extremely simple and cost-effective approach to determine if saturable transport is limiting bioavailability. Fig. 17.2 Effect of administration rate of acyclovir on its plasma concentration profile in healthy volunteers. 400 mg dose administered either as 2 x 200 mg tablets at...

Visual Word Recognition

Dyslexia also occurs as a consequence of neuropatho-logic discorders such as Alzheimer's disease or herpes encephalitis. Three major subtypes have been identified phonological dyslexia, in which the main impairment is in pronouncing novel letter strings such as nust surface dyslexia, in which the main impairment is in reading irregularly pronounced words such as pint and deep dyslexia, in which the patient makes semantic paraphasias such as pronouncing sympathy orchestra (Shallice 1988). Current research focuses on using computational models of normal word recognition to explain how these patterns of impairment could arise (see modeling neuropsychological deficits). For example, connectionist models of normal performance can be lesioned to create the reading impairments seen in several types of patients (Plaut et al. 1996). A growing body of neuroimaging evidence is beginning to clarify how the representations and processes specified in these models are realized in the brain.

Preclinical Studies A Genetic Immunization

Using particle bombardment, a polyclonal immune response against various pathogens such as Ebola virus (60), hepatitis B and C (61-64), herpes simplex (65,66), malaria (51,67), mycoplasma (58,68), papillomavirus (69), prions (70), rotavirus (71), and tuberculosis (72,73) has been reported. Two diseases with a major impact on socioeconomic health served as a model influenza and HIV. Pioneering work has been performed by Johnston et al. and Liu et al., who

Efforts of controlling neural invasion in PCa

Among all studies in the literature, there are so far two in vivo models of NI in PCa where a primarily therapeutic goal was pursued In the first study, Gil et al. aimed at treating NI by means of an attenuated, replication-competent, oncolytic herpes simplex virus which inhabits nerves (Gil et al., 2007). After injection of PCa cell lines into the perineurium of the sciatic nerve of athymic mice, they monitored limb function for 9 days after injection. Excitingly, a single injection of the oncolytic herpes simplex virus 7 days after PCa cell injection effectively eradicated NI without compromising physiologic nerve function (Gil et al., 2007). The same group utilized this model in a subsequent study for intraoperative diagnosis of NI By using enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing oncolytic herpes virus, they could detect invaded nerves following intrasciatic implantation of PCa cell lines via intraoperative fluorescent stereoscopic imaging (Gil et al., 2008). Thereby,...

Samantha S Soldan and Steven Jacobson

Human Herpes Virus-6 and Multiple Sclerosis date has been definitively associated with this disease. Recently, the human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) has received considerable attention as an infectious agent candidate that might be associated with the patho-genesis of MS. We will focus on this agent and the data that support the role of this virus in MS disease pathogenesis. We will compare and contrast these observations with the long list of viruses that have been suggested to play a role in this disease. Additionally, we propose a model whereby in genetically susceptible individuals, multiple viruses may trigger either a virus-specific or a cross-reactive autoimmune response that results in clinical MS. Importantly, we take an open but cautious view on the role that viruses may play in the pathogenesis of a chronic, progressive neurologic disorder such as MS. Infectious agents have been suspected in the etiology of MS for over a century (Johnson, 1994). Over the years, several...

Bicistronic Vectors Containing Selectable Markers

Another approach to the use of MDR 1-based bicistronic vectors is to develop ''suicide'' vectors for cancer gene therapy. Using MDR1 to protect bone marrow cells from cytotoxic drugs represents a promising approach to improve cancer chemotherapy. However, contaminating cancer cells may be inadvertently transduced with MDR 1, or transduced bone marrow cells may accidentally develop new tumors. In those cases, overexpression of P-gp could cause multidrug resistance in inadvertently transduced tumor cells that contaminate bone marrow, or in any transduced cells that later become malignant. A bicistronic ''suicide'' vector developed in this laboratory links P-gp expression with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) expression (105,106). Thus the cells containing this vector can be eliminated through ganciclovir treatment.

