Improve Listening Skills in ADHD Children

How To Conquer Add / Adhd

Number 1 Guide On How To Cope With Attention Deficit Disorder, Add Adhd. Inside this research collection, you will: Learn about Add / Adhd in Laymens Terms and find out more about the Keys to Success in dealing with the disorder. Cut to the chase reading. No wasting your time, your money and your patience. Arm yourself with knowledge about the causes and symptoms of Add / Adhd, in children and in adults. And find out where to go for testing and a diagnosis. Take action now to get started on the Success Path instead of plodding along on the Ignorance Trail. Uncover specific ways to help children (yours or someone elses) who have been diagnosed with Add / Adhd. Use our handy resources, network, learn more ways and get more help. Tailor strategies that work for Both you and the child. Read overviews about many successful treatment strategies along with detailed information about how to pinpoint specific options available in Your area (i.e. where You live). No more waiting to find out who can help or where to go. Print out our basic questions to ask when you are trying to learn more about Add / Adhd so that you can keep a journal of handy information for follow up reference and quick help along the way. Save money, time, aggravation, stress, hair from being pulled out, and much moreby Printing out and using our, How to Set Up and Use Organizer & Filing Systems, step-by-step action plan. Fill your notebook with your own planner sheets downloaded from our resource section and use them Now! No more waiting for a better day. Its here and its time to get organized. Read more here...

How To Conquer Add Adhd Summary


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Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

As mentioned in this book's introduction as well, many people continue to use the two distinct terms of ADD (Attention-Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). Some use the two terms interchangeably, and others specifically use ADD when referring to those who do not have the symptoms of hyper-activity. However, the most current and official term or acronym is ADHD (with or without the slash). This is the umbrella term or acronym under which all three types of the disorder are included The predominantly inattentive type of ADHD (those without hyperactivity) The predominantly hyperactive impulsive type of ADHD (those without a significant number of the inattentive symptoms) The combined type (the most common type of ADHD those with a significant amount of symptoms in all three core areas inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) In the first edition of this book (1993) I had used ADD ADHD, and it remains as such in the title of this new edition. However,...

Behavioral Characteristics of ADHD

The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association APA in 1994, is the source of the official criteria for diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The DSM-IV and more recently the DSM-IV-TR (text revised) lists nine specific symptoms under the category of inattention and nine specific symptoms under the hyperactive impulsive category. Part of the diagnostic criteria is that the child or teen often displays at least six of the nine symptoms of either the inattentive or the hyperactive impulsive categories. The lists below contain those symptoms or behaviors found in the DSM-IV (1994) and DSM-IV-TR (2000). Below are the symptoms specifically listed in the DSM (which are indicated in italics), as well as additional common and related behaviors (Rief, 2003).

ADHD and the Executive Functions

When discussing difficulties associated with ADHD, many of them center on the ability to employ the executive functions of the brain. The following are some definitions descriptions of what is referred to as executive functioning. Many specialists and researchers believe Dr. Russell Barkley's theory (2000a, May) that the deficit in inhibition (the core of ADHD) impairs the development of these executive functions. Apparently, in children with ADHD, the executive functions (at least some of them) are developmentally delayed compared to other children of the same age. The individual with ADHD, therefore, does not fully utilize his or her executive functions for self-management. It is important to realize that executive function weaknesses cause academic challenges (mild to severe) for most students with ADHD, irrespective of how intelligent, gifted, and capable they may be. Consequently, most children and teens with attention-deficit disorders will need some supportive strategies and or...

What Is Not Known About ADHD

There is still a great deal that we do not yet know about ADHD, including How to prevent ADHD or specific symptoms that cause impairment in a person's functioning An easy, conclusive diagnosis for ADHD What may prove to be the best, most effective treatments and strategies for helping individuals with ADHD Just in the past few years there has been a great deal of interest and focus on ADHD in adulthood. This has generated a lot of research, resulting in much more information and better treatment options for this population. ADHD in the early childhood years (prior to age six) is also an area that requires more research and understanding. Gender issues and the differences between males and females with ADHD has gained considerable recognition, and consequently, has been the focus of various research studies in the past few years. Also, cultural variables and the effects of cultural factors on the diagnosis, treatment, and care of individuals with ADHD is another area that has only...

Multimodal Treatments for ADHD

Once a child is identified and diagnosed with ADHD, there are many ways to help the child and the family. It is important to realize that ADHD is not something that can be cured, but it can be treated and managed effectively. The best way of doing so in most cases is through a multifaceted approach a multimodal plan of interventions, tailored to the needs of the individual child and family. (AAP, 2001a). This typically includes a combination of medical, behavioral psychosocial, and educational interventions, implemented as needed at different times in the child teen's life. Children with ADHD often do best with a combination of structuring of their environment (home, school, and other settings), medication, behavior modification and specific behavior management strategies implemented at home and school, educational supports accommodations, and counseling of some kind (for example, parent counseling and training, family or individual counseling) (Goldstein, 1999 Rief, 2003).

Possible Causes of ADHD

ADHD has been extensively researched, but its exact cause is unknown. According to the organization Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyp-eractivity Disorder (CHADD), current research suggests a neurobiological basis for this disorder. This means that there may be an imbalance of neuro-transmitters or a lack of the chemical dopamine, which is used by the brain to control behavior. When individuals concentrate, the brain releases neurotran-smitters that enable them to focus on one thing and block out others. People with ADHD seem to have decreased amounts of these neurotransmitters. Some research suggests that abnormal glucose metabolism in the central nervous system may be a possible cause. Research indicates that the areas of the brain that control attention use less glucose, suggesting that these areas are less active for those with ADHD. Other studies suggest that prenatal drug and alcohol exposure may have an effect. Some doctors believe that environmental toxins and...

Wondering about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

You may wonder whether your real problem could actually be attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a syndrome characterized by chronic disorganization, distractibility, inattentiveness, and impulsivity. Sometimes people with ADHD are also hyperactive, but adults with ADHD are far less likely to be hyperactive than are children with the disorder. Of course, everyone is disorganized, distractible, and so on on some occasions but for the person with ADHD, these are constant problems. If your primary problem is chronic pain all over, pain that doctors can't attribute to anything other than fibromyalgia, FMS is most likely the cause of your problems with disorganization, distractibility, and the rest. (Of course, as with other conditions, you could have both fibromyalgia and ADHD.) Some researchers have found that adults with the primary problem of untreated ADHD are more likely to have fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue than others, and when their ADHD is treated, the muscle pain...

Substance Abuse And Attention Deficit Disorder

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been noted to be at risk for development of alcoholism and cocaine abuse as they grow into adolescence and adulthood. Family studies of children with ADHD and alcoholism have demonstrated higher rates of alcoholism in family members than that seen in the general population. Goodwin (1975) compared previously hyperactive adult adoptees with and without alcoholism. As children, these alcoholics were hyperactive, truant, shy, aggressive, disobedient, and friendless. In these adoptees, those with alcoholism clearly had an excess of alcoholism in their biological parents. No alcoholism was found among the biological parents of the nonalcoholic hyperactive adoptees. These findings suggest that in the case of alcoholism and hyperactivity, the risk for alcoholism comes from a genetic basis and not necessarily from just having ADHD. It has been estimated that 15 to 20 percent of cocaine users might also be afflicted with ADHD....

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

A growing body of literature has examined the comorbidity of ADHD in children and adolescents with BD, yet many questions remain unanswered. First and foremost, the question whether children with ADHD are being misdiagnosed with mania remains a topic of ongoing debate. Two large studies of children with mania found rates of comorbid ADHD above 90 64, 65 . Among adolescents with BD, rates of comorbid ADHD have ranged from 22 to 88 66 . The distinction between these two syndromes is made Biederman and colleagues in Boston have argued that many children who are diagnosed with ADHD may in fact be suffering from an early form of BD 67 . This view is indirectly supported by the recent finding that adult BD patients with a childhood history of ADHD retrospectively appear to have an earlier age of onset of affective episodes (mean age 12.1 years), as compared to adult BD patients without a childhood history of ADHD (mean age 20.0 years) 68 . Others have argued that manic symptoms represent a...

