How I Healed my Gout

The Ultimate Gout Diet

Gout and You: The Ultimate Gout Diet & Cookbook is an eBook written by Spiro Koulouris. Spiro Koulouris first found out he had gout in 2002. He was able to reduce his medications to a minimum and achieve a healthier and happier lifestyle just using the dieting and exercise plan he reveals in this book. The book contains a lot of nutrition advice on gout and recipes that can be used in the management of gout. It gives examples of diets to avoid like too much fat and sugar which have mostly empty calories and those that are healthy. It contains an optimized gout diet called the 80-10-10 diet which helps improve conditions of people with gout and helps reduce uric acid levels. This diet is discussed in more detail inside the book. The recipes are easy to follow and are written in a way that newbies can understand. In addition to this, the recipes also help in preventing diseases like diabetes and hypertension. This product is good for people suffering from gout, who want to prevent chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. Read more...

Gout and You Summary


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Author: Spiro Koulouris
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Gout and you: The Ultimate Gout Diet & Cookbook Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

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Origin of the Body Uric Acid Pool in Humans

The body pool of urate, and hence the plasma urate concentration, is the result of a balance between production, ingestion, and excretion. The main causes of high plasma uric acid concentrations are high intake of exogenous nucleic acid in the diet and overproduction of endogenous purine. Eating less meat, seafood, and other high-purine foods (Tables 1 and 2) leads to a lower dietary intake of nucleic acids. In contrast, subjects with genetic defects that remove the usual controls on purine biosynthesis may have overwhelmingly high endogenous levels of the waste product, uric acid. The contribution of the two sources can be assessed by placing the subject on a purine-free diet for 1 week and measuring the urinary uric acid. In this way, fewer than 5 of patients with gout have been found to excrete abnormally large amounts of urate ( 3mmol day) derived from endogenous Figure 4 Schematic diagram showing the role of the kidney in influencing plasma uric acid concentration. In the brush...


Gout is a painful, acute form of arthritis caused by the accumulation of crystals of uric acid in the joints (typically the great toe is the first site to be affected). The pain may be relieved by antiinflammatory drugs or by colchicine, and the accumulation of urate is halted by the drug allopurinol, which inhibits xanthine dehydrogenase. Nevertheless, adopting a low-purine diet has an important role in alleviating the effects of gout. Historically, 'primary' gout affecting predominantly middle-aged males has long been associated with excessive consumption of 'rich' food and drink (Tables 1 and 2). Until World War I, affluent European gentlemen habitually consumed vast nucleic acid-rich meals including many different courses and meats. Alcoholic drinks also played their part, with beer being particularly rich in purines derived from yeast RNA and port a potential cause of lead poisoning from glass bottles and decanters. Both hyperuricemia and gout are relatively common in Polynesians...

Indications Horseradish

Abrasion (f HOO) Allergy (f1 LIB PED) Alzheimer's (1 COX X15231456) Anorexia (f APA DEM) Arthrosis (f1 APA BGB CAN COX X15231456) Asthma (f1 BGB DEM FNF) Atony (f FEL) Bacillus (1 X10548758) Bacteria (12 HHB HH2 KOM X17260672 X10548758) Bronchosis (f12 APA PHR PH2 SKY X16618018) Bruise (f HOO) Cancer (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, abdomen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 FNF) Cancer, colon (f1 FNF JLH X15231456) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, nose (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, skin (f1 FNF JLH WO2) Catarrh (1 KOM PHR X17260672) Chilblain (f GMH) Cholecystosis (f PHR PH2) Cold (f1 DEM SKY) Colic (f APA PH2) Congestion (f1 APA) Cough (f12 GMH PHR PH2) Cramp (f1 HHB WIN) Cystosis (1 LIB PHR) Debility (f BOW) Dental Plaque (f FAD) Diabetes (f DEM LIB) Dropsy (f FEL GMH HHB) Dysmenorrhea (f DEM) Dyspepsia (f PHR PH2 SKY) Dysuria (CAN PED fi PHR) Edema (f BGB CAN) Enterosis (1 PH2 WO2) Epistaxis (f HOO) Escherichia (1 HH2 X17260672 X10548758) Fever (f...

Toxicity of Exogenous Nucleic Acids to Humans

Dietary nucleic acids are digested fully to their component nucleosides and bases, so nucleic acids are not absorbed per se into the body. The potential toxicity to humans of dietary purine bases arises principally because primates lack expression of the gene for the hepatic enzyme uricase. Excess purines are therefore converted to uric acid rather than to the extremely soluble allantoin, as in most other mammalian species. In reptiles, snakes, spiders, and birds, uric acid is the end product of the metabolism of all nitrogenous compounds, analogous to urea in mammals. The main advantage to using this insoluble end product is that there is no obligatory water loss for its excretion, as there is for urea. Consequently, uric acid can be excreted as a slurry by these animals an evolutionary adaptation enabling survival in arid environments. In contrast, in humans, excess uric acid may accumulate in the tubules of the kidney as uric acid stones or as crystals in the interstitium,...

Nutritional summary

Excessive intake Daily doses in the milligram range can cause gout. A number of other adverse effects, including reproductive failure, have been observed in animals w ith daily intakes over 5 mg kg body weight none of these adverse effects has been observed in humans. The tolerable upper intake level has been set at 2 mg d I Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine. 2001).

Dual energy Xray absortiometry DEXA A

Framingham Heart Study Study begun in 1948 to identify constitutional, environmental, and behavioral influences on the development of cardiovascular disease. Framingham data show that increased relative weight and central obesity are associated with elevated levels of risk factors (e.g., cholesterol, blood pressure, blood glucose, uric acid), increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, and increased death rates for all causes combined.

Terebinth pistacia terebinthus l anacardiaceae

Gardens Pistacia Vera California

Adenopathy (f JLH) Albuminuria (f BIB HOC) Amenorrhea (f BIB) Arthrosis (f JLH) Ascites (f DAW) Bite (f HJP) Bleeding (f DEP) Callus (f JLH) Cancer (f DEP HJP) Cancer, brain (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f HJP) Cancer, diaphragm (f HJP) Cancer, face (f HJP) Cancer, lip (f HJP) Cancer, liver (f HJP) Cancer, medullary (f HJP) Cancer, pylorus (f HJP) Cancer, rectum (f HJP) Cancer, spleen (f HJP) Cancer, stomach (f JLH) Cancer, testicle (f HJP) Cancer, tongue (f HJP) Cancer, uterus (f HJP) Cancer, vagina (f HJP) Carcinoma (f JLH) Caries (f EFS) Cheilosis (f JLH) Colic (f DEP) Corn (f JLH) Cough (f HJP) Cyst (f JLH) Dermatosis (f HOC JLH) Diarrhea (f BIB) Diaphragmo-sis (f HJP) Dyspepsia (f DEP HJP) Encephalosis (f JLH) Epithelioma (f JLH) Excrescences (f JLH) Fever (f HJP) Fungus (f X126288418) Gastrosis (f JLH) Glossosis (f JLH) Gout (f HOC) Halitosis (f HJP) Hepatosis (f JLH) Impotence (f HJP) Induration (f JLH) Infection (1 X126288418) Inflammation (f1 HJP X11988853) Mastosis (f JLH)...

Agarwood aquilaria malaccensis lam thymelaeaceae

Aquilaria Malaccensis

Allergy (1 X9324002) Anaphylaxis (1 X9324002) Anuria (f HH2) Asthma (f1 BIB WO2 X9324002) Bleeding (f DEP) Bronchosis (f BIB NAD) Cancer (f BIB) Cancer, colon (f BIB) Cancer, liver (f BIB) Cancer, lung (f BIB) Cancer, stomach (f BIB) Cancer, thyroid (f BIB) Cardiopathy (f IHB) Childbirth (f BIB IHB) Cholera (f HH2) Colic (f BIB DEP) Congestion (f BIB) Cough (f HH2) Dermatosis (f BIB) Diarrhea (f BIB) Dropsy (f BIB) Dysgeusia (f KAB) Enteralgia (f BIB) Enterosis (f BIB) Fever (f1 BIB DEP X8441779) Gastrosis (f BIB) Gout (f BIB DEP) Headache (f NAD) Hepatosis (f KAB) Hiccup (f BIB) Impotence (f KAB) Induration (f BIB) Leukoderma (f BIB KAB) Malaria (f BIB HH2) Nausea (f BIB DEP) Nephrosis (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f BIB) Otosis (f BIB) Pain (f BIB) Palpitation (f IHB) Palsy (f BIB DEP) Paralysis (f BIB) Pulmonosis (f BIB) Rheumatism (f BIB DEP) Smallpox (f IHB) Thirst (f KAB) Tumor (f JLH) Vertigo (f BIB DEP) Wound (f BIB).

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

During lipid oxidation, antioxidants with various functions act in different ways, binding metal ions, scavenging and quenching radicals, and decomposing peroxides. Often many mechanisms are involved, and this can cause synergistic effects. Antioxidants either prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from being formed, or remove them before they can damage vital components of the cell. ROS include singlet oxygen, superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide RNS include nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Antioxidant classification depends on whether they are soluble in water (hydrophilic) or in lipids (hydrophobic, lipophilic). Another classification considers primary (chain-breaking) and secondary (reducing the rate of chain initiation) antioxidants some compounds possess both activities. Antioxidant efficiency is determined by several factors (intrinsic chemical reactivity toward the radicals, site of radical generation, fate of...