Lindsay Whitton and Robert S Fujinami

Herpesviruses

Herpesviruses Herpesviruses are probably the commonest viruses to infect neuronal tissue. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establish latent infections in the dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system and, particularly in the immunocompro-mised, can reactivate and disseminate to cause encephalitis or, more commonly, vesicular eruptions in the skin area innervated by the infected neurons leading to cold sores fever blisters (HSV) or shin The MHC class I pathway is vital for recognition of virus-infected cells. Viral proteins are synthesized and degraded within the cell, and the resulting peptides are transported to the endoplasmic retic-ulum, where they encounter empty MHC class I molecules. Peptides with sufficient affinity for particular MHC alleles bind in the groove 2M attaches to, and stabilizes, the complex and the trimolecular structure travels to the cell membrane, to be screened by the CD8+ T cells of the host these...

Shellfish poisoning paralytic 245

Treatment There is little that can be done either for the rash or the pain afterward, but prompt use of antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, famcyclovir, or valacyclovir can shorten the rash stage and lessen the chance of pain later. Therefore, patients should seek medical help at the first signs of shingles. Acyclovir slows reproduction of the virus and shortens the course of the infection, although it doesn't prevent the nerve pain following a shingles attack. Some experts maintain that steroid drugs such as prednisone can prevent this pain. Valacyclovir is a chemical cousin of the widely used acyclovir it received FDA approval in June 1995. Examples of bacterial skin infections include impetigo, ecthyma, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, erysipelas, scarlet fever, cellulitis, etc. Viral infections with skin symptoms include herpes simplex, chicken-pox, and shingles, warts, measles, german measles, fifth disease, aids, etc.

Condylomata acuminata

Often, the effect these microorganisms have on the fetus depends on the stage of pregnancy at which the infection was acquired. For example, a rubella infection at the 9th or 10th week of pregnancy may cause deafness, heart disease, and other damage. If the same infection occurs much later in pregnancy, no harm usually results. The infant is also vulnerable to maternal infection while passing through the birth canal. At this time, any active infection in the mother's genital area can have serious repercussions to her child. Conditions acquired in this way include conjunctivitis, genital herpes, or chlamydial infection. Staph, or strep infections, meningitis, hepatitis b, or listeriosis may also be passed on. Newborns sometimes contract a type of conjunctivitis called neonatal ophthalmia, caused by infection in the mother's cervix during birth from either gonorrhea, genital herpes, or chlamydia. The infection may spread to the entire eye and cause blindness....

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Acyclovir (Zovirax) An antiviral drug introduced in 1982 that is used to treat viruses causing chicken pox, shingles, or herpes simplex infection. It is officially approved for the acute management of chicken pox in children, for which it can slightly decrease the severity and duration of the infection. To be effective, therapy must be started within 24 hours of the onset of the rash. Its effect on the subsequent development of shingles is not known When acyclovir is given in time, it decreases itching, the number of lesions, and the time until crusting. By the third day, all treated children, compared to 75 percent of untreated children, have no fever. Acyclovir does not work if given after the first 24 hours past the start of the rash. Although acyclovir can decrease the duration and severity of varicella, it should not be given routinely to children who are otherwise healthy. Acy-clovir is not indicated in youngsters under age two. Currently, no data indicate that treating chicken...

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases

Acyclovir (Trade name Zovirax) An antiviral drug prescribed for the treatment of herpes simplex, shingles, and chicken pox that is available in oral or topical form. Acyclovir works by inhibiting the synthesis of DNA in cells infected by herpes viruses. The drug also has been helpful to patients receiving bone marrow transplants to prevent the subsequent development of herpes simplex infection. Oral acyclovir Acyclovir is effective in managing both initial and recurrent infections of herpes and localized shingles. It can prevent subsequent viral attacks if taken continuously soon after infection. However, in cases of recurrent genital herpes, acyclovir therapy doesn't make the lesions heal quicker or ease symptoms. Topical acyclovir The topical form does not prevent new lesions from forming during the course of the disease. When applied to an existing blister, however, it may relieve symptoms, speed healing, and shorten the duration of the infection and the contagious period. Adverse...

