Treating gum disease with homemade remedies

Freedom From Dental Disease

The Primary Care Oral Health Action Pack can Favorably change the way you look at your oral health and what affects it. Increase your knowledge of YOUR teeth and gums, YOUR entire oral environment and yes, your SMILE! Reveal the TRUE CAUSE of cavities, decay of bone and tissue and disclose the proper biological balance. Put YOU in command over this contagious, yet EASILY preventable disease which runs rampant thoughout our population. Allow you to TAKE ACTION to restoring your teeth and gums to optimum health while preventing further decay and damage, as well as preventing any potentially related problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and so on. How to Become Dentally Self Sufficient. Research Advocates OraMedics The science behind the program! The 7 Factors Transcript - Dr. Nara's Last speech before the World Health Federation. Read more here...

Freedom From Dental Disease Summary


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Desquamative Gingivitis

Desquamative gingivitis is a term used to describe a clinical reaction pattern that may be seen in a number of disease processes. It refers to a clinical condition in which the gingiva exhibits atrophy, erosion, and ulceration and possibly a positive Nikolsky sign (27,28). The term is used in a nonspecific manner, as are the terms leukoplakia and erythroplakia, which refer to white and red lesions, respectively, which cannot be attributed to any specific disease process. The designation desquamative refers to the separation of the epithelium from the connective tissue.

Medications and Their Effects on Gum Disease

You may be unaware that certain medications can cause changes to your gum tissue and promote gum disease. The most common of these are antiseizure medications taken for epilepsy. Dilantin, for example, is a drug that can create gingival overgrowth, which has the appearance of thickened tissue and loosened gums. Antidepressants such as Paxil, Elavil, and Zoloft create gingival overgrowth and swellings throughout the mouth. Studies have shown that these changes take place on a cellular level and create a more dense tissue. Another drug that causes overgrowth to gum tissue is cyclosporine, used for immunosuppression in people who have had transplants and people with multiple sclerosis.

The History of Gum Disease

Knowledge of gum disease dates back as far as 1746, when Dr. Pierre Fauchard, a surgeon-dentist who is known as the father of modern dentistry, wrote a paper titled Le Chirurgien Dentiste that described gum disease. Dr. Fauchard advised patients to wash out their mouths with tepid water after having cleaned their teeth. After they rinsed, he advised patients to rub the teeth from below In 1845 Dr. John Hankey Riggs was the first to call attention to gum disease in America. Periodontal disease thus became known as Riggs disease. Few professionals currently refer to gum disease as Riggs disease, however. Today's terms are gum disease, periodontal disease, or gingivitis. My own approach is much the same as his to treat the condition as a curable disease by cleaning the pockets surrounding the teeth. With a thorough cleaning, the bacteria and toxins are removed from between the teeth and surrounding bone, thus reversing gum disease. Dr. Riggs is given credit for designing scalers and...

Understanding Gum Disease

Arbre Dessin

With increased awareness of periodontal disease and a greater selection of dental hygiene products available, why is gum disease the most commonly diagnosed health problem among today's American adult population, affecting approximately 40 million people Since this disease of the mouth has a destructive nature, it is important that you follow the guidelines described in this book to help begin the healing process. People have been losing their teeth as part of the aging process however, with routine cleanings and good home care, we can all keep our natural teeth. If you exercise preventive care, it is not unreasonable to expect your teeth and gums to last a lifetime. To understand gum disease in simple terms, think of your teeth rooted in bone the way a plant is rooted in soil. If the soil supporting the plant begins to erode, the plant will The first stage of periodontal disease is called gingivitis gingiv (gum tissue) and itis (inflammation). This initial stage is characterized by...

Systemic Diseases Affecting Early Onset of Periodontal Disease

It's important to know that some children may have systemic problems that affect the gum tissue. Juvenile diabetes affects the gums at an early age. Other systemic conditions affecting the periodontal condition of your child are associated with Down's syndrome (Mongolism). Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease that is associated with prepubes-cent periodontitis. Your child can also develop prepubes-cent periodontitis, but this is rare. ANUG (acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis) is also a systemic condition that affects the onset of periodontal disease. ANUG These illnesses can be a cause of early onset of periodontal disease, but not in the majority of cases. Children who are healthy have little tartar and strong bone development. With a healthy environment and proper oral hygiene, your child will develop into a healthy tooth candidate with solid bones and gum support. Children must develop good hygiene habits early on, so that these habits...

Summarizing the Contributors That Can Lead to Gum Disease

The key problems that can create the onset of gum disease lie strictly with each individual. Simply speaking, you must develop good oral hygiene habits at an early age. If this hasn't happened yet, then I hope my book will help motivate you to develop good oral hygiene habits. Don't wait till your mouth becomes a serious problem. Gum disease comes on quietly, but like a volcano, it can erupt quickly. Here are some of the causes of gum disease that you should try to eliminate in your life.

Reversing Gum Disease Naturally

Praise for Reversing Gum Disease Naturally Reversing Gum Disease Naturally emphasizes the blending of the classical and holistic approaches to oral hygienic health care. Sandra Senzon, R.D.H., emphasizes the gentle, natural nurturing of the gingival tissues in order to resist bacterial invasion, and thus maintain your proper gingival health. She also stresses the concept of teeth lasting for a lifetime through enlightened prevention, including proper home care and oral hygiene. This book allows the patient to be an active participant along with healthcare professionals. Reversing Gum Disease Naturally presents techniques and information so that you can reverse already unhealthy states in your mouth or prevent the onset of gum disease. Sandra Senzon enhances patients' oral health through traditional as well as holistic methods. After reading Sandra Senzon's book, there is a ray of hope at the end of the tunnel for all those who suffer from gum disease. We ultimately don't have to lose...

Children and Gum Disease

If your children are poorly motivated and do not want to take care of their teeth, this can lead to future gum disease. Prevention is the best method of reversing gum disease. Thus a fun and playful hygiene home care station is a necessity in your bathroom. If your child has his or her own bathroom this can be easy to implement. If you have to share the bathroom, then create separate hygiene stations. Allow each child to have an area that is his or her own. Lighting is very important, and if you can find a good magnifying mirror, this might help your child see the back of his or her teeth. Have music available so that you and your family can brush and massage your gums with rhythm.

Potential Implications of Stress Hormone Research Upon Periodontal Disease

There are many host related factors that may tip the microbe-host balance in favour of periodontal disease progression including smoking and psychological stress. The mechanisms whereby psychological stress effects the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases have yet to be fully elucidated, however the studies investigating the effects of stress hormones upon organisms found further along the gastrointestinal tract highlighted a number of potential avenues of research, which could be translated to the oral environment. Gram-negative bacterial signalling molecules. Further, these investigations have shown the potential importance of norepinephrine-induced autoinducers in relation to infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative organisms. As a result, the Gramnegative organisms associated with periodontal diseases were an obvious target to commence a research effort investigating the catecholamine responses of oral organisms. Before a screen of dental plaque organisms for catecholamine...

Etiology of Gum Disease

Gum disease arises as a result of bacterial infection of the gums, especially at the tooth margins. It is often assumed that excessive accumulation of plaque, arising from inappropriate dietary habits, is a factor in this condition, but there is little evidence for any material influence of diet. The milder forms of gum disease are extremely common in all populations. More severe disease is the most frequent cause of tooth loss in older people. The best form of protection from gum disease is regular tooth brushing.

Working with Holistic Products for the Natural Reversal of Gum Disease

We've come a long way from the standard brush-and-floss routine. We have many alternative home dental care products that reach into every groove and crevice around the teeth and under the gum. If you have been told to brush and floss and are frustrated because you are not doing it properly, don't fear there are alternatives to flossing. There have been new developments in hygiene and new products introduced. For example, there is now a proliferation of holistic products made from natural sources such as flowers and plants. It is important to use natural products for the body to heal with the least amount of toxicity. Read on, and you will see the advantages to using natural products for reversing gum disease as you learn how to properly clean your teeth and gums.


