Jatamansi nardostachys grandiflora dc valerianaceae

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Synonyms:

Fedia grandiflora Wall. ex DC; Nardostachys gracilis Kitamura; Nardostachys jatamansi auct.; Patrinia jatamansi auct.; Valeriana jatamansi Wall. fide DEP; EFS

Notes (Jatamansi):

Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits: camphire with spikenard.

Song of Solomon 4:13 (KJV)

Jatamansi Tree Images
FIGURE 1.71 Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora).

With names such as spikenard (Nardostachys) and nard (Cymbopogon) long confused, it is difficult to know which was meant in biblical texts, but most biblical scholars, including Zohary, seem to favor Nardostachys as the biblical spikenard. Zohary states that in biblical times, spikenard came from India with such spices as cassia and cinnamon. Spikenard was then used in incenses and perfumes, but is today all but obsolete (ZOH). For more than a century, the alpine plant was so rare that Bhutan prohibited export, according to DEP, which also mentions Nardostachys as the spikenard of the Song of Solomon, St. John, and St. Mark. Because it was reportedly poured, it must have been an oil rather than a balm. Scholars assume it may then have been a mix of oils, much as used by modern Indian women to wash their hair (DEP). Occurring in alpine India and vicinity, elevation 11,000 to 17,000 feet, the plant is endangered in the wild. But spikenard is still valued in India, though endangered. The drug Jatamansi, or Nardus Root, consists of short, thick, dark grey rhizomes crowned with reddish brown tufted fibrous remains of the petioles of radical leaves. The rhizome is used in medicinal oils; reported to promote hair growth, imparting blackness (BIB; DEP; ZOH). Spikenard oil possesses antiarrhythmic activity of possible therapeutical use in auricular flutter; it is less effective than quinidine, but less toxic. In moderate doses it has a distinct depressant action on the central nervous system; and relaxes the skeletal and smooth muscles.

Common Names (Jatamansi):

Achte Narde (Ger.; NAD); Akashamansi (Sanskrit; KAB); Amritajata (Sanskrit; KAB); Balachhada (Urdu; KAB); Balacharea (Bom.; DEP; NAD); Balcchar (Hindi; DEP); Balchir (Hindi; Pun.; DEP; NAD); Balchkar (Ic.; KAB); Balu Char (Hindi; DEP); Bekh Kurphus (Behar; DEP; KAB); Bhultya (Nepal; NPM); Bhutajata (Sanskrit; KAB); Bhutakeshi (Sanskrit; KAB); Bhutijatt (Kas.; KAB; WOI); Bhut Jatt (Kas.; DEP; NAD); Bhytajata (Sanskrit; NAD); Billi Lotan (Dec.; DEP); Chakra-vartini (Sanskrit; KAB); Epi de Nard (Fr.; KAB); Espica Nardo (Sp.; HH2; KAB); Espiga Nard (Cat.; KAB); Gandhamansi (Sanskrit; KAB); Gan Song (Pin.; DAA; HH2); Gauri (Sanskrit; KAB); Haswa (Nepal; DEP; WOI); Hinsra (Sanskrit; KAB); Hint Sumbulu (Tur.; EFS); Indian Nard (Eng.; CR2; WOI); Indian Spikenard (Eng.; NAD); Indian Valerian (Eng.; NAD); Indische Narde (Ger.; KAP); Jadamansi (Sanskrit; KAB); Janani (Sanskrit; KAB); Jaramanshi (Sin.; NAD); Jaramansi (Sin.; DEP; KAB); Jatala (Sanskrit; KAB); Jatalasi (Hindi; KAB); Jatamamshi (Kan.; Mal.; Tel.; DEP; KAB; NAD); Jatamanchi (Mal.; NAD); Jatamangsi (Nepal; DEP; WOI); Jatamansi (Ayu.; Beng.; Bhutan; Eng.; Gurung; Hindi; Nepal; Sanskrit; Scn.; AH2; CR2; DEP; KAB; NPM; WOI); Jatamashi (Hindi; Pun.; Tam.; DEP; NAD; WOI); Jatamasi (Guj.; DEP; NAD; WOI); Jatamavashi (Kan.; NAD); Jatamavshi (Mar.; NAD; WOI); Jatamensis (Ic.; KAB); Jatamsi (Tel.; NAD); Jatavali (Sanskrit; KAB); Jati (Sanskrit; KAB); Jatila (Sanskrit; KAB); Jeta Manchi (Mal.; DEP; NAD); Jetamanshi (Mal.; EFS; KAB); Jetamavashi (Kan.; DEP; KAB); Jhatamansi (Dec.; DEP); Kalic-chad (Guj.; DEP; KAB; WOI); Kan Sung (China; HH2); Kan Sung Hsiang (China; EFS; KAB); Kanuchari (Hindi; KAB); Keshi (Sanskrit; KAB); Khasambhava (Sanskrit; KAB); Kiratini (Sanskrit; KAB); Kravyadi (Sanskrit; KAB); Krishnajata (Sanskrit; KAB); Kukilipot (Kas.; DEP; KAB; NAD; WOI); Laghumansi (Sanskrit; KAB); Limasha (Sanskrit; KAB); Mansi (Sanskrit; KAB); Mansini (Sanskrit; KAB); Masi (Garhwal; DEP; KAB; WOI); Mata (Sanskrit; KAB); Mishika (Sanskrit; KAB); Misi (Sanskrit; KAB); Mountain Nard (Eng.; EFS); Mrigabhaksha (Sanskrit; KAB); Muskroot (Eng.; EFS; NAD); Naird (Heb.; ZOH); Nalada (Sanskrit; KAB; ZOH); Naorochi (Khaling; NPM); Narada (Sanskrit; ZOH); Nard (Eng.; Heb.; BIB; ZOH); Nardenahre (Ger.; USN); Nard du Gange (Fr.; KAB); Nard Indien (Fr.; CR2); Narde Indike (Greek; NAD); Nardin (Arab.; Iran; Syria; ZOJ); Nard Indique (Fr.; KAB); Nardo Indico (Sp.; KAB); Nardos (Greek; ZOH); Nard Syriaque (Fr.; KAB); Naswa (Nepal; DEP; WOI); Naswan (Newari; NPM); Nerd (Heb.; ZOH); Niralambi (Sanskrit; KAB); Pampe (Bhutan; DEP); Pampi (India; DEP); Pangbu (Sherpa; NPM); Parvatavasini (Sanskrit; KAB); Paumpe (Bhutan; DEP); Peshi (Sanskrit; KAB); Peshini (Sanskrit; KAB); Pishachi (Sanskrit; KAB); Pishita (Sanskrit; KAB); Poi (Tamang; NPM); Putena (Sanskrit; KAB); Sambul (Arab.; HH2); Sevali (Sanskrit; KAB); Shvetakeshi (Sanskrit; KAB); Spang-Spos (Tibet; NPM); Span Pos (Tibet; KAP); Spicanard (Fr.; HH2); Spignard (It.; EFS); Spikenard (Eng.; KAB; NPM); Sukshmajatamansi (Sanskrit; KAB); Sukshmapatri (Sanskrit; KAB); Sumbul (Bom.; DEP); Sumbula theeb (Iran; NAD); Sumbulul-Assaffir (Arab.; DEP; KAB); Sumbul -i'l hind (Arab.; DEP; NAD); Sunbuluttibe-Hindi (Arab.; DEP); Sunbuluttib (Iran; DEP; KAB; NAD); Tamasi (Sanskrit; KAB); Tapasvini (Sanskrit; KAB); Tapaswini (Sanskrit; NAD); True Spikenard (Eng.; EFS); Vahini (Sanskrit; KAB); Valériane d'Inde (Fr.; EFS).

Activities (Jatamansi):

Alexiteric (f; KAB); Anthelmintic (f1; MPI); Antiarrhythmic (1; MPI; WOI; JAC7:405; X13331599); Anticonvulsant (1; PH2; MPI; WOI; X580202); Antidote (f; PH2); Antidyspneic (1; MPI); Antiemetic (1; KAP; MPI); Antiestrogenic (1; MPI); Antihistaminic (1; MPI); Antiischemic (1; X12479970); Antioxidant (1; X9102390); Antiperoxidant (1; X9102390); Antiseptic (1; MPI; SKJ; SUW); Antiserotonin (1; MPI); Antispasmodic (f1; DEP; KAB; MPI); Antiulcer (1; HH2; PH2; X580202); Bactericide (1; MPI); Bitter (f; KAB; SUW); Bronchodilator (1; MPI); Candidicide (1; MPI); Cardioprotective (f1; WOI); Carminative (f; KAB; SUW); CNS Depressant (f1; MPI; WOI; X11143748); Deobstruent (f; DEP; MPI); Deodorant (f1; DAA); Depurative (f; DEP; KAB); Diuretic (f; DEP; KAB; MPI; SUW); Emmenagogue (f1; AHP; DEP; KAB; NAD; SUW); Febrifuge (f; KAB); Fungicide (1; KAP; MPI; JAC7:405); GABA-nergic (1; X8202559); Hepatoprotective (1; X10940571); Hypocholesterolemic (f; JAC7:405); Hypolipidemic (1; X3215683); Hypotensive (1; KAP; MPI; X13522275); Laxative (f; KAB; SKJ; SUW); Lipogenic (f; KAB); Narcotic (1; WOI); Nervine (f; BIB); Neuritogenic (1; X14604758); Neurosedative (f; EFS); Neurotonic (f; EFS); Orexi-genic (f; KAB; NAD); Pectoral (f; KAB); Propecic (f; DEP; KAB; MPI); Sedative (f12; MPI; NAD; SKJ; WOI; X580202); Serotoninergic (1; X8202559); Stimulant (f; KAB; MPI; SUW); Stomachic (f; KAB; SUW); Taenicide (1; MPI); Tonic (f; DEP; KAB; SUW); Tranquilizer (f1; KAP; MPI; X580202); Uterotonic (1; AHP).