Point Zero And The Principle Of Alignment According To Paul Nogier

Nogier Ear Acupuncture

In this way Nogier was able to identify precisely the radii related to some specific vertebrae. He asked students to be very cautious and, for example, not to consider the line RTH8 passing through the vertebral point TH8 as in any way pertaining to the 8th or 9th thoracic nerve18 (Fig. 3.19). But if we look at the case with herpes zoster of the 8th thoracic root reported in Figures 3.20 and 3.21, we can see that the lines proposed by Nogier actually have a meaning and are important for diagnosis and therapy. Through his explanation he perhaps intended stressing the importance of not confusing other structures located on the same line, the innervation of which could in no way be accepted as coincident. For example, in Figure 3.19, the location on the line RTH9 of the somatotopic representation Fig. 3.20 Example of alignment on the helix in a case of herpes zoster located on the 8th thoracic root. The points which are tender to pressure are marked with non-toxic ink. Fig. 3.20 Example...

Vector Transgene Expression

We have explored the activity of many viral and cellular promoters in the background of replication-defective viral vectors (47,110-118). These lytic gene promoters display transient activity in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Thus, viral IE promoters are effective for applications that require only transient transgene expression. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE gene promoter produced vigorous transgene expression for up to 21 days post infection in vivo (Ramakrish-nan and Fink, unpublished data, 1991) and in neuronal cell cultures in the background of a vector deleted for ICP4, ICP27, and ICP22 (41). Studies in rabbits and primates have demonstrated transgene expression under control of the HCMV promoter for at least 1 year following infection of rabbit joints (119). Other promoters, such as SV40 and various retroviral LTRs, are also transiently active (113,120) following infection of brain. Cellular promoters such as the muscle-specific muscle creatinine kinase (MCK)...

Antibacterial and Antiviral Activities

These promising in vitro results have begun to promote various in vivo studies of certain viruses in mice. These include LP-BMS murine immunodeficiency viruses, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), Sindbis virus, Friend virus, and Ranscher leukemia virus (75-77). Hypericin has also shown in vitro activity against influenza and herpes viruses (78), vesiculostomatitis and Sendai viruses (73), and duck hepatitis B virus (79).

Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis and Osteitis Syndromes

Parvovirus B19, HIV, hepatitis B arthritis or arthralgia and less commonly EBV, CMV, coxsackie B, adenovirus 7, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and echoviruses) Small- and large-joint arthritis Abbreviations'. CMV, cytomegalovirus EBV, Epstein-Barr virus. Source Adapted from Refs. 111-113.

Mechanisms Of Lymphomagenesis

Unlike the acute myeloid leukaemias where a number of well defined aetiological factors have emerged (benzene and other toxins, irradiation), the known causative agents of the lymphomas are largely associated with infection. The Herpes viruses (especially EBV and HHV8) are associated with the development of lymphomas and this has been well documented in groups of heavily immunosuppressed individuals such as recipients of bone marrow or solid organ transplants or patients infected with HIV. However, the development of lymphoma is certainly not associated with one single mutational event and is likely to be a multi-step process. The finding of translocations such as t(14 18) and t(9 22)6,8 in the normal population as well as the recent findings from twin studies of specific DNA sequences associated with t(12 21) in an unaffected identical twin whose sibling has acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with the same molecular change7, suggests that these translocations are only part of the...

Lamiaceae Labiatae Deadnettle family

Recent studies have shown self-heal to be an effective remedy for herpes. If we look back at the old herbals, we see this is not new. In 1640, John Parkinson wrote that self-heal juice mixed with a little Hony of Roses, clenseth and healeth all ulcers and sores in the mouth and throate, and those also in the secret parts. We know today that both roses and self-heal have antiviral properties.

Sweating sickness English

Diagnosis Diagnosis is difficult skin biopsies are not helpful. There is no widely available blood test that gives a specific indication that cercariae are the source of the itch. Diseases that have been confused with swimmer's itch include IMPETIGO, CHICKENPOX, poison ivy, or HERPES.