Attentiondeficit Hyperactivity Disorder

What are the primary characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Which gender is most likely to be affected by ADHD By definition, ADHD symptoms must be evident by which age to be given the classification of ADHD How long must the symptoms of ADHD be present to be given the classification of ADHD What percentage of the general child population in the United States is affected by ADHD What is the intelligence level of persons with ADHD What percentage of ADHD patients have symptoms that persist into adulthood What are the primary treatment modalities of ADHD What is a non-stimulant medication for individuals with ADHD greater than the age of 6 Which single drug is most widely prescribed for ADHD

Services and Supports for Students with ADHD

Students with ADHD whose school performance is significantly impacted by their ADHD may be entitled to services and supports under two federal laws (1) IDEA and (2) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. If the team feels that a student may be in need of special education, they should make a referral for an evaluation under IDEA. However, many students with ADHD don't need a special education evaluation or qualify for special education. Instead, they should be considered for a Section 504 Plan evaluation, as described below.

Which One May Be Better for a Student with ADHDA 504 Plan or an IEP

As I point out in another publication (Rief, 2003), this is a decision that the team (parents and school personnel) must make considering eligibility criteria and the specific needs of the individual student. For students with ADHD who have more significant school difficulties, IDEA is usually preferable because Remember A diagnosis of ADHD does not guarantee or automatically qualify a student for services or accommodations under either IDEA or Section 504. A school-based assessment must determine that the ADHD is adversely affecting the child's learning or educational performance. Under IDEA, that negative impact on the child s functioning at school must be to the degree that the team feels special education is necessary. Under Section 504, the negative effect of ADHD on the child's learning must be evident, but not necessarily to the degree that special education is needed.

ADHD and the Impact on the Family

It is important to be aware of the challenges that exist in the home when one or more children (or a parent) have ADHD, as this disorder significantly impacts the entire family (Rief, 2003). Unfortunately, teachers are generally unaware or underestimate the struggles that families face. Typically, in homes of children with ADHD there is a much higher degree of stress than the average family has, along with depression or other pathology in one or more family members. Note Remember, it is likely that more than one family member also has ADHD. Living with a child who has ADHD often takes a heavy toll on marriages. It is common for parents to be in different stages of a grieving process about having a child who struggles compared to other children, and whose differences may even be considered a disability. Parents frequently disagree about treatment, discipline, management, structure, and so forth. There are generally major issues surrounding the battle with homework as well as morning...

What May Be the Causes of ADHD

ADHD has been researched extensively in the United States and a number of other countries. There have been hundreds of well-designed and controlled scientific studies trying to determine the causes and most effective treatments for children, teens, and more recently, adults. To date, the causes of ADHD are not fully known or understood. However, based on the enormous amount of research, there is a lot of consensus in the scientific community about most probable causes, which include the following. This is the most likely common cause of ADHD, based on the evidence Heredity accounts for about 80 percent of children with ADHD, according to leading researchers (Barkley, 1998). ADHD is known to run in families, as found by numerous studies (especially twin studies with identical and fraternal twins, adopted children, family studies) (Lombroso, Scahill, & State, 1998). It is believed that a genetic predisposition to the disorder is inherited. Children with ADHD will frequently have a...

The Components of a Comprehensive Evaluation for ADHD

An evaluation for ADHD will require taking a thorough history (Rief, 1998, 2003). This is a critical part of the diagnostic process. The history is obtained through interviewing the parents, use of questionnaires (generally filled out by parents prior to office visits), and a review of previous medical and school records. By using these techniques and instruments, the evaluator obtains important data regarding the child's medical history (prenatal, birth, illnesses, injuries), developmental history (milestones reached in various language, motor, adaptive, and learning skills), behavioral, and school history. This is a means of also obtaining from the parents the family medical and social history, any significant circumstances stressors (serious illness in family, death, divorce, family moved), a sense of the parents' style of discipline and interactions with the child, and their perceptions of the child's strengths as well as difficulties. These are useful in determining the degree to...

The Advantages of Cooperative Learning for Students with ADHD

The crux of differentiated instruction (see Section 3.1) requires teachers to employ methods and strategies that enable all students, with their diverse learning abilities and differences, to be able to master the curriculum and content performance standards. This is achieved through instruction, assessment, and learning activities that are meaningful and engaging. Cooperative learning is one of the best means of doing so, with decades of research that validates its efficacy. All teachers should be trained in best practices for implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. Teachers may mistakenly believe they are using cooperative learning when they simply have students working together in groups. This is not cooperative learning. In fact, students (particularly those with ADHD) often have difficulty learning and functioning productively in unstructured group work. Cooperative learning involves a high degree of careful planning and structuring, and as such it is an excellent...

Dr Bobs Guide to Stop ADHD in 18 Days

Guide to Stop ADHD in 18 Days' Stop wdu*tint ADHD, ADO, QCD - Tmt Hvj-fiitiTa. ajjuult ' Anyone can successfully overcome ADHD and Hyperactivity without drugs. This book details how to get your children and family off medications and detrimental junk foods filled with trans-fatty acids, dairy products, sugar, and preservatives, so they can have optimal, natural health. This is a simple, effective step-by-step plan that includes adding FLAX OIL and modifying your diet and vitamin mineral intake. The protocol will improve your nervous system function and help people diagnosed with ADHD overcome behavioral and learning problems. You will improve insomnia, mood swings, and irritability. Your body will heal itself naturally. Participants in the pilot program saw improvement in only 18 days. NATURALLY Stop wdu*tint ADHD, ADO, QCD - Tmt Hvj-fiitiTa. ajjuult ' Dr. Bob's Guide to Stop ADHD in 18 Days

The Schools Role and Responsibilities in the Diagnosis of ADHD

As described in Section 1.2, the diagnosis of ADHD is dependent on gathering sufficient information to get a clear picture of how ADHD symptoms observed (currently and in previous years) affect the child in key environments. Obviously, the school is a key environment where the child spends much of his or her life. The school's role is to provide the information and data to enable the evaluator to determine past and present school functioning. Parents have a right to expect the school to be supportive and responsive in the diagnostic process. Schools need to provide information requested by the child's physician or mental health professional conducting a clinical evaluation for ADHD. It will be necessary for parents to sign a release of information form before school personnel can communicate with other professionals outside of school or provide documentation and data regarding the child. See Section 1.2 for data that is valuable to be provided by the school when a child is being...

School Based Assessment for ADHD

Some school districts are very proactive and involved in helping to identify, diagnose, and provide effective interventions for students with ADHD. These school districts generally have specified procedures and a process for school-based screening evaluation of students for ADHD. The following steps or variations are typical in such school-based ADHD screening assessment (Rief, 2003). Most school-based screening evaluation for ADHD begins with the student support team (SST) process, with parents as members of the team. In the case of a child suspected of having ADHD, teachers may be advised to carefully observe the student in comparison to other children in the classroom (for example, degree of off-task behavior, out-of-seat behavior, completion of assignments) and to start documenting or collecting evidence of difficulties in school performance (for example, work samples, anecdotal records of behavioral incidents) in preparation for the SST meeting. During the SST meeting If the team...

Innovative Collaborative Programs for Helping Children with ADHD

Some unique projects and programs are being implemented with success in the nation that involve collaborative efforts in the community (between clinicians, schools, and parents) to best address the needs of children with ADHD. This section turns the spotlight on three such innovative programs 1. The Utah Model Intermountain Health Care's (IHC's) Care Management System for ADHD (Salt Lake The Utah Model is taking place in the Salt Lake City area, with involvement and interest by policymakers at the state level. It may very well become the model of care for children with ADHD throughout the state of Utah. The PARD project affects all children with ADHD in a large school district those attending San Diego City Schools. The project in Tulsa, Oklahoma, is a smaller-scale collaborative involving a targeted school, with a school-based mental health provider and the University of Oklahoma Pediatrics Clinic in Tulsa. Two of the projects (Utah's and Tulsa's) were part of the National Initiative...

What Is Currently Known About ADHD

There are degrees of ADHD ranging from mild to severe types of ADHD with a variety of characteristics and no one has all of the symptoms or displays the disorder in the exact same way. Symptoms vary in every child, and even within each child with ADHD the symptoms may look different from day to day. ADHD is not new. It has been around, recognized by clinical science, and documented in the literature since 1902 (having been renamed several times). Some of the previous names for the disorder were minimal brain damage, minimal brain dysfunction, hyperactive child syndrome, and ADD with or without hyperactivity. We know that ADHD is not a myth. It is not a result of poor parenting or lack of caring, effort, and discipline. ADHD is not laziness, willful behavior, or a character flaw. There is no quick fix or cure for ADHD. Many children teens with ADHD slip through the cracks without being identified and without receiving the intervention and treatment they need. This is particularly true...

