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Information processing Consensus

This theoretical approach provided a simple framework for textbook writers. The stimulus input could be followed from the sense organs to its ultimate storage in long-term memory by successive chapters on perception, attention, short-term memory, and long-term memory The crucial limitation with this approach is its assumption that stimuli impinge on an inactive and unprepared organism. In fact, processing is often affected substantially by the individual's past experience, expectations, and so on.

Introduction Mathematics the Difficult Subject

I began this study of adults' mathematical thinking and emotions during an exciting period for mathematics education. The findings of an enquiry into mathematics teaching in the UK (Cockcroft Committee 1982) had recently reported, and there was a growing concern with adult 'numeracy'. Many in the research communities were discussing exciting and impressive research on the ways that people's mathematical thinking might be different in different settings for example, when doing school problems, working in street markets, or shopping in supermarkets (e.g. Carraher et al. 1985, Lave et al. 1984). In addition, a few writers on both sides of the Atlantic were discussing mathematics anxiety, and other kinds of feelings about mathematics (e.g. Tobias 1978, Buxton 1981, Nimier 1978).

Finding the Time to Heal

One of the things I felt most acutely during my recovery period was overwhelmed. Although my life had come to a near standstill during my cancer treatment, when I was finished, I resumed the roles of partner, mother, doctor, writer, friend, community volunteer, and others. It didn't happen all at once, but it happened a bit more quickly than I was ready for. I began to feel what many working parents feel the burden of too many things to do. But whereas before I became ill, I had the energy to manage the endless tasks, during my recovery I just

Neuronal Representations Knowledge Stores

The shift toward this antilocalizationist view of brain organization was strongly propelled by the Harvard psychologist Karl Lashley, who removed different parts of rodents' brains to see if there were any specific areas of the brain that, when removed, caused a specific behavioral deficit. Because he found no localized regions where knowledge was stored but rather knowledge seemed to be diffusely represented, he formulated the theory of mass action. A corollary of this hypothesis is that whatever the location of a brain injury, the more tissue that is damaged, the poorer the animal performs on any task. Unfortunately, during this antilocalizationist period (1920s to 1962), clinical neurologists who presumably should have been interested in localization of function did little to advance knowledge in this field, and many of the British neurologists had a strong negative attitude toward localizationist thinking. Sir Henry Head, one of the leaders of British neurology, wrote inflammatory...

Episodic vs Semantic Memory

The term episodic memory is sometimes used in senses that differ from the memory-systems orientation presented here. Some writers use episodic memory in its original sense of task orientation Episodic memory refers to tasks in which information is encoded for storage on a particular occasion. This kind of usage is popular in work with animals. Other writers use episodic memory as a particular kind of memory information or material, namely past events, in contrast with the facts of semantic memory. The systems-based definition of episodic memory as described here is more comprehensive than either the task-specific and material-specific definitions. Finally, some writers still prefer the traditional view that there is only one kind of declarative memory, and they use the terms episodic and semantic for descriptive purposes only.

What Is The True Prevalence Of Left Handedness

Writers and the severity of social pressures. To be included in the analysis the dataset must contain both the prevalence of the left hand use for writing, and, as a measure of severity of the social pressure, the reported frequency of correction of left-hand writing. The main part of the data came from a cross-cultural study of Perelle and Ehrman (1994), in which the values of these two items from 13 different countries were listed. Sources of additional data were two African countries (De Agostini, Khamis, Ahui, & Dellatolas, 1997), Hong Kong (Hoosain, 1990), Taiwan (Teng et al., 1976), and Japan (Iwasaki et al., 1995). Writing hand was chosen as an index of handedness because this act is one of the two main targets of the cultural intervention (the other is eating) and has been reported to be one of the most reliable items in the assessment of handedness (Raczkowski, Kalat, & Nebes, 1974 Roszkowski & Snelbecker, 1982). Therefore, it was expected that the prevalence of left-handed...

