New Cure for Panic Attacks

The 60 Second Panic Solution

The 60 Second Panic Solution' is a program created by Anna Gibson Steel to help sufferers of panic attacks triggered by their daily activities address and overcome them. In this program lies a method that when followed, you will be able to subdue your panic and in just a minute, you will attain a balanced emotional level. This program has undergone the test of time and in every situation, it has come out successful. It has been tested by various people of different backgrounds and age brackets and has produced a positive result in each case. As mentioned, with this program, it will be like you are seeing the fire burning and you calmly walk to a tank of water, fill up a bucket and gently quench the fire. So, all that is required of you is to simply follow the steps involved in this program as proposed by Anna and look forward to experiencing the best results. Use these steps to manipulate your brain into returning to its normal state. This program is available for purchase on their website at and is available in PDF format, videos and audio, whichever suits you. It is an awesome program meant mainly for those who suffer from these panic attacks. Although, if you are close to someone who has these attacks you can use this program to help them work their way through these attacks or better still introducing them to it for a firsthand experience. And then you can also follow the program and be enlightened for future purposes. Read more here...

The 60 Second Panic Solution Summary


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Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Alternatives To The Tranquilizers

Dissatisfaction with the benzodiazepine tranquilizers and hypnotics has led to numerous initiatives to find better alternatives. Some drugs have been developed that are better benzodiazepines, in that they are less sedative and perhaps less likely to induce dependence. Others are chemically not benzodiazepines but share many of their properties, both therapeutic and unwanted. Other compounds seem to act in a totally different way in the brain and are less sedative and probably much less likely to induce dependence. One such compound buspirone (Buspar) has been available for a few years, but many others are in the process of development. Finally, interest has been rekindled in the use of other types of older drugs to treat anxiety examples include the antihistamines and the beta blockers. Problems with the benzodiazepines has led to a reevaluation of the whole role of prescribed medicines in the management of anxiety, insomnia, and stress-related disorders. Numerous nondrug methods...

Substance Abuse And Other Anxiety Disorders

Individuals with anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder) find that alcohol provides temporary relief from some of their anxiety symptoms. Large community studies of individuals with phobias suggest over a twofold increase in alcoholism risk. Panic disorder patients have rates of alcoholism approaching 20 percent, and male relatives of individuals with panic disorder have a two to three times increased rate of alcoholism when compared to controls, further suggesting a relationship between alcoholism and anxiety disorders. Another known fact is that anxiety symptoms are experienced during withdrawal. Schuckit (1990), in a study of anxiety symptoms during withdrawal, evaluated 171 alcoholics for anxiety and panic symptoms. Nearly all subjects had at least one anxiety symptom during heavy drinking, or upon abrupt discontinuation of drinking, but only 4 percent fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria...

Psychological Conceptions and Measures of Anxiety

The study of anxiety within the discipline of psychology certainly came into its own in psychology after the Second World War an estimated 5,000 articles or books on it were published between 1950 and 1970 (Spielberger 1972a). Here I consider the predominant conceptions of anxiety, the measures used, and research into the relationship between anxiety and performance. The concept of anxiety is widely agreed (for example, Spielberger 1972a) to have its basis in the work of Freud. Freud's views on anxiety will only be introduced in this chapter (see also Chapter 7), since some crucial aspects of his theory are not taken up by most postwar work in psychology. Freud proposed a characterisation of anxiety as Because anxiety is 'unpleasant' and often painful, there is a tendency for it, or for the ideas associated with it, to be repressed, to be pushed into the unconscious. However, repression does not destroy these contents rather, they retain their charge, but undergo a transformation. If...

Mathematics Anxiety Measures and Relationships

In the 1950s, the research literature began to refer to 'mathophobia' and 'number anxiety' (for example, Dreger and Aiken 1957). However, it was not until the 1970s that two important new developments occurred, in North America. The notion of 'mathematics anxiety' was crucial in this connection. The idea had strong public and media appeal (see for example Time, 14 March 1977), and Sheila Tobias's work, including Overcoming Math Anxiety (1978), was exceedingly influential in popularising further the notion. matics anxiety was widely used, especially in North America, in mathematics workshops and remedial programmes. Also during this period, questionnaires used to measure maths anxiety - for diagnosis and remediation purposes - were produced. The two mathematics anxiety scales most frequently used in recent years have been the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema and Sherman 1976), produced within the 'gender-inclusive' research programme mentioned earlier the...

Survey and Modelling Results Contexts of Mathematics Anxiety

Research Question 5 concerns the reasonableness of attempting to specify different contexts of mathematics anxiety, and also the adequacy of any results obtained.9 The section on 'Mathematics Anxiety, Measures and Relationships' (this chapter) introduced the idea of representing mathematics anxiety in different contexts as different 'dimensions', and presented results from earlier research specifying two dimensions, maths test and course anxiety (TCA) and numerical anxiety (NA). In this study, these two dimensions are intended to relate to school and practical contexts respectively. Here I present an analysis of responses to the set of mathematics anxiety items in the Polytechnic survey. Initially I consider what the correlation between the two dimensions of mathematics anxiety - and their correlations with measures of general anxiety and confidence in mathematics - might tell us about their dimensionality, and hence the possibility of distinguishing two separate contexts of...

Survey and Modelling Results Social Differences and Mathematics Anxiety

In this section I investigate Research Question 6 gender and social class differences in mathematics anxiety. In particular, I want to scrutinise one of the widely-accepted 'myths' discussed in Chapter 1 - that 'women have more mathematics anxiety than men'. In fact the literature review in 'Mathematics Anxiety, Measures and Relationships' (this chapter) produced conflicting results on gender differences in mathematics anxiety. In this study, as in the others reviewed, the anxiety (and other affective) scales are of course self-report measures, which elicit responses which tend to correspond to social norms. For this reason I was prepared for women to report higher levels of both maths test course anxiety (TCA) and numerical anxiety (NA). Similarly, I expected men might report a higher level of confidence in maths. As for social class differences in mathematics anxiety and other affective variables, the literature gave little guidance. I expected on general grounds that those with...

Misattribution and Fear Anxiety

Schachter's misattribution studies were followed by a multitude of other misattribution studies, in which subjects were induced to attribute their natural arousal to various pills and procedures, such as white noise, strange rooms, and the lights or ventilation of a room (for reviews, see Ross & Olson, 1981 Reisenzein, 1983). The feelings that were successfully reduced by these procedures include anxiety, anger, cognitive dissonance, and the discomfort of social comparison (Tesser, Pilkington, & Mcintosh, 1989). Olson, both by himself (1988) and in conjunction with Ross (Olson & Ross, 1988), tested predictions of this model by inducing participants to misattribute the arousal of speech anxiety. Speech anxiety is a particularly good test of the analysis because three previous studies (Cotton, Baron, & Borkovec, 1980 Singerman, Borkovec, & Baron, 1976 Slivken & Buss, 1984) had failed to find misattribution effects, in studies that failed to meet Ross and Olson's criteria. In the three...

Tranquilizers and barbiturates

These medications are not pain relievers. They're used only to relieve the mother's anxiety and promote rest. Tranquilizers Diazepam (Valium), promethazine (Phenergan), propiomazine (Largon) When they're administered Tranquilizers or barbiturates are occasionally given in early labor. How they're administered Tranquilizers or barbiturates will make you drowsy. They may interfere with your ability to remember the details of labor later. Barbiturate medications may suppress a baby's activities at birth. Tranquilizers such as diazepam may diminish a baby's muscle tone at birth. These medications are used infrequently.