Definitions and Descriptions of ADHD

There are several descriptions or definitions of ADHD based on the most widely held belief of the scientific community at this time. The following are some of those provided by leading researchers and specialists in the field ADHD is a neurobiological behavioral disorder characterized by chronic and developmentally inappropriate degrees of inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity (CHADD, 2001c). ADHD is a brain-based disorder that arises out of differences in the central nervous system (CNS) both in structural and neurochemical areas. ADHD is a dimensional disorder of human behaviors that all people exhibit at times to certain degrees. Those with ADHD display the symptoms to a significant degree that is maladaptive and developmentally inappropriate compared to others that age. ADHD is a developmental disorder of self-control, consisting of problems with attention span, impulse control, and activity level (Barkley, 2000b). ADHD is a chronic physiological disorder...

ADHD and Other Disorders

ADHD can coexist with a number of psychological conditions, including conduct disorders, mood disorders (such as depression), anxiety disorders, and impulse control disorders (such as eating disorders and alcohol abuse). Some children may be depressed as a result of having ADHD, whereas others may have a mood disorder that exists independently of ADHD. Nearly half of all children with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder characterized by stubbornness, outbursts of temper, and defiance. Many children with ADHD also have a specific learning disability, which means that they might have trouble mastering language or other skills, such as math, reading, or handwriting. Although ADHD is not categorized as a learning disability, its interference with concentration and attention can make it even more difficult for a child to perform well in school. The issue of coexisting conditions makes diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of ADHD particularly complex. There is no cure for ADHD,...

Why Writing Is Such a Struggle for Students with ADHD

Weaknesses in written language are very common in those with ADHD because the process is so complex. It involves the integration and often simultaneous use of several skills and brain functions (for example, organization, spelling, fine motor, planning, self-monitoring, memory, language). Writing difficulties are manifested because the process requires Pre-Planning and Organization. This requires being able to generate, plan, and organize ideas. This stage of the writing process is often the most challenging and neglected, especially for those who experience difficulties with written expression. When given a written assignment, students with ADHD often get stuck here. They do not know what to write about, how to organize and begin, or how to narrow down and focus on a topic that will be motivating to write about (Rief, 2003). Grapho-Motor Skills. Many children with ADHD and or learning disabilities have impairments in grapho-motor skills. This affects the physical task of writing and...

ADHD in Preschool and Kindergarten

Most children with ADHD are not diagnosed until first grade or higher. However, those exhibiting significant core symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention) are often identified in kindergarten, preschool, or even earlier. With very young children it is often hard to distinguish between what is normal rambunctious, active, uninhibited early childhood behavior and what may be abnormal (maladaptive and outside the limits of what is developmentally appropriate behavior for that age). There are children with ADHD diagnosed under the age of five and receiving various treatments (including medication) with great success. However, most children enter preschool and kindergarten programs without having been evaluated or diagnosed with the disorder. At this stage, most teachers and parents don't know whether or not the child has ADHD or any other developmental disorder. Typically, they are doing the best they know how in managing the child's challenging behaviors and may be wondering if...

Recommended Treatment for ADHD

Although there is no cure for ADHD, there is a recommended treatment plan that requires parents, educators, and members of the medical profession to work cooperatively. This plan includes parent training in managing behavior, counseling, educational supports, and medication when needed. The counseling portion of the treatment plan may include both individual and family counseling. Family counseling may be useful in planning and evaluating workable strategies, such as conflict resolution, and providing needed emotional support. Individual counseling for the ADHD child can provide training in social skills, anger control, and relaxation techniques. Drugs such as Ritalin are sometimes administered to children diagnosed with ADHD in an effort to provide a decrease in impulsiveness, aggressiveness, hyperactivity, and inappropriate social interaction. (A P Wide World Photos) Drugs such as Ritalin are sometimes administered to children diagnosed with ADHD in an effort to provide a decrease...

Therapeutic management and options to address comorbid sleep disorders in ADHD

The effect of immediate (IR) or extended (ER) release stimulants in ADHD is well known and beyond the purpose of this review. Stimulants still represent the first line of treatment of ADHD in pediatric populations across the world. The majority of subjective report studies indicate increased parental complaints of sleep disturbance in medicated versus unmedicated ADHD children, irrespective of stimulant type or regimen (Cohen-Zion & Ancoli-Israel, 2004). However, objective studies, whether actigraphic or PSG, show overall conflicting results as far as sleep measures, continuity and architecture, major differences going in opposite directions with regard, in particular, to REM sleep (Chatoor et al., 1983 Greenhill et al., 1983) no influence, though, on specific sleep disorders such as SDB or PLMD. A consistent co-morbidity with depression in many ADHD children could account for increased subjective and actigraphically confirmed sleep fragmentation in the most severe cases. Besides...

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) begins in early childhood and has a significant impact on how children develop and how families function. This disorder affects how information in the brain is processed and is currently diagnosed in 3 to 5 percent of school-aged children. Children with ADHD are easily distracted, impulsive, have difficulty focusing and sustaining attention, and can be easily oversti-mulated. In addition to these characteristics, some children with ADHD are also hyperactive. While all children can be highly active or lack the ability to stay focused at times, children with ADHD exhibit these behaviors in combination with one another more frequently and with greater severity than other children of the same age.

Attention Deficit Disorder

Children and adolescents who ''act out'' their feelings, frustrations, and emotional conflicts are said to exhibit externalizing behavior. Within the framework of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 3rd edition, revised (DSM-III-R), once a certain level of severity is demonstrated, these youth qualify for the umbrella diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder. Three disorders are encompassed within this general diagnostic category (1) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (2) CONDUCT Disorder (CD) and (3) oppositional defiant disorder. It should be noted that in recent years some controversy has developed concerning diagnostic techniques. It has been suggested that with the introduction of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) in 1994, accurately diagnosing ADHD in adults has become problematic ''because of the vague nature of the criteria'' in DSM-IV (Higgins, 1999)....

Relation Of Adhd To Drug Abuse

Serious psychiatric disorder is common among adults with a history of ADHD. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY disorder, alcohol and substance abuse, depression, and anxiety are the most common associated disorders. These associated disorders should not be viewed as invariant outcomes of ADHD but rather as disturbances for which ADHD youth are at increased risk. Whether any of these psychiatric outcomes are manifested depends on a variety of factors besides ADHD, including the child's self-esteem, opportunity for normal socialization with peers, success in school, and level of social and family support (Tarter, 1988). With respect to alcohol and other drug abuse, augmented risk appears to be circumscribed to youth who have both ADHD and a conduct disor der. The association, however, between ADHD and substance abuse is complex. Alcohol and other drugs may be more subjectively rewarding for ADHD youth and adults than in the general population. Drug use is commonly tied to a general pattern of...

The Impact of ADHD on Families

Children with ADHD may have significant impairments that can have a profound impact on their families. Children often forget what they have been told or defiantly oppose what is requested of them. They tend to be demanding, unpredictable, restless, quick tempered, forgetful, inconsistent in their school work, and socially immature. These experiences lead to increased levels of parental frustration. Many parents struggle with deciding on the best methods for disciplining their child. They may question if they are being too strict or too permissive. Parents may feel guilty and at fault for their child's problems. Fair and consistent disciplinary practices can help change behavior in a positive way. When the condition is identified early and adequate treatment plans are implemented, children with ADHD can have successful school experiences and can develop positive relationships with peers and adults.

Math Difficulties Associated with ADHD

Many students with ADHD and or learning disabilities experience academic difficulty with mathematics, due to the multiple processes and brain functions involved in executing math problems. Some math challenges may be specifically related to weaknesses with ADHD (for example, inattention, organization, working memory, self-monitoring). Others may result more directly from a learning disability (for example, sequential learning, perceptual-motor, language). Remember, some children have both ADHD and co-existing learning disabilities. The following list of impairments is associated with ADHD and LD, and how they negatively impact performance in math is described (from Rief, 2003)

How Is ADHD Diagnosed

There is currently no single test that can be given to diagnose ADHD. Since some biological and psychological disorders can appear similar to ADHD, these should be considered and ruled out before a diagnosis of ADHD is made. Conditions such as stress- related anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, the effects of child abuse or neglect, or obsessive compulsive disorder may look like ADHD but require different treatments. A comprehensive evaluation is necessary to determine a diagnosis of ADHD. This includes information and observations from parents, teachers, school psychologists, and pediatricians. Parents see their children at home and in small social groups. Classroom teachers can be of assistance since they see how well children perform school work and how children interact with their peers. School psychologists can make behavioral observations in multiple settings and interview the child. Pediatricians provide needed medical information. Completion of behavioral...