Intervention Affect The Prevalence Of Left Handedness

One reason for this discrepancy may be found in the age of the social intervention. In most countries, the main targets of correction are eating and writing. Of these, as writing is usually taught in school, the actual parental and teacher's interventions would start at around the time when children begin to attend a primary school at the age of 6 to 7 (see Hugdahl et al., 1993, for actual comments made by some old switched writers who experienced such interventions). As mentioned above, the effect of these interventions can also be seen in Japan as a rapid termination of left-handed writing among primary school children (Komai & Fukuoka, 1934). In contrast, if eating is the main target, the intervention may start much earlier, just after weaning. The earlier intervention and more strict method of

Selfwill And Selftransformation In Love

Creative writers and biographers, as well as lovers themselves, sense the catalytic effect of love in changing the lover and intuit that the resultant change sometimes takes priority of importance over the love itself. From them we get a glimmer that the power of love is an internal one, its magic ultimately residing in the lover's internal creative flux, not in the worth of the beloved (however worthy the beloved may be), not in possession, not in reciprocity. Even the most transported lovers sometimes retain an awareness that love is often brief, the beloved fickle, while all the time still revelling in their love. Rosalind, in As You Like It, knows love's limits, and her beloved Orlando's too, but that never stops her from glorying in the very tumult of her own emotions in the recklessness, the excess, and the freedom of letting go. That freedom seems to be the joyousness that runs throughout the play, bubbling up and overcoming her in the midst of her witty commentary on love. She...

Conceptualising Contexts Practices Boundaries and Bridges

Writers have shown how to use poststructuralist ideas about the inevitable tendency of the signifier to slip into other contexts, thereby making links with other discourses, and producing a play of multiple meanings, so as to provide insight into meaning-making in mathematics see Winter's (1992) example earlier, and that given later of the different possible meanings of 'more' also Walkerdine (1988 Ch. 2) on children's use of language to indicate relations of size, Brown (1994) and Evans and Tsatsaroni (1994). Thus, rather than attempting to specify the context of a school mathematics problem by looking only at its wording (and format) - or by naming the context as if straightforwardly based in 'natural' settings - we can describe it as socially constructed in discourse through attention to particular signi-fiers and their relations in texts, such as interview transcripts (see the analysis of the case studies in Chapter 10).

The Last American Diet

Looking back through the last page or two, I see that I have made it appear as though my motives in writing were wholly public-spirited. I don't want to leave that as the final impression. All writers are vain, selfish and lazy, and at the very bottom of their motives there lies a mystery. Writing a book is a horrible, exhausting struggle, like a long bout of some painful illness. One would never undertake such a thing if one were not driven on by some demon whom one can neither resist nor understand. For all one knows, that demon is simply the same instinct that makes a baby squall for attention. And yet it is also true that one can write nothing readable unless one constantly struggles to efface one's personality. Looking back through the last three hundred pages, I feel the truth behind Orwell's words. Indeed my own motives in writing this book were far from wholly public-spirited. Besides the usual assortment of desires that plague the narcissistic tribe of writers to be the...

The Last Lecture Professor

The speech became an Internet sensation and was expanded into a best-selling book that Pausch dictated by cell phone to Wall Street Journal writer Jeffrey Zaslow. In the lecture and in the book, Pausch discussed the experience of facing terminal cancer and he talked about achieving dreams. He said, How well we live matters more than how long we live. . . . Obstacles give us a chance to show how badly we want something. . . . It's not about how to achieve your dreams, it's about how to lead your life. . . . If you lead your life the right way, the karma will take care of itself, the dreams will come to you. 20 Ten months after giving the lecture, Randy Pausch died at his home in Chesapeake, Virginia. His book remained at the top of the nonfiction best-seller lists.

Probabilistic Reasoning

According to the representativeness heuristic, the likelihood that observation A belongs to class B is evaluated by the degree to which A resembles B. Sample sizes and prior odds, both of which are highly relevant to likelihood, do not impinge on how representative an observation appears and thus tend to be relatively neglected. In general, the notion that people focus on the strength of the evidence (e.g., the warmth of a letter of reference) with insufficient regard for its weight (e.g., how well the writer knows the candidate) can explain various systematic biases in probabilistic judgment (Griffin and Tversky 1992), including the failure to appreciate regression phenomena, and the fact that people are generally overconfident (when evidence is remarkable but its weight is low), and occasionally under-confident (when the evidence is unremarkable but its reliability high). Probability judgments based on the support, or strength of evidence, of focal relative to alternative hypotheses...

