Child Psychology Ebook

Single Parenting

Single Parenting

Finally! You Can Put All Your Worries To Rest! You Can Now Instantly Learn Some Little-Known But Highly Effective Tips For Successful Single Parenting! Understand Your Role As A Single Motherfather, And Learn How To Give Your Child The Love Of Both Parents Single Handedly.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

Smart Parenting Guide Summary


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Author: Daniel Dwase
Price: $27.00

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The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

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Where should your child receive treatment

After a tentative diagnosis of leukemia, most physicians refer the family for further tests and treatment to the closest major medical center with expertise in treating children with cancer. It is very important that the child with leukemia be treated at a facility that uses a team approach, including pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, specialized surgeons and pathologists, pediatric nurse practitioners, child life specialists, pediatric radiologists, rehabilitation specialists, education specialists, and social workers. State-of-the-art treatment is provided at these institutions, offering your child the best chance for remission (disappearance of the disease in response to treatment) and ultimately, cure. Usually the child is admitted through the emergency room or the oncology clinic, where a physical exam is performed. An intravenous line (IV) is started, more blood is drawn, and a chest x-ray is obtained. Early in your child's hospitalization, the oncologist will perform a...

Giving Your Childs History

As a parent evaluating your own child, ask yourself these questions and think about the answers. Your physician will want to know the answers to help arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. In addition, knowing the answers to these questions and what diseases they suggest will help you decide whether the physician's diagnosis makes sense to you. If it does not, discuss what you have noticed with your physician. If the physician is not interested in your child's history, something's wrong. The first thing you should have in mind when you go to the doctor's office is your chief complaint. What is it that you want the doctor to fix Do not tell the doctor things other doctors have told you. Tell the doctor what the problem is as clearly as you can, for example, My daughter's left knee hurts. Sometimes the problem is more general My son aches all over and feels very weak. If your child is old enough to explain, let him or her answer the questions in the doctor's office. You may have to help...

Are You and Your Child Alone in This

As you search for answers about how and why your child is so different, you may feel tremendously alone. You may have spent years feeling that no one else has a child just like yours. In fact you may never have heard of high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome before your doctor or someone else raised it. Actually, you're not nearly as alone as you may now feel. Prevalence estimates vary widely, with numbers as high as 1 of the school-age population occasionally suggested for the whole autism spectrum and between 0.2 and 0.5 (or 2 to 5 individuals in 1,000) with Asperger syndrome alone. Many researchers believe these numbers are high, but even more conservative estimates suggest that autism spectrum disorders are much more common than we ini In this first chapter, we described the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and how they influence the lives of affected children and their families. Our goal, at this point, is to help you decide whether the diagnoses of Asperger...

When to tell your child

You should tell your child as soon as possible after diagnosis. It is impossible to prevent a child from knowing that he is seriously ill. The child has been whisked to an unfamiliar hospital by frightened parents, endured painful tests, and received drugs and transfusions. Cards and presents begin to arrive, and friends and siblings are absent or behave in a strange manner. The child may meet other children with a variety of physical problems at the hospital.

Let your childs behaviour teach you about his needs

If during interactive or just protective moments your efforts are directed towards helping your child within the parameters2 of his reality, dictated by his sensory system and his ability to make sense of what you want from him, he will learn at his own pace how to adjust to a larger reality. As for 'getting' everything right, I did not do 'everything right' and I know of no one who was always right. My advice is not to worry if you misinterpret what your child wanted. You can amend and apologise for your actions but you cannot amend inaction. Getting it right is a mixture of attitude, knowledge and desire to learn more If, out of love alone, you don't do to your child what you don't want done to yourself, you have already half'got it right'.

Observation of Your Child

The professional will also observe your child and interact with her for some period of time, making note of the same types of symptoms he or she asked you about in the interview. The examiner might set up specific situations to make sure that certain symptoms, if present, are evident during the observation period. Eye contact, for example, is often poor in children with autism spectrum conditions. To be certain that your child's eye contact is limited with the examiner because of an autism spectrum disorder and not just due to shyness or lack of opportunity, the examiner might set up explicit scenarios that powerfully pull for eye contact, such as making it necessary that your child ask for help. In such situations, typical children almost always make eye contact. Similarly, the examiner might ask your child to tell a familiar story, because most typical children will periodically make eye contact to be sure that you are following them or are interested in what they are saying. An...

Identifying Your Childs Strengths

The six characteristics listed above are a good place to start in identifying your own child's potential strengths. But keep in mind that it's not always easy or simple to identify strengths. Nor is it easy to determine which behaviors that usually manifest themselves as weaknesses can be redirected to make them strengths. When your child's endless discussion of the detailed features of myriad video game characters is getting in the way of social interactions and family plans, it can be a chal lenge to recognize that this behavior is reflective of a great memory. Observe your child's behavior in a variety of contexts and consider the following questions What does your child enjoy When he has free time, what does he choose to do What things does she ask you about What things does he tell you about What kinds of items does she ask you to buy What subjects in school does your child enjoy the most In what types of family activities does he or she have the most fun When is your child most...

Helpful Parenting Strategies

Parenting a child with bipolar disorder can be a stressful and frustrating experience. First and foremost, it is important for parents to remember that they are not to blame for their child's difficult behaviors. It is also important to remember that these children are suffering from an illness that can get in the way of their behaving appropriately. Although their behavior in the moment can be quite outrageous, children often feel very remorseful or ashamed once the crisis has passed. In addition, the following general parenting strategies may be helpful. Maintain structure and regularity in activities. As with adults, children with bipolar disorder are vulnerable to disruptions in their schedules. They may benefit from a predictable schedule of activities that is not too hectic but avoids long periods of downtime. This can be particularly important during the weekends or vacation. Relaxing or soothing activities can also help a child during stressful periods or during particularly...

Step 5 Reward Your Child for Using the Strategy by Showing That It Gets His or Her Needs

You must make sure that the new communication strategy you've taught your child is as effective as the old one. If screaming or repetitive complaining is more effective than saying I want to finish this video or holding up a break card, your child will have little motivation to use the new strategy. Whenever possible, immediately reward your child for using the appropriate communication, first by praising him or her (I'm glad you're using your new words) and then by honoring the communication and making sure the natural positive consequences occur When your child requests help, immediately assist him or her. If your child asks to leave a situation, provide him or her with a break right away. If your child asks for your attention, stop what you're doing and provide some time, interest in, and engagement with him or her. Your child will learn that these new, appropriate behaviors are just as effective or even more effective in meeting his or her needs than the challenging behaviors you...

Step 6 Be Sure That the Challenging Behavior Is No Longer Effective in Getting Your Childs Needs

Leave your child no alternative for getting his or her needs met besides the new, appropriate method you've taught. Ignore the problem behavior whenever it occurs, but provide a prompt for the new communication. For example, if your child screams whenever she wants to avoid a situation, prompt her to use an appropriate phrase, but do not permit her to leave the situation while she is screaming. The steps we've described are straightforward, but it is no easy task to switch your child from challenging behaviors to more appropriate means of attaining the same goals. It will be crucial for you to practice with your child and to ensure that appropriate strategies will be more reinforcing than those based on difficult or inappropriate behaviors. Some parents have lamented that when they try to alter these challenging behaviors, they seem to increase in frequency. Although it may seem counterintuitive, this is actually a good sign. When children find that their old, tried-and-true strategy...

When to Withhold Your Childs Medication

This is a subject that is frequently overlooked. If your child is sick with the flu or a virus and not keeping anything down, you do not want to give him or her NSAIDs or immunosuppressive medications. The only arthritis medication that is vital to take even when one feels sick is corticosteroids (see below). All the other medications should be avoided, and you should call the doctor for instructions. It is also important not to give your child the medication if something goes wrong every time he or she takes it. If something unexpected is happening, it may be a side effect. The proper course of action is to stop giving the medication and call the doctor. If you keep giving the medication despite problems, you may make the whole situation worse. If you stop the medication because you think it's causing a side effect or not helping but do not tell the doctor, how is the doctor going to help you If the medication the doctor has prescribed does not work for your child, call the doctor,...