How Can We Be Sure Our Child Has ASHFA and Not ADHD or OCD or Something Else

Caused this rapid rise, one factor that has certainly contributed is that as professionals and the general public have become more familiar with the autism spectrum disorders, the number of children diagnosed with them has soared. And as their diagnosis has become more prevalent, misdiagnosis is also more likely. Sometimes a proper assessment by a specialist reveals that this diagnosis is wrong. It's been our experience that in earlier years almost all children referred to our specialty clinics for a diagnostic evaluation did in fact meet criteria for an autism spectrum disorder. In the last year alone, however, one-quarter of the diagnostic evaluations performed in our clinics overturned previously suggested diagnoses of either high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.5 Almost all the children had multiple serious behavioral difficulties. It was never a straightforward case of dyslexia or ADHD having been misdiagnosed as Asperger syndrome, but one of a child presenting a...

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) A nonprofit organization founded in 1987 in response to the frustration and sense of isolation experienced by parents and their children with ADHD. At that time, there were very few places for support or information, and people misunderstood ADHD. Many clinicians and educators knew little about the disability, and individuals with ADHD were often mistakenly labeled a behavior problem, unmotivated, or unintelligent. From one parent support group in Florida, the organization grew dramatically to become the leading nonprofit national organization for children and adults with ADHD. Today the organization continues to be run by volunteers, with the support of a small national staff, and offers education, advocacy, and support. (For contact information, see Appendix i.)

ADHD and Social Skills Interventions

Children and teens with ADHD frequently have difficulty with interpersonal relationships getting along with others at home and school, and in other settings. Social challenges can result in a lot of negative outcomes and low self-esteem, as well as be a source of great pain and frustration not just for the child, but for the entire family. Some common struggles in children and teens with ADHD that negatively affect their interactions and social acceptance are In addition, children and teens with ADHD often miss important verbal and nonverbal cues that may alert them to regulate their emotional reactions and to modify their behaviors when things are not going well in social interchanges (Teeter & Goldstein, 2002). Individuals with the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD may have social problems that are different from those who are impulsive and hyperactive. They tend to be unsure, anxious, initially withdrawn in social situations, and reluctant to take social risks. They may...

Managing ADHD

Section 1.1 Understanding Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Section 1.2 Making the Diagnosis A Comprehensive Evaluation for ADHD Section 1.3 Multimodal Treatments for ADHD Section 1.6 Critical Factors in the Success of Students with ADHD Section 1.7 ADHD and Social Skills Interventions Section 1.8 ADHD in Preschool and Kindergarten Section 1.9 ADHD in Middle School and High School

Type of ADHD

Those individuals with this type of ADHD have a significant number of hyperactive impulsive symptoms they may have some, but not a significant number of inattentive symptoms. Children and teens with ADHD may exhibit many of the following characteristics (not all of them). Even though each of these behaviors is normal in children at different ages to a certain degree, in those with ADHD, the behaviors far exceed that which is normal developmentally (in frequency, level, and intensity). Again, those written in italics are the behaviors that are listed in the DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR. Other Common Characteristics in Children and Teens with ADHD Criteria for a Diagnosis of ADHD It is not just the existence of symptoms that indicate ADHD. It must be proven that there is a history of those symptoms having been evident since before age seven and lasting for a while (at least the past six months). In addition, those symptoms must be (a) more severe than in other children that same age (b) evident...


ADHD is both a medical and behavioral disorder, and there are a number of professionals who can evaluate for attention-deficit disorders. This includes clinicians such as psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, neurologists, clinical social workers, pediatricians, family practitioners, and other qualified medical and mental health professionals. Many school psychologists are also qualified to evaluate for ADHD. In selecting a professional to evaluate their child, parents are advised to do their homework and investigate before selecting a professional. It is important to find someone well qualified, and preferably recommended by others. Parents seeking professionals to evaluate (and treat) their child may wish to first speak with other parents of children teens who have ADHD (for example, through the local chapter of CHADD) regarding recommended professionals in the community. School nurses and school psychologists are also excellent resources and very knowledgeable in most cases about...

Identifying ADHD

The primary tool for identifying the symptoms of ADHD is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association. This diagnostic manual specifies three groups of behaviors that are characteristic of ADHD. Children need only demonstrate behaviors in any one group to be diagnosed with ADHD. Children in the first group show signs of being consistently inattentive. Children in the second group will show hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. The third group of children exhibit a combination of behaviors from both groups (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness). According to the diagnostic manual, an inattentive type of ADHD child is identified when six or more of the following symptoms have persisted for at least six months to a degree that significant impairments in a child's daily activities are noted. These symptoms must be seen in two or more environments, such as at home, at school, or in social settings. Symptoms include The...

ADHD Look Alikes

Not everyone who displays symptoms of ADHD has an attention-deficit disorder. There are a number of other conditions and factors (medical, psychological, learning, psychiatric, emotional, social, environmental) that can cause inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors. The following can cause some of the symptoms that may look like or mimic ADHD Emotional and environmental factors that have nothing to do with ADHD can also cause a child or teen to be distracted, unable to concentrate, and have acting-out or aggressive behaviors. For example, if the child teen is experiencing or witnessing physical sexual abuse violence or family stresses such as divorce and custody battles a victim of bullying peer pressure and other peer social issues or has a chaotic, unpredictable, unstable, and or neglectful home life with inappropriate expectations placed on the child. Inattention and disruptive classroom behaviors can be school-related (again without having anything to do with ADHD)....

ADHD and sleep

Items more often referred to by subjective studies on sleep and alertness in ADHD include (Cortese et al., 2006) bedtime resistance, sleep onset insomnia, night awakening, sleep duration, restless sleep, parasomnias, problems with morning awakening, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). No major differences between adolescents with ADHD and controls were detected (Mick et al., 2000) after excluding confounding factors such as medications and psychiatric comorbidity. As for ADHD children, significantly over reported by comparison with controls were EDS (Marcotte et al., 1998, Owens et al., 2000), whether or not sleep disordered breathing (SDB) related, movements during sleep (Corkum et al., 1999, Owens et al., 2000). Also a longer sleep duration with increased night awakenings and parasomnias were observed upon comparison with controls (Owens et al., 2000). Despite the fact that bedtime resistance and sleep onset insomnia did not come across as...

Statistics and Risk Factors

ADHD is associated with a number of risk factors. Compared to their peers of the same age, youth with ADHD (those untreated for their disorder) experience More serious accidents, hospitalizations, and significantly higher medical costs than those children without ADHD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003) Without early identification and appropriate treatment, ADHD can have serious consequences that include school failure and drop out, depression, conduct disorder, failed relationships, underachievement in the workplace, and substance abuse (CHADD, 2003b). Yet despite the serious consequences, studies indicate that less than half of those with the disorder are receiving treatment (Barkley, Cook, Dulcan, et al., 2002) Prevalence of ADHD Approximately 3 to 5 percent of school-aged children have ADHD, according to much of the literature over the past several years, including the Surgeon General's Mental Health Report (1999, 2001). Nearly 7 percent of elementary-aged children...

AAP Guidelines and Additional Points

The American Academy of Pediatrics (2001) published guidelines for clinicians with the following recommendations for the treatment of ADHD in children aged six to twelve years 1. Primary care clinicians should establish a treatment program that recognizes ADHD as a chronic condition. 3. The clinician should recommend stimulant medication and or behavioral therapy as appropriate to improve target outcomes in children with ADHD. 4. When the selected management for a child with ADHD has not met target outcomes, clinicians should evaluate the original diagnosis, use of all appropriate treatments, adherence to the treatment plan, and presence of co-existing conditions. 5. The clinician should periodically provide a systematic follow-up for the child with ADHD. Monitoring should be directed to target outcomes and adverse effects by obtaining specific information from parents, teachers, and the child. When pursuing any treatment, parents should seek out doctors and therapists who are...