Benzodiazepines in Alcoholics

Saletu, M., Saletu, B., Grunberger, J., Mader, R. and Karobath, M., Clinical symptomatology and computer analyzed EEG before, during and after anxiolytic therapy of alcohol withdrawal patients. Neuropsychobiology 9 119-134, 1983. Mouradian, M. D. and Penovich, P. E., Spindle coma in benzodiazepine toxicity case report. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 16 213-218, 1985. Case Report

Mood Disorders Depression Anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often coexist and are generally called mood disorders. Thirty percent of people with FM are currently depressed and 60 percent have a lifetime history that includes a depressive episode. There are several subtypes of depression, each having a slightly different clinical presentation and treatment. Generally, depression is diagnosed based on a history of feeling down, sad, blue, hopeless, guilty, anxious, or fatigued. Besides mood changes, there are often changes in eating and sleeping patterns, all of which can interfere with daily life and normal functioning. As Therapy for depression includes prescription medication combined with talk therapy. Cognitive behavioral strategies largely have replaced psychoanalysis in the treatment of mood disorders. The main key to success in treatment appears to be early and adequate intervention. Drug classes for depression include tri-cyclic antidepressants, SSRIs, SNRIs, and occasionally...

Anxiolytic And Sedative Activity

Several in vivo studies have demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of Passiflora extract (Deila et al 1981, Dhawan et al 2001, Soulimani et al 1997). Behavioural tests in mice have also demonstrated that high doses have a sedative effect (Soulimani et al 1997). The mechanism of action is currently unclear, as some research suggests stimulation of GABA release or an interaction with GABA receptors, and other research observes no interaction with GABA-benzodiazepine receptors (Zanolil et al 2000). One in vitro study also showed inhibition of GABA-A binding with Passiflora extract (Simmen et al 1999).

Sorting out anxiety versus depression

Many people are confused about the difference between depression and anxiety. Aren't depressed people anxious And aren't anxious people depressed Yes, some people are depressed and anxious. But there are differences. Table 16-1 compares the emotional and physical symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and fibromyalgia. For example, people with GAD may sleep less because they're so worried. In contrast, depressed people may sleep less or more than usual. Those with fibromyalgia only may experience less sleep. Table 16-1 Symptomatic Differences in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Clinical Depression, and Fibromyalgia Anxiety

Alcohol And Benzodiazepines

Taken orally, benzodiazepines have a low acute toxicity. Low doses taken with alcohol (eth-anol) may impaire skilled performance. A specific benzodiazepine antagonist (flumanzenil) effectively cancels the share of benzodiazepines in mixed intoxications. Although the risk of a driver having an accident while under the influence of alcohol increases progressively as the BACs increase, a study of the epidemiology and psychomotor effects of benzodiaze-pines and alcohol are not clear in this respect. One might expect their combined action to be potent, but this has not been documented. Under experimental conditions, a person's tolerance to the drug has been found to minimize or cancel the expected enhanced action of the benzodiazepine in combination with alcohol.

Anxiety About The Unknown

Group candidates often come to pre-group meetings with a significant deal of anxiety. Typically, clear guidelines reduce this anxiety but may also raise new questions for the members. Questions related to how they will be perceived by the group and whether personal needs will be met often surface during the pre-group session. It is helpful for leaders to communicate a solid sense of hopefulness about meeting treatment goals through group therapy while also assisting the member in voicing concerns and addressing how leader(s) will help protect and serve the client throughout the process. Leaders can ask candidates to identify what barriers or behavioral patterns might impede the group process, and then leaders can gain verbal permission to push or encourage members when such resistances surface.

Theme 6 Gender Differences in Expressing Anxiety

1 A higher proportion of women than men would tend to express anxiety. 2 Men would tend instead to exhibit anxiety. I classified each of the twenty-five subjects on whether or not they expressed anxiety at any point in the interview, and whether they appeared to exhibit it. The signifiers for expressing anxiety included 'anxious', 'scared', 'worried', 'unsettled' the indicators for exhibited anxiety included For discussion of the ideas behind the codings, see Chapter 8. Examples of these three indicators for exhibited anxiety are provided, respectively by Ellen, by Fiona and by Alan (see also Chapter 10). The results are summarised in Table 9.7. Twenty-two of the twenty-five subjects are coded as positively expressing anxiety, and three are coded as 'uncertain' in their expression of anxiety. Thus, the first part of the hypothesis receives some confirmation the percentage expressing anxiety in the interview among women is somewhat higher than for men 100 per cent, against 75 to 100...

Benzodiazepines and Alcoholism

D., Gacinovic, S., Suckling, J., Busatto, G. F., Boddington, S. J., Bullmore, E., Woodruff, P. W., Costa, D. C., Pilowsky, L. S., Ell, P. J., Marshall, E. J. and Kerwin, R. W., Reduced levels of GABA-benzodiazepine receptor in alcohol dependency in the absence of grey matter atrophy. Br. J. Psychiatry 173 116-122, 1998.

Anxiety And Psychological Stress States

Less investigation has taken place to determine the role of valerian as a treatment for anxiety states. The few studies published thus far have produced encouraging results, but are hampered by methodological problems and well conducted trials are still required. A randomised study found that low-dose valerian (100 mg) reduced situational anxiety without causing sedation (Kohnen & Oswald 1988). Positive results were also obtained in a smaller open study of 24 patients suffering from stress-induced insomnia who found treatment (valerian 600 mg day for 6 weeks) significantly reduced symptoms of stress and insomnia (Wheatley 2001). Another randomised trial compared the effects of a preparation of valepotriates (mean daily dose 81.3 mg) with diazepam (mean daily dose 6.5 mg) and placebo in 36 outpatients with GAD under double-blind conditions (Andreatini et al 2002). After 4 weeks' treatment, all groups had significant reductions in Hamilton anxiety (HAM-A) scale scores however, only...

Benzodiazepines and Alcohol

V., Przemioslo, R., Williams, R., Fluck, E., Fernandes, C. and File, S. E., Cognitive impairments of alcoholic cirrhotic patients correlation with endogenous benzodiazepine receptor ligands and increased affinity of platelet receptors. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 60 676-680, 1996.

PCP Angel Dust Peace Pill Hog Animal Tranquilizer THC Cannabinol

Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s most people who took PCP took it unwittingly, thinking they were taking something else mescaline, psilocybin, or some sort of supermarijuana. It came in all kinds of disguises. Few people took it for its own merits, and it had an unsavory reputation, often being disparaged as an animal tranquilizer.

Beta Blockers and Anxiety Fear

One class of drugs is an exception to the uncertainty about central versus peripheral effects. The beta-adrenergic blocking agents are specifically presumed to work peripherally in the body outside the central nervous system. These drugs act by interfering with the action of adrenalin at the peripheral neural sites, where adrenalin produces the characteristic visceral arousal symptoms. If Schachter is correct, then these antiadrenergic drugs that act peripherally should effectively reduce anxiety, anger, and perhaps other emotions. Once again, the evidence seems to be contradictory. In laboratory studies of the effects of beta-blockers, the effects seem to be difficult to demonstrate (Reisenzein, 1994). However, extensive reviews demonstrate successful practical uses of beta-blockers for some kinds of anxiety disorders (Noyes, 1985) and also for reducing performance anxiety (Dimsdale, Newton, & Joist, 1989). Despite the mixed results with experimental populations, little question...

Anxiety disorder 1 phobias

Anxiety and panic disorders were discussed in passing in Chapters 2 and 3 and stress will be considered in the next chapter. This leaves phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorders to mention here. Phobias are persistent irrational fears of something - it can be anything, an object, an event, a setting anything that upsets the individual. All that the word irrational means in this context is that the fear does not make sense to others who do not share it, and that there appears to be no clear basis for it.

Social Phobia Social Anxiety

SoP refers to a fear of social situations that leads to avoidance of those situations or that, when entered into, is accompanied by intense anxiety. When the situations producing the fear are avoided to the extent that the avoidance interferes with social or occupational functioning, the problem merits a diagnosis of SoP. Because of the nature of the disorder, treatments have often included exposure to social situations, either by being conducted in a group context, or by contriving exposures to the feared social situations. As with other anxiety disorders, the skills are readily adaptable to an SH format. The problem in using SH interventions has been in prescribing exposure to social situations in which the client can practice the requisite skills. Of the nine studies, seven used written manuals and two evaluated a videotaped SH program. Among the seven studies using written manuals, six used published SH books. A Guide to Rational Living and A New Guide to Rational Living (Ellis &...