Indications (Jatamansi):

ADD (2; MPI); Adenitis (f; NAD); Aggressiveness (1; KAP); Alopecia (f; KAB; MPI); Amenorrhea (f; DEP); Anorexia (f; KAB; NAD); Arrhythmia (1; MPI; X13331599); Asthma (1; MPI); Bacteria (1; MPI); Biliousness (f; KAB); Bite (f; KAB); Bronchosis (f1; KAB; MPI; SKJ); Cancer, abdomen (f; JLH); Cancer, bladder (f; BIB); Cancer, eye (f; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f; JLH); Cancer, larynx (f; BIB; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f; JLH); Cancer, rectum (f; JLH); Cancer, spleen (f; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Cancer, vagina (f; JLH); Candida (1; MPI); Cardiopathy (1; KAB; MPI; NAD); Cerebrosis (f; NAD); Childbirth (f; EB24:259); Cholera (f1; DEP; MPI; SUW; EB24:259); Chorea (f; BIB); Circulosis (f; MPI); Colic (f; KAB; MPI; SUW); Complexion (f; KAB); Consumption (f; SKJ); Convulsion (f1; DEP; KAB; MPI; SKJ; SUW; X580202); Cough (f; KAB; MPI); Cramp (f; DEP; NAD; PH2); Debility (f; NAD); Delirium (f; EB24:259); Depression (f; BIB); Dermatosis (f; KAB); Dysentery (f; BIB); Dysmenorrhea (f; SKJ); Dyspnea (1; MPI); Dysuria (f; SKJ); Enterosis (f; JLH; KAB; PH2; SUW); Epilepsy (f; DEP; KAB; PH2; SUW); Erysipelas (f; KAB); Escherichia (1; MPI); Fever (f; KAB); Fungus (1; KAP; X749414); Gas (f; DEP; KAB; KAP; PH2); Gastrosis (f; DEP; JLH; KAP; PH2); Gleet (f; KAB); Gray Hair (f; DEP); Headache (f; KAP; PH2); Hemorrhoid (f; NPM); Hepatosis (f1; JLH; NAD; PH2; X10940571); High Blood Pressure (12; KAP; MPI; X13522275); High Cholesterol (f; JAC7:405); High Triglycerides (1; JAC7:405); Hyperkinesis (2; MPI); Hysteria (f; DEP; KAB; NAD; SUW); Infection (1; X749414); Inflammation (f; KAB; PH2); Insanity (f; BIB); Insomnia (f1; HH2; MPI; PH2; X580202); Ischemia (1; X12479970); Jaundice (f; DEP; NAD; PH2); Kidney stone (f; NAD); Leprosy (f; KAB; MPI; NAD); Lumbago (f; KAB); Madness (f; MPI); Malaria (f; DAA); Menopause (f; NAD; PH2); Mycosis (1; KAP; MPI; X749414); Nausea (f1; MPI; PH2); Nephrosis (f; JLH; KAB; NAD; PH2); Neurasthenia (1; MPI); Neurosis (f; NAD; PH2; ZOH); Obesity (1; X3215683); Ophthalmia (f; KAB; PH2); Pain (f; KAB; PH2); Palpitation (f1; DEP; KAB; MPI; NAB; WOI); Phymata (f; JLH); Proctosis (f; JLH); Respirosis (f; DEP); Rhinosis (f; SKJ); Salmonella (1; MPI); Scirrhus (f; JLH); Sclerosis (f; JLH); Smallpox (f; MPI; SKJ; EB24:259); Snakebite (f; KAB); Sore (f; KAB; MPI; EB24:259); Sore Throat (f; KAB); Spasm (f; BIB); Spermatorrhea (f; NAD); Spleno-sis (f; JLH); Staphylococcus (1; MPI); Sting (f; KAP; NAD); Stomachache (f; NAD; PH2); Stone (f; NAD); Streptococcus (1; MPI); Stress (f1; KAP; MPI; X580202); Syncope (f; EB24:259); Tachycardia (1; MPI; WOI); Tuberculosis (f; NAD; EB24:259); Tumor (f; BIB; JLH); Ulcer (1; HH2; PH2); Uterosis (f; PH2); Vaginosis (f; JLH); Worm (f1; MPI); Wound (f; KAB); Yeast (1; MPI).

Dosages (Jatamansi):

No food references uncovered. 10-20 grains powdered root (DEP; HH2); 14-56 ml fluid extract (KAP); 28-56 ml infusion (KAP); 28-56 ml decoction (KAP); 1-1.5 g powdered herb (KAP). 0.6-1.3 g drug as single dose (PH2). 5 g root 3 x/day (PH2). Wine glass full 3 x/daily (1:10 tincture or 1:40 infusion with 2 g max per single dose) (PH2).

• Asian Indians suggest 10 to 20 grains or 1 to 2 oz root in tea for chorea, flatulence, heart palpitations, and hysteria (DEP; NAD).

Ayurvedics, viewing the roots alexipharmic, antipyretic, depurative, fattening, and tonic; suggest it for the complexion, and biliousness, blood disorders, dermatosis, erysipelas, leprosy, sores, and throat problems (KAB).

• Chinese suggest the plant for chorea, colic, coronary palpitations, hysteria, and malaria (DAA).

• Indochinese use the rhizome for epilepsy and hysteria (KAB).

• Iranians use the root tea for cardiac and nervous disorders (BIB).

• Nepalese suggest pasting the rhizome onto hemorrhoids (NPM).

• Santals use the plant for bronchitis, cholera, convulsions, cough, epilepsy, madness, smallpox, ulcers, and unconsciousness after childbirth (MPI).

• Unani, viewing the root as carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, orexigenic, pectoral, stimulant, stomachic, and tonic, recommend it for baldness, chest pain, cough, enteritis, gleet, gray hair, lumbago, nephrosis, and wounds (KAB).

Downsides (Jatamansi):

Class 2b. Emmenagogue/uterine stimulant (AHP). No health hazards or side effects known with proper therapeutic dosages (PH2). Contraindicated during pregnancy (PH2). Lethal doses cause convulsions and death within a few hours (BIB; DAA).

Extracts (Jatamansi):

LD50 of jatamansone (ipr mus) 350 mg/kg, vs. 900 mg/kg for the whole essential oil. (MPI). EO hypotensive in dogs, dosages for hypotensive humans, less than lab animal dosage (MPI). Preliminary clinical trials of jatamansone exhibited reduced aggressiveness, restlessness, stubbornness, as well as less insomnia (MPI). With 28 hyperkinetic children, jatamansone and placebo were compared for 11 months with D-amphetamine and chlorpromazine. Jatamansone and especially amphetamine significantly improved behavior, amphetamine better helping aggressiveness and restlessness. Mentally retarded children showed little response to any of the drugs. Jatamansone had fewer side effects than the pharmaceuticals. Amphetamine exacerbated symptoms early on and caused insomnia in one patient (MPI).

Salim et al. (2003) demonstrated neuroprotective effects in rodent models of acute cerebral ischemia, probably via antioxidant activity (X12479970).

watercress (nasturtium officinale r. brown) ++ brassicaceae

Synonyms:

Baeumeria nasturtium Gaertn., Cardamine fontana Lam., Cardamine nasturtium Moench, Nasturtium fontanum (Lam.) Asch., Nasturtium nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) H. Karst. nom inval., Radicula nasturtium Cav. nom. illeg., Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Rendle & Britten, Rorippa nasturtium Beck. nom. illeg., Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek, Sisymbrium nasturtium Thunb. nom. illeg., Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum L. fide HH2 and POR.

Regina Reed
FIGURE 1.72 Watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Source: Regina Hughes in Reed (1970).

Notes (Watercress):

The fourteenth day of the second month at even they shall keep it, and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.

Numbers 9:11 (KJV)

In the second month on the fourteenth day in the evening they shall keep it; they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.

Numbers 9:11 (RSV)

In the second month on the fourteenth day between the two evenings, they should prepare it. Together with unfermented cakes and bitter greens they should eat it.

Numbers 9:11 (NWT)

Watercress is considered by some non-Israeli writers to be one of the bitter herbs of the Passover (with chicory, endive, and lettuce); but frankly, I think horseradish is more important in modern times. Israeli botanist Michael Zohary does not even mention watercress in his Plants of the Bible, but he does list it in the Flora of Palestine (FP1), as pluriregional, tropical, and temperate, in brooks and streams. Even I think of it as more pleasingly pungent than bitter, so I will not argue that it is the best candidate for the long list of bitter herbs. It is, however, my favorite among the many candidates, and possibly one of the healthiest (although often harboring human parasites when harvested wild). As a salad, it is said to promote the appetite. As a cosmetic, its bruised leaves are said to clear up facial blemishes, blotches, and spots. The juice, mixed with egg whites is said to help carcinoma. Made into snuff, it is a "cure" for polyps (JLH). Cress in vinegar is one remedy for anthrax. It is believed by some to interfere with implantation of the ovum or gestation. In small quantities, it is thought to act as an oral contraceptive and produce temporary sterility.