Atomoxetine Strattera

There is a new class of medication that is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. This class of ADHD treatment works differently from the other ADHD medications available. This new drug is called Strattera and its generic name is atomoxetine. It was recently approved by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of ADHD. Strattera is the first FDA-approved treatment for ADHD that is not a stimulant and is not a controlled substance (Sallee & Smirnov, 2003). Studies available in the literature at this time suggest that atomoxetine-related relief of ADHD symptoms is similar to the effect of methylphenidate (stimulants) when both are administered by clinical titration. Atomoxetine has demonstrated efficacy for ADHD symptoms irrespective of age and gender, and it appears to have advantages that include continuous coverage of symptoms throughout the work school day, evening, and potentially for an entire twenty-four hours (Sallee & Smirnov, 2003).

Child Social Skills Interventions

Many children with ADHD are not socially accepted because they have poor skills in playing various games sports. It helps to involve them in as many opportunities as possible to build their skills and competencies so that peers will want to include them in their play and sport activities. As Dr. Pelham points out, in their renown summer treatment programs for children with ADHD, there is a major focus on teaching sports skills to the children. If you teach a child to be a better baseball player, and therefore make him more popular among children in the neighborhood, he'll be a better baseball player forever. Medication will help him pay attention when he's playing baseball, but it won't teach him to catch, throw, and hit. That's an example of where a child might have an attention problem and a skills deficit, and both forms of treatment might be helpful (Pelham, 2002).

Coping with temporary confusion

You may want to try some tricks that help people with ADHD cope with confusion, such as creating simple lists, always keeping your car keys in the same place, and quickly checking yourself in the mirror before you leave home. (Yes, your clothes are right side out and your hair is combed. Or they aren't, so you fix them.)

Parent Concerns and Recommendations

It is highly recommended for parents to start early in seeking help learning how to parent a child with ADHD. It can be exhausting and frustrating trying to cope with and manage the challenging behaviors and knowing how to best provide the necessary structure and support for the child. There are many resources available to help parents learn how to do so (for example, parenting classes, behavior management training, counseling, parent support groups such as CHADD, books videos, and other materials). When a child has ADHD and or LD, behaviors that impact on social and academic performance generally do not improve by just providing more time to mature. Other interventions will be necessary to specifically target their areas of weakness and build their skills. Early intervention makes a significant difference preventing for many children the devastating effects of failure, and often the need for special education in the future.

Management Techniques in Kindergarten

Behavior management techniques for children with ADHD in kindergarten are basically the same as those in higher grades (for example, using a high degree of feedback visual prompting cueing proximity control group positive reinforcement systems corrective consequences that are applied consistently and individualized behavioral plans supports). The following are recommendations and examples from the nineteen kindergarten teachers regarding what they have found to be successful in their classrooms.

Giving the Child Space

Children with ADHD often have difficulty knowing and understanding their physical boundaries. They tend to invade other people's space and react adversely to being crowded, bumped into, and so forth. They need concrete visual structuring of their space (for example, colored masking or duct tape on the floor or table, a carpet square, or other means) that reminds them about what is their space. This includes the child's acceptable space on the rug, at tables, in line, and so on.

Building Trust and Connecting with the Child

It is important to find at least one other child for a student to attach to (someone accepting). For all children, especially those with special needs, having a friend makes all the difference in the world and can save the day. Children with ADHD often have significant difficulty making and keeping friends. Teachers will find themselves in the role of facilitator, trying to find a friend for this child.

Noticing Patterns and Intervening

It is important for teachers to be observant, and to try to determine the conditions or antecedents that precede challenging behaviors. With many children who have ADHD, their behavior and performance might fluctuate greatly depending on the day, situation, and even time of day. One teacher gave an example of a student who was falling apart and crying frequently. The teacher noticed that this was actually happening around 11 00 every day. Aware of the pattern and time factor, the teacher gave the child something she liked to do during this time (lead number rock music), which significantly helped the situation. She also shared with the parents and school nurse her observation about the child's deteriorating behavior at around this time. With this information, the physician changed the child's medication schedule, which completely eliminated the problem.

Clinical Manifestations

To meet criteria for ADHD, a child must evidence the onset of inattentive or hyperactive symptoms before age 7 symptoms must also be present in two or more settings (e.g., school, home). Symptoms in only one setting suggest an environmental or psy-chodynamic cause. It is important to distinguish symptoms of ADHD from age-appropriate behaviors in active children (running about, being noisy, etc.). Children can also appear inattentive if they have a low or a high IQ and the environment is overstimulating or under-stimulating, respectively. In either instance, IQ testing and careful evaluation of the school program will clarify the diagnosis. Symptoms that resemble ADHD can occur in children before age 7, but the etiology is typically a side effect of a medication (e.g., bronchodilators) or a psychotic or pervasive developmental disorder these children are not considered to have ADHD. Of course, ADHD may be comorbid with any of the above disorders. A dual diagnosis is made only when it...

The Value of Mentorship

He had a history of physical and emotional distress, which centered around his experiences in school. His behavior was impulsive and his teachers frequently telephoned home to tell his parents that Dan would not stay in his seat, was disruptive, and that they should try to better control his behavior at school. By fifth grade, Dan had several interventions, including stimulant medication and counseling. Although he achieved fairly well, but not up to his potential, he had been held back a grade due to emotional immaturity. Dan now had much difficulty with peer relationships. His parents pursued every avenue they could find in their search to help him, but not enough changed.

Why Cant They Act Their

Adolescents with ADHD may appear mature physically and grown up, but looks are deceiving. They are typically far less mature socially and emotionally than peers their own age, with a two-to four-year developmental delay in skills affecting their self-management. Parents and teachers need to be aware of this and not inadvertently place unrealistic expectations on them. Although they may be of an age when the expectation is to demonstrate more independence, responsibility, and self-control, the reality is that adolescents with ADHD take longer to exhibit those behaviors. They need more adult monitoring and direct support than their peers. These are years when it is very difficult for parents and teachers to find that proper balance how to teach our children to assume responsibility for their own learning and behavioral choices, and how to intervene as we guide and support them to success.

Classroom Management and Positive Discipline Practices

Children with ADHD are in particular need of a classroom that is well-structured meaning they know precisely what the expectations are from the minute they enter the room until the time they are dismissed at the end of the day. The structure that is necessary comes from teachers who clearly teach what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior and who provide predictability, consistency, and follow-through. These are probably the most important steps teachers can take to prevent or minimize common behavioral problems in the classroom.

Classroom Transitions

Students with ADHD typically have the greatest behavioral difficulties during transitional times of the day in the classroom, as well as the school settings outside of the classroom that are less structured and less supervised (for example, playground, cafeteria, hallways, bathrooms).

Activity Rewards and Privileges for Students

It is important to realize that students with ADHD need the opportunity to earn the reward of participation more frequently than the average child. It is often the case that they are penalized for their difficulties with work production by having to miss out on rewarding activities in order to complete unfinished assignments. When this is the case, teachers have to find ways to provide more support and accommodations to help ADHD students get caught up with their work, so that they can participate in rewarding activities along with their peers.

Preventing or Minimizing Behavior Problems During Transitions and Less Structured Times

Students with ADHD typically have the greatest behavioral difficulties during transitional times of the day in the classroom, as well as the school settings outside of the classroom that are less structured and less supervised (playground, cafeteria, hallways, bathrooms). In the average classroom, the time spent changing from one activity to the next cumulatively adds up to a significant number of minutes in the school day. Children with ADHD often have behavioral problems disengaging from or stopping one activity to move on to the next. The struggle they have with self-regulation and inhibition of their behavior frequently results in getting themselves in trouble during recess, riding the bus, waiting in the lunch line, on the way to the bathroom, in school assemblies, and so forth.

Home Notes and Daily Report Cards

Home notes and daily report cards (DRCs) (Rief, 2003) are excellent tools for tracking and monitoring a student's social, academic, and or behavioral progress at school. They are highly effective for communicating between home and school and for monitoring a child's daily performance. When parents are willing and able to consistently follow through with reinforcement at home for positive performance at school, it is a very powerful motivator for the student. Any means to forge a partnership between home and school and work together on improving specific behavioral goals is very beneficial for children with ADHD.

