Flatulence and Bloating Free Forever
Bloating and flatulence a feeling of fullness in the stomach associated with burping or the passing of air out through the anus may be due to constipation (see page 238) or intestinal dysbios (an overgrowth of bacteria or fungi in the intestine). The condition may be worse prior to menstruation, and is aggravated by anxiety, food intolerance, or swallowing air. Bloating and flatulence relieved by burping All foods produce flatulence Burning sensation in the stomach Craving for salty, acidic, and sweet foods and coffee, and aversion to meat and milk
Dill seeds contain up to 5 volatile oil (about half of which is carvone), flavonoids, coumarins, xanthones and triterpenes. The yield of the oil from Indian A. sowa varies from 1.3 to 3.5 . Carvone is the major constituent (19.569.7 ). The oil from seeds is used for flatulence in children and enters into the preparations of gripe water. The oil is also antimicrobial and antifungal.
Chamomile is widely used to relieve stomach cramping, dyspepsia and flatulence. The herb's antispasmodic and relaxant effects provide a theoretical basis for its use in these conditions. In an open, multicentre study, 104 patients with gastrointestinal complaints, including gastritis, flatulence and minor spasms of the intestines, were treated for 6 weeks with 5 miyday of an oral chamomile preparation (standardised to contain 50 mg alpha-bisabolol and 150-300 mg apigenin-7-glucoside per 100 g). By self-evaluation, all patients improved with 44.2 becoming symptom free (Stiegelmeyer 1978).
Celiac disease may present in a wide variety of ways (Table 1). In children, the onset of celiac disease is classically described as occurring within the first to seventh year of life with the introduction of cereals to the diet. Symptoms may vary with the age of the child at onset of disease. Young children may develop chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, muscle wasting, abdominal distension, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Older children may present with anemia, rickets, behavioral disturbances, or poor performance in school. In some children constipation, pseudo-obstruction, and intussusception may be seen. It has been estimated that 2-8 of children with unexplained short stature may have celiac disease. Dental enamel defects involving secondary dentition as well as
Furthure more, it should be mentioned that, orally lactobacillus species are well tolerated by about every one. Flatulence or gas is the most common side effect of Lactobacilli supplementation. It is usually very mild and goes away after 2 or 4 days. Immunocompromised people should be careful with the probiotics use as there have been reports of entering the blood stream (sepsis) in these individuals.
Clear deficiency signs are difficult to establish because the symptoms may vary enormously. Local signs and symptoms of an imbalance of the intestinal flora (intestinal dysbiosis) include bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and or constipation and fungal overgrowth (such as Candida).
In a 4-week, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 60 people with IBS were treated with L. plantarum or placebo. The patients recorded their own gastrointestinal function, starting 2 weeks before the study and continuing throughout the study period. Twelve months after the end of the study, all patients were asked to complete a questionnaire. The study showed significant reductions in intestinal flatulence in the treatment group compared with placebo. At the 12-month follow-up, patients in the test group maintained a better overall gastrointestinal function than control patients (Nobaek et al 2000).
Loss of appetite is a common feature in many illnesses and not only those involving the gastrointestinal tract. It is now thought that much of the appetite loss in disease is mediated by one or more cytokines released by lymphocytes as part of the body's response to tissue damage or invasion. Additionally, however, parasitized individuals often complain of symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and distension and discomfort, while the protozoal infections are associated with vomiting, diarrhea, or dysentery, all of which can be expected to reduce appetite.
Postoperative abdominal distension This is a postoperative complication of temporary intestinal paralysis as an after-effect of a surgery. The clinical symptoms are abdominal distension, lack of appetite, nausea, no gas or feces dis charged from the intestine, and a reduction or elimination of anv intestinal gurgling sound. Patients may also suffer from shonness of breath and dyspnea due to abdominal distension and an elevation of the diaphragm. Symptoms may come on and last from the 2nd to 5th postoperative day.
Early postoperative bowel obstruction refers to mechanical bowel obstruction, primarily involving the small bowel, which occurs in the first 30 days following abdominal surgery. The clinical picture may frequently be mistaken for ileus, and these clinical conditions can overlap. The clinical presentation of early postoperative bowel obstruction is similar to bowel obstruction arising de novo crampy abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal distension, and obstipation. The incidence of early postoperative bowel obstruction has been variable in published series, due to difficulty in differentiating ileus from early postoperative bowel obstruction, but the reported range is from 7 to 9.5 of abdominal operations.
In the study by Welty and colleagues (2007b), of the 82 subjects who were enrolled in the study, 22 (25 ) dropped out. Reasons for dropouts included flatulence and bloating (three), constipation (one), teeth problems (one), intolerable hot flashes when off HRT or soy (four), not wanting to be off soy in control arm (one), and weight gain (one).
There is an increasing trend to integrate soybean into conventional foods, as either a complete or a partial replacement. Soy flours have been tested in baked products as both functional ingredients and protein fortifiers. However, soy flours have both positive and negative characteristics in food products. In baked goods, the creamy color and beany or nutty flavor can contribute to the sensory quality. When used in larger quantities, soy flours have an astringent aftertaste and or a chalky mouthfeel. The flatulence problem remains because soy flours contain most of the original carbohydrates. In bakery products, soy-based ingredients have been used for a variety of functional reasons. For example, soybean protein products improve crust color, crumb body, resilience, and toasting characteristics in bread.