Common Names (Watercress):

Agretto (It.; AVP; KAB); Agriao (Mad.; Por.; EFS; POR); Agriao da Fonte (Por.; AVP); Agriao das Horias (Por.; AVP); Anandrano (Hova; KAB); Bachkresse (Ger.; HH2); Berra (Sp.; EFS); Berro (Peru; Sp.; EFS; EGG; HH2; VAD; VOD); Berro Cruz (Ma.; JFM); Berro de Agua (Sp.; EFS); Biolar (Irish.; KAB); Bran-cuta (Rom.; KAB); Braunkersch (Ger.; KAB); Brown Cress (Eng.; EFS); Br0nnkarse (Nor.; POR); Brunnenkresse (Ger.; HH2; KAB; MAD; POR); Cailli (Fr.; KAB); Cardam de Izfor (Rom.; KAB); Chijchi (Peru; EGG); Creiso (Provenzal; KAB); Creixans (Cat.; KAB); Crescione (It.; KAB; POR); Crescione Acquatico (It.; POR); Crescione de Fonte (It.; EFS); Cresciune (Malta; KAB); Creson (Ma.; JFM); Cres-sione (It. HH2); Cressione Aquatico (It. HH2); Cresson (Fr.; Haiti; AVP; KAB); Cresson aquatique (Fr.; KAB); Cresson D'eau (Fr.; AVP; HH2; POR); Cresson de Fontaine (Fr.; EFS; HH2; POR); Cresson de Ruisseau (Fr.; KAB); Cresson Officinal (Fr.; KAB); Creixns (Cat.; KAB); Dou Ban Cai (China; POR); Gemeine Brunnerkresse (Ger.; HH2); Grabenkresse (Ger.; HH2); Gredas (Cat.; KAB); Grundkresse (Ger.; HH2); Horf el Ma (Arab.; AVP); Hrenita (Rom.; KAB); Kiaelkrasse (Swe.; KAB); Kioelkarssa (Swe.; AVP); Kersch (Ger.; KAB); Kowhiti-Whiti (Nz.; KAB); Kreson (Creole; Haiti; Rus.; POR; VOD); Kressa (Rus.; KAB); Kzezucha (Pol.; AVP); Lutpuriah (Dec.; KAB); Mastuerzo Acuatico (Sp.; HH2; KAB); Mizu Garashi (Japan; POR); Mul Naeng Ee (Korea; POR); Nasitord (Fr.; KAB); Nasturel (Rom.; KAB); Nasturzio (It.; EFS; HH2); Nasturzio Acquatico (It.; EFS; POR); Occoruro (Peru; EGG); Oranda Garashi (Japan; POR; TAN); Phak Kaat Naam (Thai; POR); Piriya-Halim (Him.; Kum.; KAB; NAD); Quell Ranke (Ger.; KAB); Rechad (Tunis; AVP); Rukiew Wodna (Pol.; POR); Salat-Brunnenkresse (Ger.; EFS); Sante du Corps (Fr.; KAB); Selada Air (Indonesia; POR); Shahat (Iran; POR); Shamrock (Eng.; KAB); Shui Han Cai (China; POR); Shui Tian Jie (China; POR); Sija (Malta; KAB); Simsaag (Nepal; POR); Sisimbrio (It.; KAB); Sisimbrio acquatico (It.; POR); Sisymbrion (Greek; KAB); Sisimbro (It.; KAB); Stertion (Eng.; KAB); Suteresi (Tur.; EFS); Ting-Li (China; EFS); Ugas-Potocarka (Yug.; AVP); Wasserhanf (Ger.; EFS); Wasserkraute (Ger.; KAB); Wasserkresse (Ger.; EFS; HH2); Watercress (Eng.; CR2; EFS; VOD); Water Crishies (Ma.; JFM); Water Kers (Dutch; AVP); Water Cushie (Ma.; JFM); Weind Kresse (Den.; AVP); Wiesenkresse (Ger.; KAB); Witte Waterkers (Dutch; EFS); Xi Yang Cai Gan (Pin.; DAA); Zorret el Ma (Arab.; AVP); Nscn.

Activities (Watercress):

Abortifacient (f; BIB); Antidote (Nicotine) (f; BIB); Antihistaminic (1; X10746164); Antiimplantation (f; BIB); Antiinflammatory (1; X15917216); Antimitotic (1; HH2); Antiproliferant (1; X15016658); Antisar-comic (1; HH2); Antiseptic (1; HH2; PHR; PH2); Antitumor (1; BGB; PH2; X15016658); Antitussive (f;

VAD); Aperitif (f; PHR); Aphrodisiac (f; AHL); Apoptotic (1; X15016658; X15668997); Bactericide (1; BGB; WOI); Bitter (1; PHR); Chemopreventive (1; BGB; X12716290; X8634661); Cholagogue (1; APA; BGB); Cicatrizant (f; AHL; VOD); Contraceptive (f; BIB); COX-2 Inhibitor (1; X15917216); Cyanogenic (f; BIB); Cytoprotective (1; X15016658); Decongestant (1; APA); Depurative (f; APA; BGB; FAD; JFM; MAD); Detoxicant (1; JNU); Digestive (1; APA; PH2); Diuretic (f1; APA; FAD; MAD; PH2; VOD); Emmenagogue (f; MAD); Expectorant (f; AHL; BGB; EFS; MAD); Goitrogenic (1; WO2); Hypoglycemic (f; VAD); iNOS Inhibitor (1; X15917216); Laxative (f; BIB); NF-kappa-B Inhibitor (1; X15917216); Orexigenic (f1; APA; BIB; DEP; EFS; NAD; PH2); Propecic (f; AHL); Rubefacient (f; VAD); Sterilant (f; BIB); Stimulant (f; EFS; KAB); Tonic (1; APA); Vermifuge (f; EFS; MAD); Vulnerary (f; MAD; VOD).

Indications (Watercress):

Acne (f; BIB; MAD); Adenopathy (f; JLH); Alopecia (f; JNU; VAD); Anemia (f; JFM; VAD); Anorexia (f; DEP; PHR; VAD); Anthrax (f; BIB); Arthrosis (f; HH2; PHR; PH2); Ascites (f; MAD); Asthenia (f; BGB; VOD); Asthma (f; BIB; WOI); Bacteria (1; WOI); Blemish (f; BGB); Boil (f; JLH); Bronchosis (f12; AHL; FAD; PHR; VOD); Cancer (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, breast (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, colorectal (f1; X12716290); Cancer, esophagus (f1; JNU); Cancer, face (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, gland (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, lung (f1; APA; JNU; X8634661); Cancer, nose (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, prostate (f1; X15016658); Cardiopathy (f; BIB; FAD); Catarrh (f12; BGB; KOM; PH2; VOD); Cold (f1; BIB; FNF); Colic (f; X15878246); Congestion (2; APA; KOM); Cough (2; APA; DAA; MAD; PHR); Cys-tosis (f; MAD); Debility (f; VOD); Dermatosis (f; BIB; EGG; JFM; JNU); Diabetes (f; MAD; VAD); Dropsy (f; MAD); Dyscrasia (f; MAD); Dyskinesia (f; VAD); Dysmenorrhea (f; BIB); Dyspepsia (f; APA; MAD); Earache (f; MAD); Eczema (f; MAD); Enterosis (f; EGG); Exanthema (f; MAD); Fever (f; MAD); Flu (f; BIB); Freckle (f; BIB); Gallstone (f; HNI); Gastrosis (f; DAA); Gingivosis (f; MAD; VOD); Glossosis (f; MAD); Goiter (f; BIB; FAD; WOI); Gout (f; MAD; VAD); Gravel (f; MAD); Head cold (f; BIB; MAD); Hepatoma (1; X15668997); Hepatosis (f; EGG; JFM; MAD; X15878246); Herpes (f; MAD); High Blood Pressure (f; VAD); Hyperazotemia (f; VAD); Impetigo (f; BIB); Impotence (f; AHL); Infection (f; MAD); Inflammation (2; APA); Insomnia (f; BIB; MAD; NAD); Ischia (f; MAD); Jaundice (f; MAD); Kidney stone (f; MAD); Laryngitis (f; VAD); Leprosy (f; BIB); Lethargy (f; FAD); Liver Fluke (f; BGB); Liver Spot (f; BIB); Mucosis (KOM); Nephrosis (f; BIB; X15878246); Nervousness (f; APA); Obesity (f; VAD); Odontosis (f; VAD); Pertussis (f; BIB); Pharyngitis (f; VAD); Phthisis (f; AHL); Polyp (f; BIB; JLH; WOI); Pulmonosis (f; BIB; KAB; MAD; VOD); Respirosis (f12; APA; BGB; KOM; PH2; VAD); Rheumatism (f; FAD; MAD; PHR); Rhinosis (f; BIB; JLH; WOI); Scabies (f; BIB); Sciatica (f; BIB); Scrofula (f; MAD); Scurvy (f123; FAD); Seborrhea (f; VAD); Sore (f; MAD); Sore Throat (f; WOI); Splenosis (f; MAD); Staphylococcus (1; HH2); Stomatosis (f; DAA; MAD); Stone (f; MAD; VAD); Strangury (f; WOI); Swelling (f; HH2); Tonsilosis (f; EGG); Toothache (f; JNU; MAD); Tuberculosis (f; BIB; JFM; MAD); Tumor (f1; BIB); Urethrosis (f; VAD); UTIs (f1; BGB; BIB; PH2); Wart (f; JLH); Wen (f; JLH); Worm (f; BIB; MAD); Wound (f; AHL; VOD).

Watercress is grown for the pungent leaves and young stems, and is used widely for garnishing meats, salads, and other dishes, even biscuits. The pungent flavor is due to gluconasturtin. Whole plant consumed as salad or vegetable. Seeds used like mustard (BIB; FAC; TAN); 2 g fresh herb/ cup tea (APA); 20-30 g fresh herb/day (APA; KOM); 60-150 g freshly pressed juice (APA; KOM); 20-30 g fresh herb 3x to 150 g/day (HH2); 4-6 g dry herb/day (KOM); 2-3 cups preprandial tea (2 g (1-2 tsp) steeped 10-15 minutes in 150 ml boiled water) (PH2).

• Africans use chopped watercress, covered with honey overnight, as cough syrup (BIB).

• Haitians apply chopped or crushed leaves as cicatrizant or vulnerary (VOD).

• Haitians consume leafy stems as depurative, diuretic, for bronchitis and pulmonary catarrh (VOD).

• Haitians take the leaf broth or decoction for asthenia or weakness (VOD).

• Haitians use chopped leafy stems to treat gum disease (VOD).

• Lebanese use seeds as alterative and depurative, applying the herb in yogurt to acne (BIB; HJP).

• Native Americans consumed watercress to alleviate gallstones (HNI).

• Panamanians believe this a sure cure for anemia (JFM).