Getting Your Child to Take the Medication

Getting your child to take his or her medication depends a lot on the age of the child. For babies, all you can do with pills is mash them up and hide them in applesauce or another favorite food and make sure it goes down. Liquid medications can often be put in with formula. A compounding pharmacist can make many medications that do not come in liquid form into liquids, and add a flavor that the child likes. You may have to ask around to find one, and your insurance company may not always pay the cost, but it may be worthwhile just to avoid the aggravation. Each medication is different, so check with your doctor. If your child is little, it's best to make taking medication a positive experience. However, remember to keep the medication well out of reach, as a small child who is rewarded for properly taking medication might take the whole bottle if he or she finds it. Liquid medicines may be combined with something that the child likes (chocolate milk is popular). For children over the...

Steps in Finding the Right Program for Your Child

As soon as you receive the diagnosis, contact the principal of your child's school. 2. After determining if your child is eligible for special education, find out about different classroom options in your district. 3. If your child is not eligible for special education, request an appointment with the district's 504 Coordinator. Call your state autism society or the doctor who diagnosed your child for the names of private schools that have worked successfully with AS-HFA children. While these statutes grant specific educational rights to your child, it is important to understand that obtaining these rights involves a very intense process. Many stages and layers of development must be passed through on the way to putting a program into place for an individual child. Through these stages and layers, you may find that your local school is cooperative and open to new ideas, or you may find that the school has a preset agenda and is not willing to compromise. If you reach the latter point,...

What Your Childs Therapist Can Offer

Your family may have adapted to your AS-HFA child's social deficits, and therefore you might not consider the problem an enormous one at home in your daily activities. But social difficulties tend to be more pronounced in groups and with peers. So social problems may in fact be fairly significant for your child at school, at the local playground, or in a scout troop. We know that people with AS-HFA have trouble generalizing from one situation to another, so it's important to teach social skills in settings that are similar to those in which the children experience difficulty. When teaching social behavior to a child with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome, the therapist or teacher may be impressed by how fast the child learns new skills, only to be surprised later at how poorly these skills are used with peers. Thus, teaching in a group context is essential. Formal instruction, with specific skills taught sequentially, is also important. Most parents are not equipped to...

Teach Your Kids Right

U a nd the child Jesus grew and became strong in spirit. Filled .AA with wisdom, the grace of God was upon him, (Luke 2 40). How were you trained What are you speaking into your children Monkey see monkey do. Spend time with your family. Children yearn to be with mom and dad. I have learned from experience that you need to place your children in an environment in which you wish for them to blossom and grow. I have two brothers. We were not allowed to watch the Three Stooges as children, smart move on my parent's part. Natural Prescription for Health Make an effort to spend quality time with your children.

Your Childs Ability to Handle Emotion

In both of these examples, we see children who fail to monitor their level of arousal and encounter social difficulties as a result. There are a few strategies parents can use to help children learn to regulate their emotions better. First, you can encourage your child to use words to express his or her feelings. It is precisely when preschoolers learn to verbalize that their tantrums precipitously decrease. Begin by teaching your child to notice when he or she is experiencing an emotion, such as joy, anger, or sadness. Then verbally label these emotional states for your child and encourage your child to express these feelings in words (for example, I am feeling angry ). If your child needs it, you can also provide visual cues, such as a sheet of paper with several emotions depicted on it, to help your child figure out his or her emotional state (see the Appendix for resources). After your child has expressed his or her feelings in words or by using pictures, provide some ways of...

Finding Help for Your Child with FMS

Suppose that you're convinced that your child has fibromyalgia. What's the first step When deciding where to get help for your child or teen, start with his pediatrician, even though some pediatricians are wary of diagnosing fibromyalgia in children. If you find that your child's pediatrician is completely unsympathetic and unwilling to seek out the cause of your child's symptoms, you may want to look for another pediatrician. My guidelines for finding a new doctor, in Chapter 7, can be adapted to finding a new pediatrician. Your child's pediatrician may also decide that the child needs to see another physician. In most cases, the child with FMS-like symptoms should see a pediatric rheumatologist or a pediatric neurologist, specialists experienced with treating joint and muscle disorders, including fibromyalgia, in children. If your child needs to see a pediatric rheumatologist, your pediatrician can provide a referral for that.

Values for healthy children

Each laboratory and lab handbook has slightly different reference values for each blood cell, so your lab sheets may differ slightly from those that appear later in this appendix. (See Figure B-1.) There is also variation in values for children of different ages. For instance, in children from newborn to 4 years old, granulocytes are lower and lymphocytes higher than the numbers listed below. Geographic location affects reference ranges as well. The following table lists blood count values for healthy children. Values for Healthy Children

Including Your Children Who Dont Have Fibromyalgia

When your child has a chronic medical problem, and it's one that your other children don't have, you may feel like you're balancing on a tightrope sometimes. You don't want to pay so much attention to the sick child that the healthy children think that they should act sick to be heard and seen. But at the same time, you can't ignore FMS, just as you can't ignore other chronic medical problems your child may have, such as diabetes, asthma, and so on. Try to make sure that every child gets special time with you, tailoring the amount of time and the activity to the child. A teenager may need less time and would probably cringe in horror at the idea of going to a movie with her parents (and sitting next to them), while a younger child may love this idea. A walk with your teenager (far away from where you can be seen by anyone he knows ) may be a good idea instead. And explain that you don't love the sick child more or less than your other children. It's just that, sometimes, the child...

If your child is physically attacked

Sometimes, other children or adolescents can become physically abusive, and taunting may escalate to pushing and even punching. If this type of violence happens to your child, it's illegal. Report it to the school authorities if it happens at school, and if the abuse is beyond a few minor pushes, report it to the local police as well. Remind yourself that a bullying child who can be stopped and rehabilitated now is less likely to grow up to become an adult who assaults others. But above all, protect your child from physical harm. That's part of your job as a parent.

Do Child Care Arrangements and Structured Out of School Activities Mediate Poverty Effects

Children from low-income families are most likely to receive home-based and low-quality child care and less likely to participate in center-based care and structured out of school activities. These patterns point to working poor and near-poor families as those whose children may be most at risk for extended exposure to poor-quality care centers and less likely to be involved in structured activities that may lead to the enrichment and development of skills and competencies. Correlational, longitudinal, and experimental research also identifies the quality of child care and participation in organized activities as important contributors to children's intellectual and academic development and probably to social-emotional competence as well. The next step in testing a media-tional model is to determine whether features of child care and the types of out of school activities account for the relations of family poverty to children's outcomes. The evidence available is somewhat conflicting....

Cherishing your child

Open your heart to your child and figure out for yourself what your child would want you to provide for him, so the communication bridge between your parallel worlds grows solid and long lasting. This book is dedicated to all the people who wish to befriend and feel the joy of friendship when In Chapter 1 I asked you to imagine autism and autistic as a different culture. Remember that, but do forget it sometimes. Your child's soul, his unspoken love for you and his love for life are the same as yours. Your child is not an alien. He is a human being. His hugs feel just as reassuring as your hugs, his smile is just as powerful as yours and his tears convey just as much pain as yours. Remember that the next time the two of you cannot make sense of each other. No establishment could love your child more than you. Your child's present and future difficulties need not be those of Paradox's, Feather's, Bexxy's, Tom's, Pierce's, Alexander's or other Alexanders of this world. His path is...

When Your Child Has Braces

When braces are worn, gum tissue can swell and stretch. The tooth movement causes pressure on the gum and this creates stretching of the gum fibers and causes irritation. You may notice blood on your child's toothbrush. If so, make sure that your child massages his or her gums daily with a natural cleansing toothpaste with baking soda. Also, children who wear braces usually keep their mouths open at night. If this is what your child is doing, then use a natural aloe gel on his or her gums, or moisturize the gums at bedtime with Vaseline.

How to Tell If Your Children Need Help

Various warning signs may indicate that your child needs professional help in dealing with her or his emotions and with your illness. Of course, your family members, especially children, must have the medical and psychological attention they need as they struggle with the day-to-day issues that arise when a parent has cancer. Treatment should focus on the whole family and is generally more successful for everyone when this is the case. Parents who see their children become casualties of their illness may feel guilty or depressed and have a harder time with their physical recovery than parents who take a proactive role in promoting good mental health and coping skills for their children.