Traditional Medicinal Uses The plant is used in many Asian countries as a stimulant, for the treatment of colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains, removing excessive gas and increasing the flow of urine. 11 It is also used in folk medicine for stomach disorders and digestive problems, neuralgia and scabies. In Ayurveda, it is used for arthritis, asthma, fever, cough, catarrh, dysentery, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, urethral discharge and skin damage. In Chinese medicine, it is used for vomiting, diarrhoea and gastric symptoms. Homeopathically, it is used for irritation of mucous membrane and galactorrhoea. 3 A heavy dose of pepper with wild bamboo shoots is said to cause abortion. 4 In Assam, a method of birth control include Cissampelos pareira in combination with Piper nigrum, root of Mimosa pudica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.ll2 The fruits are used to remove excessive gas in system, increase flow of urine, treat colic, rheumatism,...
The essential oil of lavender is the main product of the plant that is used in herbal medicine. In traditional herbal medicine, the lavender oil is used as an antispasmodic, a carminative, a diuretic, a sedative, a stimulant, a stomachic, and a tonic to treat such ailments as acne, colic, flatulence, giddiness, migraines, nausea, rheumatism, spasms, sprains, toothache, and vomiting.25 Preparations of
Lactase deficiency An example of an enzyme defect causing food intolerance is lactase deficiency. In this condition, which is primarily a disorder that affects infants and young children, there is a reduced or absent concentration of the enzyme lactase in the small intestinal mucosa. Affected individuals are unable to break down ingested lactose, the main sugar found in milk, and which if unabsorbed passes into the large intestine, where there are two consequences. One is an osmotic diarrhea. The other is that some of the unabsorbed lactose is broken down by intestinal bacteria, accompanied by the production of gas (hydrogen) leading to abdominal distension and flatus and the production of organic acids that cause perianal soreness or excoriation. The production of hydrogen, its absorption into the bloodstream, and its excretion in the breath lead to a very simple and elegant test for sugar intolerance the breath hydrogen test. In this test, the subject swallows a portion of the sugar...
By nominalism one understands that school which asserted that the so-called universalia, namely the generic or universal concepts, such as beauty, goodness, animal, man, etc., are nothing but nomina (names) or words, derisively called flatus vocis . Anatole France says Et qu'est-ce que penser Et comment pense-t-on Nous pensons avec des mots songez-y, un m taphysicien n'a, pour constituer le syst me du monde, que le cri-perfectionn des singes et des chiens. This is extreme nominalism so with Nietzsche when he conceives reason as speech metaphysics
In MVA MVID, severe watery diarrhea typically starts within the first days of life 2-4 . This diarrhea becomes so abundant that within 24 h children can lose up to 30 of their body weight, resulting in profound metabolic acidosis and severe dehydration. MVID is most often severe and life-threatening. Accurate quantification of stool volumes reveals 150 to over 300ml kg day with a high sodium content (over 100mmol l). Complete and prolonged bowel rest makes it possible to reduce stool volume moderately, but it nearly always remains above 150ml kg day 4 . Typically, no additional clinical signs are associated with MVID in particular, there are no malformations or involvement of other organs such as liver or kidney. However, a small number of children have massive pruritus secondary to elevated concentrations of biliary acids in the blood. Also, proximal renal tubular dysfunction was observed in some children with MVID MVA. At clinical examination, no specific findings can be detected...
A number of studies have observed gastrointestinal distress (e.g., diarrhea, flatulence, bloating, and cramping) with inulin, oligofructose, or fructooligosaccharide intake. Cramping, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea was observed at intakes ranging from 14 to 18 g d of inulin (Davidson and Maki, 1999 Pedersen et al., 1997). Consumption of 5 or 15 g d of fructooligosaccharide produced a gaseous response in healthy men (Alles et al., 1996). Briet and coworkers (1995) reported increased flatulence as a result of consuming more than 30 g d of fructooligosaccharide, increased bloating at greater than 40 g d, and cramps and diarrhea at 50 g d. Increased flatulence and bloating were observed when 10 g d of fructooligosaccharide was consumed (Stone-Dorshow and Levitt, 1987).
Appetizing, digestive, anthelmintic, constipating, sudorific, febrifuge, stimulant, galacta-gogue and expectorant. It is also useful in skin diseases, haemorrhoids, cephalalgia, jaundice, inflammation, fever, paralysis, ophthalmia, halitosis, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, helminthiasis especially tapeworm, strangury, intermittent fevers, agalaetia and vitiated conditions of vata and kapha in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicines.