• Peruvians eat the plant as depurative, diuretic for bronchitis and worms (EGG).

• Peruvians gargle the macerated plant for tonsilitis (EGG).

• Salvadorans steep the flowering plant in wine as an antiscorbutic, depurative, and tonic (JFM).

• Venezuelans use cress juice for tuberculosis, poulticing the leaves on dermatosis (JFM).

• Venezuelans use 4 Tbsp fresh plant juice with cold Guazuma bark tea (like slippery elm bark) with 4 Tbsp red wine, 2 to 3 x/day for hepatosis (JFM).

• Western Europeans consider the plant ecbolic in large doses, emmenagogue in smaller doses (BIB).

Downsides (Watercress):

Class 2b, 2d (AHP, 1997). No health hazards or contraindications reported with proper administration of suggested therapeutic dosages (PH2). KOM and PH2 report contraindications: peptic ulcer, nephrosis; not to be used by children younger than 4 years; adverse effects: GI complaints (rarely). Since viewed as emmenagogue and uterocontractant, contraindicated in pregnancy. Irritation of gastric mucosa may develop following chronic ingestion of large quantities. (AEH). I suspect that much of what is said here could be said about horseradish, wasabi, and even the milder crucifers such as broccoli, etc. (JAD). VAD cautions against use with gastritis, ulcers, UTIs (although also listed as an indication), and hypothyroidism. Be careful to clean watercress thoroughly as it may harbor dangerous aquatic microbes (VAD).

Natural History (Watercress):

Bees and flies are the chief pollinators. According to Eastman, the only pest is the caddisfly, Lim-nephilus lunatus, an aquatic case-making larva, like the cress native to Europe. Eating above water are such species as bean aphids (Aphis rumicis; blackish sapsuckers clustered under leaves) and watercress leaf beetles (Pheodon aeruginosa bronze-black oval chrysomelids). Pierid butterfly caterpillars, called whites, feed on many mustard species. The diamondback moth caterpillar (Plutella xylostella) eats holes in the lower leaf surface, pupating in mesh-like cocoons. Underwater, the plant may provide food all year. There may be amphipods (Gammarus), which feed on yellowed leaves, the fresh leaves toxic to them, and water sowbugs (Asellus). Trout consume young leaves and attached animals. The plants are fairly high in vitamins, minerals, and protein. The leaves are eaten by ducks, muskrats, and deer, and serve as shelter for small aquatic animal life. Regrettably, the plant accumulates heavy metals. There goes another healthy human food, spoiled by humans, like the Maine fish, polluted by the lumber industry, canaries in the aquatic microcosm.

Extracts (Watercress):

Rose et al. (2005) (X15917216) showed that beta-phenylethyl- and 8-methylsulphinyloctyl isothio-cyanates suppress nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Both have known chemopreventive properties. Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGE) are associated with pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation and cancer). The reduction in both iNOS and COX-2 expression were associated with inactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB and stabilization of IkappaBalpha (X15917216). Plants become bitter in flowering, better for medicine, worse for food (JFM). Watercress is the richest source of phenethylisothiocyanate, which also occurs in bok choy, turnips, and turnip greens (JNU). Singling out watercress, Chiao et al. (2003) (X15016658) note that consumption of an iso-thiocyanate metabolite inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Epidemiology indicates that crucifer consumption is inversely related to prostate cancer incidence. The N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate of phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC-NAC), abundant in watercress, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis. The supplemented diet group (8 pM/g) showed significant reductions in tumor size in 100% of the mice (X15016658). Linking this study to an earlier Maori study seems to suggest this bitter herb be included in your diet if you fear colon or prostate, or any, cancer. Thompson and Shaw (X12716290) noted that New Zealanders have a high rate of colorectal cancer, but the Maori have a lower incidence than non-Maori New Zealanders (22.2 and 43.7 per 100,000, respectively). "Maori eat more in total, eat more red meat, drink more alcohol, consume more saturated fat, have a higher prevalence of obesity, and have a lower proportion of individuals consuming a given level of fruit and vegetables per day." Sonchus and Nasturtium officinale are foods with plausible cancer protective properties and are components of the Maori, but not the non-Maori diet (X12716290). All this tells me that if you must eat, drink, and be merry, include some bitter herb — especially watercress — in your fare.

oleander (nerium oleander l.) x apocynaceae

Synonyms:

Nerium indicum Mill.; Nerium latifolium Mill.; Nerium odorum Soland. (Treated separately in HH2; aggregated here and in AH2.)

Notes (Oleander):

Hearken unto me, ye holy children, and bud forth as a rose growing by the brook of the field.

Ecclesiasticus 39:13 (KJV)

Back in 1985, I postulated, along with other writers, that the rose of Ecclesiaticus was Nerium. But not Zohary, who renders the rose of Ecclesiasticus as the genus Rosa. Zohary does include oleander in his Plants of the Bible, equating it with the place name Ardat (II Esdras 9:26), which he deems cognate with ardaf, the Hebrew name for oleander, and close kin to Armenian ardab. According to other students of the Scriptures, the oleander is the "rose of the waterbrooks" — the "rhododendron" or "rose tree" of the Greeks. Either way, oleander is clearly a medicinal and poisonous ornamental common in Israel. To the Spanish, oleander is known as laurel, and is their favorite shrub for parks and gardens. As an evergreen summer favorite, it is termed "tough and attractive," and does well in almost any soil. In Greece, India, and Italy, it is a funeral plant. It is used to decorate Hindu temples. Zohary notes that oleander is common on riverbanks in Israel. Palestinians secure from it a very active cardiac glucoside used in pharmacy. It is used as a rat poison in Europe. Honey from the flowers may even be poisonous. It is widely planted as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical countries. Some suggest that it is the "willow of the brook" of Leviticus used for constructing booths for the Feast of Tabernacles. Some view it as the Jericho rose because on the eastern side of Jordan, it becomes a tree 25 feet tall. With a copious folk repertoire of anticancer activity, oleander will probably be found to contain more proven anticancer agents than just the rutin and ursolic acid. Leaves are dangerously applied to cutaneous eruptions; the decoction is used to destroy maggots in wounds. In Lebanon, as perhaps elsewhere, informants contradict, consider it calming yet irritating, a cause yet a cure for sore eyes, a medicine yet a poison. Such contradictions fan the flames of homeopathy (BIB).

Jatamansi Tree
FIGURE 1.73 Oleander (Nerium oleander).

Common names (Oleander):

Adelfa (Sp.; EGG; HH3; RAR; USN); Adelfa Laurel (Peru; EGG); Alari (Mal.; DEP); Alelí (Pr.; LWW); Alelí Extranjero (Pr.; LWW); Alhelí (Pr.; LWW); Alili (Ber.; BOU); Amancayo (Peru; RAR); Anini (Ber.; BOU); Arali (Tam.; SKJ); Aralivayr (Tam.; DEP); Ardab (Arm.; ZOH); Ardaf (Heb.; ZOH); Ariri (Ber.; BOU); Azuceno de la Habana (Col.; LWW); Baladre (Sp.; EFS); Balandre (Sp.; USN); Barhamase (Nepal; SUW); Bau Swan (Newari; NPM); Beijos (Por.; AVP); Belladonna (Fr.; AVP); Ceylon Rose (Eng.; EFS); Chu Au (China; EFS); Delfa (Arab.; AVP; BOU); Dephali (Iran; EFS; NAD); Dhavekanera (Kon.; NAD); Difla (Arab.; ZOH); Diflah (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Duftender Oleander (Ger.; HH3); Espirradeira (Por.; AVP); Flor del Perú (Dr.; Peru; AHL; AVP); Franse

Bloem (Dwi.; LWW); Gandeli (BAL; KAB); Ganderai (Pushtu; DEP); Ganhira (Pun.; DEP); Ganira (Bom.; DEP); Gheneru (Tel.; DEP); Haban (Arab. GHA); Hamancay (Que.; RAR); Harduf (Heb.; ZOH); Indian Oleander (Eng.; SKJ); Jaur (Bal.; DEP); Jiia Zhu Tao (Pin.; AH2); Jowari (Bal.; KAB); Kagaer (Guj.; SKJ); Kanagale (Kan.; DEP); Kanagilu (Kan.; NAD); Kanaveeram (Tam.; NAD); Kaner (Hindi; Nepal; EFS; NPM); Kanera (Guj.; Mah.; DEP; NAD); Kaneri (Mar.; DEP); Kanero (Orissa; SKJ); Kanher (Guj.; NAD); Kaniha-Swaa (Nepal); Kanirkejur (Dec.; DEP); Kanyur (Kum.; DEP); Karabi (Beng.; India; DEP; EFS; NAD); Karavira (Ayu.; Sanskrit; AH2; DEP; EFS); Karber (Hindi; NAD); Karbir (Nepal; NPM); Kasturipatte (Tel.; NAD); Kharazahra (Arab.; EFS; NAD); Khar Sahrah (Iran; DEP); Kiah (China; EFS); Kuruvira (Hindi; DEP); Kyochiku-to (Japan; USN); Laurel (Peru; RAR); Laurel Blanco (Sp.; LWW); Laurel Colorado (Sp.; LWW); Laurelles (Fr.; AVP); Laurel Rosa (Bol.; Peru; Sp.; DLZ; EGG; USN); Laurel Rosado (Ecu.; LWW); Laurier (Fr.; Haiti; AHL); Laurier Blanc (Haiti; AHL); Laurier des Jardins (Haiti; AVP); Laurier Rose (Fr.; Haiti; BOU; EFS; HH3; LWW; USN); Laurier Tropical (Haiti; AHL); Laurose (Fr.; Gaud.; AVP); Lawrin (Bol.; Callawaya; DLZ); Leandro (It.; EFS); Loandro (Por.; AVP); Loendro (Por.; EFS; HH3); Lorbeerrose (Ger.; EFS); Loryé Rose (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Loryé Wos (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Loureiro Rosa (Por.; AVP; HH3); Loyee (Haiti; TRA); Martinica (Dr.; His.; Peru; AHL; AVP; LWW); Massa di S. Giovanni (It.; EFS); Massa di S. Giuseppe (It.; EFS); Naranjillo (Peru; EGG; RAR); Narciso (Cr.; Cuba; Hon.; LWW; TRA); Narciso Rosado (Sal.; LWW); Nérier a Fles (Fr.; AVP); Nérion (Fr.; AVP); Oleander (Eng.; Dwi.; Scn.; AH2; BOU; VOD); Oléandre (Fr.; BOU; EFS; USN); Oleandro (It.; EFS; HH3); Pascua (Sp.; USN); Pirulí (Dr.; His.; AHL); Rajabaka (San.; SKJ); Rajbaka (San.; DEP); Rhododendron (Eng.; AVP); Rhododendron de Pline (Fr.; AVP); Rosa de Berberiá (Sp.; Ven.; EFS; LWW); Rosa del Perú (Dr.; AHL); Rosa Francesa (Cuba; Peru; RAR; RyM; TRA); Rosage (Fr.; AVP; EFS); Rose (Eng.; BIB); Rose Bay (Eng.; CR2; SKJ; RAR); Roseberry Spurge (Eng.; EFS; NAD); Rose Laurel (Eng.; CR2; HH3; VOD); Rosen Lorbeer (Ger.; EFS; HH3); Sevadilha (Por.; EFS); South Sea Rose (Eng.; EFS; HH3); Sum el Himar (Arab.; DEP); Sumala Himara (Arab.; EFS); Svetapushpa (Sanskrit; EFS); Sweet-scented Oleander (Eng.; EFS; NAD); Ward el Hhimar (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Ward el-homar (Arab.; BOU); Welriekende Oleander (Dutch; EFS); Wohlriechende (Ger.; NAD); Wohlriechende Oleander (Ger.; EFS; HH3); Zabb el Hhimar (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Zakkum (Tur.; EFS).