Chunagi Herera Books 1996

Bell JD, Margen S, Calloway DH. 1969. Ketosis, weight loss, uric acid, and nitrogen balance in obese women fed single nutrients at low caloric levels. Metabolism 18 193-208. Reiser S, Powell AS, Scholfield DJ, Panda P, Ellwood KC, Canary JJ. 1989. Blood lipids, lipoproteins, apoproteins, and uric acid in men fed diets containing fructose or high-amylose cornstarch. Am J Clin Nutr 49 832-839.

Indications Caper Bush

Adenopathy (f BIB JLH) Aging (f BIB) Allergy (1 X15799005) Amenorrhea (f DEP) Arteriosclerosis (f BIB BOU) Arthrosis (f BIB) Bleeding (f BOW) Cancer (f1 BIB) Cancer, abdomen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, colon (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, groin (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, head (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, kidney (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, neck (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Cataract (f BIB) Chill (f BIB BOU) Cirrhosis (f WO2) Cold (f BIB) Conjunctivosis (f BOW) Cough (f BOW GHA) Cramp (1 HOS) Cystosis (f JLH) Dengue (f BIB HJP) Diabetes (f GHA) Diarrhea (f BOW BOU) Dropsy (f BIB BOU DEP) Dysentery (f BIB) Dysmenorrhea (f BIB) Earache (f BI2 GHA) Enterosis (f BOW) Erythema (1 X15799005) Fever (f BOU) Fracture (f BIB) Ganglion (f BOU) Gastrosis (f BOW GHA) Gout (f DEP SKJ WO2) Headache (f BIB) Hepatosis (f1 JLH HOS WO2) Hyperacidity (f MKK) Impotence (f BOU) Induration (f JLH) Infection (f BOW BOU) Infertility (f BIB BOU)...

Chemical And Diagnostic Specificity Of Laboratory Tests

The determination of uric acid by means of reduction of phosphotungstic acid in alkaline medium is affected by other reducing substances, especially ascorbic acid and catechol derivatives.194 The contribution of these reducing substances is relatively greater in methods that substitute carbonate or silicate for cyanide.33,106 Some analytic procedures have been based on the use of enzymes to increase the specificity of the reaction. Typical examples are the use of uricase to determine uric acid by ultraviolet spectrophotometry urease to catalyze hydrolysis of urea and glucose oxidase in the determination of glucose. Reluctance to adopt these methods stems in part from the possibility of inhibition of enzymes by drugs or serum proteins. Competition between naturally occurring substrates may also occur. The application of glucose oxidase methods to serum has been regarded as unacceptable on the basis of such inhibition,29 55 147 although others have reported negligible inhibition with...

Think I am a good candidate for gastric bypass surgery What do I need to do to obtain insurance coverage for this

Ship with your primary care doctor, he or she will know about your weight loss attempts and will be treating you for any of your obesity-related illnesses or conditions (elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, diabetes or prediabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, blood clots in the legs and lungs, sleep apnea, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, or cataracts).

Nucleic Acid Content of Foods

Extracts of meat and yeast have very high purine contents but are usually eaten in small quantities. Some vegetables may provoke gout attacks by virtue of their oxalic acid content rather than that of purines, but legumes, fast-growing parts of brassicas, and asparagus tips may also have significant nucleic acid content. Fats, white flour, sugar, and fruit juices have been separated from the 'living' part of the food and so they are poor sources of nucleic acids. Table 2 provides data for specific foodstuffs, obtained from the Documenta Geigy Chemical Composition of Foodstuffs tables. The ideal diet for subjects at risk of gout or of uric acid lithiasis is no more than one meat meal per day, using only the low-purine meat and vegetables indicated. See also Ascorbic Acid Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements. Choline and Phosphatidylcholine. Gout.

Crataegus m o n o g s y C oxyacantha

Hawthorn is well known today as an herbal remedy for the heart and circulation, but this is a relatively new use of the plant. Old European herbals mainly talk of hawthorn for the stone and for drawing out thorns and splinters, and an occasional use for treating gout and insomnia. It's perhaps surprising that it wasn't thought of for the blood, because the berries are such a deep blood-like color, and color was often taken as an indication of healing possibilities. Anne Pratt's mid-Victorian survey of British flowering plants (1857) expressed a conventional, and what could be called a pre-modern, view of hawthorn's value

Metabolism of Dietary Nucleic Acids in Humans

Hman Nutrion Images

Humans thus have no apparent requirement for purines from the diet, and the intestinal mucosa provides an effective barrier to their uptake through a battery of enzymes that rapidly degrade purine nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases to the metabolic waste product, uric acid. This phenomenon may represent an important evolutionary development to protect the integrity of the cellular DNA or to ensure that levels of ATP do not fluctuate in concert with the dietary intake of purines. from their metabolic end products (principally uric acid). Many investigators have shown that the fate of the dietary purine moiety depends on whether it is administered in the form of DNA, RNA, mononu-cleotides, nucleosides, or bases, with some being catabolised more readily than others. When normal subjects are fed RNA, the increase in the excretion of uric acid is dramatic alongside a modest increase in plasma urate concentrations. The effect of RNA is also twice that of DNA when the increase in purines in...

Jemerlang Laut Yellow Flame Yellow Flamboyant

Medicine Plant Useful For Infertility

Traditional Medicinal Uses The liquid extract of the plant is used as a contraceptive and a haemostatic. 6 The plant is also used alone or with other herbs decocted for diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, enteritis, diuretic, expelling worms, heat stroke, itching skin, haemorrhage, j aundice and cancer as well. 7 In folk medicine, it is used internally for uterine bleeding, menstrual bleeding, bleeding of haemorrhoids, gastrointestinal bleeding, rheumatic pain, as a diuretic, for bladder and kidney disease, and gout. It is used externally for poorly healing wounds, sprains and contusions. 1 The leaves are

Light Air and Sun Baths

Having introduced hydrotherapy Felke complemented his healing system by offering light and air baths.361 While travelling in the German Harz region in 1898 he had visited Adolf Just's (1859-1936) Jungborn (fountain of youth) and became so enthused with the therapies applied there that he introduced them in his sanatorium in Repelen which opened its doors that same year.362 As mentioned above the skin as the main organ of perspiration was for Felke of central importance. If toxins could not be excreted through the skin the organs would suffer. He therefore recommended light-, air- and sun baths to stimulate the skin and thus metabolism. The air- and light baths were to be taken in the nude and not only on sunny days but also when it was rainy or cold. They were to be taken daily and each time last until one began to feel chilly. The healing power of the sun was also part of Felke's therapy system. He had learned this from Arnold Rikli (1823-1906) who had founded the first sun bathing...

Melaleuca cajuputi Roxb Myrtaceae Gelam Paperbark Tree Kayu Puteh

Melaleuca Cajuputi

Traditional Medicinal Uses In Malaysia, it is used for the treatment of colic and cholera. It is also used externally for thrush, vaginal infection, acne, athlete's foot, verruca, warts, insect bites, cold sore and nits. 5 Cajuput oil is distilled from the leaves and used by the Burmese to treat gout. The Indochinese uses cajeput oil for rheumatism and pain in the joints and as an analgesic. 2 The oil is used externally in Indonesia for burns, colic, cramps, earache, headache, skin diseases, toothache and wounds. When administered internally, it can induce sweating and act as a stimulant and antispasmodic. In the Philippines, the leaves are used to treat asthma. 26

Indications Dandelion

Abscess (f CRC MAD) Acne (f VAD) Adenopathy (f JLH) Ague (f BIB) Alactea (f LMP PH2) Alcoholism (f SKY) Alzheimer's (1 FNF) Anemia (f1 AAH DEM JFM WAM) Anorexia (12 APA KOM PH2 PIP VAD) Arthrosis (f BIB) Backache (f DEM) Bacteria (1 WOI) Biliary Dyskinesia (2 PIP) Biliousness (f BIB) Bladderstones (2 KOM) Boil (f CRC LMP) Bronchosis (f12 APA BIB LAF) Bruise (f BIB CRC) Cachexia (f NAD) Cancer (f CRC) Cancer, bladder (f JLH) Cancer, bowel (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f CRC JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Caries (f CRC LMP) Cardiopathy (f APA BIB) Catarrh (f BIB CRC) Cellulite (1 FT71 S73) Chill (f HJP) Cholecystosis (2 BGB CRC HH3 KOM PH2) Cirrhosis (SKYf ) Cold (1 APA) Colic (1 PH2) Congestion (1 PH2) Conjunctivosis (f AAH AKT) Constipation (f1 FAD SKY FT71 S73) Consumption (f BIB) Cough (f MAD) Cramp (f DEM) Cystosis (1 WAM) Dermatosis (f APA BGB KAP KOM PH2) Diabetes (f1 BIB CRC JFM KOM MAD PH2 X15704495 X14750205) Dropsy (f1 BGB BIB DEM KAP MAD) Dysentery (f AKT)...

History Of Tobacco

In 1570 the tobacco plant had been named nicotiana after Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Portugal who introduced tobacco to France for medicinal use. Tobacco was said to be useful in the prevention of plague and as a cure for headache, asthma, gout, ulcers, scabies, labor pains, and even cancer. In the late 1500s, Sir Walter Raleigh popularized the smoking of tobacco for ''pleasure'' in the court of Queen Elizabeth (reigned 15581603) from there it spread to other parts of England.

Anticopper Strategies

The toxic molybdenum dose in humans is uncertain, but it appears that the LOAEL dose is about 1.6 mg kg and the NOAEL dose about 0.9 mg kg in rats. The human equivalent of these is about 26 and 15 milligrams per day, respectively. A dose of 26 milligrams per day is much higher than the 0.2 to 0.5 milligram per day dose commonly prescribed in noncancerous conditions. At high doses, side effects of molybdenum can include aching joints resembling gout, headache, anemia, and adverse effects on fetal development. Anemia and fetal impacts, which were seen in rodents, may be largely caused by low plasma copper concentrations low copper concentrations can produce iron deficiency and inhibit the angiogenesis needed for fetal development.