Abscess (f CRC MAD) Acne (f VAD) Adenopathy (f JLH) Ague (f BIB) Alactea (f LMP PH2) Alcoholism (f SKY) Alzheimer's (1 FNF) Anemia (f1 AAH DEM JFM WAM) Anorexia (12 APA KOM PH2 PIP VAD) Arthrosis (f BIB) Backache (f DEM) Bacteria (1 WOI) Biliary Dyskinesia (2 PIP) Biliousness (f BIB) Bladderstones (2 KOM) Boil (f CRC LMP) Bronchosis (f12 APA BIB LAF) Bruise (f BIB CRC) Cachexia (f NAD) Cancer (f CRC) Cancer, bladder (f JLH) Cancer, bowel (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f CRC JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Caries (f CRC LMP) Cardiopathy (f APA BIB) Catarrh (f BIB CRC) Cellulite (1 FT71 S73) Chill (f HJP) Cholecystosis (2 BGB CRC HH3 KOM PH2) Cirrhosis (SKYf ) Cold (1 APA) Colic (1 PH2) Congestion (1 PH2) Conjunctivosis (f AAH AKT) Constipation (f1 FAD SKY FT71 S73) Consumption (f BIB) Cough (f MAD) Cramp (f DEM) Cystosis (1 WAM) Dermatosis (f APA BGB KAP KOM PH2) Diabetes (f1 BIB CRC JFM KOM MAD PH2 X15704495 X14750205) Dropsy (f1 BGB BIB DEM KAP MAD) Dysentery (f AKT)...
All of my selected medicinal herbs have been used by Native Americans and are still being used by them today. They have used E. purpurea (purple coneflower) for everything from sore throats to snake bites.2 Being one of the most popular herbs in homeopathy, it is an immune system booster which has antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties.3 Although bitter tasting (as I can attest), Echinacea root is excellent for treating headaches, fevers, bladder infections, rheumatism, hemorrhoids, and numerous other wounds and illnesses.4 V. thapsus (mullein) was used to treat coughs, congestion, and tuberculosis. In addition, Native Americans smoked the flowers to counteract pulmonary diseases.5 The flowers of A. millefolium (yarrow) were used by the Great Lakes Ojibwa Amerinds to break fevers and a root decoction was used on skin eruptions . Various other parts of this plant also are used for wounds, toothaches, diarrhea, gas, intestinal ailments, and even chapped hands.6 The Otsego...
Carbon dioxide and hydrogen are produced in this process contributing to disagreeable side effects when given in high doses. Abdominal cramping, increased flatulence, and bloating have been shown to occur significantly more in studies where adults received 15gday-1 or more of fructooligosaccharide and inulin as compared to a placebo group. However, in a limited number of controlled pediatric studies these symptoms were not seen at doses of up to 3 gday-1.
Another complication of peptic ulcer disease is gastric outlet obstruction. Obstruction of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach blocks the flow of gastric contents into the duodenum. Nausea, vomiting, gastric pain and abdominal distension are the cardinal features of such obstruction. The gastric pain is aggravated by eating and many patients with gastric outlet
The powdered fruit of allspice is used in traditional medicine to treat flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and as a remedy for depression, nervous exhaustion, tension, neuralgia and stress. In small doses it can also help to cure rheumatism, arthritis, stiffness, chills, congested coughs, bronchitis, neuralgia and rheumatism. It has anaesthetic, analgesic, antioxidant, antiseptic, carminative, muscle relaxant, rubefacient, stimulant and purgative properties (Rema and Krishn-amoorthy, 1989). It is also useful for oral hygiene and in cases of halitosis. An aqueous suspension of allspice is reported to have anti-ulcer and cytoprotective activity by protecting gastric mucosa against indomethacin and various other necrotizing agents in rats (Rehaily et al., 2002)
Ajwain is also an ingredient in mouthwashes and toothpastes because of its antiseptic properties, and is valued for the following problems flatulence, indigestion, polyuria, asthma, bronchitis, common cold, toothache, various other gastrointestinal disorders, earache, pain in
The clinical signs are non-specific, with progressive abdominal distension and a palpable mass in the right hypochondrium, often associated with abdominal pain, asthenia and weight loss. Hemor-rhagic ascites is a common sign and hemoperi-toneum is sometimes observed. This is a complication related to the vascular nature of the neoplasm on the one hand, and to the resulting thrombocy-topenia on the other. The neoplasm usually presents with normal serum AFP values 10,83 .
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a condition in which the third portion of the duodenum is intermittently compressed by the overlying SMA, resulting in gastrointestinal obstruction. Symptoms include recurrent vomiting, abdominal distension, weight loss, and postprandial distress. People with CP are at high risk for several of the reported causes of SMA syndrome, including body cast compression, severe weight loss, prolonged supine positioning, and scoliosis surgery. Consequently, it is important to recognize the symptoms and know the appropriate treatments for this syndrome. Most people can be treated nonsurgically with gastric aspiration and nasojejunal or gastroje-junal feedings distal to the obstruction. One study also found that turning to the left from a supine position displaces the SMA from the right to the left side of the aorta in scoliosis cases. Thus, positioning can help alleviate symptoms and special
Lactose intolerance Lactose intolerance is defined by the occurrence of symptoms due to the inability to digest lactose, the main carbohydrate in milk. These symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, or flatulence. Lactose malabsorption is attributed to a relative deficiency of the di-saccharidase lactase. Primary lactase deficiency is a condition in which lactase activity declines after weaning. Secondary lactose intolerance is usually due to mucosal injury associated with a condition or disease such as infectious diarrhea, Crohn's disease, or short bowel syndrome.