Strategies to Aid Calming and Avoid Escalation of Problems

It is important that teachers and parents of children with ADHD be aware of strategies to prevent behavioral problems and how to intervene in a manner that helps the child teen regain self-control, rather than trigger an escalation of problem behavior. Such strategies and interpersonal skills are particularly necessary with a child teen who is emotionally fragile, overreactive, and or has a tendency to be oppositional and confrontational. The following tips can be applied in school or home situations (Rief, 2003).

Strategies to Increase Listening Following Directions and Compliance

One of the key frustrations for teachers and parents of children with ADHD is getting the child to stop, listen, and comply with adult directions or commands. There are a number of reasons children or teens with ADHD may have difficulty with compliance that have nothing to do with being deliberately defiant. These include (a) their struggle inhibiting and controlling their behavior (b) being unable to readily stop and disengage from what they are doing (particularly if it is a fun activity or of high interest to the child) or (c) not being able to quickly switch gears at the adult's request to do something that is less motivating. In addition, (d) inattention reduces the likelihood that the child actually listened or heard the directions and (e) working memory weaknesses may also result in the child more easily forgetting the directions that were given.

What Differentiation Means

To address the learning differences in all of our students and maximize their levels of performance and achievement, teachers need to differentiate instruction in the classroom. What does this mean Differentiated instruction is a way of thinking about teaching and learning that recognizes the fact that one size does not fit all learners. Some students are not successful in school because there is a misfit between how they learn and the way they are taught (ASCD, 2002). This concept or awareness certainly is not new for teachers (particularly special educators). But the term differentiated instruction is relatively new, and so is the recognition in the general education community that teaching must change in order to fulfill our responsibility to reach and teach all of the diverse learners in our classrooms. Students with ADHD are among those who most need teachers to embrace differentiated instruction in order to achieve school success. A number of the other sections in this book...

Other Antidepressants

Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR, Zyban) appears to work by inhibiting the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Bupropion has a low incidence of sexual side effects. In addition to its efficacy in treating major depression, bupropion has been shown to be effective in smoking cessation (marketed as Zyban) and attention deficit disorder. Bupropion has a higher than average risk of seizures compared with other antidepressants. The risk of seizures is greatest above a daily dose of 450mg or alter a single dose of greater than 150mg of immediate-release bupropion.

Other Medications Used in FM

Cyclobenzaprine (sigh-clo-BEN-zah-preen) is often thought to be a muscle relaxant, but chemically it is more aligned with tricyclic antidepressants. Used at night, cyclobenzaprine may help people with mildly disordered sleep. Unfortunately, when used during the day, it can contribute to fatigue or fibro-fog. Dopamine agonists (compounds that mimic the effect of the neurotransmitter dopamine) are increasingly used in FM. At low doses they are helpful for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). At higher doses they can treat many of the symptoms of FM. Stimulants such as Ritalin that are commonly used in attention deficit disorder (ADD) are sometimes prescribed for daytime fatigue and fibro-fog, though currently there is scant evidence to support the use of these agents.

Address Physical and Sensory Needs

Provide for students (particularly ADHD students) who have a physiological need for mobility. Build in many movement opportunities throughout instruction. Be aware of their need to exercise, and avoid using loss of recess time as a consequence for misbehavior or incomplete work. Allow exercise breaks, running the track, and doing errands for the teacher that enable children to leave the classroom (for example, to take something to the office). Build in stretch breaks or exercise breaks after sitting any length of time (Rief, 2003).

Abused Prescription Drugs

In 1954, the Ciba Pharmaceutical Company (later called Novartis) introduced a drug called Ritalin (methylfenidate) that was originally used to treat depression, chronic fatigue, and narcolepsy. Beginning in the 1960s, it was used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), known at the time as hyperactivity or minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). Investigators Joanna Fowler, Nora Volkov and their colleagues of Brookhaven National Laboratory showed that methylphenidate is a dop-amine reuptake inhibitor, which increases the concentration of synaptic dopamine in the brain by blocking the transporters that remove it from synapses. Positron emission tomography (PET) showed that administering therapeutic doses of methylphenidate to healthy adult men increased synaptic dopamine levels. During the mid seventies to early eighties, research showed that stimulant drugs improve the performance of most people, regardless of whether they have a diagnosis of ADHD, on tasks...

Class Room Desk and Work Areas

Students with ADHD need a desk or table with as much tabletop space as possible, with tools and structuring to limit the clutter. Help children minimize the amount of materials on and in their desks. Some do better with a basket or box on the floor next to the desk table for keeping needed papers and books easily accessible and visible, but not on the desk or tabletop until needed.

Oral Reading Strategies

Note Many children with ADHD have a difficult time maintaining their focus and paying attention to the words they are reading especially during silent reading. They may need to hear the words as they read (softly saying the words aloud) to help themselves attend to and process what they are reading. Allowing them to take their books to a quiet corner and read to themselves aloud should be permitted. Another strategy is to provide a curved plastic device that is held to the ear as a receiver and in the other end the child can softly whisper

The Cognitive and Academic Profile of Individuals with ASHFA

One of Joseph's greatest sources of difficulty is his trouble with organization, planning, and goal-directed activities (often called executive function skills). Joseph frequently daydreams, which causes him to miss what the teacher is saying or what he is supposed to be doing. He is not distracted by external stimuli, however, as in the case of individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but internally he can get totally absorbed in his own thoughts and lose track of what is going on in the classroom. Joseph also has trouble managing time and works very slowly and methodically consequently, he often falls behind during class, resulting in hours of homework in the evening. He can't seem to get organized when he sits down to do homework, he has invariably forgotten something he needs to complete the assignment. Either he's left it at school or he goes off in search of it and gets distracted by something of higher interest and an hour elapses. Joseph's backpack is...

Clinical heterogeneity of ASD

Clinical heterogeneity of autism showed three major categories idiopathic autism, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and syndromatic autistics that usually resulted from an identified syndrome with known genetic etiology. Traditionally, ASD includes autism, Asperger syndrome, where language appears normal, Rett syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), in which children meet some but not all criteria for autism. Rett syndrome (RTT), occurring almost exclusively in females, is characterized by developmental arrest between 5 and 18 months of age, followed by regression of acquired skills, loss of speech, stereotypic movements (classically of the hands), microcephaly, seizures, and intellectual difficulties. These disorders share deficits in social communication and show variability in language and repetitive behavior domains 1 . Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis. Mental...

Effect of Bipolar Disorder on Psychosocial Functioning

Onset of illness assessment of functioning in these same subjects found a marked deterioration in academic achievement, work effort, peer relationships and extracurricular involvement 29 . Similar results have been shown in prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar populations. Geller et al found that 93 prepubertal and early adolescents with BD had significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in a variety of spheres, including maternal, paternal and peer relationships, as compared with 81 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or 94 community controls 30 .

You Will Be Known by Your Fruit

Your daily habit patterns create the state of the environment and fruit in your life. I treat many children who have behavioral and emotional issues that are categorized as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactivity. I have noticed a number of these children have parents with similar patterns. Sometimes I have to be firm with parents, helping them see that their choices and habits are mimicked by the fruit of their womb their children. A common eating pattern is soda consumption. Soda is loaded with ingredients that stress the liver and nervous system. Sodium benzoate which is used as a preservative can be a cause of chronic allergies and ADHD or ADD. Grazing on partially hydrogenated snack foods impairs the body's ability to make essential brain fat. You may need to tend to your own garden more effectively.

Onset Make a Difference

As Shulman et a note, another source of diagnostic dilemma for childhood BD is its frequent comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most BD youth meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD, with prevalence figures ranging from 60 to 90 8, 12-14 . Faraone et a . 10 found that adolescents with childhood-onset BD had the same rates of comorbid ADHD as manic children (90 ) and that both these groups had higher rates of ADHD than adolescents with adolescent-onset BD (60 ). Sachs et a 15 reported that, among adults with bipolar disorder, a history of comorbid ADHD was only evident in those subjects with onset of BD before 19 years of age. Chang et a . 16 reported that the onset of BD in adults with a history of ADHD was 11.3 years of age. These findings suggest that early onset of BD may identify a developmental subtype of the disorder that is frequently comorbid with ADHD 10, 17, 18 . The high levels of comorbidity between BD and ADHD raise a fundamental, nosologic...