Sleep Dreaming And Drugs

Belladonna and Opiates have historically been used for the specific purpose of producing vivid dreams. The most famous illustration is the story of the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge (17721834), who allegedly wrote his most celebrated work, Kubla Khan, ' during a drug-induced dream (Cohen, 1977). Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) became popular in the United States and Europe during the 1960s for ostensibly facilitating higher states of consciousness and creativity. The writer John Lilley used a sensory-deprivation tank to emulate the state of sleep while taking LSD to induce creative dreaming (Cohen, 1977).

How to choose the right approach

I met the child who knew 1000 words but never put a sentence together. During his programme all he had learned was to feel afraid of people. I have also sheltered people who ran away from those techniques and rubbed cream on their self-inflicted scars. I received phone calls from autistic people after an article that described autistic behaviour as 'manic' made the headlines. They shared their desire to phone the writer but they were afraid of being labelled 'manic' for phoning in. What a vicious circle, don't you think There are children who continue to be tied to their beds, locked in solitary confinement or placed under heavy sedation - all that to teach them not to behave in an autistic way. It makes me wonder what happened to us, we the non-autistic people

Bipolar Disorder How High the Cost

This romantic view As far as I am concerned it is without a redeeming feature. By contrast, the Australian writer Penelope Rowe 3 stated I can 'thank' my illness for shaving off some prickly edges and giving me greater tolerance (although I wish there had been an easier way ).'' Again, the American psychiatrist and bipolar researcher Kay Jamison 4 stated that, if given a choice about having manic-depressive illness, she would so choose (''Even when I have been most psychotic delusional, hallucinated, frenzied I have been aware of finding new corners in my mind and heart''). How then do we apply standard cost-benefit analyses to such a disorder which, like having children, can be variably exhilarating and a burden

Strategies for Bypassing and Accommodating Writing Difficulties

It will often be necessary to provide various accommodations or modifications to enable struggling writers to work at grade-level standards. The following are possible accommodations and ways to help students bypass some of the obstacles they face in writing (Rief, 2003). Consider the following when writing IEPs and 504 Accommodation Plans to support children and teens who struggle with writing. For young children, the program PixWriter by Slater Software, Inc., is wonderful. It allows the beginning writer to pick pictures or select words supported by pictures. The company Don Johnston (www.donjohnston.com) is one of the leaders in products for students with reading and writing difficulties. They carry the following recommended products to help struggling and reluctant writers the spoken word to the text. Another is that it contains Franklin Dictionary and Homonym Checker (to help writers use expanded vocabulary) and Franklin Spell-Checker (which consistently finds the phonetic...

Mazel Judy Creator of the Beverly Hills Diet 1981

It took a skiing accident in the mid-i970s that left her bedridden to make her rethink her perceptions of food and metabolism. After researching the literature, she began dieting and experimenting with food combining based on her understanding of food's enzymatic content. The modern origins of this approach lie in the food fad-dism of the nineteenth century. Within the next few years, she lost 78 pounds, which she kept off for twenty-two years. Based on her success, Mazel, together with the ghostwriter, Susan Schultz, published the first edition of The Beverly Hills Diet. It became a New York Times bestseller that year, selling more in a shorter period of time than any other book in history up to that point.

Castor ricinus communis l euphorbiaceae

Name Scab Typhus Plants

We may never know which version of Jonah 4 6 is botanically more accurate. Castor can become a big shade tree bottle gourds trained on a trellis can cast shade. Zohary thinks that castor is most likely. The huge leaves of this plant are excellently adapted for producing ample shade when growing alongside a bower, booth, or hut or overhanging a bench. Castor bean is cultivated for the seeds, which yield a fast-drying, non-yellowing oil, used mainly in industry and medicines. Consistent with the classical writers, including Strabo, Pliny, and Theophrastrus, Copley et al. (2005) found castor oil among the lighting oils used in archaeological lamps from Egypt, along with animal, flaxseed, radish (or some crucifer), and sesame oils (X15912234). The oil was extensively used also by Hebrews, as one of the five oils sanctioned by rabbinical tradition. Oil used in coating fabrics and other protective coverings, in the manufacture of high-grade lubricants, transparent typewriter and printing...