Tips on Finding a Good Dental Professional for Your Child

It is important to find a good professional for your child. An early experience with a good professional can lead to a lifetime of healthy teeth and gums. Please follow the suggestions below to make this experience easier. The office should be a cheerful and friendly place that will help reduce your child's fears. The dentist must have the personal time to answer your and your child's questions. If your child has decay on certain teeth, ask to see the X rays. If the dentist acts impatient about this request, then find another one If the professional office you yourself visit sees children and you are confident in the staff, then use the office for your child. If you feel you would like a specialist (pedodontist), then remember you do not want an overly busy office that has little time for you and your child. Most children's dentists offices have a waiting room filled with toys. This can help relax your child but it is more important that quality care be offered. Do your best to see...

Motivating Your Child

Poorly motivated children are candidates for gum disease. You are their guardian to help them prevent the onset of the disease. Highly motivated children have highly motivated parents those who continue to work with their own hygiene problems help to motivate their children. Make sure to compliment or reward your child for good oral hygiene, and compliment your child's smile. As just discussed, set up a fun and playful work station help your children love their teeth by using fun products such as music to make your children happy and help them increase dexterity and rhythm Also, keep these considerations in mind when selecting a dentist hygienist for your child The cleaning of a child's teeth and gums can be looked on as a way to further his or her total body health. Motivate your children early on in their development.

Factors that Affect Parent Child Relationships

Parent-child relationships do not occur in a vacuum, and the context in which the relationships develop are likely to affect the nature of the relationships. Such factors as birth order, financial and emotional stress, social support, gender of the parent, infant temperament, and parent personality may influence qualities of the parent-child relationships and the impact of that relationship on the child's development. Marc Bornstein, in Handbook of Parenting, noted that mothers of first-borns engage with, respond to, stimulate, talk to, and express positive affection for their babies more than mothers of later-borns, even when there are no differences in first- and later-born behavior. Other researchers have found that financial and emotional stresses negatively affect the well being of parents and adversely affect their attentiveness and sensitivity to their children. Bornstein found that mothers who are supported emotionally by their husbands or other adults are less restrictive and...

Child care centers and infectious disease

Still, day care centers don't have to be breeding grounds for infectious diseases. In fact, recent research indicates that after the first year, children in child care get sick at about half the rate as do youngsters who are cared for at home. This is because youngsters at day care are simply exposed to germs sooner, and their immune systems sooner learn to cope with the onslaught of exposure. Before a child care facility can be licensed, they must meet certain hygiene standards, in a variety of areas, as set by local and state licensing authorities. Among other things, centers should clean all surfaces with a safe disinfectant. Surfaces should be dried with paper towels after being sprayed. Adequate ventilation and sanitation are necessary. Chemical air fresheners should not be used because many people are allergic to them. Many infections in child care centers are spread by fecal contamination. When diapers are changed, tiny amounts of feces on hands can be transferred to...

Family Income and Early Child Care

The effects of poverty on children may be mediated not only by parents and the home environment, but by the early care and educational environments in which many children spend time. Most American children from all income levels spend significant amounts of time in nonmaternal care during their early years. A 1999 Survey by the National Survey of America's Families shows that 73 of children under age 5 with employed parents were in nonparental child-care arrangements, primarily center-based care and care by relatives (Sonenstein, Gates, Schmidt, Bolshun, 2002). The work requirements set forth by the 1996 welfare law dramatically increased the number of children who require care while parents are working. Whereas the AFDC-based welfare system was originally intended to allow single mothers to remain at home to care for young children, the new TANF-based system is motivated by the goal of making single mothers economically self sufficient. As a result, low-income parents, especially...

Working with Your Childs Teacher

The school is a key arena where problems can crop up. If your child is constantly saying that he can't do schoolwork or can't participate in gym, teachers may think your child is faking it. What should you do Should you tell your child's teacher that your child has fibromyalgia You may think that the answer is an obvious yes (or, for that matter, an obvious no), but you have to consider some consequences that may occur, whatever you do (or don't do). Discussing the illness with the teacher is really an individual choice, but do keep in mind several factors 1 The teacher may treat your child differently not in a good way if she thinks that your child is disabled, making the workload too easy (or sometimes harder) for the child. You want your child to get a good education and not be given a free pass. Yet, at the same time, you don't want your child to feel overwhelmed or physically ill from trying to reconcile her fibromyalgia symptoms with school demands. As a parent, this path...

Teaching Your Child about Gum Massage

It's easy to prevent gum disease in children, and they have a better cleansing saliva than adults. The saliva is thinner and less acidic, which lessens plaque formation. Still, proper massage of the gums at an early age is important. You can help your children to find their gum line (where the teeth meet the gums). While children rarely get gum disease, they can become candidates for future gum disease if they do not massage their gums effectively. Massaging the gums will lead to healthy tissue. Have your child look at your mouth, and show him or her where your gum line is. Then work with your child to show him how the massage of the gums feels. It's important for children to learn how much pressure to exert on the gum. This process should be followed after tooth brushing. An electric toothbrush might better enable your child to learn the rhythm of the brush style. 1. First work on your child with the manual toothbrush, on the teeth and gums. Do not forget the gums, even on a young...

Child care centers and infectious disease since

Still, there are ways to lessen the risk. in fact, recent research indicates that after the first year, children in child care get sick at about half the rate as do those who are cared for at home. This is because youngsters in day care are exposed to germs sooner, and their immune systems learn to cope with the onslaught of exposure. Before child-care facilities can be licensed, they must meet certain hygiene standards in a variety of areas, as set by local and state licensing authorities. Among other things, centers should clean all surfaces with a safe disinfectant. surfaces should be dried with paper towels after being sprayed. Adequate ventilation and sanitation are necessary. Chemical air fresheners should not be used, because many children are allergic to them. Many infections in child-care centers are spread by fecal contamination. When diapers are changed, tiny amounts of feces on hands can be transferred to countertops, toys, and door handles, so that if one child is...

Helpingyour child to compensate

For reasons stemming from CAPD combined with one or more of the following (missing link, e.g. the unlearned behaviour of knowing that we must use language a small verbal working memory difficulties recognising facial detail), your child could behave in any of a number of ways 1. If he is asking you to repeat your questions or verbal instruction (What did you say Say that again. What I did not hear you. I can't remember. I have to think), and if when asking for repetition you detect an 'absentee' look on his face, then it is likely that he is experiencing difficulty focusing on your spoken word. He can hear all the other background noises and your words 'get lost'. Discriminating between what sound is important consumes much energy and most of your child's attention. Therefore a silent environment where only the spoken word is heard will help your child hear your voice and words. A classroom filled with many sounds makes it hard for your child to focus on the teacher's spoken word. By...

Being an advocate for your child

Of course, sometimes it isn't possible to stay with your child if you are a single parent or if both parents work full time. Many families have grandparents or close friends who stay with the hospitalized child when the parents cannot be present. Older children and teenagers may not want a parent in the room at night, but they may need an advocate there during the day just as much as the preschoolers. BEING AN ADVOCATE FOR YOUR CHILD the bathroom or to clean up diarrhea or vomit. Making the bed, keeping the room tidy, changing dressings, and giving back rubs helps your child feel more comfortable and lightens the burden on the nurses. However, some children and teens may feel better if the nurses provide these services. Parents should allow the child to express his needs, even if it feels like rejection. Parents can also help out by checking for mistakes. People who work in hospitals are human, and they sometimes make errors. It helps to have a written copy of the protocol. If you...

Talking To Your Children About Diabetes

Lisa Copen lives with rheumatoid arthritis and has written about parenting with chronic illness. She explains how to talk to your children about your diagnosis during the different developmental stages of childhood. As a parent, if you become ill, your illness has a profound impact on the entire family system. In spite of your own increased stress, confusion, and anger, your children will look to you to maintain or return to normal family routines as soon as possible. If you, or your spouse, present an image of feeling overwhelmed or being consumed with the illness, your children will feel as if life is spiraling out of control.1 To help preschoolers, it is essential to assure them that the illness is not their fault. Returning to a security object should be encouraged, rather than discouraged. Answer all questions honestly, including those about death. This is a good time to rely on books, which helps your child on working through complex and often frustrating feelings about illness.