Tea tree oil was as effective as chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans, the bacteria that causes gingivitis, in a controlled study of 30 individuals (Groppo et al 2002). A more recent double-blind, randomised, longitudinal, study evaluated and compared the effects of tea tree oil gel (2.5 ) and chlorhexidine gel (0.2 ) in 49 patients with severe chronic gingivitis (Soukoulis & Hirsch 2004). Subjects brushed with the tea tree, chlorhexidine or placebo gel twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Tea tree oil significantly reduced the papillary bleeding index and gingival index, but did not reduce plaque.

Periodontal Disease

CoQ10 is used both topically and internally for the treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Topical application has been shown to improve adult peridontitis (Hanioka et al 1994) and a small open study has shown that oral CoQ10 supplementation can produce dramatic results within 5-7 days, making location of baseline biopsy sites impossible (Wilkinson et al 1975).

How to Start Caring for Your Gums at Home

Do not rush the process, or you will irritate the gums and cause more harm than good. If your gums bleed and you are frightened to work on them because you think you may make the condition worse, seek the advice of a professional. Bleeding gums can be a sign that there is disease still present. However, with a gentle massage, the healing blood cells generally will surface to start reversing the disease naturally. Salt water and herbal rinses will help soothe any irritated tissue. Also, start taking a multiple vitamin B complex daily along with vitamin C. This will help in the natural healing process of your gums. If you feel you are under a lot of stress (which is a major cause of gum disease), take a multiple vitamin with zinc. Keep the gum pockets clean and gently floss. If you find that flossing is too hard at this point and causes pain, then work only with oral rinses of herbs and salt. In a few days, when your gums feel stronger, you can return to flossing.

Breaking the Thumb Sucking Habit

Thumb sucking can be a cause of gum problems in children. There are germs on your childrens' fingers, and with thumb sucking they are constantly transmitting these germs into their mouths. The germs will be transferred to the soft gum tissue and the teeth. The gum tissue will get inflamed, leaving a red line or marginal gingivitis. Thumb sucking is also bad because it can push the teeth out of alignment, and in one's adult years this can cause gum disease. The malaligned teeth become food traps, and the tissue can get irritated from food and bacteria that lie under the gum. So try to help break your child's habit at a young age.

Leukemia and Other Diseases

The oral cavity can be a diagnostic indicator for many diseases of the immune system. The lymphocytes (white blood cells, or disease-fighting cells) are the key cells of the immune system. Systemic diseases characterized by reduced host defense include diabetes and Down's syndrome. They are usually accompanied by severe gum disease. Leukemia is another disease that shows up in the gum tissue. In certain forms of leukemia, there is increased susceptibility to infection and periodontal disease. Gum disease is a problem because of the immunosuppression associated with the

Teaching Your Child about Gum Massage

It's easy to prevent gum disease in children, and they have a better cleansing saliva than adults. The saliva is thinner and less acidic, which lessens plaque formation. Still, proper massage of the gums at an early age is important. You can help your children to find their gum line (where the teeth meet the gums). While children rarely get gum disease, they can become candidates for future gum disease if they do not massage their gums effectively. Massaging the gums will lead to healthy tissue.

Toothbrush Abrasion and Stress

Losing Enamel Gum Line Abrasion

This can end up ridging the enamel of your teeth. Enamel is a veneer that can be ridged by a hard brush or heavy-handed brushing. The ridge line that many professionals see is close to the gum line. This ridge can become a holding place for food and plaque to attach to. This area, if grooved deeply, will collect bacterial plaque that can be a cause of gum disease. If toothbrush abrasion causes you pain and sensitivity, then you may not be working effectively at removing the plaque and tartar from your gums.

Why Stress Is the Culprit

Stress is a result of an endocrine and hormonal imbalance. It affects the normal balance of your body and can lead to gum disease. The mouth mirrors many conditions of the body, especially those caused by stress. Headaches, which are usually stress-related, can restrict blood flow to the head. As a result of the loss of blood flow, you can get a headache. Chronic stress can lead to gum disease by reducing the strength of the immune system, which leads to growth of bacterial plaque. This bacterial plaque can invade the gum structure and lead to loose, inflamed tissue, as well as possible bone loss. If you are stressed out and not paying much attention to your body's needs, you may be the victim of a poor diet, an important factor in gum disease. Most people who are under the influence of stress eat improperly. Your diet may consist of quick bites of food, sugar, or alcohol, and reduced intake of fluids. If you eat a high-sugar diet, you are certain to have a more acidic saliva, and...

What about Electric Toothbrushes

Circulation of the gum tissue provides a good supply of blood to the tissue. Toughening and increasing the circulation of the gum tissue will reverse gum disease in a natural way. It can help to tighten the tissue and bring the proper source of blood to the inflamed site.

How to Work with a Conventional Dental Practitioner in Natural Healing

Not all dentists employ or are natural healers themselves. It is more the norm to have a dentist work in a conventional style. If you have selected a conventional dentist and still wish to use his or her services, then I would suggest that you locate a holistic dental hygienist in addition to help you reverse gum disease naturally.

Motivating Your Child

Poorly motivated children are candidates for gum disease. You are their guardian to help them prevent the onset of the disease. Highly motivated children have highly motivated parents those who continue to work with their own hygiene problems help to motivate their children. Make sure to compliment or reward your child for good oral hygiene, and compliment your child's smile. As just discussed, set up a fun and playful work station help your children love their teeth by using fun products such as Look for a clean, cheerful office where the professional emphasizes the prevention of tooth decay and gum disease. Diet Examine your diet. If you are not eating correctly, then try a high-protein diet, eating more vegetables and more protein-rich foods. Stop consuming lots of sugar in your diet. Eating a high-sugar diet will cause the plaque to build up with bacteria. Make sure to eat three balanced meals a day, drink plenty of water, and stay away from breads and processed foods. This will...

Why Diet Plays an Important Role

Diet is important in controlling periodontal disease because bacteria in the mouth use sugars for energy and reproduction. When your oral hygiene is poor and your diet is high in sugar, more bacteria are produced. The higher bacterial level will then inflame the gums and may increase plaque formation, resulting in gum disease. If we consume a high-sugar diet, the body will produce more bacteria in the mouth. Stress, combined with such a sugar diet, adds acid to our saliva and will show its results in gum disease. (It also may lead to hypoglycemia.) Studies have shown that it is more harmful to eat sugar-containing foods between meals than it is to eat them with meals. We need vitamins and minerals in our diet. Vitamins help regulate our metabolism. A diet high in fiber and fruits and vegetables will help to reverse gum problems naturally. Most important, we need the fats and proteins that provide the energy that helps build the cells of our body. To reverse gum disease naturally, we...

Various Essential Oils

However, the demand for natural, holistic care products has been increasing. Even though it is an old treatment method, it is rarely used in modern medicine, and is even less common in the prevention of gum disease. Many health food stores now have their shelves stocked with natural herbal products, but it has been only in the last five years that these products have become available in commercial drug chains.

The Tooth Spa Hygiene Station

About going to a spa Perhaps the decor of the room, the aroma, the music, and the soft massage treatments. You too can make your bathroom into a spa facility for your teeth and gums and, most important, create an added healing effect toward reversing gum disease naturally.

The Role Tobacco Plays

Tobacco use is an important risk factor in periodontal disease. It is likely that tobacco suppresses certain components of the immune system. Impaired neutrophil (white blood cell) function, induced by the use of tobacco-containing products, appears to have an impact on the gums. In fact, smoking can irritate and stretch the gum tissue. Smoking also suppresses the immune system, leaving you open to frequent infections and gum problems. Tobacco also decreases the vitamin C level in the body, which is needed to build healthy gum tissue.