Saffron crocus sativus l iridaceae

Jafran Plant

In biblical times, saffron was important to oriental people as a condiment and sweet perfume. Still, it was not mentioned by early Sanskrit writers (although KAB present nearly fifty Sanskrit names for the plant DEP listed only three). Arabian authors speak of its cultivation in the 10th century at Darband and Ispahan. Chinese state that Mohammedens introduced it to China during the Yuen dynasty. Mullahs are said to write charms with a saffron ink (DEP). The stigmas were especially valued as a food colorant (e.g., adding yellows to Indian curries). It was mentioned by Dioscorides. In Pliny's time, benches at public theaters were strewn with saffron, the precious petals placed in small fountains, to diffuse the scent into public halls. One cannot believe the figures one sees for this most expensive of spices until we realize that it was not specified whether they were talking fresh weight (for the flowers stigmata) or perhaps dry weight for the saffron (dried stigmata). From my...

Garlic allium sativum l liliaceae

To me, garlic is biblical food farmacy for cancer, cardiopathy, cerebropathy, diabetes, and sepsis. I often ponder a paradox. While many health writers will tell you not to chronically tweak your immune systems with such things as boneset, echinacea, elderberry, huangchi, I have not heard them say the same thing about garlic, one of the best immune boosters, with at least a dozen compounds reported to boost the immune system. Back during the anthrax scare, I spoke of garlic (seriously, although most people assumed I was talking frivolously) as the herbal duct tape because of its multiple antiseptic and immune-stimulating phytochemicals. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are quick to say that people with depressed immune systems are more likely to get the disease of the year

Experiments in voluntary death Ketamine research study

A relatively high number of people (12) claimed to have used ketamine in order to stimulate their 'creative insights'. Most of these were musicians, street artists, singers, writers or art students. As Susan Blackmore has pointed out in an article published in the Daily Telegraph, this phenomenon has been little emphasized in academic studies.12 She explains how a wide range of substances, including ketamine, inspired her work and career. Francis Crick claimed that he was under the influence of small doses of LSD when he first deduced the double-helix structure of DNA nearly 50 years ago,13 and Kary Mullis, who won a Nobel Prize in 1993, said that the idea for the Polymerase Chain Reaction, which revolutionized the role that DNA samples play in crime detection (among much else) came to him while he was affected by LSD. He discussed this in a BBC Horizon documentary called 'Psychedelic Science'.

Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand 18691948

I saw that the writers on vegetarianism had examined the question very minutely, attacking it in its religious, scientific, practical and medical aspects. Ethically they had arrived at the conclusion that man's supremacy over the lower animals meant not that the former should prey upon the latter, but that the higher should protect the lower, and that there should be mutual aid between the two as between man and man. They had also brought out the truth that man eats not for enjoyment but to live.

Speaking And Writing Compared

How do speaking and writing differ Spoken language makes use of prosody (rhythm, intonation, and so on) to convey meaning and grammatical information, and gesture is also used for emphasis. In contrast, writers have to rely heavily on punctuation to supply the information provided by prosody in spoken language. Writers also make much more use than speakers of words or phrases signalling what is coming next (e.g., but on the other hand). This helps to compensate for the lack of prosody in written language. Four of the most obvious differences between speaking and writing are as follows Speakers generally have much less time than writers to plan their language production. As a result, spoken language is generally fairly informal and simple in structure, with information often being communicated rapidly. In contrast, written language is more formal and complex in structure. Writers need to write clearly because they do not receive immediate feedback, and this slows down the communication...

Maria Trebens Take On Parlinsons Diseas

These writers classified willowherbs with the loosestrifes. Gerard describes the seed wrapped in a cottony or downy wooll, which is carried away with the winde when the seed is ripe, but apparently didn't use the plant. Parkinson calls it very astringent and effectuall both to stanch blood, restrain fluxes, heale the sores of the mouth and

Creativity and Left Hand Preference

Authors-Writers In creative writing the ability to use techniques such as metaphor and inference is critical, but so is the overall organization of sentences and paragraphs. Delis, Waper, Gardner, and Moses's (1983) study of patients with right- and left-hemisphere damage showed that the patients with right-hemisphere damage were also impaired at organization. In regard to content, creative writers often portray emotional states and write humorous works. Bihrle, Brownell, Powelson, and Gardner (1986) studied the ability of patients with right- and left-hemisphere strokes to comprehend humor by showing them cartoons, On the basis of this brief review, we can see that creative writing requires the use of both hemispheres. Thus, writing with one hand versus the other would not confer any benefit. In addition, now many writers use keyboards where both hands are used. Because creative writing would require the use of both hemispheres, perhaps people who have better interhemispheric...