Phobic Anxiety On The Auricle

Among anxiety disorders, panic attacks with or without agoraphobia are frequent and auricular diagnosis may confirm the existence of or the tendency to develop this mental disorder. There are certain areas that remain tender to pressure even several weeks after a single panic attack it is possible, however, that such tenderness may reflect the patient's concern about further attacks (on the left of Fig. 5.21). Another possibility regarding this area may be associated with specific phobias brought on by exposure to a particular feared object or animal, or with phobias provoked by certain types of social situations or performances. From the clinical psychological point of view it is possible to list five types of phobic response social fears, agoraphobia, fear of physical harm, illness and death, fear of sexual and aggressive scenes and fear of harmless animals. Among the various scales conceived for measuring phobic anxiety with this five-dimensional model is the Fear Survey Schedule...

Sorting Out Signs of Anxiety and Depression

Figuring out how depression and anxiety affect you Finding your personal starting point Knowing when to get more help veryone feels sad or worried from time to time. Such emotions are both natural and unavoidable. People worry about their children, bills, aging parents, jobs, and health. And most people have shed a tear or two watching a sad movie or a news story about a poignant tragedy. That's normal. A little bit of anxiety and depression is part of everyday life. But when sadness fills most of your days or worries saturate your mind, that's not so normal. You may be experiencing a real problem with depression or anxiety. Anxiety and depression can affect how you think, behave, feel, and relate to others. The discussion and quizzes in this chapter help you figure out how depression and anxiety affect your life. When you understand what's going on, you can start doing something about it. Don't freak out if the quizzes in this chapter reveal that you have a few symptoms of anxiety...

Anxiety disorder 2 obsessivecompulsive disorders OCDs

These anxiety-driven disorders take the form of persistent (unwanted) thoughts or impulses to perform certain actions that cannot be resisted, usually in order to be rid of the thoughts. 'If I walk through this doorway 17 times, then I'll stop thinking over and over again that she doesn't love me.' The thoughts and actions involved in OCD are unwanted and not enjoyed at all. The person knows that the behaviour is foolish, nonsensical or pointless, but cannot desist from doing it. He or she might know that they have just checked every window latch in the house and know that they have turned off all electrical appliances, but they just have to go and check again, and again, and again . . . If you think of these types of anxiety disorder or panic attacks and think of those people you know (perhaps yourself) who have suffered from them, what makes them into a disorder We all become a bit obsessional at times, or a bit panicked or certainly a bit stressed. We all have specific fears, of...

Anxiolytic And Sedative

Over the years, a number of studies involving rodents have suggested specific anxiolytic or sedative effects (Kennedy et al 2002, Soulimani et al 1991). More recently, a double-blind placebo-controlled study has confirmed anxiolytic activity is clinically significant for lemon balm essential oil (Ballard et al 2002). In 2005 a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover trial of a whole extract of lemon balm (300 and 600 mg) in 18 healthy adults found a significant reduction in 2007 Elsevier Australia

Affect and Mathematics Anxiety

The importance of affective factors in education generally, and in the learning of mathematics in particular, is reasserted periodically. In the 1970s and 1980s, the need to enhance females' participation and performance in mathematics generated interest in affect and attitudes towards mathematics, and especially mathematics anxiety (for example, Fennema and Sherman 1976, Tobias 1978). So, too, did the aim of increasing access to higher education, and or 'second chances' with mathematics, for students and adults generally. More recently, the need to account for blocks in mathematical problem-solving episodes has seemed to require a more cognitive, more qualitative approach (e.g McLeod 1992). In this study, from among the range of affective factors discussed in recent years in mathematics education, I emphasise mathematics anxiety. However, competing concepts of anxiety have generated controversy among psychologists and others. There have also been lively discussions of notions of...

What are the important nonpsychiatric differential diagnoses for panic disorders

A panic disorder develops when the patient has recurrent panic attacks and has anticipatory fear about future panic attacks. Yes. Evidence does support an upregulation of adrenergic output responsible for stimulating anxiety centers in the brain which predisposes certain people to panic attacks.

Medication generictrade Alprazolam Xanax

FM usage Panic attacks, anxiety, or early morning awakenings Patient example Mary is a 31-year-old female who grew up in an abusive home environment. Even though she is safe now as an adult, she has found she sometimes has nightmares that leave her heart racing and body sweating, and she is unable to go back to sleep after awakening around 4 a.m. Alprazolam was prescribed for sleep and anxiety by her psychiatrist. She takes one around 4 a.m. on the nights she awakens from a bad dream. Alprazolam, in concert with cognitive behavioral strategies, allows her to go back to sleep for another two to three hours. With this combination, she is able to remain employed full-time and raise two young children with the help of a supportive husband. Medication generic trade Bupropion Hydrochloride Wellbutrin* Clinical pearl This medication may be prescribed to augment SSRIs Common dosage Slow release 150 to 300 mg SR bid or 300 XL qd FM usage Depression, anxiety, fatigue, fibro-fog Patient example...

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Children with separation anxiety disorder have intense anxiety about being away from home or caregivers to the point where social or school functioning is affected. Such children have a great need to stay at home or close to their parents. When they are apart, these children may worry excessively about their parents, and when they are together, the children may cling to parents, refuse to go to school, or be afraid to go to sleep. Repeated nightmares about separation and physical symptoms such as stomachaches and headaches are also common.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

Is avoidance of fat people and things they ha ve touched a form of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (Greist and Jefferson 1995 106) It sounds like it may be an eating disorder, such as anorexia nervosa. It is difficult to tell which diagnosis would be appropriate in this situation, as there seems to be relatively little information concerning the dietary and nutritional dangers associated with obsessive compulsive disorder, especially when compared to anorexia. Might there be a link between modern society's obsession with the perfect body and the clinical diagnosis of OCD an anxiety disorder, where it is defined as obsessions and or compulsions that cause marked distress, are time-consuming, or interfere with functioning. Obsessions are defined as recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses or images experienced as invasive and ego-dystonic and that cause anxiety or distress. Compulsions are defined as ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to

Mood Elevation And Reduced Anxiety

Considering that low dietary intakes of selenium have been linked with greater incidence of anxiety, depression and tiredness, several research groups have investigated whether higher dietary intakes or selenium supplementation will elevate mood and or reduce anxiety. Currently, results are equivocal however, it appears that selenium-replete individuals are most likely to respond to supplementation, if a response is observed. An early double-blind, crossover, study showed that short-term selenium supplementation (100 g day for 5 weeks) significantly elevated mood and decreased anxiety, depression and tiredness, with effects most marked in people with low dietary intake (Benton & Cook 1991). A study of 30 selenium replete men who were fed either a low (32.6 g day) or a high (226.5 g day) selenium diet for 1 5 weeks found that the mood of those with the higher selenium intake increased whereas mood worsened with low intake (Finley & Pen land 1998 as reported in Rayman 2005)....

Major Tranquilizers Thorazine and Relatives

Major tranquilizers revolutionized psychiatry when they were first introduced in the early 1950s. They provided a new and easy way to manage schizophrenia and other severe mental diseases, making patients calm and emotionally quiet. In some cases the major tranquilizers have enabled psychotic persons to lead reasonably normal lives and function outside hospitals. More often, they make them more manageable and docile rather than less crazy. In addition to their use in treating mental illness, the major tranquilizers can be used to end bad reactions to psychedelic drugs and other states of confusion. Some of them are also used to treat purely physical problems, such as itching, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and hiccups. In normal people, small doses of these compounds cause drowsiness, lethargy, and boredom hardly the kinds of effects that encourage recreational use. In addition, the major tranquilizers regularly produce uncomfortable physical effects, such as dryness of the mouth. In...