The Natural Process of Healing How It Begins

The natural reversal process of gum disease starts with proper instrumentation in the dental office. If you have gum disease, the first step is to go to a dentist's office for a cleaning. Dental hygienists and dentists are trained specifically to treat the gums and provide proper cleanings to help eliminate the hardened material or tartar that attaches to the tooth and root structure. It is important for the hygienist or the dentist to do a thorough cleaning and to work with hand instruments (see chapter 6) for these Your mouth may require more than one cleaning it all depends on the severity of your condition. If your mouth is in the second or third stage of periodontal disease, then you might have to return for three or four treatments. A return for maintenance can be as frequent as four or five times a year. After a root planing treatment (a cleaning of the roots so that healing can take place), the tissue will begin to reattach to the root and return to a healthy state. After the...

Seeds Berries and Leaves Seeds

Perennial shrub that grows in Europe. The major difference between the two is that the American blueberry is white or cream-colored inside, while the European bilberry is purple. Bilberries and bilberry extract can be found in health food stores. Berries have an astringent and antiseptic effect on the mouth, and help in reducing infections due to gum disease. They help in circulation and healing tissue. Take a mouthful of bilberries and chew them very, very slowly. Then expel them if you want. Bilberries and many other berries are rich sources of minerals, vitamin C, and beta-carotine, as well as flavonoids and other compounds that have a marked antiseptic action. If you eat them slowly, the nutrients will be absorbed by the tissue. Other berries good for gum tissue are strawberries, black currants, and cherries. Blackberries are known to heal teeth and gums. Many people in the old days drank blackberry tea for healthier gums and teeth. Blackberry is known for its tonic, antiseptic,...

Nail Biting Thumb Sucking

These oral habits, which arise from stress, can cause gum disease. The nails beds are loaded with bacteria and when placed in the mouth can contribute to an environment rich in bacteria, thus irritating the gum tissue. Think about it You touch things all day that are laden with bacteria and then you place your fingers in your mouth, chewing the nail off and leaving the bacteria to invade the soft tissues of your mouth. These stress-related habits can contribute to gum infection and may even contribute to gum abscesses. If you have a cut on your gum and then bite your nails, the bacteria that are introduced can lodge in the cut, causing an abscess.

Handling Pain and Fear

Pain can be considered a major cause of dental problems and gum disease. If you are afraid of pain and associate visits to the dentist or hygienist with a painful experience, you probably will not be visiting your dentist office often enough. Missing your regular check-ups will lead you to neglect your teeth and gums, and can result in the onset of gum disease. Is pain always present when there is gum disease No, not always. Pain is not present when your gums are inflamed, bleeding, or swollen. However, any problems that cause pain in the mouth may also contribute to gum disease. For example, disease can become a secondary problem if you have pericoronitis (swollen gums around the wisdom teeth). The tissue can become inflamed as a result of the crowding, and bacteria lodged in one area can spread to adjacent tissue. An abscess an area in the gum filled with pus may be painful. If your mouth is sore because of temporomandibular disorder, then the surrounding tissue can also be...


If you are grinding and clenching your teeth in your sleep, you will have little control over the habit. A night guard or splint can be made to enable you to keep your teeth apart at night. If you feel that you can wear this comfortably, make an appointment with your dental professional to have one made. Your dentist will take an impression, make a mold, and send the mold to a lab to make you a customized night guard or splint. Night guards sold in drugstores over the counter will not fit properly, and can irritate the gum tissue. An ill-fitting night guard or tray can be the cause of gum disease.

Natural Toothpaste

Calendula toothpaste is a natural toothpaste that can act as a homeopathic antiseptic. Calendula, also known as marigold, is an annual herb that helps reduce gum disease naturally. It works well with echinacea toothpaste. Propolis is a sticky substance gathered by bees from the leaves and bark of trees. Bees use this substance to form the walls of their hives. Propolis has astonishing antibiotic properties and is highly effective against infections in the mouth. It is an excellent substance in reversing gum disease. It has anti-inflammatory agents, and contains traces of minerals vital to healthy bone for the support of your teeth. It not only acts as a powerful local antiseptic that soothes, but it has a mild local anesthetic effect that accelerates healing. Toothpaste containing propolis is useful in fighting off infections caused by periodontal disease.


The mouthwash used in my office is Bioforce Echinacea, an herbal mouthwash. It is a natural holistic composition of herbs that contains echinacea. Echinacea has been found to be a good wound healer for the oral cavity. I use it during gum cleansing. The mouth needs to be healed and soothed from time to time, and echinacea is soothing to the gums and can be used for prevention of soreness. It can help reduce fungus in your oral cavity, a cause of gum disease. I tell my patients to alternate it with water in an oral irrigator. It helps to moisturize and soothe the gum tissue while the action of the irrigator is at work. The mouth constantly needs to balance the pH level. Stress and spices added to foods alter the pH of the mouth. To stimulate the gums, put a drop of mouthwash on your toothbrush and massage the tissue. Other natural mouthwashes on the market are fortified with goldenseal, another herbal extract. There are many natural mouthwashes, and most of them can be found in health...

Cheek Biting

Chewing on the lining of your cheeks and biting your lips may be a nervous habit. This may lead to ulcers and irritation. Irritation of your cheeks will make it difficult for you to effectively perform oral hygiene, thus possibly leading to gum disease. Ulcers in your mouth can spread and irritate the gum tissue.


Lichen planus is a chronic disease related to the immune system, often affecting people in middle age. It affects the mucous membranes of the mouth. You may see a white lacy line on the gingiva (gum tissue). You may be prone to plaque retention on the teeth and therefore develop gingivitis.


Calendula is an herb that has a wonderful effect on chronic gum disease. If your gums are continuously bleeding, you Echinacea is often called coneflower, and is found in the Great Plains region of North America. Echinacea acts as an external wound healer and an anti-inflammatory. Echinacea is beneficial to use for gum disease and should be placed under the gum either with a sponge applicator, or with your toothbrush topped with toothpaste that has the tincture added to it.

Oral Irrigators

Oral irrigators, such as the Water Pik, can aid in directing natural healing products under the gum and into the pocket of the gum. Using pure distilled water in the oral irrigator with a natural antibacterial such as the extracts mentioned above will help fight gum disease and reverse the process naturally. But it is important to remember to use these tools daily. Using an oral irrigator is like washing your skin. A tincture will not clog your oral irrigator, but if it seems sluggish, flush it out with warm water and vinegar.


Women who enter menopause go through hormonal changes. Usually there is a lack of estrogen and progesterone, which causes osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the thinning and loss of bone structure in the body. In the mouth there can be a form of osteoporosis leading to bone loss surrounding the teeth. The bone supports the teeth and holds them in their sockets. New bone is made by osteoblast (bone-building) cells, and old bone is restored by osteoblasts. However, estrogen in the body reduces osteoblasts, causing bone resorption. The role of progesterone is to stimulate the osteoblasts that aid in new bone formation. Thus progesterone is very important in stimulating new bone growth. Hormones play an important role in gum disease and can be the precursor to the condition. Prior to and during menopause, certain foods can help eliminate your symptoms of gum disease. Papaya, for example, contains phytoestrogen, which can be added to your diet to help increase estrogen in your body. Estrogen...