Indications Fenugreek

Enteralgia (f APA CRC) Edema (f BOW) Enterosis (f BGB BOU PH2 WOI) Exhaustion (f MAD) Fever (f1 APA BOU CRC PH2 X15374601) Fistula (f CRC) Fracture (f HJP) Furunculosis (f BGB HHB PHR VAD), Gas (f1 APA) Gastrosis (f APA BGB BOU CAN GMH) Gonorrhea (f UPW) Gout (f BGB CAN CRC GMH) Hay Fever (f PED) Helicobacter (1 X15331344) Hemorrhoid (f MAD NAD) Hepatosis (f CRC JLH KAP) Hernia (f APA BGB CRC PH2) High Blood Pressure (f1 CAN HJP), High Cholesterol (2 APA BRU CAN SKY) High Triglycerides (1 BGB SKY) Hyperlipidemia (1 BGB) Impotence (f APA CRC PH2) Impotence (f DAA) Infection (1 APA WOI X15331344) Inflammation (f12 APA BRU KOM PH2 X15374601) Itch (f BOU) Ischemia (1 X16205934) Kidney stone (1 JEB26 249) Labor (f1 APA) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukorrhea (f KAP) Lymphadenitis (f BGB CAN) Mastosis (f JLH) Muscular Dystrophy (f UPW) Myalgia (f BGB CAN) Nematode (1 PR15 538) Nephrosis (f APA CRC JLH) Neuralgia (f APA CRC) Neurasthenia (f BOW GMH NAD) Ophthalmia (f JLH VAD) Orchosis (f JLH)...

Indications Generic

Abscesses (f CAN FAD) Adenopathy (f CRC DEM PH2) Bleeding (f CEB DEM) Blepharosis (f VAD) Boils (f1 APA CRC GMH PNC) Bronchosis (f CRC) Bruise (f FEL) Burn (f1 APA FAD GMH PH2 WAM) Cancer (f CRC FEL JLH) Carcinoma (f CRC) Cardiopathy (f GMH) Caries (f CRC) Catarrh (f CRC DEM GMH) Chilblain (f CEB) Childbirth (f CRC DEM) Cholera (f CEB) Cold (f SKY) Cold Sore (1 APA) Colitis (f1 APA CAN CRC GMH) Conjunc-tivosis (f CRC DEM) Constipation (f CRC) Corneosis (f VAD) Cough (12 APA FAD HHB WAM) Cramp (f CEB CRC) Crohn's Disease (1 SKY) Cuts (f FAD) Cystosis (f1 GMH WAM) Dermatosis (f1 APA PH2 PNC VAD WAM) Diarrhea (f1 APA CAN FAD) Diverticulosis (1 FNF) Duodenosis (f PH2) Dysentery (f CRC FAD) Dyspepsia (f1 FAD) Dysuria (f CRC) Eczema (f CRC) Enterosis (12 APA CEB GMH) Erysipelas (f FEL) Esophagitis (2 APA) Felon (f CRC JLH) Fever (f CRC DAW) Fistula (f FEL) Fracture (f CRC DEM) Gangrene (f CRC) Gastrosis (12 APA GMH PHR PH2 SKY) Gleet (f FEL) Gonorrhea (f DEM) Gout (f CRC HH2 PH2) Heartburn...

The representation of the kidney

The application on average of 2.8 single-use steel implants (ASP) reduced pain by 70-80 in eight cases and by 40-70 in four cases in two cases this had no effect at all. The reduction of colic and the presumed relaxation of the smooth muscle of the ureter favored the expulsion of calculi in the following hours days however, this was demonstrated in only eight out of 14 cases. The diameter of the calculi in no case exceeded 5-6 mm on examination six calculi were found to be of calcium oxalate, two of uric acid. In only one of these cases did I find tenderness on Nogier's kidney and ureter point.

Storage Disease Metabolic Diseases

Another of the more common metabolic liver diseases is glycogen storage disease (GSD), a group of disorders that are associated with glycogen accumulation in the liver and other tissues due to specific defects in glycogenolysis. In this disease, mainly GSD type Ia is of interest with regard to imaging studies, since hepatomegaly with development of liver cell adenoma is a common finding. In GSD type Ia, there is developmental delay, hypoglycemia, metabolic aci-dosis, elevated triglycerides and uric acid levels in the blood, hepatomegaly, hepatic adenomas (Fig. 28), and HCC due to defects in the catalytic subunit of glucose-6-phosphatase. In GSD type Ib, the patients also have neutrophil dysfunction and recurrent infections due to a primary defect in a mi-crosomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter. In GSD type III, in which there is a defect in the glycogen debrancher enzyme, hepatomegaly occurs but liver dysfunction is rare. In GSD type IV, in which there is...

The Role of Tetrahydrobiopterin in Nitric Oxide Synthase

Amide Anion

A very small number of children have been reported who are unable to synthesize molybdopterin they show severe neurological abnormalities shortly after birth and fail to survive more than a few days. As expected from the metabolic roles of molybdopterin, they have low blood concentrations of uric acid and sulfate, and abnormally high levels of xanthine and sulfite. The neurological damage is probably caused by sulfite, because similar abnormalities are seen in children with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (Reiss, 2000).

Castor Oil Plant Castor Bean

Steve Castor

Traditional Medicinal Uses Its leaf poultice is applied to boils and sores in India to treat headaches and fever in Hawaii. 91 The leaves and roots are used in a decoction for anal prolapse, arthritis, constipation, facial palsy, lymph-adenopathy, strabismus, uteral prolapse, cough, and also as a discutient and expectorant. The heated leaves are applied to gout and swellings as well. 51 The leaves and oil are used for dermatological purposes in Nigeria. 101 Its seeds are used to treat abscesses and skin eruptions, deafness, headache, skin problems, bleeding, constipation, boils, piles and to promote labour. 41 They are rubbed on the temple for headache, powdered for abscesses, boils, and carbuncles. The plant is also used for dogbite, scrofula and several skin infections. The Chinese rub the oil on the body for skin ailments. The seeds are crushed and made into a pulp and rubbed into the palms for palsy, introduced into the urethra in stricture and rubbed on the soles of feet of...

Dietary Sources High Intakes and Antimetabolites

The potential benefits of the lipid-lowering effects of nicotinic acid have to be considered in the light of possibly toxic effects, particularly for the liver. These may manifest as jaundice, changes in liver function tests, changes in carbohydrate tolerance, and changes in uric acid metabolism including hyper-uricemia. There may also be accompanying ultrastructural changes. Hyperuricemia may result from effects on intestinal bacteria and enzymes, and from effects on renal tubular function. Such toxic effects are especially severe if sustained release preparations of nicotinic acid are used.

Nutrition Almanac Purine

Gout is a painful condition affecting the joints, especially in the toes, and is caused by the deposition of urate crystals. There is either an overproduction of uric acid or an inefficiency in eliminating it from the body. The acidic compound results from the breakdown of proteins, specifically purines. Foods that are high in purines should be restricted or avoided in the diet they include organ meats, meats, sardines, mackerel, anchovies, herring, chicken, dried beans and peas, turkey, shellfish, and yeast. Caffeine can raise uric acid levels limiting alcohol consumption can reduce the number of attacks. Drinking a lot of water aids the excretion of uric acid. Being overweight exacerbates the condition and a slow weight-loss program should be followed.

Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health

Partes Del Cuerpo Humano

Humans also can upregulate the synthesis of endogenous antioxidants, but this facility is very limited. For example, production of the antioxidant enzyme SOD is increased with regular exercise, presumably as an adaptation to the increased ROS load resulting from higher oxygen use. However, an increase in other endogenous antioxidants, such as bilirubin and uric acid, is associated with disease, not with improved health. Increasing the antioxi-dant status of the body by purposefully increasing the production of these antioxidants, therefore, is not a realistic strategy. However, the concept that increased antioxidant intake leads to increased anti-oxidant defense, conferring increased protection against oxidant stress and, thereby, decreasing the risk of disease, is a simple and attractive one. Anti-oxidant defense can be modulated by varying the dietary intake of foods rich in natural antioxidants. It has been shown that following ingestion of an antioxidant-rich food, drink, or herb...

Prickly Pear Tooth Decay Caries

Gout Flour Oxalic Acid

Acid ingredient of baking powder and self-raising flour, since it reacts with bicarbonate to liberate carbon dioxide. Calcium phosphates are permitted food additives (E-341). calculi (calculus) Stones formed in tissues such as the gall bladder (biliary calculus or gallstone), kidney (renal calculus) or ureters. Renal calculi may consist of uric acid and its salts (especially in gout) or of oxalic acid salts. Oxalate calculi may be of metabolic or dietary origin and people at metabolic risk of forming oxalate renal calculi are advised to avoid dietary sources of oxalic acid and its precursors. Rarely, renal calculi may consist of the amino acid cystine.

Requirements and High Intakes

The evidence for the essentiality of molybdenum is substantial and conclusive. Molybdenum functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze the hydroxylation of various substrates. Aldehyde oxidase oxidizes and detoxifies various pyrimidines, purines, pteridines, and related compounds. Xanthine oxidase dehydrogenase catalyzes the transformation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine to uric acid. Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the transformation of sulfite to sulfate. Attempts to produce molybdenum deficiency signs in rats, chickens, and humans have resulted in only limited success, and no success in healthy humans.