Survey and Modelling Results Mathematics Anxiety and Performance

Research question 7 concerns the relationship between performance and mathematics anxiety. In general I expected negative correlations between the two dimensions of performance and the two dimensions of mathematics anxiety. More precisely, on the basis of my ideas of context, I expected a higher correlation for school mathematics performance with maths test course anxiety (than with numerical anxiety), and a higher correlation for practical maths performance with numerical anxiety (than with maths test course anxiety). I also expected to find a positive correlation of confidence in school maths with SM performance, and a smaller positive correlation with PM performance. This research question also brings us back to consider regression models for school mathematics and practical maths performance (as in Chapter 3). Here I aim to judge the 'importance' of mathematics anxiety for 'explaining' performance differences - above that provided by the basic social variables - by checking...

Pondering antianxiety medicines

Sometimes, anti-anxiety drugs can alleviate some symptoms of fibromyalgia. Anxiety makes pain worse, so decreasing anxiety can be very helpful in pain control. If the drugs work, you have relief from some symptoms of fibromyal-gia, such as problems with sleeping. The drugs can also induce a level of calmness to combat the high stress that many people suffering from fibromyalgia experience. Some anti-anxiety drugs are Valium (generic name diazepam) and Xanax (generic name alprazolam). Both of these are scheduled drugs because of their potential for addiction. Some physicians may prescribe Klonopin (generic name clonazepam). Sometimes, the drug Restoril (generic name temazepam) is prescribed for patients with fibromyalgia. Other physicians may prescribe the antidepres-sants Paxil (generic name paroxetine) or Prozac (generic name fluoxetine) to treat anxiety. Generally, low doses of anti-anxiety drugs are used to treat fibromyalgia. However, some people with fibromyalgia need higher...

Box 1 Predictors of psychiatric comorbidity especially depressive anxiety or somatoform disorders in patients who have

It is clear that measuring physical and depressive and anxiety symptoms is useful in sorting out the number and types of somatic symptoms and the co-occurrence of psychiatric comorbidity. There are several case-finding measures for depression, none of which is clearly superior 71 . There are fewer practical measures for anxiety or somatoform disorders. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), which has five scales for assessing depressive, anxiety, somatoform, alcohol, and eating disorders, is a multidisorder diagnostic measure that was designed for the efficient evaluation of medical patients 72,73 . Fig. 4 shows the first page of the PHQ, which consists of the somatic and depressive symptom scales. The nine-item depression scale is known as the PHQ-9, and the 13-item somatic symptom scale combined with the fatigue and sleep items from the depression scale constitute the PHQ-15. respectively. The PHQ-15 also has two component scores the 5 pain items that produce a somatic pain score...

What Are Benzodiazepines

These medicines are used to lessen a patient's anxiety they include such drugs as CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE (Librium), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan) and oxazepam (Serenid Serox). The term benzodiazepine describes a basic chemical structure. Some, like diazepam, are long acting and can be taken once daily others, like lorazepam and alprazolam (Xanax), need to be taken more often. Most sleeping tablets (hypnotics) are benzodiazepines, and these include short-acting drugs such as triazolam (Halcion), medium-acting drugs such as temazepam (Restoril), and long-acting drugs such as flurazepam (Dalmane) and nitrazepam (Mogadon).

Your emotions during weeks 29 to 32 Conquering anxiety

Feeling anxious and overwhelmed, especially if this is your first baby. To help keep anxiety at bay, review the decisions that need to be made before your baby is born. Is your baby going to see a pediatrician or a family doctor Are you going to breast-feed or use formula If your baby is a boy, are you going to have him circumcised Taking stock of where you stand on these issues will help you feel more in control of the situation now. Plus, it will make your new responsibilities seem less daunting once your baby arrives. The anxiety or even the natural anticipation you're feeling about your baby's arrival may be making it difficult for you to get to sleep or sleep through the night. If you're feeling restless or anxious at night, try some of the relaxation exercises you've learned in childbirth classes. They may help you get some rest, and doing them now will be good practice for the big event.

Longterm Effects Of Benzodiazepines

It is not clear whether benzodiazepines and hypnotics continue to be effective after months or years of daily use. Undoubtedly, many patients believe that they continue to benefit in being less anxious, or in sleeping better. The effect of the drug may be more to stop the anxiety or insomnia that follows withdrawal, however, than to combat any continuing, original anxiety. Most of the side effects lessen over time, a process known as tolerance. Some impairments, however, such as memory disturbances, may persist indefinitely, but patients usually come to terms with this for example, by resorting to written reminders.

Mediating Mechanisms Motivation versus Anxiety

The developmental predictions regarding how susceptible children are to CL and AL might be further explained by differences in the mechanisms that are triggered by these labels. Mainly, there are two main explanations that have been used to interpret the significant effects in the gender labeling studies. Initially, the results were explained in terms of motivational factors (e.g., Bradbard et al., 1986 Davies, 1986, 1989 Helper & Quinlivan, 1973 Montemayor, 1974). For example, cognitive theories suggest that children do not explore, choose, or perform well in opposite-sex tasks because they are motivated to define themselves according to the gender norms set forth by society. In this view, children make value judgements according to their self-categorization as either a boy or a girl and seek to behave in ways consistent with these values. Similarly, the proposed mechanism by social learning or social cognitive theory is also motivation. Children's motivation to avoid doing well or...

Abuse Of Tranquilizers

Only a few patients prescribed benzodiazepines push the dose up above recommended levels. If this happens, the user may become intoxicated, with slurred speech and incoordination. Some people with alcohol problems also abuse benzodiazepines. Intravenous (IV) injection of benzodiazepines and hypnotics has become an increasing problem and has led to controls on these drugs concerning manufacture and prescription in various countries, including the United States and the U.K. Some addicts abuse benzodiazepines alone others combine it with heroin-type drugs. Injection of benzodiazepines can result in clotting of the veins. It also carries the risk of getting infectious diseases from sharing dirty syringes, such as hepatitis and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or the AIDS virus).

Depression and Anxiety

During adolescence (and sometimes earlier), many children who were previously oblivious to or even content with their lack of social connections start to experience distress. In childhood, much of friendship consists solely of acting as playmates and engaging in activities, such as sports or video games, together. During adolescence, however, the very nature of friendship changes in several ways that can challenge young people with AS-HFA. Friendships become more sophisticated and complex, with an increasing emphasis on trust, mutual sharing of personal information, and common or admired personality characteristics. These changes in the nature of friendship often increase the social difficulties encountered by adolescents with AS-HFA. These problems are compounded by the burgeoning self-awareness and the ability to make comparisons between the self and others that develop during adolescence. Feeling excluded or irreparably different can and often does lead to depression among...

Self Help Therapies for Anxiety Disorders

In the United States, approximately 18 of the population suffers from anxiety disorders, which are the most prevalent group of mental disorders (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005). According to Greenberg et al. (1999), anxiety disorders are costly, accounting for 31.5 of all mental health expenditures, based on data from the National Comorbidity Study (Kessler et al., 1994). These authors reported that the annual cost of anxiety disorders was approximately 42.3 billion in 1990, or 1,542 for each anxiety-disordered individual. While cognitive-behavioral treatments are among the most effective strategies, they are also costly, with the per session estimate of therapist-directed sessions ranging from 40 to 90 (Gould, Otto, & Pollack, 1995). Self-administered treatments have been proposed as a cost-effective approach for treating anxiety, as well as other disorders, in the last three decades. Two meta-analytic studies of self-administered treatments of psychological disorders (Gould...

Indications Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines are among the most widely used drugs in all of medicine. In psychiatry they are used as the primary treatment of a disorder or as adjunct treatment to other pharmacologic agents. Benzodiazepines are used to treat a variety of anxiety disorders panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety associated with stressful life events (as in adjustment disorders with anxiety), and anxiety that complicates depression (see Chapter 3). In addition, benzodiazepines are used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, for the agitation of mania, dementia, and psychotic disorders, and in the treatment of catatonia (Table 14-1).