Web Sites

Many dental practices are now on the Web. You can view my Web site at, which will introduce you to the office. If certain procedures are used and you are interested in these procedures, you can view the information on the Web site. Most Web sites can be categorized as Holistic Dentistry, Gum Disease Prevention, and Cosmetic Dentistry. You can try various search engines and select the category you are most interested in.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is needed for collagen and is needed for building bone cells. Since vitamin C is responsible for the formation of collagen, a constituent of all connective tissue, it is one of the most important vitamins for healthy gums and for proper healing to take place after mouth surgery. Vitamin C deficiency can cause the mouth to be extremely dry, which can lead to tooth decay and gum disease. Because the mouth is a mirror of the body, it may show early signs of vitamin C

Vitamin A

Vitamin A deficiency in the mouth can show up as thin enamel, chalky patches on your teeth, decreased tooth growth, retarded eruption, malpositioned teeth, soft teeth, dry mouth, and defective dentin formation, because it can decrease the activity of new cells. On the other hand, excessive consumption of vitamin A can result in a toxic condition characterized by itching skin, gum disease (gingivitis), and irritability. Other physical symptoms may manifest, such as poor night vision, lack of appetite and vigor, bladder stones, and hyperthyroidism. Note If you have any of the symptoms listed, consult your medical doctor or see a nutritionist.

Toothbrush Massage

Massage is mostly thought of as a total body workout. The gum tissue needs similar treatment. Think of the fragile tissue as loose flabby muscles. Tightening this loose gum tissue can be done with massage. Massage brings circulation and new blood cells to the area of inflammation. In gum disease, you may find swollen, infected tissue that needs repair and reattachment. The best method of creating healing for the gum tissue is a gentle massage with a soft toothbrush. Cooking has taken us to processed food and soft gourmet eating but our gums need a workout that soft foods will not provide.

Tobacco Smoking

Another stress-related habit is smoking. Smoking can destroy your health because cigarettes contain thousands of toxins. Smoking is immunosuppressive, and it may take over three months to reverse the damage it causes. The use of tobacco products puts you at a high risk of periodontal disease. Tobacco smoking has been associated with acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), a severe form of gingivitis. Nicotine use can reduce antibody production, alter T-cell ratios, and reduce the mineral content in the bones. All of these reactions to nicotine can affect your gums. When you look at people who smoke, notice their facial skin. Just as smoking dries the tissue of the face, leaving the skin lined and wrinkled, it also dries out the gums. Knowing that stress is one of the problems that can cause illness and gum disease is very important. But just knowing is not enough it takes willpower and self-control to eliminate the stressful habits. In times of excessive stress, think of your...

Therapeutic Healing

The mouth needs nurturing and healing products to induce a natural reversal of gum disease. Unfortunately, many of us take out our anger on our teeth's fragile gum tissue. (If you realize this, then you are already ahead of the game.) Oral therapeutics, however, strive for healing of the gum tissue. Healing of any tissue of the body needs proper guidance with the right products, and most of all, our own loving touch.

The Teen Years

When your child becomes an adolescent, don't let him or her start neglecting the teeth and gums Teenagers have poor sleep habits and diets they often eat high amounts of sugar and usually have little time to eat a well-balanced diet. Fast-food meals are not nutritious for a young adult. Living this kind of lifestyle can lead to gingivitis, an upset in the flora of the mouth that leads to bleeding gums and loose gum tissue. If not attended to, it can cause periodontal disease.


Silicon is needed for connective tissue, for DNA synthesis, and in maintaining artery walls. It is found in bone-building cells and collagen. It can decrease calcium and increase magnesium in the blood. A silicon deficiency might mean that your bones break more easily. With this deficiency you can have a weaker support of the bone that surrounds the teeth, which is a cause of gum disease. Foods high in silicon are pumpkin, rhubarb, strawberries, and sunflower seeds.

Signs of Disease

There are many signs that indicate the presence of gum disease. They can include Halitosis, or bad breath. An end product of this disease process and tissue breakdown is very often mouth malodor, or halitosis, commonly called bad breath. Although halitosis is a common symptom of periodontal disease, it may be caused by other health problems or conditions as well, such as gastritis (acid stomach). If your breath is sour in the morning, it might be due to dehydration or loss of saliva during sleep. And certain allergies can leave a bacterial mucous that mixes with your saliva and causes bad breath. Many medications also have side effects that can leave you with bad breath. Therefore, you should seek out a professional for a diagnosis of what is causing the halitosis. Malpositioned teeth. Another warning sign of periodontal disease is loose and malpositioned teeth. Teeth will move out of place due to bone loss. If your teeth are moving out of position and seem to overlap, or if gaps are...


This takes two forms lack of at-home care and lack of professional care. If you neglect to do proper home care (oral hygiene) through simple laziness, or have never been shown how to work properly on your mouth, then you probably have gum disease. Start reversing the process of gum disease now, by using the proper products with the right amount of knowledge and discipline. Second, a lack of professional care can lead to gum disease. Having your teeth cleaned only every three years is not enough A good, thorough cleaning should be done two or three times a year, and may be needed more frequently. Don't be lazy about it. Make cleaning your mouth a priority, and schedule an appointment today


When you exercise regularly, you begin to improve the condition of your heart and lungs. Exercise releases toxins from your body and improves your stamina. It increases your blood circulation and your joint mobility. It also alleviates premenstrual stress or stress experienced during menopause. It strengthens your bones by increasing their mineral content therefore, it helps in reducing osteoporosis and enhances the bone level in your mouth. The bone in your mouth surrounds the roots of your teeth, giving the teeth support. So if you exercise regularly, you will reduce gum disease and increase the circulation that is needed for healthy gum tissue.


If your diet is high in sugar, then you are encouraging bacteria to thrive. As a reminder, sugar turns to acids in your mouth. If you have acidic saliva, then you are more apt to have free excess calcium in the mouth. If free acid arises in the mouth, you will then develop chronic gum inflammation, which will lead you to gum disease. To reverse this pattern, try to reduce your sugar intake. I have noticed that people who drink large amounts of coffee have a larger tartar buildup in their mouth. These people especially build up tartar in the glandular area on the lower anterior teeth. If I look into a patient's mouth and notice a lot of plaque or calculus, loose teeth, or receding gums, I realize that the pH of the


Certain diseases can contribute to gum disease. (See chapters 2 and 11 for more information.) Anemia is a condition that reduces red blood cells and can cause the onset of gum disease. Oral effects shown in alcoholics and smokers are reflected as gum disease. Cancer of the head and neck can cause gum disease. Gum disease is a problem here because of the immunosuppression of the disease.


Conditions such as diabetes can appear as gum disease and be the causative factor of the problem. Diabetes is a chronic degenerative disease caused by a lack of the hormone insulin. Insulin is essential for the proper metabolism of blood sugar. Excessive glucose (blood sugar) in the body's system is toxic. People with diabetes have abnormally high carbohydrate and sugar in their diets. Gum disease and dental problems are more prevalent in patients with diabetes and excessive glucose levels. People with diabetes also have a tendency to have bad breath due to excess acid in their systems. It is well known by dental professionals that patients with diabetes have dry mouths, and that less oxygen is consumed by their system. The lack of oxygen to the mouth can cause the gum tissue to dry out and loosen. Loose gum tissue can lead to pockets that then become a holding place for food and bacteria, and the bacteria under the gum can eat away the bone. In addition, people with diabetes have...

Denial of Problems

If we deny the problems and symptoms of gum disease they will not get better, but worse. Follow the steps in the previous chapters to find a quality professional, and remember home care in dental hygiene is 90 percent of the cure So start the process and work on your mouth. Besides, worry, which is tied to stress, only exacerbates the poor condition of the mouth. And don't forget, denial of problems only postpones the inevitable, and conditions will persist and get worse if not attended to.


Copper is needed as an enzyme catalyst. Copper works with iron in the formation of hemoglobin. It also is a product of collagen (connective tissue) and of many enzymes. If there were a deficiency, there would be poor iron assimilation, leading to anemia and scurvylike bone damage. With this deficiency you can have bone loss and resulting gum disease. Foods rich in copper are grains, vegetables, nuts, fish, molasses, raw milk, and fruits.