Cinnamon bark oil and crushed cinnamon bark is used in the treatment of dyspeptic conditions, such as mild spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, fullness and flatulence, loss of appetite and diarrhoea. Although controlled studies are unavailable, evidence of antispasmodic and antifoaming activity in animal models and a long tradition of use provide some support for its use in these indications. Cinnamon bark and Chinese cinnamon are approved by the German Commission E for the treatment of loss of appetite and dyspeptic complaints such as mild gastrointestinal spasms, bloating, and flatulence (Blumenthal et al 1998). Helicobacter pylori infection According to a placebo-controlled study of 1 5 volunteers with documented H. pylori infection, an ethanolic extract of cinnamon was ineffective at eradicating the infection when used at a dose of 40 mg twice daily for 4 weeks (Nir et al 2000). Considering this is an extremely low dose, further investigation is required using...
Symptoms Diarrhea, loud, explosive belching, a distended abdomen, and flatulence. The stools are smelly, watery, and green. There may be vomiting exacerbated by nervousness or anticipatory anxiety (see below, left). If symptoms persist, colitis or irritable bowel syndrome (see below) may develop. The digestion is sensitive, with possible cravings for salty or sweet foods, although the latter may trigger headaches or diarrhea. Symptoms better For fresh air in cool surroundings for pressure on the abdomen. Symptoms worse For warmth in hot weather for lying on the left side for emotional stress for cold or sweet foods.
Malabsorption can occur when any of the several steps in nutrient digestion, absorption, and or assimilation are interrupted see Table 1 for a list of congenital defects in nutrient assimilation. Carbohydrate malabsorption can occur, for instance, when intestinal disaccharidases are reduced in concentration at the enterocyte. The brush border membrane produces four disaccharidases that are important in carbohydrate digestion. These enzymes are sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, trehalase, and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Worldwide, lactase deficiency is the most common type of acquired disaccharidase deficiency since much of the world's population exhibits a noticeable reduction in intestinal lactase concentration after the age of 2 years. In addition, infants and children with diarrheal disease may suffer from acquired lactase deficiency due to intestinal villous damage that is often temporary. With either congenital or acquired lactase deficiency, malabsorbed carbohydrate...
There are limited studies to suggest that chronic high intakes of Dietary Fibers can cause gastrointestinal distress. The consumption of wheat bran at levels up to 40 g d did not result in significant increases in gastrointestinal distress compared to a placebo (McRorie et al., 2000). However, flatulence did increase with increased intake of Dietary Fiber (Bolin and Stanton, 1998 Tomlin et al., 1991). Adverse effects have been observed under certain special circumstances. For instance, 75 to 80 g d of Dietary Fiber has been associated with sensations of excessive abdominal fullness and increased flatulence in individuals with pancreatic disease (Dutta and Hlasko, 1985). Furthermore, the consumption of 160 to 200 g d of unprocessed bran resulted in intestinal obstruction in a woman who was taking an antidepressant (Kang and Doe, 1979).
Initiation of enteral nutrition should occur immediately after adequate resuscitation, most readily determined by adequate urine output. The presence of bowel sounds and the passage of flatus or stool are not absolute requisites for initiating enteral nutrition, but feedings in the setting of gastropar-esis should be administered distal to the pylorus. Gastric residuals 200 ml in 4-6 h or abdominal distention will require cessation of feeding and adjustment of infusion rate. Concomitant gastric decompression with distal small bowel feedings may be appropriate in certain patients, such as closed-head injury patients with gastroparesis. There is no evidence to support withholding enteric feedings for patients following bowel resection or in those with low-output enterocutaneous fistulas of
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction encompasses several intestinal motor disorders characterized by episodes that suggest intestinal obstruction because defecation stops and abdominal distension, pain, and vomiting occur, but in which no mechanical obstruction is found. It may be due to primary abnormalities of the visceral muscle or nerves or be secondary to chronic renal failure, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis, scleroderma, or muscular dystrophy. There is no effective treatment that is specific for intestinal pseudo-obstruction. If the patient has bacterial overgrowth, this should be treated with antibiotics. If nutrition is impaired, administration of liquid, low-residue feeds enterally is required rarely, parenteral (intravenous) feeding is necessary.
Dietary fructose is ingested as the simple monosaccharide and also as part of the disaccharide sucrose. Sucrose is hydrolyzed by sucrase at the intestinal brush border to yield one molecule of glucose and one of fructose. Glucose is rapidly absorbed via a sodium-coupled cotransporter and arrives at the liver via the portal circulation. Fructose absorption is accomplished primarily by a fructose-specific hex-ose transporter, GLUT-5. This transporter is found in the jejunum on both the brush border and the baso-lateral membranes. Expression of GLUT-5 increases within hours of exposure to a fructose-enriched diet, indicating that the transporter is regulated by luminal signals. However, consumption of a large amount of pure fructose can exceed the capacity of intestinal fructose absorption, resulting in diarrhea. Several studies have shown that when a single dose of 50 g of fructose is consumed by healthy adults, more than half experience malabsorption, and in some studies malabsorption...