Child Development With Bibliography

Kaiser, Javaid. ''The Role of Family Configuration, Income, and Gender in the Academic Achievement of Young Self-Care Children.'' Early Child Development and Care 97 (1994) 91-105. Lamorey, Suzanne, Bryan E. Robinson, Bobbie H. Rowland, and Mick Coleman. Latchkey Kids Unlocking Doors for Children and Their Families, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage, 1999. Long, Thomas J., and Lynette Long. ''Latchkey Children The Child's View of Self Care.'' ERIC Database no. ED211229 (1981). Rodman, Hyman, David J. Pratto, and Rosemary S. Nelson. ''Child Care Arrangements and Children's Functioning A Comparison of Self-Care and Adult-Care Children. Developmental Psychology 21 (1985) 413-418. Vandell, Deborah Lowe, and Janaki Ramanan. ''Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Choices in After-School Care and Child Development. Developmental Psychology 27 (1991) 637-643.

Parentchild Relationships

In two significant articles on parenting, W. Andrew Collins and his colleagues, writing in American Psychologist, and Eleanor Maccoby, writing in Annual Review of Psychology, both noted that an enormous body of literature supports the important role of parents in shaping the development of children. Collins and his colleagues and Maccoby were responding in part to the contention ofJudith Harris, author of The Nurture Assumption, that parental influence on child development may not be as great as the influence of genetic predispositions and the influence of peers. Maccoby persuasively argued that such a contention is out of date in view of genetic studies suggesting that experiences children have with parents and others can modify genetic influence and of the substantial body of literature showing the importance of parent-child relationships for a child's development. This large body of literature suggests that it is the quality of the parent-child relationship that is particularly...

Reaping the Rewards of Parenthood

If you're overwhelmed by the demands of caring for your newborn and wonder when life is going to feel 'normal' again, don't despair. After the first crazy few months of new parenthood the dust usually settles and things start to look up. You may get the odd night of decent sleep, your baby has some sort of a routine, you know what your baby wants when she 'calls', you feel confident about caring for her, and you get plenty of rewards for your efforts when your baby giggles and shows her toothless gums. Even if your confidence about caring for your baby is a bit shaky at first, rest assured that you're not alone and very soon you'll be an expert on looking after your baby. Research shows that confidence about caring for the baby grows over time and most IVF mums and dads find parenthood enormously rewarding and fulfilling. Perhaps the long and winding IVF journey, during which you realise that you can't take parenthood for granted, makes you appreciate and value parenting even more...

The Ultimate Responsibility For Your Childs Outcome Rests With

To provide the best possible care for your child, you must do some hard work. You must pick the right team, carefully choosing the doctors who take care of your child. Once you have chosen them, you must follow their advice. If you do not understand or do not like the advice, ask questions. Get answers. If you are not satisfied, get a second opinion. Then ask more questions. Even after you have found a doctor with whom you are comfortable, you have not transferred the responsibility for your child's outcome to the doctor. You must make sure your child takes the medicine, does the exercises, keeps the appointments, gets the blood tests, and gets the treatments needed. It's not easy to find the time, to pay for it, or to take on the responsibility. But if you want the best outcome, it's not optional.

Getting the Best Results for Your Child

There are three major determinants of the outcome of any project your level of effort and knowledge, the effort and knowledge of the people who work with you, and luck. No one can control luck, so it is very important to maximize your efforts and choose the best possible people to work with. First and foremost, you need a primary care physician you trust. If you simply picked your doctor from a book or you go to a group where you get a different doctor every time, make sure someone is listening to your concerns. If you think something is wrong with your child, make sure the doctor listens and examines your child carefully.

Child Care

By the twenty-first century, most infants in the United States experienced some form of child care in their first year of life. This represented an enormous shift in how children in the United States were raised, a shift that led to concerns about whether infant child care disrupts mother-child attachment. Some have argued that infants experience daily separations as maternal rejection, which should lead to avoidance, while others have suggested that separations prevent mothers from having sufficient opportunities to develop sensitive caregiving styles. The results of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, a study of more than 1,000 infants and their mothers, clearly demonstrated that neither security nor avoidance in the Strange Situation was associated with type of care, amount of care, or quality of care. Instead, security was associated with characteristics of mothering, such as sensitivity. Infants who experienced dual risks, for...

Single Parenting

Andrea McDowell is a single mom to her daughter Frances. She says that single parenthood has not been as difficult as she feared But then, there are surprises that can't be described as lovely, such as there is no slack when you are a single mother. Married moms can act carelessly in ways that you can't. You are already assumed to be screwing your kids up just because you do not have a husband you are under more scrutiny and more suspicion, or at least, it feels like it. Things you would never have done when you were married, you do now, even though you have so much less time and energy, because you are single and you need to prove to the world that you can do this. You are not damaging the most important person in your world. He or she will be fine and you will be fine and you can handle all of this. I never mopped when I was married. I changed the sheets on a seasonal schedule when I was part of a couple and now, it is regular as clockwork, every 2 weeks. Sometimes, when I was...

Feed Your Kids Right

Children are precious and what grandma consumed, smoked, or drank has the potential to impact your child's health. I have observed that the second child often times can have liver congestion or stress because mom and the first child especially with the toxic food and pollution today may have been overburdened. It is not uncommon for me to see female patients have their gall bladder removed after the second child due to an overworked liver from pregnancy. What you feed your kids can overwork their livers leading to liver stress even early in their lives. I have had 8-year-old patients who were told they needed gall bladder surgery. I really believe that breast feeding is best. Goat's milk is a viable option. Do not feed children solid food too soon. Avoid soda and hydrogenated fats. Watch the going out to eat pattern. Avoid milk it causes ear infections and allergies. Use almond, rice, or oat milk. Soda pop depletes calcium and the sodium benzoate can cause food allergies. Use almond...

Your childs pattern

Each child develops a unique pattern of blood counts during treatment, and observant parents can help track these changes. This appendix contains a record-keeping sheet that you can use to record your childs blood values (see Figure B-2). If there is a change in the pattern, show it to your childs doctor and ask for an explanation. Doctors consider all of the laboratory results to decide how to proceed, but they should be willing to explain their plan of action to you, so that you better understand what is happening and can worry less. If your child is participating in a clinical trial and you have obtained the entire clinical trial protocol (discussed in Chapter 4, Clinical Trials), it will contain a section that clearly outlines the actions that should be taken by the oncologist if certain changes in blood counts occur. For example, my daughters protocol has an extensive section which lists each drug and tells when the dosage should be modified. For vincristine it states

The Changing Nature of Adoption

With a middle class to upper middle class, infertile, white couple, the nature of adoption has changed dramatically. Beginning in the 1950s, the number of healthy, white infants available for adoption began to decline in a striking manner. Whereas approximately 20 percent of infants born to unmarried, white women were relinquished for adoption from the mid-1950s to the early 1970s, by 1995 the corresponding rate was less than 2 percent. In contrast, rates of adoption placement during this same period among African-American and Hispanic women were quite low, ranging from 1.5 percent prior to the 1970s to less than 1 percent in the mid-1990s. The overall decline in the number of infants available for adoption has been linked to several factors, including the legalization of abortion, greater availability of contraception, greater societal acceptance of single parenthood, and increased availability of family support programs. free of any form of disability. Agencies routinely screened...

Caregiver Differences

A number of researchers have conceptualized emotion regulation as developing within the context of the parent-child relationship (e.g., Gianino & Tronick, 1988). Parent-child interaction involves mutual regulation in which caregiver and child each modulate the affect of the other (e.g., Tronick, 1989). The parent-child context may be characterized as more unresponsive and poorly coordinated in which case, the parent fails to recognize the child's emotional needs or ignores the child's existing capabilities or smoothly coordinated with matching of parent and child affect (Field, 1994).

Cross Cultural Research

BOWLBY, JOHN PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS DeWolff, Marianne S., and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn. Sensitivity and Attachment A Meta-analysis on Parental Antecedents of Infant Attachment.'' Child Development 68 (1997) 571 591. Fox, Nathan A., Nancy L. Kimmerly, and William D. Schafer. ''Attachment to Mother Attachment to Father A Meta-analysis.'' Child Development 62 (1991) 210-225. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Early Child Care Research Network. ''The Effects of Infant Child Care on Infant-Mother Attachment Security Results of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care.'' Child Development 68 (1997) 860-879. Waters, Everett, Nancy S. Weinfield, and Claire E. Hamilton. ''The Stability of Attachment Security from Infancy to Adolescence and Early Adulthood General Discussion.'' Child Development 71 (2000) 703-706.