Anemia is most prevalent in women who are menstruating or pregnant and African Americans are prone to getting sickle cell anemia. If you have this condition, you should know that you can have serious calcium loss. The chances of gum disease are great for anyone who has this condition, because calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones. If you have a shortage of calcium, it may affect the supportive bone structure that holds the teeth in their sockets.

Flossing Products

It is important to get in between the teeth and floss in a natural way. Products such as floss infused with natural herbs are easily obtained in health food stores. While floss is a treated string, if it contains natural herbs, it can assist in directing the herbal ingredients into the space between the teeth. Natural ingredients directed into areas that collect food and bacteria can assist in reversing gum disease naturally. So make sure you wrap the floss around the tooth under the gum.

Recent advances in antiplaque agents Chemoprophylactic agents antimicrobial peptides antiquorum sensing approach and

Control of oral biofilms is essential for maintaining oral health and preventing dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. However, oral biofilms are not easily controlled by mechanical means and represent difficult targets for chemical control (Socransky, 2002). With the exception of chlorhexidine and fluoride, few of the existing oral prophylactic agents have significant effects (Petersen & Scheie, 1998 Wu & Savitt, 2002 Scheie, 2003). A likely explanation for this low efficiency is due to the fact that microorganisms organized in biofilms possess characteristics that differentiate them from planktonic cells, such as higher Immunization against oral diseases as dental caries and periodontal disease has been extensively studied in recent decades (Koga et al. 2002 Smith, 2002). The goal would be inhibiting or reducing the virulence of some microbial etiological agents. Several molecules involved in various stages of the pathogenesis of caries and periodontal disease could be...

Quantitative lightinduced fluorescence QLF

Quantitative Light Induced Fluorescence

Through these parameters, it is possible to detect and differentiate caries lesions at an early stage of development, making this system a sensitive method for quantification of enamel caries. Another advantage is that the image can be stored and used to motivate patients to seek healthcare and to prevent dental disease through education during routine preventive care. However, this method is more complicated, since the use of QLF consists of three main steps. The first is lesion detection by the examiner and subsequent capturing of an image of the lesion. Second, quantitative analysis is done of the image. Finally, the third step involves the long-term monitoring of the caries lesions, which enjoys the benefit of an innovative video repositioning part of the software, setting the initial image and the live image based on the geometry of similar fluorescence intensities. For that, it is necessary that the images of the tooth surfaces should be captured in the same position and...

Effect of improved dentition on nutrition and growth in children

If dietary intake alters as a result of caries this could result in an alteration of established growth patterns which are then re-established once the carious teeth are removed. The potential for increased glucocorticoid production in response to pain, decreased growth hormone secretion in response to disturbed sleep pattern, and overall increased metabolic rate during the course of infection are all possible explanations of the observed association between growth and caries. An alternative explanation for the observation would be that pain and infection alter eating habits e.g. if carious teeth become pulpitic, the eating of refined carbohydrates will cause pain and children may avoid such foods resulting in reduced calorific intake. Whichever explanation is accepted for the observed association, the hypothesis that dental disease and growth are related through the common factor of diet are supported by the studies presented and also seem plausible, both biologically, and...

The antiquity of caries Evidences of caries in hominines and early humans

Also, the paleopathological record of the ATE9-1 jaw (Homo sp. - Sima del Elefante site, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), considered the oldest hominine fossil of Western Europe (1.3 million years BP), shows numerous maxillary lesions such as hypercementosis, calculus deposits, periodontal disease, cystic lesions and an anomalous wear facet compatible with tooth picking but no caries (Martinon et al., 2011). The Neanderthals (230,000-30,000 BP) show a high prevalence of enamel hypoplasias, antemortem tooth loss, periodontal disease and abscesses but dental caries is very rare among them (Brennan, 1991 Brothwell, 1963 Grine et al., 1990 Ogilvie, 1989). Six cases (Table 1) of dental caries (0.48 ) have been reported among the approximately 1250 known Neanderthal teeth (Lalueza et al., 1993 Lebel & Trinkaus, 2001 Tillier et al., 1995 Trinkaus et al., 2000 Walker et al., 2011). The presence of caries in Neanderthals suggests the existence of pathogenic dental plaque and dietary conditions...

Malandrinum Homeopathy For Acne Treatment

First-aid uses 271 mountain daisy see Arnica montana mountain laurel see Kalmia latifolia mountain tobacco see Arnica montana mouth, role in digestive system 188 mouth conditions inflammation 104 mouth & throat conditions 85, 92 mouth ulcers 70, 232-33 self-help ailments 232-33 see also individual ailments by name, e.g., gingivitis mugwort see Artemisia vulgaris multiple sclerosis 179

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The ubiquitous use of the Garcinia kola (GK) seed in the western part of Nigeria in the treatment of ailments has existed since ancient times. The seed is used in herbal preparations that are important in traditional African medicine for the treatment of various respiratory diseases, notably the cough and asthma (Adeniji, 2003). It is also used as an antidote to food-borne disorders and snakebites, and has been found to be effective in increasing a low sperm count, as well as sometimes being used as an aphrodisiac. As a herbal medicine, it is involved in the management of dysentery and chest colds. GK seed chewing sticks are used as oral and dental medicaments for diseases such as toothache, mouth ulcers sores, thrush, periodontitis, and gingivitis (Hollist, 2004).

Key factors related to caries prevalence in human populations Physiological or cultural factors

On the other hand, we must consider the effect of social differences in the patterns of food consumption in stratified societies (Cucina & Tiesler, 2003 Gagnon, 2004 Sakashita et al., 1997). There is growing evidence suggesting that members from different social classes, consuming different foods, tend to have different patterns of dental disease. In Copan (Honduras) and Lamanai (Belize), during the Classic Maya Period, elites show lower prevalence of caries than ordinary people. Among low-status burials, there are significantly more caries than in high-status individuals. It was also observed, through an isotopic study, that low-status individuals eat mainly carbohydrates (maize). Stable isotopes studies confirmed that low-status individuals eat mainly carbohydrates (maize), whereas elite individuals consumed much less maize and had easy access to animal protein, and in general, a much varied and cariostatic diet (Reed, 1994). Contrarily, among citizens and slaves from Yin-Shang...

Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid

Crack Cocaine Effects Teeth

Erosive lichen planus, MMP, and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) may have similar clinical features. All may present with desquamative gingivitis (Fig. 32). Frequently in MMP, a gentle stream of air blown tangentially at the surface of the involved gingival mucosa will balloon up the epithelium (Fig. 33). They may be differentiated by DIF testing. In MMP, DIF exhibits a smooth linear deposit of immunoreactants (C3 and IgG) along the basement membrane zone. The Nikolsky sign is positive (Fig. 34). Primary herpes simplex is a febrile illness that exhibits an acute onset of vesicles. FIGURE 32 Desquamative gingivitis in mucous membrane pemphigoid. Note the gingival erythema and erosion. Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical reaction pattern that is seen in a number of disease processes, including lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris. FIGURE 33 Desquamative gingivitis in mucous membrane pemphigoid. Note the epithelial separation produced by directing a gentle stream of...

The new research agenda on the historical relation between caries and food

The main objective of the study of caries and other dental diseases from the anthropological point of view is to recognize long term dietary changes related to historical events, with the purpose of understanding the rise of civilization as an integrated process that articulates not only new subsistence patterns and technologies but also new forms of relationship among human beings. Bioanthropological literature offers several comparative studies of caries among groups with known subsistence patterns and social organization that indicates that dental diseases are less frequent or do not appear in hunter-gatherers, whereas they are more frequent and variable in farmers (Table 2). However, there is not simple or universal explanation for patterns of changes in caries frequencies during human history (Tayles et al., 2000, 2009). Because of the fragmentary nature of the archaeological material the loss of information regarding the number of individuals affected in the population and the...