The Necessity of a Team Approach

As ADHD is a chronic disorder that is managed not cured (such as asthma or diabetes), various supports and treatments (Rief, 1998, 2000) will typically be needed throughout childhood and adolescence. The most effective approach in treating ADHD is multimodal, involving a number of interventions from a variety of different professionals and service providers. A physician or mental health professional evaluates the child for ADHD. Treatments outside of school may include counseling for the ADHD child teen, his or her parents, or the family. Often it involves a combination, with counseling of various types (for example, by clinical psychologists) as needed at different times in the child's life. Support groups for parents of children teens with ADHD will be comprised of a number of people who can serve as resources and support a very helpful intervention for parents. Most students with ADHD require close monitoring and mutual support between the home and school to be successful.

Bipolar Disorder in Children Some Issues of Concern

Bipolar disorder in the juvenile population is less well studied than in adults. There are several unresolved issues. Most important is the high rate of comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This had led some researchers to suggest that ADHD may be a marker of a very early onset bipolar disorder 1 . However, Indian studies do not report high rates of ADHD 2, 3 . Ascertainment bias and differing clinical characteristics of the samples seem to explain the disparity. While all the previous studies included referred clinical samples, often recruited from clinics well known for treating ADHD children, the Indian patients were largely self-referred and drug-naive. Even a family study 4 , which suggested that ADHD with bipolar disorder could be a familial subtype, suffered from similar ascertainment bias. Most of the data suggesting association between ADHD and juvenile bipolar disorder has come from the USA. Therefore, replication outside the USA and in...

Bipolar Disorder The Need for Treatment Outcome Studies

The controversy concerning possible differences in the phenomenology of child and adult BD and the fact that some 3 believe that the prevalence of mania in children may be substantial also might have been focused. The manifestations of childhood and adolescent mania and hypomania differ somewhat from those in adulthood. For example, the symptoms of grandiosity and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities can vary as a function of age and developmental level 4, 5 . In addition, juvenile BD is characterized by high rates of rapid cycling (e.g., 4 cycles per year) and very high rates of comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 6 and conduct disorder 7 . In addition, prepubertal BD differs from adolescent BD in showing non-classical presentations such as dys-phoric mania, irritability, aggressiveness, and the absence of clear-cut episodes which follow good premorbid adjustment. Juvenile BD appears to be a much more chronic condition that has a very early...

Ethics of Human Brain Research

Many American children are being prescribed antipsychotic drugs for attention deficit disorder or other behavioral problems. Drugs such as Zyprexa and Risperdal are often sold for off-label use. What is needed is scientific documentation of the value of these uses at the molecular as well as psychological levels.

Recommendations and Information for Teachers and Other School Personnel

Obviously, this is simply good teaching practice, as all students who display the need should be provided behavioral academic help and support. School professionals should consider the following when they wish to initiate an evaluation for students suspected of having ADHD (Rief, 1998, 2003) This initial or follow-up SST meeting is often the time and place (when discussing the child's behaviors and areas of difficulty at school and home) where, if the school suspects ADHD, an evaluation is recommended to parents. Note It is vital that teachers be cautious in the way in which they express to parents their concern that a child might have ADHD, as there are potential liabilities that may be incurred. In fact, some states have legislation restricting what school personnel are permitted to discuss with parents. It is suggested that teachers check the protocol at their school. A team is the best forum for discussing whether the child's behaviors are possibly indicative of ADHD and...

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is the civil rights law designed to protect the rights of people with disabilities from discrimination by any agency (for example, schools) that receives federal funding. As mentioned above, children with ADHD are often eligible for reasonable accommodations supports, and sometimes related services, under Section 504. Students who may have been tested under IDEA and did not qualify for special education are possibly eligible for a 504 Accommodation Plan. Note There are no additional funds allocated for supports or services under Section 504. The school or the district office covers all services within existing programs. Again, see Section 5.4, Educational Laws and Rights of Students with ADHD, for more detailed information about IDEA and Section 504.)

Communication with Physicians

In the following example, Steven is a third-grade boy who was evaluated in second grade and found eligible for special education. He has an IEP and is receiving resource services (combination of pull-out and push-in support in his classroom). Behaviors symptomatic of ADHD had been significantly impacting his educational performance since kindergarten. The school team had shared their concern that Steven needs more intervention and recommended that parents pursue a clinical evaluation. Steven is a very likable and affectionate boy. We are willing and eager to do whatever is necessary and possible to help him succeed at our school. We are pleased that Mr. and Mrs. . . . are pursuing a medical evaluation at this time to determine whether Steven has ADHD (in addition to his learning disabilities in visual-motor integration and auditory sequential memory). Enclosed you will find the results of the psycho-educational evaluation conducted last spring by our school team, Steven's IEP, a...

Childhood Bipolar Disorder

Increasing attention has been paid in the literature to the recognition of bipolar illness that may develop during childhood 46 , although its frequent non-prototypical features or comorbid presentation with other conditions (such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) hinder accurate and timely diagnoses. Little information is available on the psychosocial impact of juvenile-onset bipolar disorder with regard to school performance, social development, or longitudinal outcomes. However, data from the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association membership survey 18 point to a number of differences in psychosocial outcome following child adolescent onset (before age 20, approximate n 295) and adult onset (after age 20, approximate n 205) bipolar disorder. Notably, child-adolescent onset bipolar disorder was more often associated with school dropout (55 of respondents), financial difficulties (70 of respondents), divorce or marital problems (73 of respondents), alcohol or...

How Was the Model Developed

The development of the ADHD care management system has been a collaborative effort between Intermountain Health Care (IHC), the Intermountain Pediatric Society (IPS), which is the American Academy of Pediatrics' Utah Chapter, and Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorder (CHADD) of Utah. The system includes a Care Process Model (CPM) for physicians, a School Packet, a Parent Guide, and clinical support materials to make care delivery easier. The hope of the development team is to integrate the ADHD Care Management System into routine practice throughout healthcare and school systems.

Glossary And Abbreviations

Active constituents - Chemical components that exhibit pharmacological activity and contribute to the agent's overall therapeutic effects. Acute - Beginning abruptly sharp and intense subsiding after a short period. Adaptogen - Innocuous agent, non-specifically increasing resistance to physical, chemical, environmental, emotional or biological factors ('stressors') and having a normalising effect independent of the nature of the pathological state. ADHD - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake

Reducing the Impact of Bipolar Disorder A Developmental Perspective

During the past five years, several reports have clarified the age-specific phenotypic manifestations of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents 2-5 . These studies consistently demonstrate that paediatric bipolar disorder commonly presents with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct, and substance use disorders, is associated with poor outcome and high relapse and school drop-out rates, and often requires polypharmacologic intervention. Recently, the first study to assess the psychosocial impact of paediatric bipolar disorder described that bipolar children exhibit significant impairment in child-parent and child-peer interactions and social skills compared with ADHD children and healthy controls 6 .

Autistic adults and adolescents

Some of us may have been diagnosed as children with autism. Some of us may have been diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Some of us may not have been diagnosed with anything at all, or held other diagnoses. Some of us may have been called 'psychotic'. Some of us may have facial tics left over from decades of antipsychotic medications that did us no good. Some of us may have facial and other tics for no reason other than our neurological make-up. We might now be undiagnosed, be diagnosed with autism, Asperger's Syndrome, atypical autism, or things that have nothing to do with developmental disorders. We may have additional diagnoses of depression, anxiety, psychosis, personality disorders, epilepsy, or many other things. We might think of ourselves as 'cured', or might look forward to 'cure', or might hate the idea of 'cure'. We might have 'a few autistic traits'.

Effect of Music on Mood

Bruce is a very successful entrepreneur living in Manhattan. He was identified with ADHD and learning disabilities early in elementary school. Putnam, Stephen C. (2001). Nature's Ritalin for the Marathon Mind Nurturing Your ADHD Child with Exercise. Hinesburg, VT Upper Access, Inc. Book Publishers.

Other Books of Interest

The ADHD Book of Lists A Practical Guide for Helping Children and Teens with Attention Deficit Disorders Educating ADHD kids can be a real challenge for everyone involved. The ADHD Book of Lists combines Sandra Rief's classroom-proven techniques with current information about this condition and should be required reading for all teachers and parents of ADHD children. Harlan R. Gephart, M.D., Center for ADHD, Bellevue, Washington The ADHD Book of Lists is a comprehensive, reliable source of answers, practical strategies, and tools written in a convenient list format. Created for teachers (K-12), parents, school psychologists, medical and mental health professionals, counselors, and other school personnel, this important resource contains the most current information about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is filled with the strategies, supports, and interventions that have been found to be the most effective in minimizing the problems and optimizing the success of...