Shellfish poisoning 243

Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, most STD patients could expect to be cured with antibiotics. But about the same time, doctors began to realize that new infections such as the chronic disease herpes and the occasionally fatal illness hepatitis B could not be cured by drugs. With the spread of AIDS in 1982, doctors realized that STDs were again a serious risk to life, and now consider promiscuous sex to be a high-risk venture.

Indications Desert Date

(f BOU KAB) Bronchosis (f UPW) Bubo (f HDN) Burn (f NAD WO2) Carbuncle (f UPW) Caries (f UPW) Catarrh (f HDN) Childbirth (f WO2) Circumcision fi (BOU) Cold (f DEP HDN) Colic (f BIB KAB NAD UPW) Conjunctivosis (f HDN) Cough (f BIB DEP KAB NAD) Cramp (f HDN) Dermatosis (f KAB) Diabetes (1 WO3) Diarrhea (f HDN) Dysentery (f KAB UPW) Edema (1 X15763372) Fasciolaris (1 X10904170) Fever (f BOU HDN) Freckle (f NAD WO2) Fungus (1 HDN) Gingivosis (f UPW) Guinea Worm (1 WO3) Hemorrhoid (f UPW) Hepatosis (f1 HDN UPW PR15 598) Herpes (1 BIB HDN) High Blood Pressure (1 HDN) Impotence (f UPW) Infection (f BIB) Infection (1 HDN) Infertility (f HDN) Inflammation (f1 HDN X15763372) Insanity (f HDN UPW) Jaundice (f1 UPW PR13 439 X10441790) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukoderma (f BOU KAB) Malaria (f1 BIB BI2 BOU) Mycosis (1 HDN) Pain (f1 BOU HDN X15763372) Paralysis (f UPW) Pertussis (f WO2) Pneumonia (f WO2) Pulmonosis (f WO2) Rheumatism (f BIB UPW) Schistosomiasis (1 HDN 15664459) Shingle (1 HDN) Sleeping...

FIGURE 16 Oral hairy leukoplakia associated with EBV Source From

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia Ebv

Treatment is indicated for aesthetic or functional reasons superinfection with Candida should be treated with fluconazole and the OHL lesion responds to high-dose acyclovir, but recurrence is the rule. Other agents, such as ganciclovir, foscarnet zidovudine, or topical podophyllum toxin, have been used with some success.

Physiologic Factors Associated with Alteration in Theophylline Disposition

Theophylline Dose Serum Level

Have also been associated with herpes simplex viral infection (253). While there has been speculation that viral respiratory infections can reduce theophylline elimination in the absence of fever, extensive clinical experience in young children who got multiple viral respiratory infections while on maintenance therapy with theophylline and controlled studies in adults (254) and children with respiratory syncytial virus infection (255) have not supported any clinically important role for viral infections in the absence of sustained high fever, e.g., > 102 F for > 24 hours.

Indications Bitter Apple

Bacteria (1 ZUL) Bleeding (f ZUL) Bloat (f BIB) Bronchosis (f HDN) Bruise (f GHA) Burn (f UPW) Calculus (f BIB) Cancer (f1 JLH HDN X15527763) Cancer, lung (f1 JLH X15527763) Carbuncle (f BIB) Carcinoma (f JLH) Caries (f UPW) Catarrh (f UPW) Colic (f HDN) Constipation (f BIB) Cough (f UPW) Cramp (f1 HDN) Craw-craw (f HDN) Dandruff (f HDN ZUL) Dermatosis (f HDN) Diarrhea (f HDN UPW) Dysmenorrhea (f HDN) Dyspepsia (f GHA HDN UPW) Earache (f GHA HDN UPW) Edema (f1 HDN) Enterosis (f ZUL) Epilepsy (f HDN) Epistaxis (f BIB) Epithelioma (f JLH) Fever (f1 HDN) Fungus (1 HDN) Gas (f GHA) Gastrosis (f UPW) Gonorrhea (f HDN) Headache (f HDN) Hematuria (f UPW) Hemorrhoid (f GHA) Hepatoma (1 X11108802) Hepatosis (f1 BIB HDN ZUL) Herpes (f HDN) High Blood Pressure (1 HDN) Infection (f1 HDN ZUL) Infertility (f BIB) Inflammation (f1 HDN) Itch (f BIB) Laryngosis (f UPW) Melanoma (f JLH) Myalgia (f HDN) Mycosis (1 HDN) Nephrosis (f BIB) Neuralgia (f UPW) Neurosis (f HDN) Ophthalmia (f UPW) Pain (f HDN...