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

Anorexia Ill-fitting dentures Periodontal disease Oropharyngeal disease Orofacial dyskinesias neurological diseases can significantly impair mobility and physical function. The use of adapted appliances and cutlery in such cases may improve manual dexterity and preserve the ability to self-feed. In older persons with severely impaired function, who are unable to cook, meal delivery services ('meals on wheels') may be an acceptable alternative to home-cooked meals. Tooth loss is another important risk factor for undernutrition. Periodontal disease and edentulism are highly prevalent among the geriatric population and can impair masticatory ability. Older persons who have lost teeth, experience pain on mastication, or receive inadequate dental care should be carefully screened and offered appropriate therapy. The use of dentures may improve food intake. However, where dentures are poorly tolerated, alteration in the consistency of meals is helpful. Dysphagia occurs commonly in older...

Anti Dental Caries Introduction

Dental caries and periodontal disease are major public health problems that bother all countries in the world. Dental carie is an infectious, communicable disease that acid-forming bacteria of dental plaque can destroy tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The mineral content of teeth is sensitive to increases in acidity from the production of lactic acid. So, the infection results in loss of tooth minerals from the outer surface of the tooth and can progress through the dentin to the pulp, finally compromising the tooth vitality. Industrialized nations have controlled the problem with fluoride enriched water and personal hygiene products since early in the 1960s, but cariogenicity remains a crisis that economically burdens the health care system. Dental disease remains a silent epidemic in the world that threatens children and adults. The oral streptococci especially mutans Streptococci are related with the development of...

The Spectrum of Bacterial Catecholamine Growth Induction

Shown is not surprisingly weighted towards species inhabiting the highly innervated gastrointestinal tract, catecholamines have a ubiquitous distribution throughout the mammalian body, and it is now clear that bacteria occupying a wide variety of locations might have similarly evolved the ability to sense changes in the stress hormone levels of their host. For example, in humans, exposure to chronic emotional stress is a significant risk factor in the development of periodontal disease, an inflammatory gum condition for which there is strong evidence of bacterial involvement. Stress hormones such as cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine have all been isolated from saliva and the fluid occupying the gingival crevicula, and are known to increase during stress. Using a serum-based medium and anaerobic culture conditions, Roberts and co-workers showed that norepinephrine and epineph-rine were recognised as stimulatory agents by oral bacteria implicated in causing periodontal disease...

Requirements and Recommendations

See also Cancer Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer Effects on Nutritional Status. Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides. Cereal Grains. Dental Disease. Diabetes Mellitus Etiology and Epidemiology. Dietary Fiber Role in Nutritional Management of Disease. Energy Metabolism. Fructose. Fruits and Vegetables. Galactose. Glucose Chemistry and Dietary Sources. Glycemic Index. Hypertension Etiology. Lipids Chemistry and Classification. Obesity Definition, Etiology and Assessment. Sucrose Nutritional Role, Absorption and Metabolism Dietary Sucrose and Disease. World Health Organization.

Differential Diagnosis

Contrast Media Extravasation

The differential diagnosis of desquamative gingivitis includes erosive lichen planus (Fig. 28), lichenoid drug reaction, MMP (Fig. 32), and PV (Fig. 37). Often, a positive Nikolsky sign (Figs. 33 and 37) may be demonstrated. The Nikolsky sign indicates mucosal fragility and is seen in diseases with defective epithelial attachment and cell adhesion. In MMP, it is often possible to cause a large flap of gingival epithelium to balloon up (Fig. 33) by blowing a gentle, tangential stream of low-pressure air on an eroded gingival surface. This is surprisingly well tolerated by the patient. Gingival erosive lesions are best treated topically, using a custom flexible tray of the type used for topical fluoride application for dental caries prevention but extended to cover the gingival soft tissues. Linear IgA disease may present as desquamative gingivitis (29). Please refer to the discussion of the individual disease processes that often present as desquamative gingivitis (erosive lichen...

Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis A

Vincent's disease Also known as trench mouth, this is a painful bacterial infection and ulceration of the gums, known medically as acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. The condition is relatively rare. Cause Vincent's disease is caused by abnormal growth of microorganisms that are usually harmlessly found in pockets in the gums. Predisposing factors include poor dental hygiene, smoking, throat infections, emotional stress, and impaired immune system. It is usually preceded either by gingivitis or periodontitis (gum infections).

Bloodroot plant Sanguinarine

Chemically, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived from the alcoholic extraction of powdered rhizomes of the bloodroot plant, Sanguinaria Canadensis, that grow in central and south America and Canada. Sanguinarine contains the chemically reactive iminium ion which is probably responsible for its activity. It appears to be retained in plaque for several hours after use, and is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Several clinical studies have been carried out into its effects. A sanguinarine mouth rinse and toothpaste regime given for 6 months during orthodontic treatment reduced plaque by 57 and gingival inflammation by 60 compared with figures of 27 and 21 for the placebo control group. Reviews on antimicrobial mouth rinses including sanguinarine conclude that short-term studies have shown variable but significant plaque inhibitory effects but the effect on gingivitis appears to be equivocal. In respect of its possible modes of action, it has also been...

Distribution of dental caries in Yayoi people

Dental Caries Distribution

We have presented here the frequencies of carious lesions in younger and elderly people according to tooth type in Yayoi people (Fig. 5). It is clear that the frequncy of carious lesions was higher in the elderly (Haraga, 2006). In the modern Japanese, the caries ratios in the first molars of younger and elderly people are very similar (Fig 6). These findings also support the suggestion that most of the caries was found in the root area in Yayoi people, likely following the establishment of periodontal disease.

Prunella vulgaris Macleya cordata

In recent years has studied the biological activity of an extract of Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae), and it found marked cytoprotective, antioxidant radical scavenging, antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. This plant, known as the self-heal , was popular in traditional European medicine during the 17th century as a remedy for alleviating sore throat, reducing fever, and accelerating wound healing. A major constituent of P. vulgaris is rosmarinic acid, a phenolic antioxidant whose content can be as high as 6 . Phytochemical studies indicate that P. vulgaris further contains oleanolic, betulinic, ursolic, 2a,3a-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic and 2a,3a-ursolic acids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins and anionic polysaccharide prunelline. Isoquinoline alkaloids from Macleya cordata R. Br. (Papaveraceae) are another group of biologically active components studied recently. The main alkaloids of this plant, quaternary benzo c phenanthridines (QBA) sanguinarine...

Screening for Responses to Iron and Autoinducer

These studies (Roberts et al. 2005) demonstrated that 15 of the 43 oral bacterial strains tested (the same organisms previously screened for catecholamine responsiveness) gave 45 positive growth responses to a novel stress-associated auto-inducer of growth produced by E. coli. The data supports and extends the previous work performed on organisms found within the gastrointestinal tract (Freestone et al. 2002) as both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were able to respond to the E. coli autoinducer. Thus, the data suggest that stress-related auto-inducers similar to that produced by E. coli may play a role in the growth and development of the sub-gingival biofilm and be implicated in the pathogenesis of those periodontal diseases that are associated with human stress responses (Lyte et al. 1996a). While the E. coli autoinducer does cause statistically significant increases in the growth of sub-gingival organisms at 24-48 h of exposure (Roberts et al. 2005), it could be argued...

Clinical Manifestations

Hand-Schuller-Christian disease (multifocal LCH) has similar bone granulomas along with other systemic manifestations. The skeletal anatomy of the head and neck is prominently involved. Mandibular defects include severe gingivitis, loss of mandibular height, and multiple loose teeth. The skull can have a geographic skull appearance on plain films secondary to multiple lesions. Involvement of orbital bones can result in changes in vision, and blindness can occur. Sellar involvement around the pituitary can lead to hypopituitarism, resulting in short stature and diabetes insipidus (2).