Activities (Oleander):

Abortifacient (f1; BOU; HH2; WWB); Adaptogenic (1; KAP); Analgesic (f1; KAP; MPI); Anticancer (f1; CRC; MPI; X14609747; X15730243); Antiedemic (f; MPI; X14522443); Antiinflammatory (f1; KAP; MPI; TRA; X14609747; X15730243); Antinociceptive (1; X14522443); Antiseptic (f1; JFM; WBB); Antistress (1; MPI); Antiulcer (1; MPI); Antiviral (1; TRA); Aphrodisiac (f1; KAB); Apoptotic (1; X14609747); Bactericide (1; WBB; WOI); Bradycardic (1; MPI); Cardiac (1; BIB; CRC); Cardioactive (1; X3086679); Cardiotonic (1; AHL; BIB; CRC; KAP; LWW; WOI); CNS Depressant (1; KAP); Cyanogenic (1; BIB; CRC); Diuretic (f1; BIB; CRC; EFS; KAP; WOI); Emetic (f1; CRC; MPI); Emmenagogue (f1; BIB; CRC; HH2; MAD); Febrifuge (f1; BOU; KAP; MPI); Fungicide (f1; MPI); Insecticide (f1; BOU; CRC; NPM); Insectifuge (f; BIB; CRC); Lachrymatory (f; KAP; WOI); Larvicide (f; BIB); Negative Chronotropic (1; PH2); Neuroprotective (1; X15492866); Paralytic (f; BOU); Parasiticide (f; BIB; CRC); Poison (f1; CRC; DEP; SUW); Positive Inotropic (1; PH2); Larvicide (f; WOI); Neurogenic (1; X12542335); Pediculicide (f; FEL); Piscicide (f1; WBB; X14505708); Purgative (f; BIB; CRC; JFM); Rodenticide (f1; CRC; LWW); Spasmogenic (f; KAP; MPI); Sternutatory (f; BIB; CRC; JFM); Stimulant (f; CRC); Tonic (f; CRC; EFS); Toxic (f; EFS); Uterotonic (1; TRA); Vermifuge (f; JFM); Vulnerary (f; TRA).

Indications (Oleander):

Alopecia (f; BOU); Angina (f; MAD); Apoplexy (f; MAD); Aposteme (f; CRC); Arrhythmia (f1; MAD; TRA); Arthrosis (f; KAB; MAD); Asthma (f; CRC); Atheroma (f; CRC); Bacteria (1; TRA; WBB); Bronchosis (f; GHA); Cancer (f; BOU); Carcinoma (f; CRC); Cardiopathy (f1; BIB; BOU;

PH2; TRA); Chancre (f; KAB; MPI; NAD; SUW; WOI); Circulosis (1; TRA); Conjunctivosis (f; CRC); Corn (f; CRC; JLH); Cough (f; GHA); Dermatosis (f; CRC; DEP; NPM; PH2; SKJ; SUW; WOI); Dysmenorrhea (f; CRC; WBB); Dyspnea (f; FEL); Eczema (f; CRC; MAD); Edema (f; FEL); Epilepsy (f; CRC; FEL; WBB); Epithelioma (f; CRC; JLH); Fungus (f; NPM); Furuncle (f; HH2); Gingivosis (f; BIB; BOU); Headache (f; KAP; MAD); Hemorrhoid (f; KAP; MPI; PH2); Herpes (f; CRC; NPM); High Blood Pressure (f; BIB); Impetigo (f; BIB); Impotence (f; KAB); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (f1; JFM; WBB); Inflammation (f1; KAB; MPI; TRA); Insomnia (f; MAD); Itch (f; BOU; KAB); Leprosy (f; BIB; DEP; HJP; SUW); Leukoderma (f; KAB); Lice (f; FEL); Lumbago (f; KAB); Maggot (f; CRC); Malaria (f; CRC; MAD; WBB); Mange (f; DLZ; VOD); Myalgia (f; KAB); Mycosis (f1; MPI; NPM); Myocardosis (f; MAD); Neurosis (1; X15492866); Odontosis (f; BIB; BOU); Ophthalmia (f; CRC; KAP; NAD; PH2); Pain (f1; KAB; X14522443); Paralysis (f; MAD); Parasite (f; AHL; JFM); Pediculosis (f; VOD); Psoriasis (f; CRC; SUW; X15613134); Respi-rosis (f; TRA); Rhinosis (f; BIB); Ringworm (f; BIB; CRC; NPM); Salmonella (1; TRA); Scabies (f; CRC; MAD; PH2; WBB); Sinusosis (f; CRC; GHA; JFM); Snakebite (f; CRC; HH2; NAD; NPM; WBB); Sore (f; CRC; SUW; VOD; WOI); Staphylococcus (1; WBB); Sting (f; NAD); Stomatosis (f; BIB); Stress (f1; KAP); Swelling (f1; DEP; JFM; KAP; NAD; SUW; X14522443); Syphilis (f; BOU; NAD); Tachycardia (f; MAD); Tinea (f; DLZ); Tumor (f; CRC; JLH); Urethrosis (f; KAB); Venereal Disease (f; BIB; BOU; JFM); Vertigo (f; MAD); Virus (1; TRA); Wart (f; BIB); Worm (f; KAB); Wound (f; KAB).

Dosages (Oleander):

Equivalent to 1-3 grains fresh bark or dried fruit (FEL); 50 mg leaf (MAD).

• Algerians gargle leaf decoction to strengthen gums and teeth, use it as nose drops (BOU), and use leaves as a fumigant for fever (HJP).

• Asian Indians apply a paste of ground root in water to chancres and sores on the penis (NAD).

• Ayurvedics use the plant for bronchosis, conjunctivosis, dermatosis, fever, hemorrhoids, itch, leukoderma, urethrosis, worms, and wounds (KAB).

• Bolivians suggest the powdered dried leaves as a powerful sternutatory, or in lard, or decocted in oil for mange and tinea (DLZ).

• Curacaons boil the flowers and gargle the decoction, and bathe dermatitic children in the leaf decoction (JFM).

• Dominicans infuse the leaves in oil to alleviate dermatosis and parasites, rubbing the leaves on lice (AHL; TRA).

• Ethiopians dress skin diseases on the head with the leaves (BIB).

• Haitians use the vinegar leaf macerate for head lice and sores (VOD).

• Lebanese suggest the plant as a dangerous antiedemic, antiitch, cardiotonic, hypotensive, the decoction useful for impetigo and ringworm, root extracts for amenorrhea, leprosy. and venereal disease (HJP).

• Mohammedans suggest the leaf decoction to reduce swelling, and oil with root bark (external only) for dermatosis and leprosy (KAB).

• Munda use the seeds to poison jackals and pigs (KAB).

• Nepalese use a root bark paste for dermatoses, herpes, and ringworm (NPM).

• Ukranians use the plant as an abortifacient (HJP).

• Unani suggest the flowers for arthralgia, headache, impotence, inflammation, lumbago, myalgia, scabies, and the dangerous root for pain in the abdomen and joints (KAB).

• Venezuelans suggest inhaling the steam from boiled shoots for sinusitis (JFM).

• Venezuelans use the latex to repel flies (AHL)

Downsides (Oleander):

No health hazards or contraindications reported with proper administration of suggested therapeutic dosages (PH2) (but PH2 designates no dosage!; JAD). Commission E reports accidental and therapeutic use of leaf has resulted in partially fatal poisonings (AEH). Overdoses may cause arrhythmia, bradycardia, cardiodepression, confusion, cyanosis, diarrhea, headache, hyperkalemia, nausea, neurodepression, stupor, and vomiting (BRU; DEP; MAD; PH2). More than 100 years ago we read that "Several cases are on record of fatal results from the internal administration" (DEP). Over a 6-year period (1989-1995), 142 bovines died in California (BRU). During the Persian campaign, Alexander's army lost horses that had fed on the shrub, and some soldiers died who had grilled their meat on skewers made from the wood (WBB). 15-20 g fresh leaf can kill a horse, 10-20 a cow, 1-5 a sheep. Children have died after ingesting a handful of flowers (JFM).