Antioxidants Found Within the Human Body

Lipoprotein Mitochrodria Ros

Human plasma and other biological fluids are generally rich in scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidants, including vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and 'vitamin E.' Vitamin E is the name given to a group of eight lipid-soluble tocopherols and toco-trienols. In the human diet, 7-tocopherol is the main form of vitamin E, but the predominant form in human plasma is a-tocopherol. Bilirubin, uric acid, glutathione, flavonoids, and carotenoids also have antioxidant activity and are found in cells and or plasma. Scavenging and chain-breaking anti-oxidants found in vivo are derived overall from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Cells contain, in addition, antioxidant enzymes, the SODs, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. The transition Binding and redox inactivation of metal ions prevent generation of ROS by inhibiting the Haber-Weiss reaction e.g., ferritin, caeruloplasmin, catechins Sacrificial and chain-breaking antioxidants scavenge and destroy ROS e.g., ascorbic acid (vitamin C),...

Effects of Alcohol on Liver Function

Central to the effects of ethanol is the liver, in which 60-90 of ethanol metabolism occurs. Ethanol displaces many of the substrates usually metabolized in the liver. Metabolism of ethanol by ADH in the liver generates reducing equivalents. ALDH also generates NADH with conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate. The NADH NAD+ ratio is increased, with a corresponding increase in the lactate pyruvate ratio. If lactic acidosis combines with a 3-hydroxy-butyrate predominant ketoacidosis, the blood pH can fall to 7.1 and hypoglycemia may occur. Severe ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia can cause permanent brain damage. However, in general the prognosis of alcohol-induced acidosis is good. Lactic acid also reduces the renal capacity for urate excretion. Hyperuricemia is exacerbated by alcohol-induced ketosis and acetate-mediated purine generation. Hyperuricemia explains, at least in part, the clinical observation that alcohol misuse can precipitate gout.

Urolithiasis Kidney Stones

Although modest overindulgence in purine-rich food by normal subjects does not precipitate gout, it can predispose to uric acid lithiasis. Uric acid stones are relatively common in countries where the consumption of nucleic acid-rich beverages and food is high and in hot climates if insufficient fluids are consumed. Health foods such as yeast tablets, Spirulina, or supplements containing nucleotides also contribute to uric acid lithiasis. A number of compounds, such as vitamin C, increase uric acid clearance and thus can precipitate urolithiasis. Perhaps not so well recognized is the uricosuric effect of a high-protein diet and the fact that purine-rich foods also predispose to renal calcium stones. This may be because many purine-rich foods, such as spinach, are equally rich in calcium oxalate. Approximately 25 of vitamin C intake is also excreted as oxalate, which can compound the problem. The solubility of uric acid is very sensitive to the pH of the urine, which in turn may be...

Inborn Errors of Fructose Metabolism

The aldolase A, B, and C enzymes catalyze the reversible conversion of fructose-1-diphosphate into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, and deficiencies in the A and B enzymes have been identified. Aldolase A is expressed in embryonic tissues and adult muscle. Possibly owing to the importance of this enzyme in fetal glycolysis, its deficiency results in mental retardation, short stature, hemolytic anemia, and abnormal facial appearance. There is no known treatment for aldolase A deficiency. Aldolase B is expressed in liver, kidney, and intestine, and a deficiency of this enzyme is more common and can be exhibited at first exposure to fructose during infancy or can have its onset in adulthood. Upon ingestion of fructose-containing foods, vomiting and failure to thrive are apparent. Hypogly-cemia (in some cases severe), increased blood uric acid, and liver dysfunction also occur. Fortunately, this disorder can be treated effectively by completely eliminating...

Hopkins Sir Frederick Gowland 18611947 Considered the founder of British biochemistry

Accessory food factors, which are now referred to as vitamins. In addition to his work on vitamins, Hopkins also pioneered the study of cell metabolism. One of his earliest contributions to biochemistry was the technique he used to detect the presence of uric acid in urine. He

Dairy wW s Up with That

Charles Attwood points out in Milk, A Catch-22 that adequate amounts of vegetables are better sources of calcium than milk and cheese. A cup of broccoli contains about the same amount of calcium as a cup of milk. A 1990 report in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that greens such as broccoli and kale have high levels of calcium that are absorbed at least as well as that in milk. Excellent calcium balance on a nondairy diet is easily attained because all vegetables and legumes contain calcium, and collectively it's more than adequate. Plus, this calcium stays in the bones, unlike much of that from the high-protein dairy products. In addition, while dairy products may seem to contain an impressive amount of calcium, in order for our bodies to absorb calcium another mineral, magnesium, must be present in comparable amounts. As milk and dairy products contain only small amounts of magnesium, calcium absorption from milk is only about 32 percent. The excess calcium...

Myeloproliferative Disorders

PRV is frequently discovered incidentally when a complete blood count is performed for another reason. When symptoms are present, they are usually nonspecific. Fatigue, headache, and diaphoresis are common. Pruritis, often following a hot shower, is a frequent complaint. Up to 15 of patients may present with a thrombotic episode. Thrombotic cerebrovascular accidents, coronary artery thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and pulmonary embolus all occur. Cavernous sinus thrombosis may also occur in untreated or poorly controlled disease. Erythromelalgia is specific to PRV and ET, and it is associated with an elevated platelet count and paradoxical vasodilation. It is characterized by redness, warmth, and a burning pain affecting the digits and responds promptly to aspirin. Gout may be a presenting manifestation of an MPD. There is an increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in patients with PRV. Iron deficiency may occur and may initially mask the diagnosis. An elevated hematocrit with...

Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia

It has been reported that affected subjects have overproduction of apo B-100. The precise molecular defect has not been elucidated, although there are already several candidate gene loci, including the LPL. The expression of this disorder may be triggered by other factors, such as overweight, hypertension, diabetes, and gout. The treatment should include diet and exercise and, if necessary, niacin, HMC CoA reductase inhibitors, or fibrates, depending on the major lipid present in excess.

Glycogen Storage Disorders

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I (GSD I) (Figure 6), the most common disorder, is due to a deficiency of glucose-1-phosphatase in the liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa. Symptoms typically occur in infancy when the frequency of feeding decreases. Profound hypoglycemia can occur progressive hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction are due to storage of glycogen. Other metabolic derangements include lactic acidaemia, which is due to increased pyruvate production increased fatty-acid synthesis causes hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia (causing xanthomas) hyperuricemia (causing gout and renal calculi) is due to decreased renal excretion (lac-tate is preferentially excreted) and increased uric-acid production owing to phosphate depletion. Other long-term complications include progressive renal disease (proteinuria) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment involves frequent meals and continuous nocturnal feeding (in infants) supplemental uncooked cornstarch provides exogenous...

Contemporary Low Calorie Carbohydrate Restricted Diet

In view of the well-recognized link between insulin resistance syndrome, hyperuricemia, and gout, a diet emphasizing reduced calorie intake with moderate restriction of carbohydrates and liberalization of protein and unsaturated fat consumption has been espoused for patients with gout. Low-purine foods are often high in both carbohydrate and saturated fats these foods tend to further decrease insulin sensitivity, thereby contributing to even higher levels of insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and low-density lipo-protein cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, all of which result in increased risk of coronary heart disease among these patients. Conversely, a calorie-restricted, weight-reduction diet that is low in carbohydrates (40 of total calories) and relatively high in protein (approximately 120 g per-day compared to 80-90 g in the typical Western diet) and unsaturated fat content, with no limitation of purine content, has been studied and found to result...

What is an obesityrelated illness

Obesity-related illnesses and conditions include elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, diabetes and prediabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, blood clots in the legs and lungs, sleep apnea, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts. If you have one of these conditions gastric surgery can be considered when the BMI is 35 or higher. In many cases gastric bypass surgery can dramatically improve obesity-related conditions. I have had many patients who after gastric bypass surgery were able to give up their blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol lowering medications. Many young women who have been unable to become pregnant conceive and go on to have healthy babies (more on this later).

Low Carbohydrate Diets

Low-carbohydrate diets promote the lipolysis of stored triacylglycerols known as ketosis, reduce glucose and insulin levels, and suppress appetite. As a result, there is an increase in blood uric acid concentration. Some studies have shown that the consumption of high amounts of nondairy protein results in a decline in kidney functions in individuals with mildly compromised kidney function. However, no such effect has been shown in individuals with normal kidney functions. Furthermore, low-carbohydrate diets can have side effects such as bad taste, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, nausea, thirst, and fatigue.

Indications Alexandrian Senna

Acne (f WO2) Ameba (f WO2) Anemia (f PH2) Anorexia (f KAB) Biliousness (f WO2) Bronchosis (f WO2) Burn (f WO2) Cancer (f JLH) Cholera (f WO2) Constipation (f12 KOM PH2 PIP WHO) Cramp (F PED) Dermatosis (f WHO) Dysentery (f1 WHO) Dyspepsia (f WHO) Enterosis (f KAB PH2) Fever (f PH2 WHO) Fungus (1 FNF) Gas (f CR2 WHO) Gastrosis (f WO2) Gonorrhea (f WHO) Gout (f WO2) Halitosis (f WO2) Hemorrhoid (f BGB HJP PIP WHO) Hepatosis (f PH2) Herpes (1 WO3) Hiccup (f WO2) Infection (f1 FNF WO2) Jaundice (f PH2) Leprosy (f WO2) Leukemia (1 CAN) Mycosis (1 JAD) Nausea (f WO2) Nerves (f HJP) Pimple (f WO2) Ringworm (f1 JAD) Splenosis (f PH2) Syphilis (f DEP) Typhoid (f PH2 WO2) Venereal Disease (f DEP WHO) Virus (1 WO3) Worm (f WO2) Wound (f WHO).