Mouth throat conditions

Symptoms Cold sores, mouth ulcers, dental abscesses, and gingivitis (bleeding gums). The lips may be cracked and dry, with a split running down the center of the lower lip. The tongue is bright red with a white coating, and has a tendency to develop blisters. Extreme thirst, a bitter-tasting mouth, and halitosis are also typical symptoms. A sore throat may occur, producing white mucus and the sensation of having a lump in the throat. Symptoms better For fresh air for fasting. Symptoms worse For heat for sea air for emotional stress.

Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Inherited enamel defects that occur in the absence of a generalized syndrome are collectively designated as amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). The range of enamel malformations observed in patients with AI is classified according to the thickness, hardness and smoothness of the affected enamel. Differences in these parameters are believed to reflect differences in the timing, during amelo-genesis, when the disruption occurred. During tooth formation, enamel first appears on the surface of recently deposited dentin, at the forming dentinoenamel junction. Flaws in the dentinoenamel junction can result in an enamel layer that tends to shear from the underlying dentin. During the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the thickness of the enamel layer increases by appositional growth the continuous deposition of enamel proteins on the existing enamel surface, which is accompanied by the radial movement of the formative cells (ameloblasts) away from the point of secretion and is associated with the...

Treatment Complications and Prognosis

NUG generally responds to initial therapy of debridement, antimicrobial oral rinses, and antibiotic therapy (37). When the process heals, the altered gingival anatomy resulting from tissue loss through necrosis creates anatomic forms that predispose to recurrence of NUG and to the development of chronic periodontitis. NUG may progress from gingival soft-tissue involvement to produce loss of periodontal attachment (necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis) and may extend to involve the adjacent oral soft tissues (necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis). Extension of the infectious process through the soft tissues to the facial skin is termed Noma (cancrum oris).

FIGURE 1 Linear gingival erythema Source Courtesy of the International AIDS SocietyUSA From Refs 3 4

Also known as HIV gingivitis, a fiery red linear discoloration of the gingival margin can be seen in HIV disease, even without significant plaque formation (Fig. 1). Patients complain of spontaneous bleeding or are asymptomatic. Referral to an HIV dental specialist is recommended and usually involves debridement, local care, and systemic antibiotics. Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and stomatitis. Rarely encountered in the asymptomatic HIV-infected individual, this form of periodontal disease occurs in up to 50 of AIDS patients (11). Halitosis is a common complaint, along with severe pain and bleeding. On exam, gingival necrosis of the tips of the interdental papillae with formation of ulcers is found (Fig. 2).

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

GSE has been used as effective medication against many types of internal and external infections caused by parasites, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Furthermore, GSE has been shown to correct yeast imbalances. Several researchers have observed that GSE helps to eliminate Candida yeast infections, thrush, gingivitis, oral infections, colds and flu, sore throat, strep throat, and sinusitis. The beneficial mechanism of the prophylactic activity of GSE depends on the disruption of the organism's cytoplasmic membrane, thereby not allowing the viral or bacterial organism to develop resistance. GSE has been shown also to stimulate the immune system, and was reported to be highly effective against food poisoning and against cholera or dysentery infections, particularly when traveling to Third World countries. It is believed to rid the body of worms and parasites without affecting the beneficial so-called friendly bacteria. Consumption of the bioactive compounds found in grapefruit seed and...

Inflammation Of Mucous Membranes

Topically, sage is used as a gargle for laryngitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, minor oral injuries and inflammation of the nasal mucosa (Blumenthal et al 2000). These uses can be based on the pharmacological activity of its chemical components. In an open-label, single-blind, RCT of 420 patients, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, benzydamine hydrochloride, was found to be more effective than sage in relieving postoperative pain when used as a mouthwash after tonsillectomy in children and adults (Lalicevic & Djordjevic 2004).

Answers To Patients Frequently Asked Questions

Bilberry is used to relieve the symptoms of mild diarrhoea and improve poor night vision, sensitivity to glare, photophobia, peptic ulcers, varicose veins, venous insufficiency and haemorrhoids when taken internally. It is also used as a mouthwash, gargle or paint for mild inflammation of the mouth or throat, such as gingivitis or pharyngitis.

Microbial Neurotransmitters

Stress stimulates the formation and releasing of biogenic amines, in particular epi-nephrine, a hormone produced during stress that affects heart rate, blood circulation and other functions of the body. Microorganisms possess the ability to recognize hormones within the host and utilize them to adapt to their surroundings. Norepinephrine and epinephrine, which are released during human stress responses, may act as environmental cues to alter the growth of individual microbes. The growth stimulation of 43 oral bacteria by norepinephrine and epinephrine was found (Roberts et al. 2002), especially for Actinomyces naeslundii, A.s gerenscse-riae, Eikenella corrodens, and Campylobacter gracilis, and suggest that stress that induces changes in local catecholamine levels in the mouth may play a significant role in the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The bacteria-induced enhanced level of the compounds may be recommended as a valuable diagnostic test in medical practice.

Introduction to the Oral Cavity

Over 700 bacterial species have been identified as residents of the oral cavity (Moore and Moore, 1994 Kroes et al. 1999 Socransky and Haffajee 2000 Paster et al. 2001), and the number of clinical isolates recognised continues to increase with improved methods of isolation and identification. Within the estimated 215 cm2 surface area of the oral cavity (Collins and Dawes 1987), there are several ecological niches, namely tongue, buccal mucosa, saliva and teeth where oral organisms may reside. On the tooth surface, bacteria are found within dental plaque, which is the primary aetiological agent responsible for dental caries and periodontal disease, which are the main causes of tooth loss throughout the world. Understanding dental plaque has therefore become a priority for oral microbiologists and those clinicians responsible for managing caries and peri-odontal diseases.

Plasma Glucose and Insulin Responses

See also Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance. Dental Disease. Diabetes Mellitus Classification and Chemical Pathology Dietary Management. Fructose. Glucose Chemistry and Dietary Sources Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level. Glycemic Index.

Lessons from Other Prevention Efforts

Although the number of successful large-scale obesity prevention programs is limited, there is a wealth of information from past public health programs that can be used to address other chronic diseases and risk factors. The International Obesity Task Force identified 10 key principles on which efforts to prevent obesity at a population level should be based. These are presented in Box 2 and are drawn from experiences addressing cardiovascular disease, smoking, alcohol and drug problems, dental disease, road accidents, and other public health issues.

Your Health The Importance Of Brushing Your Teeth

Tooth decay begins when dental plaque, a layer of bacteria, trapped sugars, and mouth debris, sticks to teeth. Plaque provides a safe haven for bacteria to live and metabolize the bits of trapped food. Bacterial waste consists of assorted acids that damage tooth enamel. Once the enamel is damaged, the bacteria break down the proteins of the tooth and cause tooth decay or cavities. Periodontal disease may result if the plaque builds up on the gums. This buildup, called tartar or calculus, may damage the seal between the tooth and the gums, allowing bacteria to get into the gums and cause serious infections.

Trends in dental caries

As levels of oral disease decreased in the 1980s and 1990s, the oral health of children and adults in the UK has been improving steadily since the 1970s. The average number of decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT a measure of the severity of caries attack in the permanent dentition) at 12 years fell rapidly in the 1980s and has since shown a further steady decline. This has been matched by an increase in the proportion of children who have no evidence of decay. Thus by 2009, only 33 of 12-year-old children had a mean DMFT 0 (a measure of caries prevalence) and the average decay experience was 0.74 DMFT. Nonetheless, those children with treated or untreated dental caries had, on average, 2.21 DMFT and the care index, which is the proportion of that decay which is filled, was only 47 . In addition there was a marked geographic gradient with the north of England showing higher levels of decay than the south of England. For 5-year-olds there has been an overall decline in the...