Monitoring Gene Therapy Levels

Figure 13 Tracking HSV Infection with 131I FIAU Using Autoradiography Tracking wild-type HSV-1 infection with radionuclide-based techniques can be accomplished using the virus's native thymidine kinase gene and areporter probe such as radiolabeled 131I FIAU. To help corroborate imaging findings with histochemistry findings, a replication conditional, oncolytic recombinant HSV-1 virus vector, hrR3, containing a lacZ insertional mutation within the RR gene locus, has been prepared. Following injection of the vector into rat gliosar-comaxenografts, tumors were processed for tissue-sectioning, autoradiography, and p-galactosidase-stained histology. Image coregistration of tumor histology, HSV-1-f -related radioactivity (assessed by 131I FIAU autoradiography), and lacZ gene expression (assessed by p-galactosidase staining) demonstrated a characteristic pattern of gene expression around the injection sites. A narrow band of lacZ gene expression immediately adjacent to necrotic tumor areas...

FIGURE 19 Aphthous ulcers Source Courtesy of the International AIDS SocietyUSA From Refs 3 4

KS has been strongly associated with human herpes virus Type 8 (HHV8), also known as KS-associated herpes virus, believed to be transmitted orally. Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers. Aphthous ulcers of unknown etiology are relatively common in HIV disease, becoming more severe with worsening immunosuppression. Contrary to those found in the general population, aphthous ulcers (canker sores) are often large and not of the minor (herpetiform) type in HIV-infected persons. They can persist for weeks or even months, causing severe pain and disability with resultant malnutrition, which further complicates the problem. Empiric therapy with high-dose acyclovir usually fails. Most often, biopsy and cultures are performed to exclude specific treatable causes such as fungal or viral infection (especially CMV). In most cases, no etiologic agent is found (3). Topical treatment with steroid paste (Lidex) can sometimes be useful, but large lesions require more aggressive management, and oral thalidomide...

Biliary Atresia Triangular Cord Sign

Triangular Cord Sign Ultrasound

Although factors such as developmental malformation, perinatal viremia (cytomegalovirus, rubella, retroviruses), and toxicity of bile constituents have been implicated, the actual cause of biliary atresia remains unknown 9,22 . A single, unifying cause appears unlikely, and it seems more probable that there is etiologic heterogeneity that results in a progressive sclerosis for example, an inflammatory process that affects the extrahepatic biliary tract leading to ductular luminal obliteration 5 .

Viral infections of the skin

Viral Warts

Herpes simplex (cold sores) Herpes simplex is normally found on the face and around the lips. It begins as an itching sensation, followed by erythema and a group of small blisters which then weep and form crusts. This condition will generally persist for approximately two or three weeks but will reappear at times of stress, ill health or exposure to sunlight. Herpes simplex (cold sore) Herpes simplex (cold sore) Herpes zoster (shingles) This is a painful infection along the sensory nerves due to the virus that causes chickenpox. Lesions resemble herpes simplex with erythema and blisters along the lines of the nerves. The areas affected are mostly on the back or upper chest wall. This condition is very painful due to acute inflammation of one or more of the peripheral nerves. Severe pain may persist at the site of shingles for months or even years after the apparent healing of the skin. Herpes zoster (shingles) Herpes zoster (shingles)