How can I become less anxious

Anxiety is everywhere All around us And, if you have PD, you may be even more anxious. Anxiety, recognized or unrecognized, is an aggravating factor in many diseases, including PD. It's estimated that 95 million Americans, about one-third of us, are sufficiently anxious to seek help from our anxiety through counseling, meditation, alcohol, tobacco, and prescription drugs such as Ativan, Klonopin, Valium, Xanax, Paxil, and Zoloft. It's further estimated that 35 million people, about one-third of all anxious people, have panic attacks. Situational Anxiety. Some, not all, anxiety is related to a particular event or situation and can be normal. Indeed, if during some events or in some situations you weren't anxious, if you didn't worry, that would be abnormal. If you weren't uncertain or fearful of hostile strangers, of flying in airplanes, of driving on darkened roads, of walking down dangerous streets, of being perched on dizzying heights, of encountering poisonous snakes or snarling...

Anxiety And Mood Disturbances

According to a randomised, double-blind trial, fortification of lysine in a wheat-based (L-lysine deficient) diet significantly reduced anxiety score in males, but not females with high baseline anxiety. It is suspected that L-lysine's action as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist and benzodiazepine receptor agonist are responsible for the observed effect (Smriga et al 2004). In contrast, a prospective study of 29 133 men (aged 50-69 years) found no association between L-lysine intake and depressed mood (Hakkareainen et al 2003).

Defining anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders come in many forms. In the following sections, I outline the most common, their symptoms, and how they are treated. Generalized anxiety disorder Many people (about 6.8 million adults in the United States, according to the NIMH) suffer powerlessness, compounded with foreboding caused by generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). They suffer from relentless worry and fear and may have nausea, muscle aches, fatigue, and irritability. GAD differs from depression, a feeling of emotional flatness and hopelessness. Think of the anxious person as running around in circles, while the depressed person lies on the couch, having given up. Chronic-panic disorder Some individuals (about 6 million adults in the United States, according to the NIMH), including some patients with FMS, suffer from chronic-panic disorder, characterized by panic attacks with a racing heart and a feeling of impending doom. They may experience profuse sweating and think they're having a heart attack, increasing...

Treatment of Panic Disorder in Individuals with Depression

In a review of CBT for panic disorder, Mennin and Heimberg (2000) described the minimal impact of comorbid mood disorders, particularly at follow-up assessments. Dimensional studies of depressive symptoms at baseline do not reliably predict outcome of CBT treatment of panic disorder (Basoglu et al., 1994 Black, Wesner, Gabel, Bowers, & Monahan, 1994 Jansson, Ost, & Jerremalm, 1987). Likewise, categorical analysis of the presence or absence of comorbid major depression suggested similar efficacy of CBT treatment of panic disorder (Brown, Antony, & Barlow, 1995 Laberge, Gauthier, Cote, Plamondon, & Cormier, 1993 McLean, Woody, Taylor, & Koch, 1998). For example, McLean et al. compared 37 patients with comor-bid panic disorder and major depression to 53 patients with panic disorder only. All patients received 10 sessions of CBT for panic disorder comorbid depression had no effect on treatment outcome for panic disorder. Treatment outcome studies also indicate that depression symptoms...

Comorbidity Of Depression And Anxiety

The National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) showed dramatically higher rates of panic disorder in individuals with a history of depression (Kessler et al., 1998). Chronologically, primary depression predicted the first onset of subsequent panic attacks but not of panic disorder. Chronologically, primary panic attacks, with or without panic disorder, predicted a first onset of subsequent major depression. Data from the NCS also indicate increased clini- cal severity when depression and panic disorder co-occur. Comorbid depression and panic disorder was associated with greater symptom severity, persistence, role impairment, suicidality, and help seeking (Roy-Byrne et al., 2000). Findings did not differ according to which disorder was chronologically primary.

Assessment Of Social Phobia And Panic Disorder In Depression

Social anxiety and social phobia can be assessed with behavioral observation methods (see for a review, Glass & Arnkoff, 1989) interview rating scales, such as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS Davidson et al., 1991 Liebowitz, 1987) and many self- report measures of social anxiety and avoidance, including the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (FNE Watson & Friend, 1969) and the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) by Watson and Friend (1969), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) by Mattick and Clarke (1998), and the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) for adults (Turner, Beidel, Dancu, & Stanley, 1989) and children (Beidel, Turner, & Morris, 1995) (for a more comprehensive review, see Hofmann & Barlow, 2002). For panic disorder, core fears associated with the disorder can be assessed with the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI Reiss, Peterson, Gursky, & McNally, 1986). A popular...

Is there a danger in taking benzodiazepines during pregnancy

Benzodiazepines target the GABAa (y-aminobutyric acid A) chloride channel receptor, resulting in an increase in the receptor's affinity for and causing the ion channels to open more frequently, thus allowing more chloride ions to pass through. Benzodiazepines can cross the placenta, and therefore should not be taken during pregnancy if possible. They are categories D and X. Where does benzodiazepine In the liver Which benzodiazepines skip phase 1 and or phase 2 of metabolism and are therefore safer to give to patients with liver failure What are the symptoms of Anxiety benzodiazepine withdrawal Insomnia How many phases are there in benzodiazepine metabolism What are the possible side effects of benzodiazepines Which benzodiazepines are considered Triazolam to be high potency Alprazolam Clonazepam Which benzodiazepines are considered to be low potency Which benzodiazepines are most commonly used for treatment of alcohol withdrawal seizures (delirium tremens)

Anxiolytic Antianxiety Medications

Anxiety is a problem that very frequently accompanies episodes of depression or mania. In addition, sleep problems are common in depression, hypomania, and mania. Within the anxiolytic class, the most anxiety and sleeplessness in bipolar disorder. In addition, the benzodiazepines may be used to help control some of the early symptoms of hypomania. All benzodiazepines have the potential to cause physical and psychological dependence or addiction. The potential for abuse seems to be greatest with drugs that produce a quick effect and that are quickly removed from your blood stream, such as alprazolam (Xanax). The potential for abuse seems to be least with benzodiazepines that have a slower effect and spend a longer time in your blood stream, such as clonazepam (Klonopin). Most standard antidepressant medications appear to have excellent effects on reducing anxiety, but they require several weeks of consistent use to become effective and may cause worsening of bipolar disorder in some...

What Do Benzodiazepines Do

Tranquilizers promote calming, soothing, and pacifying without sedating or depressant effects. They are effective in lessening ANXIETY whatever its context. Thus, they are useful in treating generalized anxiety, which is often quite severe and comes on without apparent cause. Tranquilizers can also be used to deaden the upset of normal anxiety, the anxiety felt by people under stress, feeling threatened by life's problems. In these instances, the reasons for feeling anxious are clear, the degree of anxiety seems in line with the stress experienced but despite this, help is sought for the symptoms. Unfortunately, the borderline between the medical disorder of clinical generalized anxiety and the normal response to stress is not always clear. The professional consulted will usually try to make the distinction and avoid using tranquilizers to treat people upset by adverse cir-cumstances thereby ''medicalizing'' everyday social and personal problems. Similar considerations apply to the...

The Comorbidity Of Anxiety And Depression On The Auricle

Anxiety and depression co-morbidity is quite frequent in epidemiological and clinical settings throughout the world. Patients carrying both diagnoses have the highest utilization of medical services and consequently also incur a higher cost than those with either condition alone, even after accounting for differences in patient characteris-tics.39 There is still no clear evidence that a specific syndrome called 'mixed anxiety and depression' (MAD) exists besides co-morbidity moreover, this diagnosis may not be stable across time and its utility is questioned by several authors.40-42 For the general practitioner it is useful to try to differentiate these conditions and co-morbidity is often found in patients asking to be treated with acupuncture. I tried therefore to make a contribution to this issue and examined the sectors of high value in 90 out of 357 randomly selected patients belonging to two groups of 30, each with self-rated anxiety and depression the third group was a control...