The development of modern massage techniques

The work of Ling and Mezgner established massage as an effective therapeutic treatment. Techniques were taught in medical schools and the beneficial effects became widely recognised and accepted in the medical field. In England, the eminent surgeon John Grosvenor (1742-1823) used massage to treat joints. He recommended massage for the treatment of rheumatism, gout and stiffness of joints.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Lepidium sativum seed extracts are used as an antirheumatic, diuretic, and febrifuge, in 522 abdominal discomfort, in fracture healing, and in the treatment of gout. These medicinal dysentery (Atisara), hiccoughs (Hikka), and gout (Vatrakatta) (Government of India, 2001). Practitioners of the Unani system of medicine are using roasted LSS for its anti-inflammatory effect (Khare, 2007).

Upper Levels of Niacin Intake

At intake in excess of 1 g of niacin per day, there is evidence of toxicity, with changes in liver function tests, carbohydrate tolerance, and uric acid metabolism that are reversible on withdrawal of niacin (Parsons, 1961a, 1961b). Baggenstoss and coworkers (1967) reported changes in liver ultrastructure in patients receiving high doses of niacin, including dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum with formation of vesicles and sacs, and a diminution in the parallel arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum, with fewer ribosomes on the outer surface. There was also elongation of the mitochondria, withbud-like projections and crystalloid inclusions. The mechanism of niacin hepatotox-icity is not known. Sustained release preparations are associated with more severe liver damage than crystalline preparations, presumably because they permit more prolonged maintenance of high concentrations of the vitamin, whereas after an acute high dose there is normally considerable excretion of unchanged...

Dietary Management

There has been a substantial change in the predominant view regarding the relationship between diet and gout. It has even been said that ''dietary considerations now play a minor role in the treatment of hyperuricemia, despite a fascinating history and abundant literature. The relationship between gout and gluttony (overindulgence of food and alcohol) dates back to ancient times. In the fifth- century bc, Hippocrates attributed gout to dietary excesses of food and wine he advised dietary restriction and reduction of alcohol consumption. Historically, the dietary management of gout has focused on two goals (i) reducing the amount of uric acid that may be deposited as crystals in joints or soft tissues, leading to the clinical syndrome of gout, and (ii) managing the disorders that occur with increased frequency among patients with gout, including diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and atherosclerosis.

How can I rationalize surgically changing my insides and risking significant complications even death just to lose

An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (January 8, 2003) reported that marked obesity in a man aged twenty to thirty could reduce his life expectancy by up to thirteen years. An extremely obese woman in this same age range might expect to lose up to eight years compared to her normal-weight friends. These are not small numbers. People who are overweight are more likely to develop obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, diabetes, sleep apnea, and arthritis. And obese people are much more likely than lean people to develop blood clots in the legs and lungs, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts.

Definition and Etiology

Gout, from the Latin gutta or drop (of evil humor), is an ancient disease that was included in Hippocrates' Aphorisms. In the first edition of his textbook, Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892), Osler defined gout as a nutritional disorder associated with an excess formation of uric acid.'' Today, we recognize that this definition is partly true, but that most cases of gout are not due to excess formation of uric acid but, rather, to insufficient clearance of the substance. Hyperuricemia occurs when there is too much uric acid in the blood, a condition that is generally agreed to exist when the serum or plasma uric acid exceeds the saturation point at 37 C, which is approximately 7.0mgdl 1. Hyperuricemia is a requirement for gout, but it is not always present when a patient presents with a first episode of gout, presumably because the acute deposition of uric acid in a joint reduces blood levels transiently. However, hyperuricemia is present at some point in virtually all gout...

Indications Spiny Cocklebur

Bacillus (1 MPG X9364417) Bacteria (1 MPG) Blennorrhagia (f MPG) Boil (f HJP) Cancer (1 MPG) Cold (f VAD) Cramp (f VAD) Cystosis (f VAD) Diarrhea (f VAD) Dysentery (f HJP) Dyspepsia (f HJP) Dysuria (f MPG) Edema (f VAD) Epilepsy (f HJP) Fever (f VAD) Flu (f VAD) Gout (f VAD) Headache (f MPG) Hepatosis (f MPG) High Blood Pressure (f VAD) Infection (f1 MPG VAD WOI) Inflammation (f VAD) Insomnia (f HJP) Klebsiella (1 X9364417) Leukemia (1 MPG) Malaria (f EFS) Micrococcus (1 MPG) Nephrosis (f MPG) Obesity (f VAD) Oliguria (f VAD) Pain (f HJP) Pharyngosis (f MPG) Pneumonia (1 X9364417) Pseudomonas (1 X9364417) Pyelosis (f VAD) Rabies (f HJP) Rheumatism (f HJP) Salmonella (1 X9364417) Scrofula (f EFS) Snakebite (f DAW) Sore (f HJP) Sore Throat (f MPG) Splenosis (f MPG) Staphylococcus (1 X9364417) Stress (f HJP) Ulcer (f HJP) Urethrosis (f VAD) Urolithiasis (f VAD) Uterosis (f MPG) Wound (f VAD).

Drug therapy or lifestyle modification

There is little doubt that many lifestyle factors, such as dietary salt, alcohol intake, lack of exercise, and stress, can affect BP and contribute to hypertension. Conversely, it has been well documented that BP can be lowered by modifying lifestyle. The antihypertensive efficacy oflifestyle modification in four thorough meta-analyses ofa large number ofpatients has been reported 8-11 . Although the fall in BP may appear relatively small, it should not be forgotten that, in contrast to drug therapy, lifestyle modification has few, ifany, adverse effects and may also exert a favorable effect on concomitant risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and gout (Figure 2). Implementing lifestyle modifications, as effective as they are, is often very difficult and discouraging, and physicians have learned that repeated nagging about weight loss, a low-salt diet, and regular exercise may adversely affect the physician-patient relationship.

Downsides White Willow

Salicylates tannins (AHP, 1997). Commission E reports for oral use of bark, contraindications, adverse effects, and interactions on theoretical grounds similar to those of the salicylates (AEH). (All plants contain salicylates.) In view of the lack of toxicological data, excessive use, especially during lactation and pregnancy, should be avoided. Individuals with aspirin hypersen-sitivity, asthma, diabetes, gastrosis, gout, hemophilia, hepatosis, hypothrombinaemia, nephrosis, and peptic ulcers should be cautious with salicylates. Alcohol, barbiturates, and oral sedatives may potentiate salicylate toxicity. Beware of salicylate interaction with oral anticoagulants, methotrex-ate, metoclopramide, phenytoin, pronebecid, spironolactone, and valproate. Salicylates excreted in breast milk reportedly can cause macular rashes in breast-fed babies. Salicylate toxicity may cause dermatosis, gastrosis, hematochezia, nausea, nephrosis, tinnitus, and vomiting (CAN). Excessive use of the...

Prevalence and Risk Factors

Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in men more than 2 million men and women in the United States are afflicted. The prevalence of gout in the United States tripled between 1969 and 1981 but recently seems to have stabilized. This increase is thought to be due to a combination of factors, including aging of the US population, increased prevalence of diuretic treatment of hypertension, better access to health care, and better diagnosis and reporting of gout. The incidence of gout (i.e., the development of new cases) is linked to serum uric acid levels, increasing from 0.9 cases per 1000 person-years for uric acid levels less than 7.0mgdl 1 to 70 cases per 1000 person-years for levels higher than 10.0 mgdl-1. However, even in the highest category, only 30 of men developed gout during the 5 years after their uric acid level was determined, confirming that only a minority of hyperuricemic men develop acute gout. Risk factors for acute gout other than hyperurice-mia have been...

Pathophysiology of Genetic Metabolic Disorders in Nucleotide Metabolism

The important physiological roles played by the nucleic acid precursor rNTP and dNTP molecules in humans has become apparent since the 1970s by the recognition of 28 different inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. The spectrum of clinical manifestations ranges from fatal immunodeficiency syndromes to muscle weakness, severe neurological deficits, anemia, renal failure, gout, and urolithiasis (uric acid kidney stones).

Disorders of Fructose Metabolism

Hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, growth retardation, proteinuria, lactic acidemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia (gout), hepatocellular carcinoma Cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, cardiorespiratory failure Hypoglycemia (mild), hepatomegaly, myopathy, hyperlipidemia Hepatomegaly, cirrhosis, liver failure, myopathy

Does diabetes put me at risk of any other diseases or illnesses

Thyroid disease, which affects about one in three people with type 1 diabetes, the likelihood of developing one of these other disorders is not high, but can be so in certain families. Most people with type 1 diabetes are screened annually for thyroid disease. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the other diseases appear to be independent, but related. In other words, they and the diabetes arise from a common soil in the affected person's metabolic makeup. These related diseases include cholesterol and other blood fat abnormalities (dyslipidemia), high blood pressure (hypertension), and gout. The first two are commonly seen in people with type 2 diabetes, while the third is less so.

Physical Variables

Ability to taste the chemical phenylthiocarbimide, asthma and other allergies, basal metabolic rate in children, blood antigens such as IgA, facial features, myopia, number of homozygous genetic loci, presence or absence of the masa intermedia in the brain, serum uric acid level, and vital (lung) capacity. For a review, see Jensen (1998) and Ree and Carretta (1998).