Dental programs for caries prevention

The process involves a visual dental examination of children in the school setting to identify the presence of dental disease and conditions parents of children who are screened positive are informed and encouraged to take their child to primary care services for further investigation. The WHO has recently endorsed dental screening of children in the school setting, stating that, Screening of teeth and mouth enables early detection, and timely interventions towards oral diseases and conditions, leading to substantial cost savings. It plays an important role in the planning and provision of school oral health services as well as health services. Due to the long history of school dental screening in the UK, the aims of this cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in the UK failed to show that the intervention used in a national school dental screening program significantly reduces active dental caries levels or increases dental attendance rates at the public health level. Milsom,...

Alveolar bone loss in Yayoi people

We attempted to clarify the prevalence of periodontal disease in the Yayoi people. Although periodontal disease is characterized by alveolar bone loss, ascertaining the prevalences of periodontal disease in ancient populations is difficult. Although gingivitis does not leave any trace in ancient bones, periodontal disease causes alveolar bone loss, thus periodontal disease can be evaluated by using the degree of alveolar bone loss as a parameter (Stoner, 1972). Therefore, the establishment of an internationally accepted method for quantifying alveolar bone loss would be helpful. There have been few reports regarding periodontal disease in ancient skeletal remains. Notable exceptions include the studies of Clarke et al (Clarke et al., 1986), Sakashita et al., (Sakashita et al., 1997) and Kerr, (Kerr, 1998) which assessed the prevalence of periodontal disease in ancient populations. Clark et al. (Clarke et al., 1986) investigated ancient human bones stored in 20 museums in 10 countries...

Topical Treatment Of Oral Or Pharyngeal Inflammation

Often used as a component of gargles, mouthwashes or paints for these indications, there are few controlled clinical trials or in vitro studies on the effects of myrrh on cells derived from the human oral cavity. A 2003 in vitro study investigating the effects of myrrh oil on a number of key cells implicated in gingivitis found that low concentrations of myrrh oil reduced gingival fibroblast production of proinflammatory cytokines and, therefore, the participation of these cells in gingival inflammation associated with gingivitis and periodontitis (Tipton 2003). This is thought to be, at least in part, due to inhibition of PGE2 (Tipton et al 2005). Commission E approved myrrh for these indications (Blumenthal et al 2000).

Oral microbiota as a source of probiotics

A promising finding was that lactobacilli population differed in healthy and individuals with periodontal disease. In another study it is observed that healthy persons are populated by L. gasseriand L. fermentum, whereas the predominant species in periodontitis patients was L. plantarum while the first two were undetectable (Koll Kalis et al., 2005). Observations also showed that microorganisms with probiotic properties may really exist and inhabit in the oral cavity. Though, the complexity of biofilm development and interspecies interactions require more detailed investigations in order to state true probiotic candidates with activity in the oral cavity (Stamatova & Meurman, 2009).

Clinical levels

Indicator of septicemia and endotoxemia (Gutteberg et al., 1988). During meningococcal septicemia, LF level in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid is elevated within 18 h of onset as to the same magnitude of the C-reactive protein (Gutteberg et al., 1984). Similarly, an increase in the plasma and serum LF levels during cystic fibrosis seems to correlate with the intensity of the cystic fibrosis protein (Barthe et al., 1989). The estimation of elevated LF concentration with cholecytokinnin secretin (CCK-S) test has been suggested to improve the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (Dite et al., 1989). LF to lysozyme ratio in the crevicular fluid may be helpful in the diagnosis of localized juvenile periodontitis (Friedman et al., 1983).


Geographical Tongue Homoeopathy Remedies

Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis represents the primary infection of the HSV in an individual without prior exposure to the virus, and is accompanied by constitutional symptoms of fever, malaise, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Symptomatic primary infection usually occurs in childhood and is frequently accompanied by painful gingivitis with red, swollen gingiva (Fig. 1). The lesions may affect any mucosal surface, including Both primary herpes simplex and erythema multiforme (EM) exhibit a sudden onset of disease. The lip lesions of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis may bear a resemblance to the crusted lip lesions of EM (Fig. 4). Exfoliative cytology may be useful to differentiate the two by demonstrating the characteristic viral cytopathic effect produced as the epitheliotropic herpes virus replicates within the keratinocytes. Viral culture may also be useful. Lesions of herpangina, caused by the Coxsackie virus, may clinically resemble oral herpes virus infections but typically...


The most common causes of the tooth lost are caries and periodontal disease, following a tooth fracture (Jacobsen, 2008). Data suggests that in most industrialized countries 60-90 of school aged children and almost 100 of adult population are affected by tooth decay (Petersen et al., 2005), with the prevalence, which is more higher in female than male (Lukacs & Largaespada, 2006 Ferraro & Vieira, 2010). For mesio-angular and horizontal impacted lower third molars partially exposed in the oral cavity, occlusal surfaces form plaque accumulative crevices against the distal surfaces of the second molars (Chu et al., 2003). On this way they cause a distal cervical caries on the second molars, though estimates of the rate vary from 1 to 4.5 , which is difficult to be restored without extractions of the impacted teeth. Also, as the gingival margin recedes enamel-cementum junction becomes exposed forming forming a bacterial retention side and on this way forming root surface caries (Jacobsen,...


Often an indication of tooth decay, a toothache may also be a symptom of infection such as gum disease, an abscess (a pus-filled sac surrounding the root of a tooth), or sinusitis (seepage 226). The pain may be sharp and shooting or dull and throbbing it may be continuous, come in waves, or occur only when a decayed tooth comes into contact with sweet foods, or very hot or very cold foods.


Before initiating treatment, the majority of patients showed incipient periodontal disease detected trough the Salivaster test, possibly caused by crowding, which in the majority of patients is the principal motivation for the orthodontic treatment. Likewise, a significant increase of periodontal disease was observed 1 month after initiating orthodontic therapy Patients with orthodontic appliances require special care in terms of prevention caries and periodontal disease. For optimal patient care, it is necessary to analyzed if the changes during orthodontic treatment persist or change upon discontinuation of treatment. However, the best way to combat tooth decay and periodontal disease is the strict control of plaque, for which it has recommended the use of electric toothbrushes, mouthwashes, oral irrigators, and others. But one of the most important parts to maintain oral health is the motivation of the patient. Because orthodontic appliances patients with an increased risk of tooth...

Dental Problems

Dental anomalies in Down's syndrome include changes in tooth structure, reduced total number of teeth, and delayed or abnormal eruption. Together with the physical abnormalities of the facial appearance and oral cavity, these can all impact on feeding. Dental disease is common in Down's syndrome because teeth are more at risk of wear through bruxism and decay due to fragile enamel. In addition, gum disease (gingivitis) and oral infections due to mouth breathing can lead to teeth becoming loose and falling out. A healthy balanced diet, low in sugar-containing fluids and fizzy drinks (including 'diet' varieties), without frequent snacks and plenty of fruit and vegetables will help preserve teeth.


Several complications of pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia, fetal distress, fetal growth restriction, abruptio placenta, fetal death, placenta previa, and multiple gestations, are associated with preterm delivery, either spontaneous or induced. Importantly, developments in obstetric and neonatal care, and the consequent increase in obstetric interventions, are likely to be associated with the increase in rates of preterm delivery observed in recent years. Although several lifestyle factors and conditions have been implicated as possible causes, a definitive etiology has not been determined, making it difficult to identify women at risk and to implement preventive strategies. Poor nutrition, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and drug abuse have been indicated as possible risk factors, as well as young maternal age, poverty, short stature, occupational factors, and psychological stress. In addition, genetic factors are likely to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of pre-term delivery, as...

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