Anxiety phobias

Symptoms Worry and fears that may escalate into obsessive behavior, mainly focusing around fears that other people will see through them and consider them unable to cope or fakes. Anxiety may be due to irrational fears, typically of darkness, poverty, illness, death, or failure. Worry and anxiety dreams may result in sleep being disrupted or prevented, leading to insomnia. Symptoms better For dry weather in the late morning after breakfast. Symptoms worse For cold weather toward evening for mental exertion after eating.

Anxiety Disorders

The term anxiety refers to many states in which the suf ferer experiences a sense of impending threat or doom that is not well defined or realistically based. Anxiety can be adaptive or pathologic, transient or chronic, and has a variety of psychological and physical manifestations. Anxiety disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the feeling of anxiety is the major element. They are the most prevalent group of psychiatric disorders according to the Epidemiological Catchment Area study, 7.3 of all Americans meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III the DSM version used at the time) criteria at a given point in time (so-called point prevalence). Anxiety disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Merital Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) are shown in Table 3-1. PANIC DISORDER AND AGORAPHOBIA Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks that can occur with or without agoraphobia....


Anxiety disorders are seen in approximately 40 of patients with PD (109). Despite their frequent occurrence and contribution to morbidity and caregiver burden (11), anxiety symptoms in PD have received relatively little attention, perhaps because they overlap with symptoms of depression, PD, and medication effects, and are thus difficult to measure (110). The relationship between anxiety and cognition in PD has received virtually no attention. Ryder et al. (111) found that self-reported symptoms of anxiety, but not depression, were related to cognitive functioning in a small sample of male patients with PD. Self-reported trait anxiety was negatively related to performance on a neuropsychological screening battery, accounting for approximately 70 of the variance. The authors posit that anxiety may partly explain the association between depression and cognition in PD, although replication of their findings and additional large-scale studies are needed.

Anxiety Epidemiology

In James Parkinson's original monograph, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, little mention was made of the nonmotor symptoms of anxiety and depression (14). However, it is now known that clinically significant anxiety symptoms occur in 20 to 52 of PD patients, a frequency greater than that found in community dwelling age-matched controls (1,15-17). Menza et al. (18) reported a depressive disorder in 92 of PD patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, and an anxiety disorder was present in 67 of depressed PD patients. This is consistent with results by Starkstein et al. (16), reporting depression in 76 of patients with PD and anxiety. In addition to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), patients with PD regardless of sex also experience panic disorders and social phobias with a prevalence of approximately 30 . (17,19,20). The presence of anxiety not only contributes to mental and somatic discomfort, but may also contribute to existing motor symptoms or fluctuations (7). For example,...

Panic Disorders

PDs are diagnosed when a person experiences repeated panic attacks that come on suddenly and, at least in some instances, are unconnected to any identifiable stimulus. Panic disorders are usually accompanied by avoidance of situations associated with the attacks, a condition known as agoraphobia. Psychological treatments for PD have emphasized the development of skills to reduce panic attacks, including relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and exposure to both panic symptoms and the avoided situations associated with experiencing panic attacks. Self-administered treatments that have been evaluated typically include some or all of these treatment components, along with case examples and instructions in how to apply these strategies. PDs have been one of the most frequently examined anxiety disorders using SH treatments. Thirteen randomized, controlled, SH intervention studies, comparing SH interventions to therapist-directed treatment or wait-list control conditions, published in the...

Panic Disorder

What are the DSM-IV-TR criteria for a Four or more symptoms, which come panic attack up abruptly Anxiety Palpitations Sweating Dizziness Trembling Shortness of breath Chest pain Nausea What characterizes panic disorder Recurrent spontaneous panic attacks and anxiety about future attacks, their implications, or changing behavior to avoid attacks


Benzodiazepines, which are used clinically in the treatment of ANXIETY and the induction of sleep, are among the most widely used (and abused) drugs. It has been known for several decades that benzodiazepines, including diazepam (Valium), triazolam (Halcion), and CHLOR-DIAZEPOXIDE (Librium) induce anterograde amnesia in humans. Studies using laboratory animals indicate that benzodiazepines impair memory when administered before training, but they generally do not impair memory when administered posttraining. The lack of posttraining effects may be due, at least in part, to the fact that benzodiaze-pines are absorbed slowly and are slow to reach peak concentrations in the brain following peripheral injections. The anterograde amnesia induced by benzodiazepines is not due either to alterations in sensory or motivational processes affecting learning or to state-dependency. Benzodiazepines are known to act by modulating GABA-A neurotransmitter receptors on the benzodiazepine GABA receptor...

Test Anxiety

In one of the first longitudinal studies of performance anxiety, Hill and Sarason (1966) found that anxiety both increases across the elementary and junior high school years and becomes more negatively related to subsequent grades and test scores. They also found that highly anxious children's achievement test scores were up to 2 years behind the scores of their low anxious peers and that girls' anxiety scores were higher than boys'. Subsequent research has provided estimates of just how many children in the United States suffer from extreme forms of test anxiety For example, Hill and Wigfield (1984) estimated that as many as 10 million U.S. children and adolescents experience significant evaluation anxiety. What explains individual differences in test anxiety Researchers point to both biological and social factors. For example, some research suggests that having parents who have overly high expectations and put too much pressure on their children contributes to high levels of test...


Buspirone is a novel medication that appears to act as an anxiolytic via its action as an agonist at the serotonergic 5HT receptor. In addition, it has some D2 antagonist effects, although with unclear clinical significance. Unlike the benzodiazepines, it does not work rapidly a period of several weeks of sustained dosing is required to obtain symptomatic relief. Buspirone has no GABA receptor affinity and is therefore not useful in treating benzodiazepine or alcohol withdrawal. It is not a sedative and is not useful in treating insomnia. Psychiatric Uses for Benzodiazepines Anxiety disorders Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorder Mood disorders Temporary treatment of anxiety associated with depression Treatment of adjustment disorder with anxiety Sleep disorders

Types of Anxiety

Freud identified three types of anxiety objective, neurotic, and moral anxiet . Objective anxiety is fear. Such anxiety occurs in response to a real, external threat to the person. For example, being confronted by a lar ge, aggressive-looking man with a knife while taking a shortcut through an alley would elicit objective anxiety (fear) in most people. In this case, the control of the ego is being threatened by an external factor, rather than by an internal conflict. In the other two types of anxi ety, the threat comes from within. The second type of anxiety, neurotic anxiety, occurs when there is a direct conflict between the id and the ego. The danger is that the ego may lose control over an unacceptable desire of the id. For example, a woman who becomes anxious whenever she feels sexually attracted to someone, who panics at even the thought of sexual arousal, is experiencing neurotic anxiety . As another example, a man who worries excessively that he might blurt out an unacceptable...

Stranger Anxiety

Stranger anxiety is discomfort at the approach of an unfamiliar person. Babies differ greatly in how they show it some cry vigorously, cling and hide their faces, or merely become subdued and wary. Because of differences among researchers with regard to behaviors used as evidence of stranger anxiety, there is disagreement about when it first occurs. Clearly, however, by the time they are one year old, most babies react with some degree of stranger anxiety. These reactions show that they can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar people, an accomplishment of cognitive development. As the child continues to grow, new ways of showing discomfort appear. Preschoolers, for instance, may whisper or refuse to talk when strangers make a near approach. Babies and preschoolers who have had considerable experience encountering strangers or who are approached by a stranger while an attachment figure is closeby may show little or no stranger anxiety. See also ATTACHMENT SEPARATION ANXIETY


Wogonin, baicalein, scutellarein and baicalin (in reducing order of potency), which all contain a certain flavonoid phenylbenzopyrone nucleus, have been shown in vitro to bind with the benzodiazepine site of the GABA-A receptor (Hui et al 2000). Oral administration of wogonin (7.5-30 mg kg) has been shown to interact with GABA-A receptors and produce an anxiolytic response that was similar to diazepam in the elevated plus-maze. Unlike benzodiazepines, wogonin was able to reduce anxiety without causing sedation or myorelaxation (Hui et al 2002, Kwok et al 2002). Baicalin (10 mg kg IP) and balcalln (20 mg kg IP) have also been shown In vivo to produce an anxiolytic effect, mediated through activation of the benzodiazepine binding sites of GABA-A receptors (Liao et al 2003). Two other flavones, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (oroxylin A) and 5,7,2'-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (K36), also act as antagonist at the GABA-A recognition site and have demonstrated anxiolytic activity in...