Bayley Nancy 18991994

The world-renowned Berkeley Growth Study, a longitudinal study she initiated in 1928 that followed subjects from infancy through adulthood. Her productive career produced more than 200 publications about child development and she received many awards. Bayley was the first woman to receive the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association in 1966. Other awards included the Gold Medal Award of the American Psychological Association in 1982 and the G. Stanley Hall Award for distinguished contributions to developmental psychology in 1971. Bayley's career focused on developing tests for infants and young children that correlate with other measures and or predict later intelligence. While looking for data trends and groupings, she highlighted individual differences in human development. She did not believe intelligence was fixed and studied the cause of variability in scores across the lifespan. She was ahead of her time when she examined changes in...

The Importance of Spacing

While researchers do not always agree on how spacing (the years between each birth) between siblings influences personality and behavior, there is a general belief that children have an easier adjustment if siblings are not extremely close in age. Sibling rivalry does have a tendency to decrease as the age spread increases, which may result in better-adjusted children. Research indicates that this rivalry is at a peak when there is two year's difference between children. Other variables such as parenting styles, gender, and physical mental characteristics of the child seem to have more influence on behavioral outcomes than spacing.

Definitions of Child Maltreatment

The bed at night, few would argue that this was child abuse. Yet, if a single parent working two jobs to support the family has no time at the end of the day to interact with his children, is this neglect The larger issue is that having such definitions implies that there are certain standards for parenting or caring for children. With such a diverse and multicultural population, clear differences in parenting styles and standards exist. The task of deciding where abuse and neglect fall in that spectrum is challenging.

Historical Overview of Custody

What constitutes the ''child's best interests'' has been marked by great ideological shifts. Until the mid-nineteenth century, fathers were unequivocally favored in custody decisions and mothers had virtually no rights. Under English law, upon which U.S. law is based, children and their mothers were viewed as a man's property or ''chattel.'' Over the next hundred years, psychologists increasingly emphasized that mothers were biologically predisposed to be the better parent because they were more nurturing. The role of the father was viewed as an indirect one, as the provider for the mother-child relationship. As a result, the allocation of custody shifted from a complete right of fathers to a sweeping preference for mothers. This maternal preference was fortified by the ''tender years doctrine,'' which held that children of tender years should be raised by their mothers.

Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory

Vygotsky also discussed the importance of cultural tools to the sociocultural approach. These are items in the culture such as computers, books, and traditions that teach children about the expectations of the group. By participating in the cultural events and using the tools of the society, the child learns what is important in his culture. For example, in the United States a child attends school from about six years of age until eighteen years of age, and thus it is in school that children learn important skills such as mathematics. In some countries, such as in Brazil, however, children learn mathematics via buying and selling candy in the streets of the city.

Court Appointed Special Advocate Associate Program

The Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) program is a nationwide program that trains adults to be advocates for children who are in the judicial system. After a training period, which includes an overview of topics such as juvenile law, child development, and social work, adults interact with their children in and out of court and work with the children to ensure that their rights are being protected and their needs are being met. CASA started through the actions of a Seattle judge who conceived the idea of using trained

The Early Onset Persistent Pattern

Pended and or expelled, begin to fail academically, and eventually develop adversarial relationships with the school system. By the time they enter high school, these children have had a lifetime of training and preparation for delinquent behavior in adolescence and quickly find peers who reinforce their patterns of behavior. In fact, one of the strongest findings is that delinquent children associate with and commit many of their offenses in the company of delinquent peers. Other vicious cycles can be found in the homes of most EOP youth. Power-assertive discipline strategies are more likely to be used, which in turn reinforce aggressive habits. Moreover, groundbreaking work by Gerald Patterson in 1982 showed that parents of EOP youth tend to use parenting strategies marked by an escalation of conflict, which also reinforces aggressive behaviors.

Impact of Divorce on Children

Various theories of child development suggest that children younger than age five or six are particularly vulnerable to the effects of parental separation. The disruption of attachment relations, combined with the child's limited cognitive abilities to understand divorce, is central to this vulnerability. Although most children are young when their parents separate because divorce risk is greater earlier in marriage (of all children who experience divorce by age twelve, 66 experience it by age six), preschoolers and infants are the least studied groups in the divorce literature. In fact, data on developmental differences in response to parental separation are surprisingly limited. ent), inept parenting, postdivorce economic hardship, interparental conflict, inadequate social support, and the number of negative life events experienced (e.g., moving, changing schools). Children who use active coping (e.g., seeking social support) and who do not blame themselves for the separation adjust...

Results and Discussion

This subtlety of individual differences seems even more likely for outward expressions of emotion which are probably heavily influenced by children's efforts to present themselves positively. Children master verbal display rules before facial display rules (Gnepp & Hess, 1986), suggesting that masking nonverbal expressions of emotion might be more challenging. That rejected children differed on overt physical expressions of emotion confirms that it may be important for intervention programs for improving the social relations of rejected children to focus more on helping children master their nonverbal expressions of emotion.

Ear Infectionsotitis Media

Otitis media, commonly called an ear infection, is the most frequent illness of early childhood except for the common cold. Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear. There are two types (1) acute otitis media, an infection of the middle ear with accompanying fluid and (2) otitis media with effusion, in which the middle ear fluid is not infected. Fluid in the middle ear can persist for several weeks or months after an infection is gone. Otitis media is more common in boys, children from low-income families, those exposed to tobacco smoke, bottle-fed children (compared to breast-fed children), and children who are under two years of age and attend child care. In most cases, otitis media is accompanied by mild to moderate hearing loss (equivalent to plugging one's ears with a finger), which goes away once the fluid resolves. Some studies have shown that frequent hearing loss in children with otitis media may lead to speech, language, and school difficulties. Other studies,...

How Early Intervention Programs Work

Early intervention services and programs take many forms. The philosophy behind the delivery of these services is to serve the child and the family in the most natural setting. Many children are provided early intervention services in their home, a home child-care setting, a preschool setting, or a combination of these. Services can be provided on an individual basis or in a group, and good early intervention programs include a strong parental component that supports the family while giving the family information about issues the family views as important.

Emotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

It is clear that parents play an important role in children's emotional development. Through relationships with caregivers, children develop a sense of themselves and of others, and get clues about the way that the world works. For example, an infant who has fallen down and is unsure of whether he is hurt may look to his parent for information. Social referencing provides an infant with an opportunity to get feedback from a caregiver about how to feel in an uncertain situation. demanding parent. This may be a more challenging relationship than one between the same highly irritable infant and a more positive and flexible parent. The fit between parent and child may also contribute to the security of the attachment between infants and their parents. By working with parents to help them overcome difficulties in their parenting styles, parents can discover how to better meet the emotional needs of their young children.

Parental Relationships and Childrens Peer Relations

In addition, there is very little previous research investigating how mothers respond to their children's engaging in, or being victimized by social aggression. To date, we have no knowledge of any maternal behaviors related to children's social aggression. Presently, there is no systematic study examining how much mothers know of their child's involvement in social aggression, nor about specific maternal reactive or instructive behaviors related to social aggression. Investigating these variables may inform our understanding of why some children develop and utilize these behaviors more than others. An important next step in understanding the origins of social aggression is the comprehensive investigation of specific parenting characteristics and aspects of the family environment that may contribute to these behaviors in children.

Antecedents of Father Involvement

Paternal depression and aspects of personality have been found to predict the quality of father-infant attachment and interaction. Parenting stress has also been found to be negatively associated with security of father-child relationships, quality of father-infant interactions at four months of age, and father nurtu-rance toward an ill infant. child's life. Fathers in positive marriages are more likely to have secure infants, positive attitudes toward their children and their role as a parent, and low levels of parenting stress. The father's relationship with other family members, friends, his partner's family, and with members of his own family of origin are also important. In one study, men who received more emotional support from their work and family relations had more secure infants.

Freud Sigmund 18561939

Freud's innovation in the field of human mental health was to give a developmental account of a dynamic, embodied mind in which unconscious processes played a determining role. Freud was an evolutionary naturalist. He saw humans as Oedipal apes, driven to survive and reproduce and as cultural creatures, born more dependent than most animals into nuclear families, capable of identifying with those we love and of internalizing parental sanctions and ideals. This legacy has informed child development's concerns with the quality of parent-child interactions and the acquisition of abilities and morality alike.