Host Responses And Toxicity

Immune responses to the transgene expressed by an AAV vector vary and may depend on the route of delivery. Both MHC class II-restricted antibody responses and MHC class I cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been reported, but this may vary with the route of administration (199). In some studies, such as intramuscular delivery in mice, there was no immune response to an expressed foreign reporter gene such as bacterial p-galactosidase, and it was suggested that AAV may be a poor adjuvant or may not readily infect professional antigen-presenting cells in muscle (202,203). However, an AAV vector expressing the herpes simplex virus type 2 gB protein was delivered intramuscularly into mice and elicited both MHC class I-restricted CTL responses against the gB protein and anti-gB antibodies (204). Following intramuscular delivery of an AAV human factor IX vector (205,206), there was an antibody response but not a CTL response against the FIX protein. The rules governing immune responses to foreign...

Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid

Erosive lichen planus, MMP, and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) may have similar clinical features. All may present with desquamative gingivitis (Fig. 32). Frequently in MMP, a gentle stream of air blown tangentially at the surface of the involved gingival mucosa will balloon up the epithelium (Fig. 33). They may be differentiated by DIF testing. In MMP, DIF exhibits a smooth linear deposit of immunoreactants (C3 and IgG) along the basement membrane zone. The Nikolsky sign is positive (Fig. 34). Primary herpes simplex is a febrile illness that exhibits an acute onset of vesicles.

Indications Dandelion

Abscess (f CRC MAD) Acne (f VAD) Adenopathy (f JLH) Ague (f BIB) Alactea (f LMP PH2) Alcoholism (f SKY) Alzheimer's (1 FNF) Anemia (f1 AAH DEM JFM WAM) Anorexia (12 APA KOM PH2 PIP VAD) Arthrosis (f BIB) Backache (f DEM) Bacteria (1 WOI) Biliary Dyskinesia (2 PIP) Biliousness (f BIB) Bladderstones (2 KOM) Boil (f CRC LMP) Bronchosis (f12 APA BIB LAF) Bruise (f BIB CRC) Cachexia (f NAD) Cancer (f CRC) Cancer, bladder (f JLH) Cancer, bowel (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f CRC JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Caries (f CRC LMP) Cardiopathy (f APA BIB) Catarrh (f BIB CRC) Cellulite (1 FT71 S73) Chill (f HJP) Cholecystosis (2 BGB CRC HH3 KOM PH2) Cirrhosis (SKYf ) Cold (1 APA) Colic (1 PH2) Congestion (1 PH2) Conjunctivosis (f AAH AKT) Constipation (f1 FAD SKY FT71 S73) Consumption (f BIB) Cough (f MAD) Cramp (f DEM) Cystosis (1 WAM) Dermatosis (f APA BGB KAP KOM PH2) Diabetes (f1 BIB CRC JFM KOM MAD PH2 X15704495 X14750205) Dropsy (f1 BGB BIB DEM KAP MAD) Dysentery (f AKT)...

Treatment of Th1Mediated Autoimmune Skin Diseases Using AntiIFNy

We used anti-IFN-y in patients with psoriasis vulgaris, alopecia areata, vitiligo, acne vulgaris, and herpes simplex type 1, and plan to expand the trials using a humanized monoclonal antibody. Trials are also planned for testing the treatment in other Th-1-mediated skin diseases, including seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, oral lichen planus, and dermatophyto-sis, which are discussed in the following sections. In most cases, we used two methods of delivery of the antibody intradermal injection around the lesion and intramuscular administration. Thus, anti-IFN-y delivered to the lesion either IM or locally brought the same effect. We believe anticytokine therapy, particularly the removal or inhibition of IFN-y and or TNF-a and IL-1, may be a rational treatment for many severe autoimmune skin diseases that do not respond to standard therapies. 1.3.5 Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Herpes simplex is a common virus affecting the skin, mucous membranes, nervous system, and the eye. Herpes...