Motivation and Persistence

Fusion Hypothalamus

Because the frontal lobes are important for long-term goals they allow us to perform activities that might not always make us immediately happy but might provide long-term rewards. In his book, Creativity, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1996) called these behaviors exotelic. In the beginning of this chapter, however, I wrote that while some creative artists, writers, composers, and scientists do obtain fortune and fame, very few of these people get wealthy or famous by performing creative acts. Some, when they started their creative careers, might have thought that their creativity would bring them fame and fortune, but after several years many creative people realize that these aspirations will never be fulfilled. This knowledge, however, often does not stop them from continuing their creative activities. Creative people often continue to create because performing this act brings them enjoyment and fulfillment. This self-motivated behavior, which is not performed for any future or immediate

Application of Self Regulation to Self Help Treatments

Self-regulation principles inform the self-change process for each level described above. At level one, books that describe a person's success help individuals identify with that success and begin to hope, when previously that hope may have been absent. Such books help provide motivation toward a long-range goal, such as to be anxiety-free or to live a life without being dependent on alcohol to get through the day. Embedded within such stories are the many adversities faced by the writer that help the reader both increase his level of identification with the author and increase his hope for the possibility of change. Various individuals who study the process of psychotherapeutic change speak of imparting hope as the first stage of the change process.

Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis

The new social explanation for the evolution of INTELLIGENCE arose in the context of proliferating field studies of primate societies in the 1960s and 1970s. The paper generally recognized as pivotal in launching this wave of studies was Nicholas Humphrey's The Social Function of Intellect (1976), the first to spell out the idea explicitly, although important insights were offered by earlier writers, notably Alison Jolly (see Whiten and Byrne 1988a for a review). By 1988 the idea had inspired sufficient interesting empirical work to produce the volume Machiavellian Intelligence (Byrne and Whiten 1988 now see also Whiten and Byrne 1997), which christened the area.

Risk Taking and Substance Abuse

If the creative act brings satisfaction and fulfillment, why do creative people often have affective disorders such as depression In addition to having a high prevalence of affective disorders, creative people, especially writers, composer-musicians, and fine artists, have a very high rate of substance abuse, such as alcoholism (Post, 1994, 1996). As I mentioned in the chapter on neurotransmitters (chapter 8), although creative people often go through many trials and tribulations to accomplish creative endeavors, creativity itself probably does not induce affective disorders, but rather the people who are creative probably have some of the anatomic, physiological, or neurotransmitter abnormalities that Although there is a high incidence of substance abuse among some creative disciplines, there is a relatively low incidence in other disciplines. In addition, in every discipline there are people who have no problems with addiction. The reason why certain disciplines have a higher rate...

Rolf A Zwaan and Carol J Madden

Along with several other researchers, we conceive of language as a set of cues by which the speaker or writer manipulates the listener's or reader's attention on an actual or fictional situation (e.g., Langacker, 1987 Tomasello, 2003). The units in which this process takes place are atten-tional frames (Langacker, 2001). Attentional frames map onto intonation units, which are speech segments bounded by pauses or intonation shifts (Chafe, 1994). Because written language follows spoken language phyloge-netically as well as ontogenetically, the segmentation of spoken language provides the grounding for the segmentation of written language. We define construal as the mental simulation of an experience conveyed by an attentional frame. This mental simulation uses the experiential traces that are activated by the linguistic constructions in the intonation unit. 4 Often, a speaker or writer will insert a sentence later in the narrative to remind the listener reader that the car is still in...

China in the early twentieth century

Immediately before the revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty on October 10, 1911, the word reform was everywhere, and a new fantasy of the body had begun to emerge in China. Obesity came to be viewed as one of the signs of the degenerate Chinese body, a body clearly in need of reform. Following the model of regeneration that captured most of the ideologies of the day (from Zionism to Marxism to social Darwinism to colonialism), obesity defined the ability of the society to reform the individual. In one of the most widely read columns Ziyoutan (Unfettered Talk) in the renowned newspaper Shenbao, the author Wang Dungen explored the reform of the body. He was a well-known writer who was a key figure in the Mandarin Ducks and Butterflies School, attacked by the May Fourth progressive writers in the late 1910s and early 1920s, and in 1914 created the comic journal Saturday. In this comic essay, Reforming the Human Body, Wang Dungen envisions a grotesque ideal of the new body. He...