Influence of Parenting on Friendship

As children develop, they spend increasing amounts of time alone and with friends. Particularly during adolescence, there is a dramatic drop in the amount of time teens spend with their parents. Despite these changes in time allocation, research indicates that parents influence interactions with peers. Children and adolescents bring many qualities to their friendships that develop early in life as a result of socialization experiences in the family. Researchers find that children and adolescents from warm, supportive families are more socially competent and report more positive friendships. Further, there is evidence that parental responsiveness lessens the effects of negative peer influences. For example, an adolescent with a close friend who uses drugs is at risk primarily if the adolescent's parents are cold, detached, and disinclined to monitor and supervise the adolescent's activities. Research also suggests that adolescents without close friends are more influenced by families...

Measuring Maternal Health

Since reproductive health, according to the ICPD definition, encompasses positive aspects beyond the absence of disease or disability, many other indicators would be required to monitor maternal wellness. For example, women's psychological health, quality of life, level of satisfaction in intimate relationships, and overall physical condition would need to be measured. Indicators that track threats to women's reproductive health, such as domestic violence, toxic environmental exposures, and hazards in the workplace, should also be taken into account. Accessibility and quality of gynecology, family planning, abortion, preconception, prenatal delivery, and postpartum services are important issues to monitor. Since most women spend many more years raising children than they do bearing children, maternal well-being should encompass the experience of childrearing as well as women's development throughout the life cycle. Older women are often ignored in the realm of repro

Fostering Childrens Memory Development

During early childhood, everyday adult-child interactions provide the basis for memory development by fostering language development and helping children acquire scripts for common events. Conversations that include reminiscing about the recent past are significant in helping children understand what memory is and what should be remembered. Developing family traditions and participating in rituals encourage reminiscing.

Emotional or Internalizing Disorders

Some children develop depression and anxiety, disorders that involve not only maladaptive thoughts and emotions but also maladaptive behaviors. It is important to distinguish these disorders from common depressed mood or childhood worries and fears. Knowledge of normal development of emotions and cognitions is helpful in making these distinctions.

Reading Tips and Strategies for Parents

Try to read to and with your child every day. You can do shared reading in a number of ways (Rief, 1998, 2001) Take turns reading the paragraphs or pages. For example, you read the pages on the left of the book, and your child reads the pages on the right. Read together in unison with your child, with you as the lead reader running your finger under the words. Then read the same sentences or paragraph together while continuing to point to the words. Finally, your child reads the same sentence or passage alone, as you listen and support with difficult words, as needed. When listening to your son or daughter read, do not stop to correct or make your child sound out every single word. Coach your child in using different cueing strategies. For example, when approaching a tricky word that your child cannot figure out, prompt to pass over that word and read to the end of the sentence. Then see if your child can go back and figure out the unfamiliar word. Ask questions such as If your child...

Other Important Resources

The NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Reading Disorders and Reading Instruction A Summary of Research Findings. From Keys to Successful Learning A National Summit on Research in Learning Disabilities. New York The National Center for Learning Disabilities. Moats, Louisa. (1999, June). Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do. This report is from the National Federation of Teachers review of the reading research and describes the essential knowledge base for teacher candidates. edissues National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel Teaching Children to Read An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction. This final report of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) assesses the effectiveness of various approaches to teaching...

Communication and Advocacy Tips for Parents

Parents of children with ADHD will find that they need to learn advocacy strategies to ensure that their child receives the help he or she needs (Rief, 1998, 2003). As a parent, it is your responsibility to step in and intervene on behalf of your child whenever the situation arises that your son or daughter needs more support, intervention, and understanding of his or her disorder. Try to enter meetings with an open mind and cooperative attitude. Be willing to share your opinions, feelings, observations, suggestions, and any information about your child or family that may help with planning and intervention. Keep a file on your child that includes all copies of testing, reports, IEPs, report cards, health records, immunization, and other important data. Include in a file a log of communication with the school and other professionals working with your child, including dates of doctor appointments and medication logs summaries of conversations, meetings notification of disciplinary...

Other Times Marriage and More

Specifically, Scheer et al. (1994) surveyed adolescents aged 13-19 about the criteria they viewed as marking the transition to adulthood. Participants were asked to mark one of eight options as the most important factor for them in becoming adults, with the options based on a previous interview study (Scheer & Palkovitz, 1995). The top three responses were taking responsibility for my actions, making my own decisions, and financial independence having a job. Legal age thresholds and role transitions such as marriage, parenthood, and finishing education ranked low.

Sibling Relationships in the Family System

Psychologists have found that conflict between parents and parents' personal problems influence sibling relationships through parent-child relationships. If parents' problems lead them to behave in a hostile manner toward their children, sibling relationships will be disrupted. If parents do not become hostile,

Economic Conditions and Welfare Policy

Economists and scholars concerned with welfare policy have been concerned primarily with how economic conditions and policies influence adults' work, income, and life choices and, secondarily, with how these aspects of parents' lives affect their children (e.g., Hauser & Sweeney, 1997 Haveman & Wolfe, 1994 see Foster 2003 for economists' approaches to child development). One question they often pose is, how important is family income per se, above and beyond the other factors associated with poverty (e.g., depression, education level) To what extent are the correlates of poverty due to factors other than income (e.g., single mother families, low parent education) Some argue that how children develop is based less on monetary resources and more on parenting practices and skills, role modeling, moral character, and other familial characteristics. Some believe the solution to poverty is to provide income to the poor rather than try to change their family structures, education...

Neighborhoods and Schools as Opportunities for Intervention

A promising avenue for the prevention of and successful intervention regarding exposure to violence is community-based policing, which combines child-level, family-level, and community- (police-) level interventions. Community-based policing seeks to strengthen partnerships between the police and community members with the goal of enhancing interactions between police and children surrounding violence. One example is the Child Development and Community Policing (CD-CP) program, which trains police officers to be able to provide a sense of security and positive authority to children when instances of violence occur. There is some evidence that a growing trust in the police has fostered cooperation with the police, which in turn has related to greater crime solving and crime prevention (Marans & Schaefer, 1998). An evaluation of whether the program has positive outcomes for the children in these communities is still forthcoming (Marans & Schaefer, 1998). One example of a...

Research and Good Fathering

See also PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS Cox, M. J., M. T. Owen, V. K. Henderson, and N. A. Margand. ''Prediction of Infant-Father and Infant-Mother Attachment.'' Child Development 28 (1992) 474-483. Hetherington, E. M., and S. H. Henderson. ''Fathers in Stepfami-lies.'' In Michael E. Lamb ed., The Role of the Father in Child Development, 3rd edition. New York Wiley, 1997. Pleck, E. H. ''Paternal Involvement Levels, Sources, and Consequences.'' In Michael E. Lamb ed., The Role of the Father in Child Development, 3rd edition. New York Wiley, 1997.

Marika N Ripke Aletha C Huston

POVERTY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT Poor children are more likely to experience problems with school readiness and academic performance, and are at least twice as likely to be kept back in school as children from higher income families (see Corcoran, 1995 Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 1997a Haveman & Wolfe, 1994 National Center for Children in Poverty, 1999). Material deficiencies related to poverty (e.g., malnutrition, inadequate health and child care, homelessness or unsafe housing conditions and neighborhoods, and insufficient schools) have detrimental effects on children's motivation and ability to learn, and can contribute to social and emotional difficulties, hamper learning, academic performance, and cognitive development (Korenman, Miller, & Sjaastad, 1995 Kotch & Shackelford, 1989). In adolescence, poverty or economic hardship predicts delinquency (Sampson & Laub, 1994) and depression and loneliness (Lempers, Clark-Lempers, & Simons, 1989). There are several problems with...

Developmental Perspectives of Child Maltreatment

It is very important to have an understanding of the relationship between child development and child maltreatment. Childhood is typically a time of rapid change and growth. Each stage of development brings new challenges and changes in the physical, cognitive, and behavioral makeup of a child. These changes are reflected in the epidemiology of maltreatment, which is the pattern of abuse and neglect that is commonly seen. Child development affects all of the following the precipitating factors that lead to maltreatment the susceptibility of a child to different types of maltreatment at different ages the physical findings of abuse or neglect the treatment options following maltreatment and the likelihood of long-term sequelae (secondary effects) from abuse or neglect.