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Diagnosis The disease is diagnosed by symptoms and negative test results for other more common causes of genital ulcers (such as syphilis or HERPES). About half the time, microscopic examination of the fluid from a draining ulcer will correctly diagnose the infection a culture of the drainage will provide a correct diagnosis, but the bacteria aren't easy to grow and many labs aren't equipped to do the test. Cause VZV is a member of the family of herpesviruses similar to the herpes simplex virus (HSV) the same virus that causes chicken pox also causes SHINGLES. Once a person has chicken pox, the virus stays in the body in a latent stage, hiding in the nerves of the lower spinal cord for the rest of the person's life. When reactivated (in old age or during times of stress), it can lead to shingles. The drug acyclovir may be prescribed for chicken pox patients who are not pregnant and who have any of the following chronic skin or lung disorders, required regular administration of aspirin...

Indications Generic

Abscesses (f CAN FAD) Adenopathy (f CRC DEM PH2) Bleeding (f CEB DEM) Blepharosis (f VAD) Boils (f1 APA CRC GMH PNC) Bronchosis (f CRC) Bruise (f FEL) Burn (f1 APA FAD GMH PH2 WAM) Cancer (f CRC FEL JLH) Carcinoma (f CRC) Cardiopathy (f GMH) Caries (f CRC) Catarrh (f CRC DEM GMH) Chilblain (f CEB) Childbirth (f CRC DEM) Cholera (f CEB) Cold (f SKY) Cold Sore (1 APA) Colitis (f1 APA CAN CRC GMH) Conjunc-tivosis (f CRC DEM) Constipation (f CRC) Corneosis (f VAD) Cough (12 APA FAD HHB WAM) Cramp (f CEB CRC) Crohn's Disease (1 SKY) Cuts (f FAD) Cystosis (f1 GMH WAM) Dermatosis (f1 APA PH2 PNC VAD WAM) Diarrhea (f1 APA CAN FAD) Diverticulosis (1 FNF) Duodenosis (f PH2) Dysentery (f CRC FAD) Dyspepsia (f1 FAD) Dysuria (f CRC) Eczema (f CRC) Enterosis (12 APA CEB GMH) Erysipelas (f FEL) Esophagitis (2 APA) Felon (f CRC JLH) Fever (f CRC DAW) Fistula (f FEL) Fracture (f CRC DEM) Gangrene (f CRC) Gastrosis (12 APA GMH PHR PH2 SKY) Gleet (f FEL) Gonorrhea (f DEM) Gout (f CRC HH2 PH2) Heartburn...

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Scientists have also studied a range of other possible causes, including EPSTEIN-BARR and other HERPES infections, the yeast organism CANDIDA ALBICANS, and immune system or hormone regulation problems. Many of these problems are found among CFS patients, but scientists have not yet been able to establish any of them as the source of CFS. CMV See cytomegalovirus.

Complications Related to Cesarean Delivery

Complications of vaginal birth for an infant include birth trauma (fractured limbs or injured nerves resulting in paralysis of an arm), asphyxia (lack of oxygen) causing brain damage, and acquiring an infection from the mother's birth canal (herpes simplex virus or group-B streptococcus). Complications of ce-sarean birth for infants include lacerations from the surgeon's knife and a respiratory illness caused by the failure of excess fluid to be cleared from the infant's lungs.

Candidate Diseases For Cutaneous Gene Therapy

The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) has been on the rise in the last years. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common malignancy of the epidermal keratinocytes. Due to the advantages that make the skin an amenable tissue for gene transfer, MM and SCC are frequently used as models for tumor-specific gene therapy. Different strategies have been applied for both conditions. For instance, adenoviral-mediated transfer of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase ''suicide'' gene (tk) by direct intratumoral injection, followed by gan-ciclovir administration, was used to treat human MM established in nude mice (179). In a different study using the B16 melanoma model, a synergistic effect was observed when combination therapy by adenovirus-mediated transfer of tk and IL-2 or tk and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was used (180). Similar approaches have been em