The fruit of P. emblica L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet to regulate and promote the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal distension, etc. (43). Various parts of the medicinal plant have been used by 17 countries and nations of the world in their medical treatment. The medicinal plant is thought to have an antihepatitis, anticancer, and antitumor action and is regarded as a traditional immunomodulator and a natural adaptogen (75). The aqueous extract of the fruits can protect against nickel-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis (76) and N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animals (77).
Remedies for acute symptoms include Argentum nit., for excessive flatulence, constipation alternating with diarrhea, pain in the left, upper abdomen, mucus in the stools, fluttering in the stomach, and great apprehension. Colocynthis is prescribed for griping pains that are relieved by bending double or applying pressure to the abdomen, and that are associated with anger. Cantharis is particularly suitable for treating women who have burning abdominal pains, cystitis, great thirst, nausea, and vomiting.
Pneumatic perforation may result from overdistension with insufflated air. The risk of perforation is almost doubled in polypectomy with diagnostic colonoscopy and is usually related to electrical injury of the bowel wall. Several predisposing factors can increase the risk of post-polypectomy perforation, often related to large polyps. Signs of a lower gastrointestinal perforation include sudden, severe, abdominal pain accompanied by signs of peritonitis, abdominal distension, malaise, a change in vital signs and fever. Perforation of the colon may be seen by the endoscopist or diagnosed by a radiographer using plain abdominal radiography with the patient in the supine position.
Allergy is possible, although rare and is characterised by tightness in the chest, wheezing and urticaria. Psyllium should not be consumed dry as it may cause oesophageal obstruction. In practice, it is not unusual for people to experience flatulence, bloating and mild abdominal discomfort when they start to use psyllium however, these symptoms can reduce with long-term use.
During gastroscopy the nursing responsibilities include the maintenance of the patient's oral airway, suctioning secretions and regurgitated material when necessary from the pharynx. Nasal oxygen should be used to treat hypoxia, and resuscitation equipment should be immediately available in the event of cardiopulmonary complications. The nurse should monitor the patient's oxygen saturation and vital signs regularly and observe the patient for signs of bleeding, vomiting, change in vital signs, pain and abdominal distension. Patients should be fasted for at least four hours prior to gastroscopy, longer if they have eaten a large meal.
The clinical presentation of coeliac disease is highly variable, depending on the severity and extent of small bowel involvement. Symptoms include recurrent attacks of diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, abdominal distension, flatulence and stomach cramps. Coeliac disease is associated with autoimmune disorders (thyroid disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IgA deficiency, Down's syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease). The pathology of coeliac disease also varies considerably in severe cases the mucosa looks flat with complete loss of surface villi. Histology shows 'subtotal villous atrophy', accompanied by crypt hyperplasia and an accumulation of plasma cells and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. In cases with less severe atrophy the changes are milder and a few patients may show only partial villous with an increase in the intraepithelial lymphocyte count.
An uncontrolled study of 553 patients with non-specific digestive disorders (dyspeptic discomforts, functional biliary colic, and severe constipation) experienced a significant reduction of symptoms after 6 weeks of treatment with artichoke extract. Symptoms improved by an average of 70.5 , with strongest effects on vomiting (88.3 ), nausea (82.4 ), abdominal pain (76.2 ), loss of appetite (72.3 ), constipation (71.0 ), flatulence (68.2 ), and fat intolerance (58.8 ). In 85 of patients the global therapeutic efficacy of artichoke extract was judged by the physicians as excellent or good. (Fintelmann 1996).
Peppermint has a carminative activity, which refers to its ability to relax the gastrointestinal sphincters. Carminatives are thought to alleviate symptoms of bloating and gas by facilitating eructation and passage of flatus. The classic carminatives are essential oils, such as spearmint and peppermint. Studies from the 1950s on the effect of carminatives on the gut suggest that they work by inducing relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter (Massey 2001). A later study has shown that peppermint oil canalised into the gall bladder and duodenal areas was able to counteract morphine hydrochloride-induced constriction of the sphincter of Oddi (Giachetti etal 1988).
The gastrointestinal tract can be stressed by physical exertion such as long distance running producing symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea and flatulence 3 . The symptoms do not appear to correlate with either the intensity or duration of the exercise. Studies of the gastrointestinal tract have shown a high incidence of mucosal erosions with hemorrhagic and ischemic colitis 4, 5 . Oktedalen et al. 3 have also shown increased intestinal permeability in symptomatic athletes whereas others have shown similar changes but without gastrointestinal symptoms 6, 7 . There is also a correlation between the intensity of running and loss of barrier function expressed as permeability.
Preparation involves a hypertonic phosphate enema on the morning of the procedure, to clean out the large bowel. Sedation is rarely required for proctosigmoidoscopy. The patient is asked to lie on his or her left side with knees drawn up to the chest, the scope is gently inserted, the obturator is removed, and air is pumped through the protosigmoidoscope to inflate the rectum. The examiner will note the colour and friability of the rectal mucosa, and bleeding sites and ulcers. Throughout the procedure the nurse should monitor the patient's vital signs, abdominal distension, pain tolerance and the condition of the skin.