Young Peoples Conceptions of Adulthood

Another source of evidence comes from Condon's (1987) ethnography on Inuit adolescents in the Canadian Arctic. Condon explored conceptions of the transition to adulthood by asking young people in their teens to assign life stage categories to various people in the community and explain the reason for their designations. Their responses reflected a variety of criteria for the transition to adulthood, including marriage, parenthood, chronological age, and employment. Most important was establishing a permanent pair-bond by moving into a separate household with a prospective spouse a marriagelike relationship, but not necessarily involving a formal ceremony or legal tie. Chronological age also mattered young people living with a prospective spouse but remaining in the parental household of one partner or the other were considered adults if they were beyond their teen years.

Niobe Way Bronwyn E Becker Melissa L Greene

Over the past decade, there has been a surge of research directed at understanding the ways in which multiple settings or contexts influence child development (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Klebanov, & Sealand, 1993 Burton, Allison, & Obeidallah, 1995 Seidman, 1991). This research has indicated that contexts such as families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods exert an important influence on Parental guidance, or the degree to which parents directly assist adolescents with making friends, has also been examined. Vernberg and colleagues (1993), for example, documented various strategies used by parents to help their seventh- and eighth-grade children develop friendships after moving to a new school district, such as meeting with other parents, facilitating proximity to peers, talking with their adolescent children about peer relationships, and encouraging their children to participate in activities with other adolescents. More recently, in a study of Latino and European American...

The Organismic Worldview

It is ironic that Freud's theory, one of the most controversial theories of child development, is based not on a careful examination of children but rather on clinical interviews he conducted with adult patients in the course of his psychiatric practice in Vienna at the turn of the twentieth century. Freud, the clinician, believed that his adult patients' problems stemmed from their early childhood experiences, and as a result his approach to therapy was to help them regress to those early experiences so that the traumatic nature of the experiences could be uncovered and therefore resolved. By adolescence, individuals are asked to form a sense of identity, which is seen as forming the foundation for the establishment of a sense of intimacy, the defining event of the early years of adulthood. Intimacy typically leads to some form of permanent bond, which in turn often leads to parenthood and the opportunity to develop a sense of generativity, or concern for the next generation....

Conclusion Of Youth Risk Behavior

Poverty, violence, and child development Untangling effects of family and community. In C. Nelson (Ed.), Threats to optimal development Integrating biological, psychological, and social risk factors. The Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (Vol. 27, pp. 229-272). Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum. Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L., & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based Allison, K. W, Burton, L., Marshall, S., Perez-Febles, A., Yar-rington, J., Kirsh, L. B., & Merriwether-DeVries, C. (1999). Life experiences among urban adolescents Examining the role of context. Child Development, 70, 1017-1029. Attar, B. K., Guerra, N. G., Tolan, P. H. (1994). Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 391-400. Beyers, J. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2003)....

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Can peers provide other child experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy Do children who grew up together sharing the common resources of the child care center have a different kind of social interaction than acquaintances Do cross-sex peers and cross-ethnic peers who became friends in the context of child care form nontraditional relationships Each of these questions describes a potential function of friendship experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy a context for mastering social interaction and a context for engaging with children who are unlike the self. The first of these functions has received the most research attention research on the third function is just emerging. We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of very young children. There are, however, several pieces of evidence...

Cindy Faith Miller Hanns Martin Trautner Diane N Ruble

Gender serves as one of the most significant identifying labels throughout the life span. While originally a child's sex is based primarily on chromosomal and genital distinctions, this category will follow the child from the birthing room, operating as a life-long functional tag that will influence virtually every aspect of her or his experience. Our society uses sex categories to divide names, public restrooms, pronoun usage, school lines, toys, room decor, clothing and appearance options, hobbies, and occupations. Given societies' insistence on the functional use of sex categories (Bem, 1981), a child's physical, social, cognitive, and emotional milestones will all develop under a gendered umbrella. During some aspects of development, a child's gender tag will be at the forefront of experience while, other times, it will fade into the background providing minimal cues and effects to the situation. Regardless of the degree of salience, an individual's gender1 has meaningful...

Emotional Self Regulation in Infancy and Toddlerhood

How do young children calm themselves when they are upset What factors contribute to children's abilities to modulate distress and to rev up when it is playtime What are the consequences for adaptive behavior of being facile at managing distress These questions fall under the broad rubric of emotion regulation, and, more particularly, the development of emotional self-regulation. This topic cuts across traditionally separate areas in psychology such as temperament, neurophysiology, motivation, and personality. One of the reasons the area has become popular in the field of child development is that it is a broad rubric that can account for how and why emotions organize and facilitate various psychological processes such as attention and problem solving, or, alternatively disrupt such processes (Cole, Martin, & Dennis, 2004). In addition, emotion regulation applies to the life span (Cicchetti, Ganiban, & Barnett, 1991) While clearly the capacity to regulate emotion changes with...

ADHD and the Impact on the Family

As any parent of a toddler knows, when your child needs constant supervision and monitoring, it is very time-consuming and interferes with one's ability to get things done as planned (housework, chores). Frequently, the family must deal with social issues, such as the exclusion of the child from out-of-school activities and so forth. It is painful when your child is not invited to birthday parties or has difficulty finding someone to play with and keeping friends. Siblings are often resentful or jealous of the central role their ADHD sibling plays in the family's schedule, routines, and activities, as well as the extra time and special treatment he or she receives. In addition, siblings are acutely aware of and feel hurt and embarrassed when their brother or sister has acquired a negative reputation in the neighborhood and school.

Carollee Howes Linda

In this chapter we argue that, it is only within groups of peers that children develop both social interaction skills particular to peer interaction and construct social relationships particular to peers friendships. The social interactions and relationships of the children within the group become the basis of that peer group's shared understandings and practices and a base for individual children's development. Through experiences within many different and at times overlapping in membership peer groups, children internalize representations of social relationships and of practices within peer groups that we assume influence their individual orientations to the social world as older children, adolescents, and adults. and friendships within cultural communities will help in resolving some of the contradictions that have persisted within the empirical literature on the topic. Take for example such a basic question of whether infants and toddlers engage in peer interaction. As we will...

Promotion of Mistrust

Few empirical studies have distinguished promotion of mistrust from preparation for bias, perhaps because the distinction is so subtle. However, in available studies, the incidence of explicit cautions or warnings about other ethnic groups seems to be quite low. For instance, based on analysis of the National Survey of Black Americans, Thornton and colleagues' (Thornton et al., 1990) reported that in response to open ended questions about strategies parents use to teach children about race, only 2.7 of parents reported instructing their children to maintain social distance from Whites. Hughes and Chen (1997) found that about 18 of African American parents reported promotion of mistrust using survey items in which parents indicated whether or not they cautioned children about interactions with Whites or encouraged them to maintain social distance. Although these percentages are low, there are still a significant number of children receiving such messages.

L Oriana Linares Nicole A Morin

Based on the community violence studies of the early 1990s, between 44-82 of school-aged children and youth are exposed to community violence, depending on definitional criteria, methodology, and sample characteristics (Overstreet, 2000 Stein, Jaycox, Kataoka, Rhodes, & Vestal, 2003). According to the early studies, by the end of elementary school, almost all children residing in high crime innercity areas of Washington and New Orleans had heard (98 ) or witnessed (90 ) moderate to severe levels of violent occurrences (Richters & Martinez, 1993 Osofsky, Wewers, Hann, & Fick, 1993). School-aged children exposed to community violence are at risk for an array of problematic behavior including lower self-competence (Farver, Ghosh, & Garcia, 2000), high levels of distress (Martinez & Richters, 1993), depression (Durant, Getts, Cadenhead, Emans, & Woods, 1995), post-traumatic stress disorder (Fitzpatrick & Boldizar, 1993 Jaycox, Stein, Kataoka, Wong, Fink, Escudero,...