Bursitis is the inflammation of the bursae, which are fluid-filled sacs that act as cushions in reducing the friction where muscle and tendon meet bone. Excess fluid collects in the sacs resulting in pain, swelling, heat, and restricted movement. Bursitis is most often caused by overuse other causes include infection, injury, arthritis, or gout. Areas most affected are the shoulder, elbow, knees, hips, and heels. Tendonitis is a similar condition affecting the tendons, which are the fibrous tissues that connect muscle and bone, also caused by overuse and responds to the same treatments as bursitis.

Specific Analytes

Folin adopted his creatinine method for use with serum in 1914 (7). Colorimetric assays for glucose, urea, nonprotein nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid read with the Duboscq colorimeter were integrated into a system of analytical assays by Folin and Hsien Wu in 1919. This paper is presented here. In 2002 the editors of the Journal of Biological Chemistry selected this paper as a Classic Article in biochemistry (8). Folin's Duboscq procedures were the methods routinely presented in clinical chemistry manuals and textbooks for the next 40 years (9-12). Folin's own textbook of methods, Laboratory Manual of Biological Chemistry, first published in 1916, went through five editions before his death (13).

Blood Analysis

Greater excess of sulfuric acid must not be used, for if this is the case a large part of the uric acid will be lost. A safe and convenient criterion is to test the blood filtrate obtained with Congo red paper. The reaction should be negative or at the most just perceptible. We have employed three different tungstates, and all worked equally well. The product we now use was obtained from the Primos Chemical Company, Primos, Pa.

Indications Chickpea

Alactea (f JAD) Anemia (1 FNF) Anorexia (f KAB) Atheroclerosis (1 MPI WO3) Biliousness (f DEP MPI WO2) Bite (f DEP SKJ) Blood (f KAB) Bronchosis (f DEP WO2) Calculus (f KAB) Cancer, colon (f1 JLH X15517915 X15298756) Cancer, penis (f JLH) Cancer, testicle (f JLH) Cardiopathy (1 MPI WO3) Catarrh (f DEP) Cervicosis (1 FNF) Cheilosis (1 FNF) Cholera (f JAD) Cirrhosis (1 FNF) Constipation (f SKJ) Cough (f WO2) Cutamenia (f DEP LEG) Dandruff (f WO2) Dementia (1 FNF) Depression (1 FNF) Dermatosis (f BOU WO2) Diarrhea (f NAD WO2) Dislocation (f NAD WO2) Dysentery (f WO2) Dysmenorrhea (f KAB NAD) Dyspepsia (f DEP WO2) Edema (f WO2) Fever (f NAD) Fracture (f WO2) Fungus (1 WO2) Gas (1 JAD NAD) Gingivosis (1 FNF) Glossosis (1 FNF) Gout (1 FNF) Headache (f WO2) Hepatosis (1 FNF) High Cholesterol (2 MPI WO2) HIV (1 X11848297) Impotence (f DEP KAB WO2) Infection (1 WO2 X12895650) Infertility (1 FNF) Inflammation (f KAB) Itch (f BOU) Leprosy (f BOU DEP WO2) Mycosis (1 WO2 X12895650) Nausea (f DEP)...

Folin and H Wu105

If a low uric acid value is expected, an alternate procedure is to dilute the unknown to a final volume of 10 cc. with corresponding reduction in the amount of the reagents used. Special attention should perhaps be called to one small yet essential variation in the process for developing the blue uric acid


Cholesterol levels Reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis Lower serum apolipoprotein B levels Lower serum uric acid levels Increased urinary uric acid excretion Finally, serum uric acid, an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, was reduced and increased urinary uric acid excretion was seen with increased food frequency. As with the reduction in serum cholesterol levels, the effects of lower insulin levels were used to explain these differences. It was suggested that insulin promoted renal reabsorption of uric acid, as demonstrated in the context of sodium reabsorption and hypertension in hyperinsu-linemic states.


Gout is unusual among the rheumatic diseases in that its etiology, treatment, and prevention are well understood. Thus, the long-term sequelae of gout should be completely avoidable with adequate treatment, making the overall prognosis excellent. Non-compliance with medication, lack of access to adequate medical care, and inability to tolerate one or more of the medications used to treat gout can lead to a worse outcome. A number of dietary and lifestyle factors may contribute to the increased uric acid production among patients with gout. If these factors can be identified and appropriate changes made, the serum uric acid concentration may decline substantially. However, many patients require medication to control the hyperuricemia. The predominant dietary approach to gout is that dietary advice, other than the restriction of overly excessive alcohol intake, is likely to be limited to weight reduction.


This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of xanthine and hypoxanthine to uric acid. The reaction equation is given in Figure 10-21 heavy arrows indicate the reactions catalyzed Hypoxonthine Xonthine Uric acid Xanthine Uric acid Figure 10-21 Oxidation of Hypoxanthine and Xanthine to Uric Acid by Xanthine Oxidase. Source From J.R. Whitaker, Principles of Enzymology for the Food Sciences, 1972, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Economic Impact

Cholesterol Sources, Absorption, Function and Metabolism Factors Determining Blood Levels. Coronary Heart Disease Lipid Theory Prevention. Cytokines. Diabetes Mellitus Etiology and Epidemiology Classification and Chemical Pathology Dietary Management. Gout. Hypertension Dietary Factors. Lipoproteins. Obesity Definition, Etiology and Assessment Fat Distribution Childhood Obesity Prevention Treatment.

Other Effects

Xanthine oxidase (XO, EC is a key enzyme associated with the incidence of hyperuricemia-related disorders. Among the five phenyletha-noids arenarioside, brandioside, acteoside, 2'-O-acetylacteoside, and isoac-teoside, only isoacteoside competitively inhibited xanthine oxidase and substantially decreased the formation of uric acid. The IC50 and Ki values are 45.48 and 10.08 M, respectively. Furthermore, it was suggested that caffeoylation of the 6'-hydroxyl group of the phenylethanoids was essential for the enzyme inhibitory action (5).


With the exception of thymol turbidity determination. Before obtaining blood for study of serum lipid or lipid fractions, a 12hr. fast is recommended. In this connection it may be noted that after a standard breakfast a number of common chemistry determinations reveal no significant change in the blood.5 These include urea nitrogen, carbon dioxide, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Glucose, of course, increases greatly postprandially.


Traces of cupric ion in distilled water interfere wTith the determination of oxyhemoglobin, presumably by conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin.63 Free chlorine may also be an unsuspected contaminant in distilled water. As such, it behaves as a strong oxidant and results in appreciable losses in the measurement of serum bilirubin and uric acid.36

Indications Saffron

Dermatosis (f CRC KAB) Diabetes (f CRC) Diarrhea (f NAD) Dysmenorrhea (f DAA HHB MAD PNC) Dyspepsia (f1 VAD) Edema (f1 APA) Enterosis (f JLh) Epistaxis (f MAD) Fear (f CRC DAA) Fever (f CRC NAD PH2) Fibroid (f JLH) Fibrosarcoma (1 HH3) Fractures (f KAB) Gas (f1 MAD VAD) Gastrosis (f JLH) Gingivosis (f1 VAD) Gout (f MAD) Hangover (f LIL) Headache (f KAB PH2) Hemicrania (f KAB) Hemoptysis (f DAA MAD) Hemorrhoid (f NAD) Hepatosis (f1 CRC DEP JLH SKJ X12776492) High Blood Pressure (1 APA X12648816) High Cholesterol (1 APA) Hysteria (f BOU CRC DAA MAD) Induration (f JLH) Infection (f1 HJP) Inflammation (f1 JLH X11914135) Lachrymosis (f JLH) Laryngosis (f JLH) Leukemia (f1 JLH X12776492) Lochiostasis (f PH2) Lymphoma (1 APA JLH HH3) Measles (f CRC DAA MAD) Melancholy (f12 CRC DEP HHB KAB X15852492) Menorrhagia (f HHB HOS PH2) Menox-enia (f CRC) Nausea (f KAB) Nephrosis (f JLH KAB) Neuralgia (f NAD) Neurosis (1 CRC FNF) Obesity (f1 VAD PR14 149) Ophthalmia (f JLH HOS) Orchosis (f JLH)...

Banana flour

Traditionally, bananas are used to prepare regional food products and dishes and sometimes to produce vinegar and spirits. Some varieties or cultivars are used in small rural communities as special diets and for traditional medicine. For example, they may be used for infants, elderly people, and patients with stomach problems (antidiarrheal and intestinal disorders), gout, and arthritis. In some countries of South America (e.g., Colombia and Ecuador), precooked banana flour is used to produce an elaborate regional dish called empanadas . The use of unripe banana to prepare flour might be advantageous because the fruits with damage on the peel or those that fall as a result of cyclones and hurricanes can be used for this purpose. Diversifying the end uses of banana can be beneficial (economic) for farmers. Unripe banana can be used to produce functional flour because of the high levels of starch and nonstarch polysaccharides (DF) present in the fruit during this stage. It has been...


Large doses cause a flushing of the skin as a result of the dilation of blood vessels but the effect is not harmful. A form of niacin, niacinamide, does not cause any skin sensations, however, large doses can damage the liver and cause depression in some people. The form inositol hexanicotinate lowers serum cholesterol without harming the liver. Doses of the vitamin should not exceed 1000 mg a day, unless under the supervision of a physician. High doses of niacin should not be taken during pregnancy, or in cases of ulcers, gout, diabetes, gallbladder or liver diseases, or recent heart attack.

Davis Adelle 190474

Book was withdrawn and reedited before being republished. In 1954, she published her Let's Eat Right to Keep Fit, and finally, in 1965, her final book, Let's Get Well. Davis argues there against the notion that obesity is chiefly of psychosomatic origin, so popularly advocated by Hilde Bruch (Davis 1965 65). Rather, she argues, too few nutrients are supplied in our diets to burn fat readily (Davis 1965 65) and we can eliminate fat by making these available. She presents dietary cures for arthritis, diabetes, gout, high blood pressure, and disorders of the nervous system.