Extracts (Oleander):

Leaves, flowers, and stem bark possess cardiotonic properties, especially the leaves. Cornerine has proved effective against cardiac ailments in clinical trials, particularly improving the heart muscle functions. Oleandrin is diuretic and stimulates the heart. The flavonal glycosides influence vascular permeability and possess diuretic properties (BIB).

black cumin (nigella sativa l.) ++ ranunculaceae

Synonyms:

Nigella indica Roxb.; Nigella truncata Viv. Notes (Black Cumin):

For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod.

Isaiah 28:27 (KJV)

Dill is not threshed with a threshing sledge, nor is a cart wheel rolled over cummin; but dill is beaten out with a stick, and cummin with a rod.

Isaiah 28:27 (RSV)

For it is not with a threshing instrument that black cumin is given a treading; and upon cumin no wheel of a wagon is turned. For it is with a rod that black cumin is generally beaten out, and cumin with a staff.

Isaiah 28:27 (NWT)

Here the three versions differ in the translation of the Hebrew ketzah, and I frankly like the NWT version best. Of the three, only the NWT renders it black cumin (Nigella of the Ranunculaceae), which is not taxonomically related to cumin or cummin (Cuminum of the Apiaceae). The KJV renders it fitches, which is Nigella. Zohary adds that the identity of the Hebrew ketzah with "black cummin" or "nutmeg flower" is not only linguistically supported but attested by the postbiblical custom of sprinkling the seeds over bread and cake and of flavoring dishes with them. The Arabic and Aramaic name is kazha (ZOH). This herb may be even more important to the Muslims than to the Christians and Jews. According to an Arab proverb, "in the black seed is the medicine for every disease except death." Nearly a millennium ago, Rhineland abbess Hildegard von Bingen (10981179), described by translator Throop as artist, Benedictine abbess, healer, linguist, musician,

Valerianaceae
FIGURE 1.74 Black Cumin (Nigella sativa).

mystic, playwright, poet, preacher, spiritual counselor, theologian, and visionary, published her Physica. She suggested pounding the seed with honey as fly paper, streaking it where you wish to attract the flies, which, on tasting, will sicken and die (HIL).

Common Names (Black Cumin):

Agenuz (Sp.; POR); Agenuz Comun (Sp.; POR); Ajenuz (Sp.; USN); Araignee (Fr.; BOU); Ara-nuel (Sp.; USN); Aranyajeeraka (Sanskrit; NAD); Bashpika (Sanskrit; KAB); Black Caraway (Eng.; USN); Black Cumin (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; CR2; KAB; USN); Chernushka Posevnaia (Rus.; POR); Cinnamonea (It.; KAB); Cominho-Negro (Por.; USN); Qoreg Otu (Tur.; POR); Qorek Otu (Tur.; POR); Corekotu (Tur.; EFS); Cumin Noir (Fr.; EFS; KAB; NAD; POR); Cuminella (It.; KAB; POR); Czarnuszka Siewna (Pol.; POR); Dill (Eng.; ZOH); Erbe Spezie (It.; KAB; POR); Faux Cumin

(Fr.; KAB); Fennel Flower (Eng.; HJP); Fitch (Eng.; BIB, HJP); Gandana (Iran; KAP); Gemeiner SchwartzKuemmel (Ger.; KAB); Gith (Fr.; EFS; KAB); Gitono (It.; EFS); Gittaione (It.; POR); Haba Saoda (Arab.; Yemen; X15890471); Habba Sooda (Arab.; GHA); Habba Suda (Arab.; BOU); Habba-toussouda (Arab.; DEP); Habbatussuda (Arab.; KAB); Habbet el-barakah (Arab.; BOU); Hubsindee (Egypt; KAB); Jintan Hitam (Malaya; EFS; POR); Kadujeeru (Guj.; NAD); Kalajaji (Sanskrit; KAB); Kala Jira (Hindi; India; DEP; EFS; KAB); Kalanji (Hindi); Kalenjira (Bom.; KAB); Kalenjire (Bom.; DEP; NAD); Kalijeeri (Gwalior; KAB); Kalijira (Beng.; KAB; NAD); Kalonji (Bom.; Hindi; KAB); Kalonjijirum (Guj.; KAB); Kaluduru (Sin.; KAB; NAD); Kalzira (Beng.; KAB); Kammun Aswad (Arab.; BOU); Kammun el Akhal (Arab.; BOU); Kamûn Awad (Arab.; Syria; HJP; POR); Kamune Asvad (Arabic; EFS; NAD); Kamuneavad (Arab.; KAB); Karamuk (Tur.; POR); Karava (Sanskrit; KAB); Karavi (Sanskrit; KAB); Karejirage (Kan.; KAB); Karijirigay (Kan.; KAB; POR); Karijirige (Kan.; KAB); Karimsiragam (Kan.; DEP; KAB); Karinchirakam (Mal.; NAD); Karunchirakam (Mal.; DEP; KAB); Karunjirajam (Tam.; KAB); Karunjirakam (Mal.; POR); Karunshiragam (Mal.; Tam.; DEP; KAB); Karunshirogam (Tam.; NAD); Kazha (Arab.; Aramaic; ZOH); Kelanji (Bom.; NAD); Kemun (Arab.; Libya; POR); Ketzah (Heb.; ZOH); Kommen (Den.; EFS); Krishnajira (Mah.; KAB); Krishna-jiraka (Ayu.; Sanskit; AH2; DEP; KAB); Kulanjan (Dec.; Urdu; KAB; POR); Kun-chi (Sanskrit; KAB); Kunchika (Sanskrit; KAB); Kunjika (Sanskrit; KAB); Kurras (Arab.; KAP); Kusheng (Chinese; Malaya; EFS; KAB); Love in a Mist (Eng.; RFS); Melanthion (Greek; NAD); Melanzio Domestico (It.; POR); Mugrela (Beng.; Hindi; DEP; KAB; NAD); Mugrelo (Nepal; KAP; SUW); Mungrela (Beng.; KAB); Musavi (Sanskrit; KAB); Nallajilakara (Tel.; DEP; NAD); Nal-lajirakara (Tel.; POR); Neguilla (Sp. EFS; POR); Nellajeelakaira (Tel.; KAB); Nielle de Crete (Fr.; KAB); Nielle Romaine (Fr.; KAb); Nigela (Mad.; Por.; POR); Nigella (Eng.; Scn.; AH2); Nigelle cultivee (Fr.; KAB); Nigelle de Crète (Fr.; USN); Nigelle Romaine (Fr.; KAB); Nigera (Japan; KAP); Nullajilakara (Tel.; KAB); Nutmeg Flower (Eng.; KAB; ZOH); Pei Hei Zhong Cao (China; POR); Prathvika (Sanskrit; KAB); Prithvi (Sanskrit; KAB); Prithu (Sanskrit; KAB); Prithuka (Sanskrit; KAB); Qahta Sauda (Yemen; GHA); Quatre Epice (Fr.; BOU); Quesah (Heb.; KAB); Roman Coriander (Eng.; HOS; USN); Romische Schwartz Kuemmel (Ger.; KAB); Samonne (Burma; KAB); Samon-ne (Burma; DEP; NAD); Sanoudj (Arab.; BOU); Satmung (Burma; NAD); Schwartz Kum-mel (Ger.; EFS; KAB); Sehniz (Tur.; POR); Shanaza (Syria; HJP); Shewadaru (Afg.; DEP; KAB); Shouniz (Arab.; NAD); Shûnîz (Arab.; Iran; KAB; POR); Siyahbiranj (Iran; KAB); Siyahdanah (Iran; EFS; KAB; NAD); Siyahdaru (Afg.; KAB; NAD); Small Fennel (Eng.; DEP; KAB; NAD); Sthulajiraka (Sanskrit; KAB); Sushavi (Sanskrit; KAB); Svartkummin (Swe.; POR); Tchernushka (Mal.; KAB); Tikammin (Ber.; BOU); Toute Épice (Fr.; BOU; USN); Tukhmigandha (Kas.; DEP; KAB; NAD); Upakunchika (Ayu.; Sanskrit; AH2; KAP); Upakunchiraka (Sanskrit; KAB); Zerara (Ber.; BOU); Zwarte Komijn (Dutch; EFS; POR); Zwarte Kummel (Dutch; EFS).

Activities (Black Cumin):

Abortifacient (f; BIB; DEP; KAP); Amebicide (1; MPI); Analgesic (f1; X10552840); Anesthetic (f1; NAD); Anorectic (1; X15325727); Anthelmintic (f; BIB; DEP; KAP); Antiamphetamine (f; MPI); Antibilious (f; BIB; EFS); Anticancer (f1; FNF); Anticonvulsant (f1; X15795687); Antidiabetic (f1; X15589481); Antidote (Hg) (f; SKJ); Antiedemic (f1; X10552840); Antiepileptic (1; X15795687); Antifibrinolytic (1; X15693715); Antifibrosarcomic (1; X11531013); Antihistaminic (1; HAD; HHB; WOI); Antihypertensive (1; FNF); Antiinflammatory (f1; BOW; X10552840); Antileukemic (1; X1270717); Antileukotriene (1; X15648658); Antimetastatic (1; X15693715); Antinephrotic (1; X10755708); Antinociceptive (f1; HAD); Antioxidant (1; X10925395); Antioxytocic (1; FNF); Anti-peroxidant (1; X15785320); Antiproteinuric (1; X10755708); Antiradicular (1; PR14:323); Antiseptic (f1; WOI; X10548758); Antispasmodic (f1; BOU; HAD; HHB; WOI); Antitumor (colon) (f1; X15375533); Antitussive (f; X15890471); Antiulcer (1; HOS); Antiviral (1; HAD); Apoptotic (1; X15375533); Bactericide (1; HAD; HHB; WOI); Bronchodilator (f1; HAD); Calcium Antagonist (1; X11381824); Candidicide (1; FNF); Cardiodepressant (1; MPI); Cardioprotective (1; X9700580);