Adults with Down's syndrome are at a higher risk of developing coeliac disease than the general population. Coeliac disease arises as a result of an allergic autoimmune reaction to gluten - a nitrogenous component of wheat, barley and rye. The lining of the small bowel becomes damaged, causing microscopic anatomical (histological) changes, including flattening of the intestinal villi. As a result, the small bowel becomes unable to absorb water and nutrients. Consequently, individuals with coeliac disease have regular loose bowel movements, which are bulky and foul smelling, and they have diminished appetite (anorexia) and weight loss. Impaired nutrition can affect haemoglobin, causing anaemia, reduced bone density (osteoporosis) and alterations in intestinal bacterial population, leading to abdominal distension and contributing to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
In untreated celiac disease, as in other diseases that affect the absorptive capacity of small intestinal enterocytes, disaccharidase deficiency may result, with symptoms of diarrhea and abdominal distension in response to milk products that contain lactose. Once the mucosa returns to normal with the gluten-free diet, disaccharidase activity returns to normal and lactose (milk sugar) becomes tolerated again.
Clinically, ileus can be recognized from clinical signs. Abdominal distension, nausea, and the absence of bowel sounds and flatus should prompt the diagnosis. Abdominal X-ray imaging typically shows dilated loops of small bowel and colon. Bowel obstruction must also be considered with these clinical findings, however, and CT or other contrast imaging may be required to confirm or rule out obstruction. In the expected course of uncomplicated abdominal surgery, the stomach is frequently drained by a nasogastric tube for the first 24 h after surgery, and the patient is not allowed oral intake until there is evidence that colonic motility has returned, usually best evidenced by the passage of flatus. Earlier feeding, and no gastric drainage after bowel surgery can be attempted for healthy patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery, with a high rate of success, provided clinical symptoms of ileus are not present. In such patients, the use of effective preventive strategies is highly...
The rhizomes are bitter, sweet, sour aromatic (a mixture of tastes, starting from bitter initially, turning to a sweet and then sour aromatic sensation), and cooling used as an appetizer, carminative, digestive, stomachic, demulcent, febrifuge, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, laxative, diuretic, expectorant, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic and used in the treatment of anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, bruises, wounds, chronic ulcers, skin diseases, pruritus, fever, constipation, hiccough, cough, bronchitis, sprains, gout, halitosis, otalgia and inflammations (Hussain et al., 1992 Warrier et al., 1994).
LIB TGP) Bacillus (1 LAW X10548758) Bacteria (1 JFM PH2) Bite (f FAY JFM) Boil (f1 DAA) Bronchiestasis (1 KAL) Bronchosis (f12 FAD PHR PH2 BOD WHO) Burn (f12 KAL) Callus (f JFM PH2) Cancer (f12 AKT FAD PH2) Cancer, abdomen (f1 AKT FNF JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH X11341051 X11238811) Cancer, breast (f1 BRU JN131 989s) Cancer, colon (f1 AKT (f1 FNF JLH)) Cancer, esophagus (f1 JN131 1075s) Cancer, gland (1 X11238818) Cancer, liver (f1 BO2 PR14 564) Cancer, lung (f1 BRU FNF JLH JN131 989s) Cancer, prostate (f1 X11102955) Cancer, skin (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 AKT VOD X11238811) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Candidiasis (f12 CAN KAL TRA VOD) Carbuncle (f FAY) Cardiopathy (f123 BGB EGG FAD SKY VOD) Caries (f1 FNF KAB) Catarrh (f1 AKT BGB) Celiac (1 KAL) Chilblain (f EGG) Childbirth (f JFM KAB) Cholecocystosis (f APA) Cholera (f1 PNC TRA) Chronic Fatigue (f JFM) Circulosis (f DLZ) Coccidiosis (1 KAL) Cold (f12 AKT FAD GHA PHR PNC) Colic (f1 GHA WHO) Colosis (1 KAL LAW) Congestion...
Increasing fiber foods in the diet may cause flatulence in some individuals because as complex carbohydrates are digested by bacteria in the intestine, methane gas is released. Eating smaller amounts frequently helps eliminate the problem so does selecting complex carbohydrates, through experimentation, that are better tolerated. Sometimes foods in combination cause gas while eating them singly does not. Ginger, garlic, peppermint, and fennel are carminatives or gas expellers and can be eaten or drunk as tea with or after meals. If a fiber supplement is necessary, a mucilaginous kind like psyllium husks or flaxseed is less irritating than crude bran fiber.
The heating effect is seen in the way mint is used as a heart tonic, which relieves palpitations, sending blood to the skin's surface, in the form of sweating. Hot mint tea is an excellent recourse for disturbed digestion, relieving spasms and relaxing the stomach walls, while also anesthetizing them. It is a proven and peerless remedy for such socially embarrassing conditions as bad breath, flatulence, and hiccups it works for indigestion, bloating, griping, colic, nausea, and vomiting (including morning and travel sickness).
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Seeds are stimulants and carminative and are used in treating diarrhoea, dyspepsia, fever, flatulence, stomachic, haemorrhoids and hiccoughs. Capers are said to reduce flatulence and have an anti-rheumatic effect. In Ayurvedic medicine capers are recorded as hepatic stimulants and protectors, improving liver function. Capers have reported uses for arteriosclerosis, as diuretics, kidney disinfectants, vermifuges and tonics. Infusions and decoctions from caper root bark have been traditionally used for dropsy, anaemia, arthritis and gout. Capers contain considerable amounts of the antioxidant bioflavinoid, rutin. Caper extracts and pulps have been used in cosmetics, but there has been reported contact dermatitis and sensitivity from their use (Mitchell, 1974 Schmidt, 1979).