A model of the relationship between capacity and performance

The second author recently treated a gentleman who worked as writer and was experiencing significant fatigue following chemotherapy. The man's writing studio was located on the upstairs floor of his house, while his living spaces (kitchen, living room) were located on the ground floor and he was becoming increasingly fatigued walking up and down the stairs between these rooms. He found he was writing less and less during the day and becoming increasingly depressed about his lack of productivity. One obvious solution might be to simply move his computer, books etc to the ground floor so that his work and living areas were all on the same level. Ergonomically, this is the most efficient solution. However, this man was reluctant to pursue this option. He had worked in his studio for many years some of his best works had been created there. For him, it was more

Authors Acknowledgements

I thoroughly enjoyed working with the Wiley team. Acquisitions Editor Charlotte Duff saw the need for a resource for people considering IVF and believed I could write it Bronwyn Duhigg helped me navigate the process of writing a For Dummies book Caroline Hunter was the most wonderful and sensitive editor a writer could wish for and Gabrielle Packman was a great project leader. I also thank Glenn Lumsden for his illustrations and the US editors for their input.

The most important lesson you will ever learn about dieting to lose body fat

The most important lesson you can ever learn about nutrition and fat loss is to master the fundamentals first. The great motivational speaker and writer Jim Rohn once said, You should always be suspicious of someone who says they've discovered a new fundamental. That's like someone saying they're opening a factory to manufacture antiques.

Handedness Aging And Lifeexpectancy

Annett (1993) has drawn attention to a weakness in any attempt to explain a decline in dextrality with increasing age in terms of reduced longevity of left handers. She argues that The fallacy rests on a failure to distinguish between criteria used to define left handedness in the early and the later studies. In the first half of this century, the pressures against left handed writing were so well-known . . .that evidence of left handedness was sought in actions other than writing (original italics) In a sample of people dying in any one year, the oldest sinistrals would have been shifted to dextrality and counted as right handers, while those recorded as left handers would be on average younger It is not that left handers die younger, but that left handed writers are younger than right handed writers in the population (pp. 296-297). She has since published data confirming this for the U.K. (Davis & Annett, 1994).

Probability Foundations of

Probability can be viewed as a generalization of classical propositional logic that is useful when the truth of particular propositions is uncertain. This generalization has two important components one is the association of a numerical degree of belief with the proposition the other is the explicit dependence of that degree of belief on the evidence used to assess it. Writers such as E. T. Cox (1989) and E. T. Jaynes (1998) have derived standard probability theory from this generalization and the requirement that probability should agree with standard propositional logic when the degree of belief is 1 (true beyond doubt) or 0 (false beyond doubt). This means that any entity that assigns degrees of belief to uncertain propositions, given evidence, must use probability to do so, or be subject to inconsistencies, such as assigning different degrees of belief to the same proposition given the same evidence depending on the order that the evidence is evaluated. The resulting laws of...

Historical Cultivation And Usage

The squirting cucumber has been used as a remedy for many ailments. The uses of this plant are relatively ancient, and the method used for the preparation of the elaterium today is the same as that described in Greek times, particularly by Dioscorides (Fluckiger & Hanbury, 1879). In Arabic folk medicine (Dymock, 1972), Mahometan writers recorded the use of the elaterium as a laxative, and the juice as a treatment for otitis and as a remedy to purge the brain. The Hindus used the fresh and dried fruit juice in a similar way. In Georgian popular medicine, the plant was used as a remedy for malarial fever (Dymock, 1972). In Turkish folk medicine, the elaterium has been used in treating jaundice and headache. The powdered

Preface and Dedication

Others encode their writing into a cryptic jargon that can only be deciphered by fellow scientists and academicians. Sometimes I think bodybuilding, fitness and nutrition writers are more concerned with trying to impress and to receive the approval of their academic peers than to help their readers achieve their goals. It never ceases to amaze me how some of these writers can take a simple concept and make it sound mystical, complex, and a thousand times more confusing than it really is.