Liquid Valium

Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state that differs from related states such as fear, aggression, and confusion. Not only does anxiety feel different, but at a purely neurological level, it is different. Evidence for this comes from experience with a family of drugs called benzodiazepines, of which Valium is the most well known. At low to moderate doses, these drugs sig nificantly reduce anxiety without impairing or disrupting other brain systems. Valium works by enhancing the function of a receptor that plays yin to glutamate's yang in the brain. Instead of passing on a message to fire, this receptor makes it harder for a neuron to fire. The receptor in question is triggered by a neurotransmitter known as gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. When GABA docks at its receptor, the associated channel opens and lets negative ions rush in, which pushes the cell even farther from its trigger point for firing. Although such inhibition might seem counterproductive, it is actually crucial....

Anxiety shyness

Symptoms Self-doubt, lack of self-confidence, shyness, and indecision. There is a tendency to anticipate the worst, to be full of anxiety, and to become upset over the slightest thing, which frequently causes depression or overexcitement. Concentration may be poor, and may even

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is characterized by an intense emotional reaction on the part of a young child to the departure of a person with whom the child has established an emotional attachment. Signs of separation anxiety, such as crying when the caregiver prepares to leave, typically emerge around six to eight months when infants have formed a representation of their caretakers as reliable providers of comfort and security. Distress reactions peak around fourteen to twenty months at which time toddlers may follow or cling to caregivers to prevent their departure. Although most children show signs of separation anxiety, the intensity of an individual child's distress varies depending on (1) the availability of another caregiver with whom the child has a close bond (2) the familiarity of the situation (3) previous experience with the caretaker leaving and (4) the child's sense of control over the situation. Gradually, separation anxiety becomes less intense and less frequent, diminishing by...

The Sad Stressed Sensations Quiz

Although physical sensations overlap in anxiety and depression, even-numbered items in the quiz above are most consistent with anxiety, and the odd-numbered items usually plague those with depression. There's no cutoff point for indicating a problem. The more statements you check off, though, the worse your problem.

Reflecting upon Relationships

When you're feeling down or distressed for any length of time, odds are that your relationships with those around you will take a hit. Although you may think that your depression or anxiety affects only you, it impacts your friends, family, lovers, co-workers, and acquaintances.

Knowing When to Get More Help

Self-help tools benefit almost everyone who puts in the effort. Many people find they can overcome minor to moderate emotional problems by working with books like this one. Nevertheless, some difficulties require professional help, perhaps because your anxiety or depression is especially serious or because your problems are simply too complex to be addressed by self-help methods.

Discovering the Beginnings

In this chapter, we review the major causes of depression and anxiety biology, personal history, and stress. Many of our clients come to us believing that they're to blame for having succumbed to emotional distress. When they discover the factors that contributed to the origins of their problems, they usually feel less guilty, and getting rid of that guilt frees up energy that can be used for making important changes.

Budding the Body Connection

Feelings can have biological beginnings. Does your Uncle Paul seem down in the dumps Was Cousin Jack a neat freak Was your grandmother a recluse What was your great-grandmother like Why are these questions important Because depression and anxiety tend to run in families. And genes could be responsible for a good portion of your emotional distress. If you have access to family members, ask if they'd be willing to talk with you about your family's history. Ask them if any relatives, from either side of the family, suffered from any symptoms of anxiety or depression. You may want to review the symptoms covered in Chapter 1 first. There's no exact number of relatives required for determining if genetics are responsible for your symptoms. However, the more family members with similar problems, the more likely you've inherited a tendency for depression or anxiety. Fill in the blanks here with what you learn. Members of my family with anxiety or depression (brothers, sisters, cousins,...

Looking Out for Self Sabotage

Overcoming anxiety or depression is tough and sometimes even frightening work. (Even positive change evokes fear in most people ) As a result, people tend to resist, avoid, or procrastinate working on their problems. This means you have to be on the lookout for self-sabotage. Self-sabotage describes the things you do to keep from addressing and correcting your problems, and it appears in various forms and disguises.

Deciphering Body Signals

Your heart may race or your hands may sweat when you feel anxious. Changes in appetite and sleep may accompany feelings of sadness and depression. These physical reactions signal that something important is going on internally. Monitoring your bodily sensations gives you an early warning that a storm of emotional distress is brewing.

Putting Events Feelings and Sensations Together

Jasmine suffers from constant worry and anxiety. She thinks that her worries mainly center on her children, but at times she has no idea where her anxiety comes from. So, she fills out a Mood Diary. She pays special attention to her body's signals and writes them down whenever she feels something unpleasant. She then searches for a feeling word that captures her emotion. She rates the emotions and sensations on a scale of 1 (almost undetectable) to 100 (maximal). She then asks herself what was going on when she detected her distress. Worksheet 4-7 is a sample of Jasmine's Mood Diary specifically, it's a record of four days on which Jasmine noticed undesirable moods.

Making critical comparisons

Are you the richest, best-looking, or smartest person in the world Neither are we. There's always someone who has more of something than you do. Even if you're the best at something, that doesn't mean you're the best at everything. People have strengths and weaknesses, and if you do think you're the best at everything, you have a problem that's quite different from anxiety or depression.

The Self Blame Reality Scrambler

When sadness or anxiety clouds your thinking, you're likely to add to your distress by assuming full responsibility for your misery. You may accuse yourself of being inept, incapable, or inadequate and therefore fully culpable for all your suffering. When the Self-Blame Reality Scrambler is at work, you attribute all fault and blame to yourself. Doing so leads you to wallow in shame and self-loathing.

Getting a little help from a friend

KPLE Emma (see Emma Filled with anxiety earlier in this chapter) has taken her most malicious thought to Thought Court and found it guilty. Now she turns to Getting Help from a Friend ) to rehabilitate that thought. She thinks about her best friend, Louise. She imagines Louise coming to her with the same problem and concerns about her son. In other words, Louise is thinking Emma's most malicious thought and seeking advice (see Worksheet 6-11).

Traveling to the future

Worth far more if it can be zoned for commercial purposes first. In order to do that, Joel ypu ) must present his case in front of the Zoning Commission. He expects some opposition and criticism from homeowners in the area, and he's been putting this task off for months because of the intense anxiety it arouses in him.

Worksheet 78Hannahs Childhood Origins of Life Lenses

When I look back on my childhood, I realize that my family was pretty cold. They expected me to be perfect, and when I wasn't, I was treated with scorn. It's no wonder I feel anxious about being perfect and feel depressed when I'm not. There wasn't a lot of love in my family, so I've learned to keep my distance from others. I was taught that possessions and status are more important than people, so I've invested too much time and effort on getting the things I want. But I feel empty and lonely.

Exposing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) poses a somewhat greater challenge than the anxieties we discuss earlier in this chapter. OCD frustrates and challenges those afflicted as well as their loved ones. Not only does OCD cause considerable emotional discomfort, it also consumes a considerable amount of time. Compulsions are undesired actions that people find themselves doing over and over in order to temporarily reduce anxiety. Common compulsions include excessive hand washing, over-cleaning, hoarding objects, arranging objects in a particularly rigid manner, checking and rechecking things (such as locks), and creating strict rituals such as counting stairs or putting on clothing in the exact same order every day. Lots of people experience a few minor obsessions or compulsions, and that's no problem. You don't have a problem with OCD unless your repetitive thoughts and actions begin to seriously infringe on your relationships, your work, or your sense of freedom. You can find...