Summary and conclusion

A second important question -not addressed by this review for limited space- regards the nature of these viruses and whether they have been isolated before. In view of the persis-tent long-lasting infections they can initiate, an easy comparison association is with EBV, which infects H. sapiens in early childhood youth (depending from geographic areas), then remaining latent, and has been also associated with lymphomagenesis and other human cancers. Indeed, in the hospital-safari's expeditions of Dennis Burkitt, there was a second type and non-Herpes virus (not EBV) constantly isolated 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 (also Jay Levy Thomas Bell, personal communications). All the data available today point toward a virus similar to MFV MFRVs in this sense and in view of our MFRVs data,

Skin lesions disorders and diseases

Herpes simplex cold sore this is caused by a virus living in the skin of the lips. It produces an eruption around the mouth that starts as an itchy red patch and develops into vesicles or a weeping blister, which then form a crust. It is very contagious. Do not treat the face of a client with cold sores. Herpes zoster shingles is caused by a virus that attacks the posterior root ganglion of a sensory nerve. It may lie dormant until the body is under stress when it erupts and produces vesicles along the pathway of the nerve. This condition can be very irritating and the pain may be severe. Clients with shingles would normally feel too ill to come for treatment, which is contra-indicated anywhere near the area.

What about [Fill in the Blank Other Possible Causes

Over the years, a number of other causes of autism have been suggested. There is some evidence, although it is controversial, that infections during pregnancy or in the first years of life may contribute to the development of autism in a very small number of children. For example, studies in the 1960s and '70s found that approximately 10 of children exposed to the rubella virus in utero developed autism. Other studies found that infections with the herpes simplex virus, which can cause brain swelling and brain damage, can in very rare cases lead to autism in a previously healthy person.

Exanthem subitum See Roseola

Eye infections The most common infection of the eye is CONJUNCTIVITIS, also known as pinkeye. Most of these infections are caused by bacteria (such as staphylococci) or by viruses associated with a cold, sore throat, or illness such as MEASLES. Viral conjunctivitis is the version that often appears in schools, sweeping through classrooms in massive epidemics. Newborns may contract a type of conjunctivitis from their mothers during birth. This type of infection may be caused by common bacteria, organisms responsible for GONORRHEA or genital HERPES, or by a

Hematopoietic Systems And In The Skin

Alternatively, a dominant-positive selectable marker gene can be coexpressed with a negative selectable marker such as thymidine kinase from Herpes simplex virus (HSV-TK) (105,106). The latter approach allows selective elimination of transduced cells. Such an approach may increase the safety of gene transfer if cancer cells contaminating hematopoietic cell preparations are inadvertently rendered drug-resistant, or if transduced cells become malignant (51,107). Selective killing of MDR1-HSV-TK transduced cells in vivo has been demonstrated (106). Thymidine kinase may not only facilitate selective killing of cancer cells but instead increase the efficacy of certain selectable marker genes. A bicistronic vector in which thymidine kinase was combined with dihydrofolate re-ductase displayed enhanced resistance as compared to a construct that contained a neomycin phosphotransferase instead of thymidine kinase (108). The authors concluded that thymidine kinase may be useful to salvage...

Evidence for the association between Mfvmfrvs and prostate cancer 41 The Interferon IFN pathway

The fact that inflammation, BPH and PCa typically occur in the prostate peripheral area, with almost no tumours in the central zone. This led initially LM Franks to hypothesize that in prostate cancer, the inflammatory effects are always accompanied by hyperproliferation and or atrophy necrosis 126 . Later, McNeal et al. have elaborated the same concept, by noticing in 1988 that in the whole gland, there is a clear-cut zonal distribution 125 . Out of 88 tumours studied, the majority (68 ) arose in the peripheral gland, while 24 in the transitional zone and only 8 in the central gland zone. As mentioned, this suggests that infection through ascending urethra could be a responsible associated factor 125 136 119 . Although bacteria have been initially suspected as responsible for inflammatory phenomena and as causes of carcinogenesis (Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Clamydia Trachomatis, Trichomonas Vaginalis, and Treponema Pallidum), such intepretation has been reconsidered in post-antibiotics...