Carminative (f1; BOU; DEP; HHB; MAD; SKJ; SUW; WOI); Chemopreventive (1; X11531013; Choleretic (1; HHB); Cholecomimetic (1; MPI); CNS Depressant (1; MPI); Contraceptive (f; HAD); Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (1; FNF); Cytotoxic (1; X1270717); Detoxicant (1; X11531013); Diaphoretic (f; BIB); Digestive (f; BIB; DEP); Diuretic (f1; BIB; BOU; EFS; HHB; MAD; SUW; WOI; X10967716); Emmenagogue (f; BIB; BOU; DEP; EFS; MAD; SUW; WOI); Fungicide (1; MPI); Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase Inhibitor (1; X15785320); Glutathiogenic (1; X11531013; X15785320); Gram(+)-icide (1; YAB); Gram(-)-icide (1; YAB); Hepatoprotective (f1; X10883736); Histaminergic (1; X8270170); Hyperthermic (1; DEP); Hypoglycemic (1; X11744291); Hypolipidemic (1; X10755708); Hypotensive (1; MPI); Hypotriglyceridemic (1; X5326549); Hypouricemic (1; HHB); Immunostimulant (1; HAD); iNOS Inhibitor (1; X15589481); Insecticide (f1; HIL; MPI); Insectifuge (1; WOI); Insulinogenic (1; X15482373); Interferogenic (1; FNF); Lactagogue (f1; BIB; BOU; DEP; EFS; HAD; HHB; KAB; MAD; SUW; WOI); Laxative (f; BOW); 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor (1; FNF); Lipolytic (f1; X15325727); Nephroprotective (1; X5326549); NO Inhibitor (1; X15589481); Orexigenic (f; BIB; HAD); Pediculicide (f; DEP); Phagocytotic (1; HAD); Plasminogen Activator (1; X15830841); Protein Kinase Inhibitor (1; X15589481); Protisticide (1; MPI); Purgative (f; BIB; EFS); Quinone Reductase Inducer (1; X11531013); Respirostimulant (f1; X8270170); Secretagogue (f; DEP); Stimulant (f; EFS); Stomachic (f; DEP; EFS); Taenicide (f1; BOU; MPI); Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (t-PA) Inhibitor (1; X15693715); Tonic (f; EFS); Toxic (1; HHB); Uterocontractant (f; KAP); Uterotonic (f; BOW); Vermifuge (f; BIB; BOU; DEP; HAD; MAD); Xanthine-Oxidase Inhibitor (1; X15785320).

Indications (Black Cumin):

Achylia (f; MAD); Allergy (f; HAD); Ameba (1; MPI); Amenorrhea (f; BOU; KAP); Anorexia (f1; BOU; HAD); Arthrosis (f1; HAD); Ascites (f; BIB); Asthma (f1; BOU; GHA; HAD; HHB; MAD; SKJ; WOI); Bacillus (1; X10548758); Bacteria (1; HAD); Biliousness (f; KAP); Bite (f; HAD); Bronchosis (f1; BOU; HAD; HHB; WOI); Bronchospasms (f1; WOI); Cachexia (f; SKJ); Callus (f; BIB; JLH); Cancer (f1; FNF; BIB; HAD); Cancer, abdomen (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, colon (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, eye (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f1; JLH; X15785320); Cancer, liver (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, nose (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f1; FNF; JLH); Candidiasis (1; FNF); Cardiopathy (1; X8270171); Catarrh (f; DEP; HHB); Chest (f; GHA); Childbirth (f; GHA; SUW); Cholera (1; MPI); Cold (f; DEP); Colic (f; BIB); Congestion (f; GHA); Conjunctivosis (f; GHA); Constipation (f; GHA; SKJ); Convulsion (1; X15795687); Corn (f; BIB; JLH); Cough (f1; BOU; SKJ; WOI; X15890471); Cramp (f1; HHB; MAD); Dermatophyte (1; X15908151); Dermatosis (f1; HAD; SUW; WOI; X15908151); Diabetes (f1; HAD; X11744291; X5326549); Diarrhea (f1; MAD; X11381824); Dysentery (f; HHB; SKJ); Dysmenorrhea (f; BOU; DEP; KAP); Dyspepsia (f; BIB); Dyspnea (f1; GHA; NAD); Eczema (f; DEP; NAD); Emaciation (f; SKJ); Enterosis (f; BIB; BOU; MAD); Epilepsy (1; X15795687); Eruptions (f; BIB); Escherichia (1; KAP; MPI); Fever (f1; BIB; MAD; SUW; WOI); Fibrosarcoma (1; X11531013); Flu (f; BIB; BOU; HJP); Fungus (1; X10548758; X15908151); Gas (f; BOU; MAD); Gout (1; HHB); Halitosis (f; NAD); Headache (f; BIB; BOU; HJP); Hemorrhoid (f; BIB; BOU; GHA; KAB); Hepatosis (f1; BIB; JLH; MAD; X10883736); High Blood Pressure (1; MPI; X8270171); High Cholesterol (1; HAD); High Triglycerides (1; X5326549); HIV (1; HAD); Hydrophobia (f; BIB); Hyperlipidemia (1; X10755708); Induration (f; JLH; MAD); Infection (f1; HAD; X15908151); Inflammation (f1; X10552840); Jaundice (f; BIB; HHB; MAD); Leprosy (f; BOU; SKJ); Leukemia (1; X1270717); Leukorrhea (f; MAD); Lice (f; DEP); Malaria (f; KAP; NAD); Migraine (f; BOU); Mycosis (1; X10548758); Myrmecia (f; BIB); Nephrosis (1; X10755708; X5326549); Obesity (f1; FNF); Ophthalmia (f; HAD; KAB); Orchosis (f; BIB); Pain (f1; HAD; NAD); Paralysis (f; BIB); Parasite (f1; BOU; HAD); Pityriasis (f; DEP; NAD); PMS (f1; HAD; KAP); Polio (f; GHA); Proctosis (f; SKJ); Prolapse (f; SKJ); Proteinuria (1; X10755708); Pityriasis (f; DEP); Puerperium (f1; KAB; WOI); Pulmonosis (f; HAD; HHB; MAD); Respirosis (f; BOU); Rheumatism (f; PR14:323; X15890471); Rhinosis (f; BIB; JLH; NAD); Salmonella (1; HAD);

Sclerosis (f; BIB); Sinusosis (f; BOU); Smallpox (f; SKJ); Snakebite (f; BIB); Sniffles (f; MAD); Splenosis (f; MAD); Staphylococcus (1; HAD; MPI); Sting (f; HAD; SUW); Stomachache (f; BIB; MAD); Stomatosis (f; HAD); Swelling (f; BIB; NAD); Syphilis (f; SKJ); Taenia (f1; BOU; MPI); Thrombosis (1; X15830841); Toothache (f; BOU; MAD); Tumor (f; BIB; HAD); Ulcer (f1; HOS); Uterosis (f; JLH); Vibrio (1; MPI); Virus (1; HAD); Worm (f; BOU; MAD); Wound (f; HAD); Yeast (1; X10548758).

Dosages (Black Cumin):

Seeds eaten as spice; mixed in bread in Europe; used whole or ground as a flavoring, especially in oriental cookery (BIB; TAN). Whole seeds used in Russian rye and Turkish breads; sprinkled on food or mixed with pepper. Seed oil also used culinarily. Arabs mix the seed with honey as a confectionary. Ethiopians add them to Capsicum pepper sauces, or use with Aframomum, Piper, and Zingiber in local alcoholic beverages (BIB). 1-5 g seed (KAP); 10-20 g for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea (KAP); 0.6-1.2 g seed (HHB; MAD); 1 tsp seed in hot tea (MAD).

• Algerians take the roasted seeds with butter for cough, and with honey for colic (BIB, HJP).

• Arabians rub crushed seed with Rhazya leaf, Teucrium, Zingiber, and oil onto polio (GHA).

• Arabians use seed as lactagogue, soaking in rose oil as eyedrops for eye infections (BIB; GHA).

• Asian Indians use bruised and fried seeds, in muslim (via inhalation), for catarrh and cold (NAD),

• Asian Indians use the seed tincture for anorexia, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and fever (KAP).;

• Asian Indians use seed oil or powdered seed in sesame oil for dermatosis (KAB; KAP).

• Ayurvedics consider the herb anthelmintic, carminative, emmenagogue, and stimulant (KAB).

• Ethiopians mix seed with melted butter, wrap in cloth, and sniff for headache (BIB).

• Indonesians add seeds to astringent medicines for abdominal disorders (BIB).

• Lebanese take seed extract for liver ailments (BIB).

• Malayans poultice seeds onto abscesses, headache, nasal ulcers, orchitis, and rheumatism (BIB).

• North Africans mix seed with honey for morning aperitif (BOU).

• One Pakistani B'hai was very impressed with how the plant lowered recalcitrant high triglycerides (JAD).

• Unani, considering the plant abortifacient, anthelmintic, diuretic, and emmenagogue, use it for cough, fever, hydrophobia, jaundice, paralysis, pulmonosis, and sore eyes (KAB).

• Yemeni use the seeds for hemorrhoids (GHA).

Downsides (Black Cumin):

Seeds poisonous to man in high doses (BOU).