Nitrogen Metabolism

About 11 to 15 g of nitrogen are excreted each day in the urine of a healthy adult consuming 70 to 100 g of protein, mostly in the form of urea, with smaller contributions from ammonia, uric acid, creatinine, and some free amino acids (Table 10-4). These are the end products of protein metabolism, with urea and ammonia arising from the partial oxidation of amino acids. Uric acid and creatinine are indirectly derived from amino acids as well. Ammonia Amino acids Creatine Creatinine Uric acid Hippuric acid Total

Indications Nettle

Boil (f NPM) BPH (root) (12 BGB KOM MAB PH2 NP9(2) 10) Bronchosis (f1 CRC MAB PED) Bug bites (1 MAB) Burns (f1 BGB CRC MAB) Cachexia (f KAB) Calculus (f CRC) Cancer (f CRC FAD) Cancer, breast (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, ear (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, feet (f1 JLH) Cancer, lung (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, mouth (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, prostate (f1 NP9(2) 10 X15254411) Cancer, rib (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, womb (f1 CRC JLH) Cardiopathy (f AAH) Carcinoma (f BIB) Caries (f NPM) Catarrh (f WOI) Childbirth (f DEM) Cholangitis (f CRC) Cholecystosis (f CRC FAD MAB WOI) Cholera (f FEL) Cold (f AAH CEB NPM) Colic (f CRC) Colitis (f FEL MAB) Congestion (f APA) Constipation (f CRC WOI) Consumption (f1 BUR MAB SUW) Corn (f AAH) Cough (f AAH NPM) Cramp (f AAH MAD) CVI (1 BGB) Cystosis (f FEL) Dandruff (f PH2 WOI) Dermatosis (f1 BGB CAN MAB FT74 677) Diabetes (f1 CRC MAD PH2 FT74 677 EB49 406) Diarrhea (f1 BGB BUR FAD FEL MAB) Dislocation (f NPM) Dropsy (f AAH BGB CRC)...

Winter savory

The rhizomes are bitter, sweet, sour aromatic (a mixture of tastes, starting from bitter initially, turning to a sweet and then sour aromatic sensation), and cooling used as an appetizer, carminative, digestive, stomachic, demulcent, febrifuge, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, laxative, diuretic, expectorant, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic and used in the treatment of anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, bruises, wounds, chronic ulcers, skin diseases, pruritus, fever, constipation, hiccough, cough, bronchitis, sprains, gout, halitosis, otalgia and inflammations (Hussain et al., 1992 Warrier et al., 1994).


There is an estimated 2589 incident cases of rheumatic conditions per 100,000 population in the 0-15 age group, and 8935 per 100,000 population in the 16-24 year old age group (1). However, this estimate is not exhaustive, and only covers 10 musculoskeletal conditions selected as the most common or characteristic of their group. Specific adolescent data (10-19 year old age group) are lacking. If this group of 10 conditions is restricted to those requiring continuing secondary health care, (childhood arthritis, SLE, gout, and scleroderma) there is an estimated 129 and 188 prevalent cases per 100,000 population in the 0-15 and 16-24 year old age groups respectively, according to data available (1).

Indications Garlic

LIB TGP) Bacillus (1 LAW X10548758) Bacteria (1 JFM PH2) Bite (f FAY JFM) Boil (f1 DAA) Bronchiestasis (1 KAL) Bronchosis (f12 FAD PHR PH2 BOD WHO) Burn (f12 KAL) Callus (f JFM PH2) Cancer (f12 AKT FAD PH2) Cancer, abdomen (f1 AKT FNF JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH X11341051 X11238811) Cancer, breast (f1 BRU JN131 989s) Cancer, colon (f1 AKT (f1 FNF JLH)) Cancer, esophagus (f1 JN131 1075s) Cancer, gland (1 X11238818) Cancer, liver (f1 BO2 PR14 564) Cancer, lung (f1 BRU FNF JLH JN131 989s) Cancer, prostate (f1 X11102955) Cancer, skin (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 AKT VOD X11238811) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Candidiasis (f12 CAN KAL TRA VOD) Carbuncle (f FAY) Cardiopathy (f123 BGB EGG FAD SKY VOD) Caries (f1 FNF KAB) Catarrh (f1 AKT BGB) Celiac (1 KAL) Chilblain (f EGG) Childbirth (f JFM KAB) Cholecocystosis (f APA) Cholera (f1 PNC TRA) Chronic Fatigue (f JFM) Circulosis (f DLZ) Coccidiosis (1 KAL) Cold (f12 AKT FAD GHA PHR PNC) Colic (f1 GHA WHO) Colosis (1 KAL LAW) Congestion...

Indications Grape

Alopecia (1 PH2) Alzheimer's (1 COX FNF) Anaphylaxis (1 FNF) Anemia (f NAD PH2) Anorexia (f NAD) Arteriosclerosis (1 VAD) Arthrosis (1 BIB COX FNF) Asthma (1 BIB) Atherosclerosis FNF PH2) Biliousness (f BIB NAD) Bladder stone (f BIB NAD) Bleeding (f BIB FEL HHB) Blepharosis (f1 VAD) Boil (f SKJ) Bronchosis (f GHA) Bruise (f NAD) Cachexia (f BIB NAD) Cancer (f1 FNF JLH PH2) Cancer, abdomen (f1 DAD FNF) Cancer, breast (1 JAF51 7280) Cancer, colon (1 DAD FNF X12935318) Cancer, ear (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, neck (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, nose (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, testicle (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, throat (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, tonsil (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uvula (f1 FNF JLH) Candida (f NAD) Capillary Fragility (f1 BRU FNF PH2 VAD) Cardiopathy (f1 BIB FNF VAD) Caries (1 FNF MB) Catarrh (f NAD) Cholera (f BIB DAA) Circulosis (f PH2) Cold (f NAD) Condyloma (f JLH) Conjunctivosis (f1 BRU FNF VAD) Constipation (1 X12935318) Consumption (f DAA PH2) Corn (f...

Rijk OB Gans MD PhD

It was first described in the 1920s by Kylin, a Swedish physician, who noted a clustering of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and gout. Next, the concept of upper-body adiposity (android or male-type obesity, as opposed to female-type obesity) was recognized as the obesity phenotype that was commonly associated with the metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 1988 Reaven described insulin resistance as the central feature of syndrome X, a constellation of hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride levels. More recently, the term ''metabolic syndrome'' (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) was coined, mostly because its clinical phenotype, foremost an increase in waist circumference, helps identify individuals who are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


Some compounds that are excreted into the urine by the body may condense into crystals. Uric acid crystals and calcium appetite crystals are very common. If there are a lot of these crystals, one must consider the possibility of kidney stones. These types of crystals are not normally associated with any of the rheumatic diseases.

Indications Cinnamon

WO2) Biliousness (f KAB) Bleeding (f KAB) Bloating (f1 BGB) Bronchosis (f12 CRC KAB PHR) Cancer (f1 COX CRC HOS) Cancer, abdomen (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, colon (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, diaphragm (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, ear (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, gum (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, kidney (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, mouth (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, neck (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, rectum (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, sinus (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, vagina (f1 COX HOS JLH) Cancer, uterus (f1 COX HOS JLH) Candida (f1 CRC LIB JAR12 83) Cardiopathy (f1 EGG KAB LIB X14633804) Cerebrosis (f KAB) Childbirth (f LIB) Chill (f PHR PH2) Cholera (f1 CRC SKJ WO2) Cold (f12 CAN GAZ PHR ZUL) Colic (f1 APA CAN EGG TRA) Condylomata (f JLH) Conjunctivosis (f WHO) Convulsion (f LIB) Cough (2 CRC PHR) Cramp (f1 APA DEP VOD ZUL) Dandruff (1 JAR12 83) Debility (f...

Chemistry Panel

Uric acid is a breakdown product of DNA. Thus, increased uric acid means that either there is increased breakdown of cells or the kidneys are not properly clearing the uric acid, possibly both. Children sick with hemolytic uremic syndrome have high uric acid levels. So do children with leukemia. Sometimes children with elevated uric acid levels and joint pain are referred for possible gout. These children should be carefully evaluated for other problems. Gout is essentially unheard of in childhood except in the setting of kidney disease or cancer chemotherapy, where the drugs are causing many tumor cells to die very quickly and the kidneys cannot handle the load.


Background An infusion of this plant is a traditional Mongolian drink used by hunters to ease weary, painful limbs and for gout and rheumatic pains. The symptom picture for this remedy focuses primarily on joint problems such as gout, arthritis, or rheumatic pain. Symptoms may affect the fibrous tissues, small joints, bones, and nerves, often resulting in swollen joints, with tearing, wrenching pain that causes restlessness, weakness, and stiffness in the limbs. Joint pains may move around the body. The remedy may also be used to ease swelling in the scrotum (hydrocele). Symptoms better For warmth for the heat of the sun after a storm breaks for wrapping up the head for lying in bed with the limbs drawn up for movement.

Armoracia rustic

it is also a good remedy in strong bodies, both for the Cough, the Tissicke and other diseases of the lunges the roote bruised and laid to the place grieved with the Sciatica-gout, joynt- ach, or the hard swellings of the spleene and liver, doth wonderfully helpe them all.

Use meadowsweet for

It has been used to good effect in dispelling uric and oxalic acid, thereby relieving some of the pain of articular rheumatism and gout. A stronger infusion is taken in such cases. Externally, cloths soaked in meadowsweet tea can also be applied to sore joints and bring extra relief another soothing external use is for mouth ulcers and bleeding gums. toxins and uric acid supports this action.