Cinnamon has been traditionally used by ancient healers from many backgrounds for stomach cramps, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, infant colic, common infections and also female reproductive problems such as dysmenorrhoea, menor-rhagia, lactation, and pain in childbirth. It has also been used as an ingredient in topical preparations for pain and inflammation. Cinnamon is often used in combination with other herbs and spices for most of these indications. In TCM it is considered to warm the kidneys and fortify yang, so is used for impotence among other indications.
The disaccharidases are localized to the apical cell membrane of the villous absorptive gut epithelial cell. Lactase, the disaccharidase that digests lactose, is the most important. Deficiencies of these enzymes may be due to a primary inherited enzyme disorder (permanent) or secondary to disorders resulting from mucosal damage or bacterial overgrowth. Dis-accharidase deficiency results in an osmotic diarrhea, because the undigested sugar has a large osmotic pull, and abdominal distension.
Must be exercised in interpreting reported symptoms and making the diagnosis of lactose intolerance. There can be considerable crossover between individuals who self-identify as intolerant to lactose and are not diagnosed as lactose intolerant versus those in whom the diagnosis was carefully established. More attention to identifying and categorizing symptoms better may help. A Finnish study noted flatulence as the most severe symptom in maldige-sters, whereas abdominal bloating was most frequently reported by individuals self-identifying as lactose digesters. Moreover, microbiota may play a role in the presence and intensity of lactose-related symptoms. Data suggest that increased levels of colonic bacteria, as well as their diversity, may play a role as a result of increased fermentative capacity in reducing the symptoms associated with lactose intolerance.
Postoperative nausea Inhalation of peppermint oil vapours has been shown in a study to reduce postoperative nausea in gynaecological patients in a placebo-controlled trial in which patients were free to inhale peppermint oil as frequently as desired (Tate 1997). A hot peppermint oil compress is used in China to prevent abdominal distension in postoperative gynaecological patients (Feng 1997). In another placebo-controlled trial, a reduction in postoperative nausea was seen equally with inhalation of isopropyl alcohol, peppermint oil or saline, with the authors attributing the effect to the controlled breathing used during inhalation (Anderson & Gross 2004).
Increased fecal bulk due to increased starch intake has been reported (Shetty and Kurpad, 1986). The impact of resistant starch (RS3) from a corn-based cereal on colonic function was measured in eight male volunteers (Tomlin and Read, 1990). After consuming 10.33 g d of RS3 for 1 week, there was no significant difference in fecal output, stool frequency, ease of defecation, whole-gut transit time, or degree of flatulence compared to an intake of 0.86 g d of RS3 from a rice-based cereal. A
Traditional Medicinal Uses Ginger is the folk remedy for anaemia, nephritis, tuberculosis, and antidote to Arisaema and Pinellia. 8 Sialogogue when chewed, causes sneezing when inhaled and rubefacient when applied externally. Antidotal to mushroom poisoning, ginger peel is used for opacity of the cornea. The juice is used as a digestive stimulant and local application in ecchymoses. 8 Underground stem is used to treat stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, nose bleeds, rheumatism, coughs, blood in stools, to improve digestion, expel intestinal gas, and stimulate appetite. 9 The rhizomes are
Parsley, with its mystic aura being wrapped in folk tradition, is said to increase female libido, also help in promoting menstruation and ease the difficulties of childbirth (Review of Natural Products, 1991 Tyler, 1994). Parsley juice can be used in treating hives and other allergy symptoms it also inhibits the secretion of histamine. Parsley has also been used as a liver tonic and helped in the breaking up of kidney stones. The German Commission E has approved parsley as a preventive measure and also for treatment of kidney stones. The parsley root can be used as a laxative and also helps to eliminate bloating. It can reduce weight by reducing excess water gain. The root can be used to relieve flatulence and colic, due to its carminative action. Parsley is rich in such minerals as calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron and vitamins such as A, C and niacin (Review of Natural Products, 1991 Gruenwald, 1998 Blumenthal, 1998 Tyler, 1994, 1998 Marczal et al., 1977). Parsley can be...
Polydextrose has showed no reproductive toxicity, teratology, muta-genicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenesis in experimental animals (Burdock and Flamm, 1999). In humans, no reports of abdominal cramping or diarrhea were reported in men and women who were given up to 12 g d of polydextrose (Jie et al., 2000). Furthermore, there were no complaints of abdominal distress with the consumption of 30 g d of polydextrose (Achour et al., 1994). However, flatulence and gas-related problems were reported following the intake of 30 g d of polydextrose (Tomlin and Read, 1988). Diarrhea was reported with the consumption of 15 g d of polydextrose however, this symptom ceased after 1 month of intake (Saku et al., 1991).