How Are Children Affected by Television

Social cognitive theory, developed by psychologist Albert Bandura, stresses that children learn many social behaviors by observing those modeled by others. Children are more likely to try a behavior if they can identify with the person modeling the behavior and the model is successful at achieving a goal or obtaining a reward. Heavy exposure to television characters who succeed by behaving in aggressive, violent, or stereotypical ways may encourage children to use similar strategies in their own lives. Numerous studies provide evidence that heavy exposure to televised violence is linked to increased aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

Marion K Underwood Lara Mayeux Mikal Galperin

Confer developmental advantages for children, but also that some children come to have enemies and that these mutual antipathies also influence children's development in important ways (Hartup & Abecassis, 2002). We continue to acknowledge the importance of understanding children's status in their peer groups at school, but we now know that being popular may not be the same as being well-liked (LaFontana & Cillessen, 1998, 2002 Parkhurst & Hopmeyer, 1998), and that there is heterogeneity among both popular (Rodkin, Farmer, Pearl, & Van Acker, 2000) and rejected children (French, 1988, 1990). Still, despite these challenges, recent advances suggest that progress is possible in understanding children's peer relationships in light of emotion regulation and gender development. Increased attention to emotional development has resulted in refinements in models of emotion regulation, and a powerful, testable theoretical framework has emerged to guide research on gender and peer...

Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

In one version of gender schema theory, Bem (1981) proposes that children develop gender schemas by virtue of the pervasive gender messages in society and that sex-typing occurs when children's self-concept and self-esteem gets assimilated into gender schemas. Interestingly, Bem's theory also focuses on individual differences in the degree of being sex-typed. She asserts that individual differences schemas and sexism schemas can replace gender schemas when children are encouraged to process information according to the variability within groups and the historical roots and consequences of sex discrimination (Bem, 2000).

Gay And Lesbianheaded Families

Openly gay and lesbian people are choosing to have children in increasing numbers, although the largest group of lesbian- and gay-headed families is still comprised of those parenting children from prior heterosexual relationships. Methods for creating ''intentional'' families include adoption, foster parenting, alternative insemination, and surrogacy. Laws regarding adoption and foster parenting vary by state as well as by country (in the case of international adoption). The exact number of lesbian- and gay-headed families is difficult to ascertain. Secrecy is still a fairly common practice because of the risk of losing children and employment as a result of sexual orientation. One study reported that in 1999, 3.9 million children age nineteen and under had gay or lesbian parents. Gay- and lesbian-headed families experience a variety of forms of discrimination, including under-representation in governmental policy, legal protection, educational environments, communities of faith,...

The Well Being of Children Raised in Single Parent Homes

Finally, children from all family types are at risk when they experience parenting that is inadequate in terms of warmth, control, or monitoring. Less than optimal parenting is more likely to be observed in families that are experiencing economic stress and among adolescent mothers (although a large part of this association may be explained by the greater likelihood that adolescent single mothers will experience economic disadvantage). Psychologist Mavis Hether-ington has found that the parenting skills of mothers tend to diminish in the years immediately following divorce, and children who are exposed to such disruptions in parenting experience concurrent psychological, behavioral, and academic difficulties. As mothers adjust to their new single-parent status, however, their parenting improves, as does their children's well-being.

Conclusion and Future Directions

N. (1989). Developmental changes in children's awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress. Child Development, 60, 1337-1349. Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A.Collins (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39-101). Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. Bridges, L.J., Denham, S.A., & Ganiban, J.M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child Development, 75, 340-345. Buss, K. A., & Goldsmith, H. H. (1998). Fear and anger regulation in infancy Effects on the temporal dynamics of affective expression. Child Development, 69, 359-374. Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2-3, Serial No. 240), 53-72. Calkins, S. D. (1997a)....

What Affects Childrens and Adolescents Adjustment to Stepfamilies

Step Familys

Cive consequently, boys may appreciate new stepfathers as alternative supportive parents and masculine role models. In stepfamilies that include the child's biological father and a stepmother, the stepmother may be seen as an intruder in the previously close father-child relationship. Girls may have trouble adjusting to the new stepmother, particularly because most girls maintain a close relationship with their noncustodial mother, but girls generally adjust to the new stepmother and benefit from the new relationship. In contrast, stepmothers often immediately become more involved in discipline. If the biological father supports the stepmother's discipline attempts, children generally receive more effective parenting from both parents. Stepmothers perceive parenting as more challenging than mothers in intact families, although research suggests that stepmothers are actually less negative and coercive in their interactions with their stepchildren than mothers in intact families....

Ainsworth Mary Dinsmore Salter 19131999

Mary Dinsmore Ainsworth

When Ainsworth accepted a position at the University of Virginia in 1974, her work was becoming increasingly influential, stimulating longitudinal studies of attachment in the United States and other countries that are still ongoing. In the late 1970s she was elected president of the Society for Research in Child Development. At the same time, many graduate students interested in attachment continued to flock to her (among them Jude Cassidy, Deborah Cohn, Virginia Colin, Patricia Crittenden, Carolyn Eichberg, Rogers Kobak, and Ulrike Wartner). After reluctantly retiring as Professor Emerita in 1984 at the required age of seventy, Ainsworth remained professionally active until 1992. In her later years, until her health began to fail, she retained a deep interest in the work of her former students who had begun to study attachment beyond infancy. A year before her death, she received one of the highest honors psychology can bestow, the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the...

Childrens and Adolescents Adjustment in Stepfamilies

One would expect that children and adolescents in stepfamilies would be better adjusted than children and adolescents in single-parent divorced families. Stepfamilies have more resources than single-parent divorced families, including two parents to share child rearing and more financial resources. Surprisingly, a large body of research indicates that children and adolescents in stepfamilies have the same level of adjustment problems as children and adolescents in divorced single-parent families. One reason for this similarity between the adjustment of children in step-families and single-parent divorced families may be that stepfamilies experience significant stresses within their family interactions. It may take five to seven years for a new stepfamily to stabilize and begin to function smoothly. From a family systems perspective, stepfamilies begin with a weak family system. Instead of a healthy family system (a strong, well-established marital bond, strong child bonds to both...

Three Common Elements of Temperament Characteristics

As early as 1699, the philosopher John Locke maintained that children are born with different behavioral tendencies. He also believed that the environment was the strongest force in development. To Locke, social experiences, not temperamental differences, shaped behavior across development. This was the predominant view of children's development until the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess published their classic books about the role of temperament in parent-child relationships and children's social and emotional development. Thomas and Chess argued that children's behavioral problems do not always stem from bad parenting. Instead, some children come into this world with temperament styles that make disciplining them a challenge. Even competent, caring parents may have difficult children and these parents need help learning how to manage their sons and daughters.

Cattell James 18601944

Alfred Binet

James Cattell's contribution to the discipline of child development can be seen through his early appreciation of individual differences and their measurement. (Psychology Archives, University of Akron) James Cattell's contribution to the discipline of child development can be seen through his early appreciation of individual differences and their measurement. (Psychology Archives, University of Akron) Cattell's contribution to the discipline of child development can be seen through his early appreciation of individual differences (differential psychology) and

Single Fathers Compared to Single Mothers

Number of single fathers has increased since the 1970s (9 of all single-parent homes were father-headed in 1970). The circumstances surrounding the single-parent status of men versus women differ. The greatest percentage of single fathers gained custody of children as the result of parental divorce. Single fathers are more likely to gain custody of children when mothers have either chosen not to retain custody or are perceived to be incompetent. Single fathers are more likely to have custody of older rather than younger children and of boys rather than girls. By and large, the challenges for single fathers and single mothers are similar and include the difficulties of combining parenting responsibilities and employment, and economic disadvantage. On average, single fathers have higher standards of living than do single mothers, which decreases potential stresses within the family. Yet single mothers have been reported to have warmer and more structured relationships with their...

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

The empirical literature on racial ethnic socialization has, in part, focused on understanding the nature and content of the racial ethnic socialization messages that parents transmit to their children. Many of these studies have utilized in-depth interviews with African American and other ethnic minority parents to identify the most prominent themes that emerge when parents are asked to consider the role of race and ethnicity in their parenting practices (e.g., Marshall, 1995 Thornton, Chatters, Taylor, & Allen, 1990). In this section, we attempt to describe more fully the different types of racial ethnic socialization messages that parents may communicate and the consequences of such messages for children's adaptation and well being. These include (a) emphasizing racial and ethnic pride, traditions, and history (termed cultural socialization) (b) promoting an awareness of racial prejudice and discrimination (termed preparation for bias) (c) issuing cautions and warnings about...