Clinical Features

Gout is typically an episodic monoarthritis, although polyarticular gout (involving three or more joints) occurs in approximately 10 of cases. The description of the pain of acute gout by Thomas Sydenham in the seventeenth century remains among the best More than half of patients present with podagra, and 75-90 of patients eventually develop podagra. This joint is thought to be most susceptible to gout because it is very prone to trauma and cooling, both of which reduce the solubility of uric acid. After the first MTP, acute gout most commonly involves the ankles, knees, instep, but it can also involve the wrists, elbows, and small joints of the hands and feet. Large axial joints, such as hips, shoulders, and vertebral joints, are rarely affected. Acute gout often involves a component of tenosynovitis (inflammation of tendon sheaths), and gouty cellulitis (sterile inflammation with urate crystals in the skin) and bursitis have also been described. As Sydenham stated, the onset is...

Indications Cassia

Allergy (1 WO2) Alzheimer's (1 COX X12413723) Amenorrhea (f1 DAA PH2 WO2) Anesthetic (f1 WO2) Anorexia (12 BGB KOM PH2) Arthrosis (f1 COX DAA X12413723) Ascites (f WO2) Asthenia (f BGB) Asthma (1 BGB WO2) Bacillus (1 X12423924) Bacteria (1 X12423924) Bloating (2 BGB KOM) Bronchosis (1 BGB) Cancer (f1 JLH X15652283 X12860272) Cancer, bladder (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, colon (f1 COX JLH X12413723) Cancer, diaphragm (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, kidney (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, liver (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, rectum (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, spleen (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, stomach (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, vagina (f1 JLH X15652283) Cancer, uterus (f1 JLH X15652283) Chills (f DAA) Circulosis (f X15796573) Cold (f BGB CAN) Colic (f1 BGB CAN DAA PH2) Condyloma (f JLH) Cough (f BGB DAA) Cramps (f1 BGB) Cystosis (f JLH) Diabetes (f DAA) Diaphragmosis (f JLH) Diarrhea (f1 BGB CAN DAA PH2) Dysmenorrhea (f DAA) Dyspepsia (f12 BGB CAN KOM PH2) Dysuria (f DAA WO2) Edema (f WO2) Enteralgia (f...

The kidneys

Blood entering the kidney via the renal artery passes into fine capillary networks, which surround the tubules of the nephrons. The first phase of kidney function is the filtration of substances from the capillary blood into the kidney. These substances pass from the blood in the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule of the kidney they include water, mineral salts, glucose, toxins, uric acid and urea. These pass through the tubules to be eliminated but some substances are reabsorbed if the body needs them. The substances to be eliminated from the body form urine and include the waste products of protein metabolism, i.e. urea, uric acid, ammonia toxins certain mineral salts and some water. These substances pass along the tubules into the ureters and bladder to be eliminated.


Chervil has been used for several medicinal purposes throughout history by herbalists. The first-century Roman scholar Pliny and the seventeenth-century herbalist Nicholas Culpeper believed that chervil, as Culpeper put it, 'does much please and warm old and cold somachs'. Chervil drink has been used as an expectorant, a stimulant, a dissolver of congealed blood, a healer of eczema, a digestive, and a cure for high blood pressure, gout, kidney stones, pleurisy, dropsy and menstrual problems. Of these properties, the most persistently recognized to this day has been the ability to lower blood pressure, but no clinical studies support this or any of the claims.


If the joint pains are not inflammatory in origin, then the most likely cause in people with Down's syndrome is the hypermobility of the joints. Other causes may also include psoriasis and gout. Referral to a specialist in arthritis and arthropathies, called a rheumatologist, would be beneficial. Other causes of articular pain may include psoriasis with associated arthritis, and gout - a disease causing excruciating pain due to deposition of uric acid crystals within synovial joints.

Alcohol abuse

It stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, as well as the RAS, and may cause thirst and dehydration, which often are counteracted by excessive salt and water retention. Chronic alcohol abuse is not an uncommon cause of seemingly refractory hypertension. Calcium antagonists are the most efficient first-line therapy in the alcoholic hypertensive patient. If combination therapy is needed, a beta-blocker could be useful because it diminishes the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. ACE inhibitors are somewhat less efficacious because of alcohol-associated fluctuations in fluid volume state. Diuretics are often relatively contraindicated because they may trigger an attack of gout in susceptible patients. Not uncommonly, allopuritol or febroxustat may have given to control hyperuricemix before diuretic therapy can be initiated.

Chemical Pathology

Uric acid is a by-product of purine metabolism in humans and certain apes who lack uricase, the enzyme that breaks down uric acid (Figure 1). Uric acid Figure 1 Simplified pathway of uric acid metabolism. PRPP, 5-phosphoribosyl-Apyrophosphate. (Modified from Seegmiller JE, Rosenbloom FM and Kelly WN (1967) Enzyme defect associated with a sex-linked human neurological disorder and excessive purine synthesis. Science 155 1682-1684.) When uric acid production is normal, and its clearance by the kidneys is normal, this metabolic quirk has no ill effects. However, this minor metabolic inconvenience becomes of pathological importance because uric acid is so poorly soluble in aqueous solutions that it can crystallize and cause the various conditions recognized as gout. Uric acid can be ingested directly in the diet (especially in organ meats such as liver, kidney, and sweetbreads), or it can be produced in the body by two pathways involved in purine metabolism (Figure 1). The de novo...

Activities Endive

Allergenic (f1 FNF) Antibilious (f BIB DEP EFS) Antioxidant (1 FAH X12137499) Antiradicular (1 X12137499) Aphrodisiac (f HJP) Bitter (f BIB) Carminative (f BIB EFS) Choleretic (f BIB) Decongestant (f HJP) Emetic (f HJP) Gout (f HJP) Demulcent (f BIB) Depurative (f HJP) Gout (f HJP) Digestive (f HJP) Diuretic (f BIB) Febrifuge (f DEP WO2) Laxative (f BIB) Orexigenic (f HJP) Refrigerant (f BIB) Resolvent (f BIB) Sedative (f HJP) Stimulant (f DEP EFS) Tonic (f BIB HJP) Vermifuge (f HJP) Vulnerary (f HJP).


Historical note Chamomiles have been used as medicines since antiquity and traditionally grouped in botanical texts under the same general heading. They were probably used interchangeably. Roman chamomile was reportedly used to embalm the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramses II, and is thought to have been introduced into Britain bythe Romans during their conquests. The Anglo-Saxons used chamomile, presumably the Roman chamomile, as one of their nine sacred herbs. Culpeper lists numerous ailments for which chamomile was used, such as jaundice, fevers, kidney stones, colic, retention of urine and inflammation of the bowel (Culpeper 1 995). It was also widely used to treat common conditions in children including colic in infants, teething pains and fever (Grieve 1976). It is used in the treatment of gout and to reduce the severity of sciatic pain, either taken internally or applied as a poultice externally (Culpeper 1995). Today, chamomile tea is one of the most popular herbal teas in Australia and...

Indications Endive

Anorexia (f HJP) Biliousness (f WOI) Cancer (f JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Cancer, throat (f JLH) Cancer, uterus (f JLH) Catarrh (f HJP) Cramp (f HJP) Diarrhea (f HJP) Dropsy (f BIB HJP) Dyspepsia (f BIB) Enterosis (f HJP) Fever (f BIB WO2) Gastro-sis (f HJP) Gout (f HJP) Headache (f BIB) Hemorrhoid (f HJP) Hepatosis (f BIB) Impotence (f HJP) Induration (f BIB) Inflammation (f JLH) Jaundice (f BIB) Pharyngosis (f BIB) Pulm-onosis (f HJP) Splenosis (f BIB) Swelling (f JLH) Toothache (f HJP) Uterosis (f BIB) Wart (f HJP) Water (f BIB) Worm (f HJP) Wound (f HJP).

Indications Chicory

KOM PH2 VVG) Edema (f VAD) Enterosis (f PH2) Epilepsy (f WO3) Fever (f BOU DEP DEM FAD GHA WO2) Gallstone (f FAD FAH) Gastrosis (f HHB JLH WBB) Gingivosis (f JLH) Glossosis (f JLH) Gout (f1 PNC WO2 X12203269) Gravel (f GMH NAD) Headache (f GHA PH2 WO2) Heartburn (f GAZ) Hemorrhoid (f HJP PH2 WBB) Hepatosis (f12 DEP FAD FAH JLH PHR PNC VVG) High Blood Pressure (1 VAD) Hypercholesterolemia (1 FAH PHR) Hyperglycemia (1 FAD) Hypertriglyceridemia (1 ORAFTI9) Induration (f JLH) Infection (1 FAD) Inflammation (f1 APA FAD GMH WO2 X15649409) Insomnia (f GMH) Jaundice (f FAD GHA GMH VVG WO2) Lachrymosis (f JLH) Lumbago (f KAB) Malaria (f1 X15507374) Melancholy (f PH2) Nausea (f DEP WBB) Nephrosis (f VAD VVG) Obesity (f1 FAH VAD) Oliguria (f VAD) Ophthalmia (f DEM) Pain (f KAB) Pharyngosis (f WO2) Pseudomonas (1 X15567253) Pulmonosis (f GMH) Pyelonephrosis (f VAD) Respirosis (f HHB) Rash (f PH2) Rheumatism (f GMH PNC WO2) Sclerosis (f JLH) Sore (f DEM) Sore Throat (f PH2 WO2) Splenomegaly (f NAD...

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