Lifting Mood Through Exercise

Hy devote a whole chapter to exercise in a book that deals with anxiety and depression Well, because getting up and moving increases the naturally occurring feel-good endorphins in the human body. When endorphins, substances occurring naturally in the brain that are chemically similar to morphine, spread through your brain, you get a sense of well-being and pleasure. And it's hard to be depressed or anxious when you feel good inside.

Working up the courage E

Many people make decisions to do something but procrastinate when it comes to carrying out those decisions. Why Because many actions arouse anxiety, fear, or distress. If your choice of options makes you tremble, consider the following tips Brief relaxation strategy Not only is it quick and simple, but this technique helps calm acute anxiety. (See Chapter 13 for more information and practice with relaxation techniques.)

Steep situation 6 When Worries keep you awake

1'm just catastrophizing here. 1 simply don't like not sleeping, and there are many worse things. Worrying about it will only worsen the problem. 1 just need to accept whatever happens and read Chapter 8 of my Anxiety & Depression Workbook For Dummies if 1 have trouble doing that.

Making the Medication Decision

Today, we know more about the brain and its relationship to emotional problems than ever before we understand that chemical imbalances in the brain accompany both anxiety and depression. Because of this growing knowledge, some television commercials would lead you to believe that making some simple corrections to your brain chemistry with the advertised drug will cure your problem. Voila Because this is a workbook and space is limited, we don't review the myriad of medications available for the treatment of anxiety and depression. If you'd like more information on specific medications, look to Overcoming Anxiety For Dummies and Depression For Dummies (Wiley). And of course, talk the issue over with your doctor. One question we frequently encounter is, What works best, medications or therapies The answer is both. For depression, research tends to suggest that medication and therapy work just about equally well. But for some types of anxiety cognitive behavior, therapies such as the...

Spending Time with Self Help Books

I Learn to Relax Proven Techniques for Reducing Stress, Tension, and Anxiety and Promoting Peak Performance, by C. Eugene Walker (Wiley, 2000) i Mastery of Your Anxiety and Panic, by David Barlow and Michelle Craske (Oxford University Press, 2005) i Overcoming Anxiety For Dummies, by Charles H. Elliott and Laura L. Smith (Wiley, 2002) i The Anxiety & Phobia Workbook, by Edmund J. Bourne (New Harbinger Publications, Inc., 2005)

Browsing Helpful Web Sites

Anxiety Disorders Association of America ( Lists self-help groups across the United States. It also displays a variety of anxiety-screening tools for self-assessment as well as an online newsletter and a message board. Because anxiety sometimes accompanies depression, you may want to check this site out even if you think you're only dealing with depression.

Having a Fire Extinguisher Ready

238 Part VI Looking Beyond Anxiety and Depression David recovered from a combination of anxiety and depression about two months ago. He's preparing to stop seeing his professional counselor from the past six months. Before ending their sessions, David's therapist suggests that David prepare for possible fire, or the flare-up of one of his fears. The therapist has David fill out the Fire Drill Strategy (see Worksheet 17-4) on one of David's worries. David's father and uncle both died of colon cancer in their 50s, and David's now 51, so the fear of developing colon cancer is very real for him.

Worksheet 68My Thought on Trial Worksheet

After you complete the Thought Court process, decide for yourself whether or not your thought is guilty of causing you unneeded emotional distress such as anxiety, depression, or other difficult feelings. Even if you conclude that your thought has some grain of truth, you're likely to discover that it's highly suspect of causing you more harm than good. In Thought Court, you don't judge your thought guilty only on the basis of beyond a reasonable doubt. Rather, we suggest you judge your thoughts on the preponderance of evidence in plain English, convict your thought if the evidence weighs heaviest on the guilty side.

Overriding Defensiveness

When people feel emotionally vulnerable, whether from depression, anxiety, or conflict in a relationship, they all too easily start making the malicious assumption in response to something their partners say or do. The malicious assumption refers to the tendency to automatically interpret communications or actions in the most negative, critical way possible. More often than not, the malicious assumption grossly misinterprets the true meaning of the message.

Becoming a Thought Detective

Imagine yourself in a parking lot at night. You're tired and back your car into a cement pole. Crunch. What's your reaction Do you have angry thoughts like Who the bleep put that post there Do you feel anxious and worried about the costs of repair Or do you feel distraught and upset with yourself because you believe you were careless

Plotting Your Personal Problems Profile

The Personal Problems Profile provides you with an overview of your problematic symptoms. (If you skipped the quizzes in the previous sections of this chapter, go back and take some time to complete them your answers to those quizzes come into play in this exercise.) The profile exercise in this section helps you identify the ways in which anxiety and depression affect you. One good thing about this profile is that you can track how these symptoms change as you progress through the rest of this book. Tyler, a middle-aged engineer, doesn't consider himself depressed or plagued with any emotional problems. But when he sees his primary care doctor, Tyler complains of fatigue, recent weight gain, and a noticeable loss in his sex drive. After ruling out physical causes, the doctor suggests that he may be depressed. Funny, Tyler says, my girlfriend just bought me the Anxiety & Depression Workbook For Dummies and said she thought I was depressed too. Maybe I'll take a look at it. When Tyler...

Ten Quick Ways Out of Upset

The ideas in this chapter are designed to give you a lift when you're feeling a little down or uptight. Mind you, we're not talking about deep depression or intense anxiety that's what the rest of the book is about. But if you're feeling not quite yourself, you're likely to find these tips useful.

Actions Against Angst Behavior Therapy

It's just a little device I use to Kelp relieve the anxiety iron* meeting nevi people ' M ne approach to fighting depression and anxiety is by changing your behavior. By changing what you do, you can change the way you feel. We guide you step by step through methods for overcoming fear and anxiety. Furthermore, we provide encouragement for engaging in healthy and pleasurable activities.

Not Letting Relapse Sneak Up on

We don't want relapse to get the best of you, so we recommend that, after you've recovered from anxiety or depression, you conduct a review of your emotions and feelings on a weekly basis. Over time, you can reduce the frequency of these reviews to once every month or two as your risk of relapse becomes less and less.

Walking in Quicksand Apprehensive and Blue Behavior

If you were to follow a depressed or anxious person around, you might see some behavioral signs of their emotional turmoil. That's because depression and anxiety on the inside affect what people do on the outside. For example, a depressed person may look tired, move slowly, or withdraw from friends and family an anxious person may avoid socializing or have a trembling voice. Take the quiz in Worksheet 1-2 to see if your behavior indicates a problem with anxiety and or depression. Check off each statement that applies to you.

Mellowing Your Muscles

The following relaxation procedure is excerpted from our book, Overcoming Anxiety For Dummies (Wiley). Practice this procedure frequently until you can do it without looking at the instructions. This technique involves systematically tensing various muscle groups and holding that tension for a few moments perhaps five or ten seconds. Then you release the tension and allow relaxation to take over. The procedure starts with your hands and arms, moves through the neck, back, and face, and progresses down the legs and feet. Depression and anxiety disrupt sleep. Some people have trouble falling asleep, others wake up in the early morning hours and can't get back to sleep, and some people even have both problems. On the other hand, a few people with anxiety or depression sleep too much way too much and their sleep isn't refreshing.

Arriving at Acceptance

Are you wondering what acceptance has to do with anxiety and depression Well, everyone feels anxious or sad now and then. Recognizing and accepting those feelings is important because if you absolutely can't stand to be worried or down, then you'll inevitably feel more upset when you experience these normal feelings. In other words, you get more upset and distressed about getting distressed. That's clearly not very helpful. Don't get us wrong we want you to feel good most of the time. But as far as we know, the only humans who don't feel some anxiety or sadness are, well . . . dead. Besides, if you don't know sadness, it's difficult to know what happiness is. Without worry, you wouldn't appreciate calm. Accept a certain degree of difficult emotions as part of your life. One way to accept a few negative feelings is to view them objectively. Imagine that you're writing a report on the experience of anxiety or depression. To accurately express the experience, you need to acquire a...

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