Whole Group and Unison Responses

Most students (particularly those with ADHD, who often resist paper-and-pencil work) are motivated to work with colored pens and markers on dry-erase boards. Another way of eliciting unison responses is to ask the class a question, pause for thinking time, and ask students to write their answers on individual dry-erase boards, individual chalkboards, or other write-on tools. Then, after a teacher signal (for example, Boards up ), students hold up their boards for the teacher to see and quickly assess which students understand, and who needs extra help.

Research and Good Fathering

There is no cure for FAS, only treatment for the associated complications such as attention deficit disorder. Children diagnosed with FAS are at risk for long-term effects. Facial characteristics, frequently associated with FAS, may change with age. However, growth problems persist throughout adulthood. The most serious birth defects relate to the central nervous system, and these also continue into adulthood. Affected children may have decreased IQ scores and behavioral disorders. The incidence of FAS is 1 to 2 infants per 1,000 live births.

Loss of control and binge eating in children and adolescents

In completing the timeline component of the pre-group interview, Becky revealed that her first LoC eating episode occurred at age 10, the same year that her brother began to tease her about her weight (he was seven years old at the time). It was also during this time that Becky's care-taking responsibilities for her brother increased because her mother's new job required different and longer hours. Becky reported that over time, her brother's behavior intensified, and, as he grew older, he became more and more defiant until he was diagnosed with ADHD. Her mother often blamed Becky for her brother's behavior and would get angry with her when he did not complete his chores.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ADD See attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adderall A stimulant medication prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is a combination of dextramphetamine and amphetamine. Adderall can be used in children over the age of three. Adderall had earlier been approved and marketed by another company under a different name (Obetrol) as a weight control medication. The manufacturer was taken over by another company, which renamed the product Adderall in 1994. The drug was approved for the treatment of ADHD and reintroduced in 1996 as Adderall. Most common side effects include appetite and weight loss, insomnia, and headache. Less frequently, a patient may experience dry mouth and nausea. Rare side effects include dizziness, irritability, stomach pain, increased heart rate, or hallucinations. As with most stimulants indicated for ADHD, there is a possibility of growth suppression and the potential for triggering motor tics and tourette's syndrome in rare cases,...

Developmental Learning Disability

Combinations of letters, such as the th (graphemes), into their associated speech sounds or phonemes. These investigators also assessed the art and nonart students' phonological skills and found that the art students' skills were significantly poorer than were those of the nonart students. Similarly, Eisen (1989) assessed the creative ability of children with and without learning disabilities. Eisen found that the children with learning disabilities performed better than the children without learning disabilities on the nonverbal task, but not on the verbal task. Winner and coworkers (2001), however, could not replicate these findings. Children with dyslexia often have other behavioral disorders, such as attention deficit disorder with or without hyperac-tivity, and although these disorders might have influenced the results of these types of experiments, the authors attempted to correct for these comorbid disorders, but still did not find that the dyslexic group had superior spatial...

Preschool and Kindergarten Classroom Strategies for Success

The remainder of this section will focus on classroom strategies to maximize the success of students in preschool and kindergarten. This includes children with ADHD and others who may be struggling in school. Many early childhood teachers are challenged by what seems to be a rising number of children who are more difficult to manage and have a host of special needs. This includes children who Much of the information and content presented in the remainder of this section comes from the experts nineteen kindergarten teachers from several schools in the San Diego, California, area. These wonderful teachers collectively have had years and years of experience and expertise working with young children and their families. I thank them all for their willingness to be interviewed and to share their teaching strategies, management techniques, and insight as to what works . . . how to best reach and teach children with ADHD or any student who may be experiencing learning, social, or behavioral...

Stimulants eg Amphetamines Sedatives eg Barbiturates prescribed drugs eg Tranquilizers Cocaine Heroin other Opiates

In 1994, the American Psychiatric Association released the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This version is applicable to both children and adults, which has made it an integral part of school and child psychology, especially when dealing with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The DSM-IV functions as a way of organizing and recognizing cognitive and personality disorders, as well as addictive and disruptive behaviors. The DSM-IV was also used in the late 1990s (in conjunction with part of the DIS) to help determine substance abuse treatment needs for prisoners and to screen veterans for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). LEUZZI, R. A., & SPANDORFER, J. (2000). Some individuals never outgrow ADHD, says DSM-IV. Internal Medicine, 21, 44. NIGG, J. T. (1999). The ADHD Response-Inhibition Deficit as Measured by the Stop Task Replication with DSM-IV Combined Type, Extension, and Qualification. Journal of Abnormal Child...

Skill Deficits Versus Performance Deficits

Social skills problems can result from a skill deficit, in which the child does not know what to do in a social situation and needs to learn the skills to become socially competent. Social challenges can also have nothing to do with a lack of skills. According to a leading authority, Dr. Russell Barkley, children with ADHD typically do not have a skill deficit, but rather a performance deficit. They know what they are supposed to do and the appropriate social skills, but fail to apply or perform those needed skills (Barkley, 1998). An important study and national survey, called I.M.P.A.C.T. (Investigating the Mindset of Parents about AD HD and Children Today), conducted by New York University Child Study Clinic (2000), revealed some of the impact of having ADHD on the life of the child and the whole family. According to the survey results 72 percent of parents of children with ADHD report that their child has trouble getting along with siblings or other family members (compared to 53...

Girls with Attention Deficit Disorders

Many girls with ADHD have gone undiagnosed (or misdiagnosed) for years because they frequently do not have the typical hyperactive symptoms seen in boys that signal a problem and draw attention. In the past few years, much more attention has been given to girls with the disorder. Girls who do have the combined symptoms of ADHD are very recognizable because their behavior is so significantly out of norm for other girls. But on the whole, most girls have the predominantly inattentive type of the disorder and are often labeled or written off as being space cadets, ditzy, or scattered (Rief, 2003). Much of what we are now aware of and beginning to understand about females with ADHD comes from the work of Dr. Kathleen Nadeau, Dr. Patricia Quinn, Dr. Ellen Littman, Sari Solden, and others who have strongly advocated on the behalf of this population. The scientific community has now been looking at gender issues in ADHD. Studies have recently begun to reveal the significance of gender...

The PARD Project Now and in the Past

The system-wide changes in San Diego that have occurred as a result of PARD are very positive and recognized by all parties. In the school system, there is a greater awareness and sensitivity to children with ADHD-related issues, and the medical community is now more receptive to the school data that is sent to them. The major outcomes of the project include a system approach to evaluate and manage ADHD students. A protocol was developed and is still used to refer children with attentional problems to outside providers for evaluation. The in-service component has been hugely successful and continues to this date. Parent support groups have been established in the community and are supported by the PARD project. PARD has been active for the ten years following grant funding. It received a 50,000 grant over two years to continue to improve the knowledge base of the multidisciplinary teams that deal with ADHD children. The district has also supported its efforts through the Section 504...

Common Reading Difficulties in Children and Teens with Attention Deficit Disorders

Because of the inherent difficulties associated with poor executive functioning and sustaining focused attention to task, it is common for individuals with ADHD to have difficulty with recall and comprehension of reading material (Rief, 1998, 2003). Although they may have strong decoding and word recognition skills (if they do not have the co-existing learning disability of dyslexia) and appear to be skilled readers, it is still most common to find that individuals with ADHD are generally not strategic readers and have spotty comprehension. The following are common difficulties many children and teens with ADHD and or learning disabilities experience with reading Failure to utilize metacognitive strategies. This refers to the practice of self-monitoring comprehension while reading the text by addressing errors in comprehension as soon as they arise. Many people with ADHD (children teens adults) have difficulty with this due to executive function weaknesses. In such instances, the...

Recommended Resources

Recommended Reading on ADHD in Adolescence Dendy, Chris Zeigler (2000) Teaching Teens with ADD and ADHD Bethesda, MD Woodbine House Flick, Grad L (2000) How to Reach & Teach Teenagers with ADHD Paramus, NJ The Center for Applied Research in Education Robin, Arthur L (1998) ADHD in Adolescence Diagnosis and Treatments New York The Guilford Press Teeter, Phyllis A , & Stewart, Paula (1997) Transitioning of the ADHD Child to Secondary School A Multimodal Approach CHADD's Ninth Annual Conference

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