Extracts (Black Cumin):

The Prophet Mohammed reportedly recommended black cumin as a cure-all to his associates in Arabia 1400 years ago. It remains one of the most famous medicinal herbs in the Moslem world. Nigellone protects guinea pigs from histamine-induced bronchospasms (WOI), suggesting one rationale behind its use in asthma, bronchitis, and cough. The lipid portion of the ether extract of the seeds has shown lactagogue activity in rats, verifying its folk usage as a lactagogue. In large quantities, the seeds are also used to induce abortion. LD50 alcoholic extract is 540-580 mg/kg ipr mus MPI. The seed oil produces a concentration-dependent inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). The seed oil decreases the fibrinolytic potential of human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro, possibly slowing local tumor invasion and metastasis (X15693715). Khan and Sultana (2005) show inhibition of renal carcinogenesis, oxidative damage, and hyperproliferation by Nigella sativa. Rats treated orally with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight showed decreased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase, H2O2 generation, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, renal ODC activity, DNA synthesis (P < 0.001), and the incidences of tumors, and glutathione and antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly. In rats, Nigella could be a potent chemopreven-tive agent suppressing oxidative stress, hyperproliferative responses, and renal carcinogenesis in rats (X15785320). Hosseinzadeh et al. (2005) showed that intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Thymoquinone is anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant and alters motor coordination and locomotor activity (X15795687). Alpha-spinas-terol significantly (circa 1000 x simvastin, a coenzyme-A inhibitor) modulates development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy. It reduced significantly attendant increases of serum triglycerides, renal weight, and urinary protein excretion in diabetic mice (X15326549).

white waterlily (nymphaea alba l.) +++ nymphaeaceae

Synonyms:

Castalia alba (L.) Woodv. & Wood; Castalia minoriflora Simonk; Castalia speciosa Salisb.; Leu-conymphaea alba (L.) Kuntze; Nymphaea alba f. csepelensis Soo; Nymphaea alba f. limosa Soo; Nymphaea alba var. melocarpa Casp.; Nymphaea alba subsp. occidentalis (Ostenf.) Hyl.; Nymphaea erythrocarpa Hentze; Nymphaea exumbonata Rupr.; Nymphaea melocarpa (Casp.) Asch. & Graebn.; Nymphaea minoriflora (Simonk.) E. D. Wissjul.; Nymphaea occidentalis (Ostenf.) Moss; Nymphaea officinalis Gaterau; Nymphaea parviflora Hentze; Nymphaea polystigma E. H. L. Krause; Nymphaea rotundifolia Hentze; Nymphaea splendens Hentze; Nymphaea suaveolens Dumort.; Nymphaea urceolata Hentze; Nymphaea venusta Hentze

Notes (White Waterlily):

And the chapiters that were upon the top of the pillars were of lily work in the porch, four cubits.

Numerous sculptured representations in ancient Egyptian tombs show their concern with waterlil-ies, probably N. alba or N. lotus. Zohary reports N. alba as the only white-flowered waterlily in Israel. UPW lists Nelumbo lotus as the Egyptian waterlily. As UPW notes, the common names used in Africa (see UPW entries below, ascribed to the closely related Nymphaea lotus) could apply to any white-flowered waterlily. The flowers are still admired by Egyptians, whose belles often wear them in their headdresses. The flower was sacred to Egyptians more than 4000 years ago. Waterlil-ies prevail in such distant cultures as Mexico, Japan, India, and China. Even ancient Greeks had a legend that a beautiful nymph, deserted by Hercules, flung herself into the Nile to be transformed into a white lotus. It is the national flower of Thailand. Some suspect waterlilies of being narcotic. Rhizomes are used for tanning. There was, in Homer's Odyssey, a mythical nation where the people subsisted wholly on lotus, and lived in dreamy indolence induced by the diet. In later stories, these people became the North African lotophagi or "Homeric lotus eaters." Osinis, the great Egyptian God of the Underworld, and Judge of the Dead, is represented as wearing a crown of sacred lotus flowers. Horus, the God of Silence, sits, like Buddha, on a lotus with a finger to his lip, commanding silence (BIB). Regarded as an aphrodisiac, astringent, diaphoretic, hemostat, narcotic, and sedative, this species has reportedly served as a folk remedy for cancer, diarrhea, spasms, and tumors (e.g., of the testes).

Jatamansi Tree

FIGURE 1.75 White Waterlily (Nymphaea alba).

Jatamansi Tree

Common Names (White Waterlily):

Alga Palustris (?; JLH); Bach Lieu Tu (Ic.; KAB); Bado (Hausa; KAB); Beyaz Nilüfer (Tur.; EFS); Bhash es Samak (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Bishine (Nig.; UPW); Bololol (Upper Volta; UPW); Bondai (Niger; UPW); Brimposh (Kas.; DEP; NAD); Cacabus Veneris (?; JLH); Carfano (It.; EFS; KAB); Cobetenas (Sp.; EFS); Duilleoghuidhebhaitighe (Irish; KAB); European White Waterlily (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Flatterdock (Eng.; TAN); Golfao Branco (Por.; EFS); Grzybienie (Pol.; KAB); Hung Pai (China; KAB); Jaberri Faro (Gambia; UPW); Kamud (Kas.; DEP); Kien Thiet (Vn.; KAB); Kubishka (Rus.; KAB); Kumuda (Ayu.; Sanskrit; AH2; NAD); Lis Blanc des Étangs (Fr.; EFS); Lis d'Eau (Fr.; KAB); Lotus Lily (Eng.; KAB); Ndairi (Arab.; Sen.; UPW); Nénuphar Blanc (Fr.; EFS); Nénuphar Blanco (Sp.; EFS); Nilofar (Kas.; DEP); Nilufar (Arab.; KAB); Nimphea Branca (Por.; KAB); Ninfea Bianca (It.; EFS); Ninfea Blanca (Sp.; KAB); Ntanowa (Ghana; UPW); Nttanowa (Akwapim; KAB); Nungu (Guinea; UPW); Nymphéa Blanc (Fr.; USN); Pandharenkamal (Bom.; KAB); Papaver Palustre (?; JLH); Papeo (It.; EFS); Platos (Sp.; EFS); Pluta (Rom.; KAB); Rosa de Amor (Sp.; EFS); Sasa (Sierra Leone; UPW); Sebluomen (?; JLH); Sidi (Greek; KAB); Sjoeblad (Swe.; KAB); Soeblomster (Den.; KAB); Sorose (Den.; EFS); Tchingalir (Guinea-Bissau; UPW); Tertermantrer (Ga.; KAB); Ul Haudhan (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Water Rose (Eng.; KAB); Weisse Seeblume (Ger.; KAB); Weisse Seerose (Ger.; EFS; USN); Weisse Teichrose (Ger.; EFS); White Pon-dlily (Eng.; EFS); White Waterlily (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; EFS; USN); Witte Plomp (Dutch; EFS); Witte Waterlelie (Dutch; EFS); Yi a Kwe (Liberia; UPW).

Activities (White Waterlily):

Anaphrodisiac (f; DEP; EFS); Anodyne (f; HJP); Antiinflammatory (f; GAZ); Antioxidant (1; X15881650); Antiperoxidant (1; X15881650); Antiproliferant (1; X15881650); Antispasmodic (f1; EFS; WOI); Astringent (f; DEP; EFS); Chemopreventive (1; X15881650); Demulcent (f; NAD); Dig-italic (1; WOI); Diaphoretic (f; DEP); Diuretic (1; MPI); Glutathiogenic (1; X15881650); Hemostat (f; EFS; HJP); Narcotic (f; DEP; EFS); Nephroprotective (1; X15881650); Paralytic (f1; WOI); Sedative (f1; WOI); Vulnerary (f; HJP); Xanthine-Oxidase Inhibitor (1; X15881650).

Indications (White Waterlily):

Bleeding (f; HJP); Boil (f; HJP); Cancer (f1; HJP; JLH; X15881650); Cancer, kidney (1; X15881650); Cancer, testes (f; JLH); Cardiopathy (f; HJP); Cramp (f; EFS); Diarrhea (f; DEP; EFS; KAB); Dysentery (f; DEP; KAB; HJP); Gastrosis (f; HJP); Inflammation (f; GAZ); Insomnia (f; GAZ); Leukor-rhea (f; GAZ); Nephrosis (1; X15881650); Nymphomania (f; GAZ); Orchosis (f; JLH); Pain (f; HJP); Pharyngosis (f; GAZ); Parasite (f; HJP); Stomatosis (f; GAZ); Ulcer (f; HJP); Vaginosis (f; GAZ); Venereal Disease (f; HJP).

Dosages (White Waterlily):

Seeds, roots, and stalks are common foodstuffs in Egypt. The seeds are ground into flour for bread, or are roasted and eaten like a nut. Rhizomes are boiled before consumption. Rootstocks and seeds also eaten elswehere; starch-rich roots are a source of starch; fermented to make a French beer (BIB; DEP).

• Gabonese eat stewed leaves in pregnancy, applying leaves to itch (N. lotus) (UPW).

• Hausa use seed (N. lotus) for eruptive fevers (UPW).

• Iranians take flowers, often mixed with sugar, Adiantum, Viola, Ziziphus, and "oxtongue," for chest ailments and fevers (BIB).

• Ivory Coastals use decoction for bronchitis and cough (N. lotus) (UPW).

• Lebanese slice and boil dried or powdered roots for boils, dysentery, parasites, ulcers, and venereal disease (HJP).

• Nigerians take leaf decoction (N. lotus) as anodyne and to prevent abortion (UPW).

• Nigerians use seed (N. lotus) for skin diseases (UPW).

• Pennsylvanians apply the root to tumors (JLH).

• Senegalese attribute (N. lotus) antiemetic, sedative, and vermifugal properties (UPW).

• Tanganyikans sprinkle fruit ashes on burns, using root decoction for insanity (N. lotus) (UPW).

Downsides (White Waterlily):

None reported (GAZ).

Extracts (White Waterlily):

Roots contain gallic acids. The alkaloid nymphaeine is present in all parts of the plant, except the seeds. Toxic to frogs, it produces tetanus-like symptoms. Alcoholic extracts of the rhizome (containing the alkaloid) are mildly sedative and spasmolytic; they do not significantly depress the heart; in large doses, they paralyze the medulla. A glycoside nymphalin with digitalis-like action occurs in the flowers (BIB). Khan and Sultana (2005) showed anticarcinogenic effects against oxi-dative damage, hyperproliferative response, and renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase, H2O2 generation, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, renal ODC activity, DNA synthesis, and incidence of tumors. Renal glutathione also recovered (X15881650).

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