Historical note The sedative effects of valerian have been recognised for over 2000 years, having been used by Hippocrates and Dioscorides in ancient Greece Over the past 500 years, it was widely used in Europe as a calmative for nervousness or hysteria and also to treat dyspepsia and flatulence. Legend has it that the Pied Piper put valerian in his pockets to attract the rats out of Hannover Valerian was widely used by the Eclectic physicians and listed in the United States Formulary until 1 946.
The liver not only processes nutrients but must detoxify all the harmful substances the villi were unable to prevent from being absorbed into the bloodstream. Other situations that can tax the liver considerably include overeating and eating foods that are refined. Refined foods are missing the nutrients they need to be properly metabolized. If the liver can no longer filter and cleanse the blood, or properly metabolize nutrients, or take care of its own health, it is because liver cells are damaged or begin to die. Liver damage is not easily detected by conventional testing and its condition may not be known until dysfunction becomes apparent through illness. Symptoms may range from headache, diarrhea, constipation, food sensitivities, flatulence, sleeplessness, and aching joints to cirrhosis and hepatitis.
Diverticular disease of the colon, characterized by the development of protrusions of mucosa through the bowel wall, is common and usually asymptomatic. It has been shown to be less likely to develop in those following a high-fiber diet, and once acquired can be managed, in many cases, by ensuring an adequate amount of fiber in the diet. Experimentally, various fiber supplements and 'bulking agents' have been shown to reduce the abnormally high peak intracolonic pressures that are characteristic of diverticular disease. Sometimes 10-20 g of coarse wheat bran as a supplement is all that is required, but some patients develop flatulence and distension at least initially. Other fiber supplements such as ispaghula husk (psyllium) may be as effective, without the initial adverse side effects. Sometimes, simple dietary changes to achieve an adequate total daily intake of dietary fiber particularly from wheat-based foods are effective. Diverticulitis (inflammation of the diverticula) is a...
Symptoms Profuse, watery, thin stools, especially during hot weather. Stools are often passed involuntarily, and are accompanied by flatulence and a distended, bloated feeling in the abdomen, possibly with cramping pain. The diarrhea does not in itself cause fatigue, although exhaustion follows after eating or due to loss of fluids (see below, left). Symptoms better For warmth for short naps for passing stools.
Some thiol-bearing compounds in garlic and onion and their relatives can cause acantholysis in vitro (Brenner et al., 1995) and possibly pemphigus in vivo. More than 5 cloves a day may induce flatulence and heartburn (Castleman, 1996) and 'thin blood' (people taking blood thinners may overthin their blood thereby). Some people are very allergic to garlic. Contraindicated in hyperthyroid (TRA) Commission E reports rare GI disturbances, allergic reactions, and change of odor of skin and breath (Commission E). Allergic reactions of contact dermatosis and severe asthmatic attacks (from inhalation of garlic powder) may occur. Topical application of garlic or garlic oil may cause local irritating effects. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may occur following ingestion of fresh garlic bulbs, extracts, or oil (AEH1). Sulfides may irritate the GI tract or cause dermatosis (CAN). Fresh garlic is reportedly dangerous to children (AHP). Use sparingly with children under 2 years...
The first symptoms of AD CMRD, which most frequently occurr within a few months after birth, consist of failure to thrive, diarrhea with steatorrhea and abdominal distension. Of the 62 patients described in the literature, only 4 were diagnosed as adults two sisters presented with diarrhea that was found to have begun in infancy 21, 23 , the third adult had severe neurological signs in infancy 6 and the past medical history of the last adult revealed some
A vascular obstruction occurs in the large bowel when an artherosclerotic narrowing interrupts the blood supply to the bowel. This narrowing inhibits peristalsis and can lead to life-threatening intestinal ischaemia in less than one hour. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, intractable constipation and abdominal distension. Intervention strategies for patients with vascular intestinal obstruction involve the following Use of nasogastric suction to relieve abdominal distension. After abdominal distension has been controlled, surgical intervention may be required depending on the source of the obstruction.
That villous atrophy is present but symptoms do not respond to a gluten-free diet. The epidemiological pattern and occasional epidemics suggest that an infective agent or agents may be involved. Although no single bacterium has been isolated, the condition often begins after an acute diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea, abdominal distension, anorexia, fatigue and weight loss are the most common symptoms. In visitors to the tropics the onset of severe diarrhoea may be sudden and accompanied by fever. Tropical sprue is treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics as small bowel overgrowth with E. coli, enterobacterium and Klebsiella are often seen. Resulting nutritional deficiences may be corrected with folic acid supplements.
Human milk contains around 200mmol l of lactose, which is normally digested to glucose and galactose by the brush border enzyme lactase prior to absorption. In most people lactase deficiency is completely asymptomatic. However, some complain of colicky pain, abdominal distension, increased flatus and diarrhoea after ingesting milk or milk products. Irritable bowel syndrome is often suspected but the diagnosis is suggested by clinical
The other major breakdown products of carbohydrate fermentation are hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide, which together comprise flatus gas. Excess gas production can cause distension and pain in some individuals, especially if they attempt to increase their fiber consumption too abruptly. In most cases, however, extreme flatus is probably caused more by fermentation of oligosaccharides such as stachyose and verbascose, which are found principally in legume seeds, rather than the cell wall polysaccharides themselves.