Dieting and Eating Disorders

In twentieth-century Western culture, overweight and eating disorders have largely been perceived as a female problem because of social and ideological gender constructs (Gilman 2004 4). In the past thirty years, feminist writers, like Susan Orbach, have declared fat a feminist issue and sought to understand why women are particularly vulnerable to the tyranny of slenderness (Orbach 1978 Chernin 1981). However, this discourse, while essential to understanding the complex relationship between gender, the body, and social power, has neglected and almost effaced a very long history of anxieties about men's bodies and eating behaviors.

Scientific Uncertainty and the Interpretation of Neuroimaging Data

The extent to which psychiatric neuroimaging evidence meets Daubert's standards for valid and reliable scientific evidence is a critical inquiry. Equally important is the extent to which, under Federal Rule of Evidence 403, psychiatric neuroimaging testimony should be considered inadmissible due to the likelihood that it will confuse, mislead, or distract the jury.26 Neuroimaging methodologies vary widely, ranging from routine CT, SPECT, and MRI scanning to the more sophisticated PET scans and the largely investigative fMRI techniques. To the uninformed observer, however, each of these imaging modalities creates what science writer Robert Crease has described as the biomedical illusion of transparency the impression that an image represents an unmediated snapshot of an underlying biological structure or process.27 The powerful combination of tomographic or three-dimensional images and complex machinery lends neuroimaging evidence an aura of scientific infallibility, concealing the...

The American Herbal Pharmacopoeia AHP

A pharmacopoeia lists and provides information on medicinal drugs, including data on their preparation and testing methods for purity. The AHP is intended to be just such a pharmacopoeia for the herbal industry, consisting of quality authoritative monographs with accurate, critically reviewed information. It will provide guidance in the appropriate use and preparation of herbal products, as well as encouraging the development of quality control standards for herbal supplements and botanical medicines. Writers and contributors include prominent medical herbalists from America, France, India, China, and Australia.

Byron George Gordon Noel Sixth Baron Byron aka Lord Byron 17881824

Labeled as mad, bad and dangerous to know by embittered ex-lover Lady Caroline Lamb, Byron was also a man preoccupied by his weight. Though the author of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and the Don Juan cantos is often portrayed as slender and consumptive, the flesh-and-blood Byron experienced extreme fluctuations in weight throughout his life. In a biography published in 1844, John Cordy Jeafferson warned his public that readers should be duly mindful of Byron's morbid propensity to fatten (Jeafferson 1883 69), inadvertently demonstrating that the romantic male ideal of the 1800s was a man possessed of a lean physique. He was, as one writer subsequently noted, inclined to obesity (Abeshouse 1965 13). Jeafferson goes on to speculate that Byron's struggle with his weight was compounded by his lameness (he was born with a club foot), which, as another biographer Martin Garrett notes, has also been seen as the root cause of his sexual excess.

Seeing Other Minds Darkly

A curriculum vita was attached to the letter. I learned that the writer was an architect who designed museums, private homes, and gallery spaces. Could such an accomplished person have ASD Most of the adults I have seen with AS were still quite impaired in their level of functioning and what they were able to accomplish. But as we learn more and more about AS, it seems possible that some people with the disorder can be quite successful in adult life (Temple Grandin, described later in this chapter, is a notable example). Could Sharon be such an example If so, I might learn more about the inner life of a person with AS and might learn, as well, how such people cope with the inevitable challenges that the diagnosis might pose. Perhaps new strategies could be devised from that information which would allow high-functioning people with ASD to cope more successfully with their difficulties.

Accounts Of Survivors With Advanced Cancer

The review focused specifically on those who had an awareness of impending death which makes it relevant to this chapter. The authors concluded that the reasons for these narratives include the need to make sense oftraumatic events surrounding a diagnosis of potentially terminal disease, subsequent treatment, facing death as the illness progresses together with the encroaching disability and debility, as well as charting the changes in relationships with loved ones, oneself and one's body image. Narrators express the wish to restore everything back to normal, they describe the chaos associated with death and dying, and they explore the quest for meaning that may be found in the experience of serious illness and facing death. There is a clear need for creating and renewing different constructions of self through the illness narrative and to ensure a continuity of self after death. 62 An analysis of a professional writer's account of his oral cancer is presented in Textbox 2. This area...

What are your own plans and hopes for the future How has FM contributed to those plans

I'm a freelance writer and have many ideas for books and stories I want to write. I think FM has given me empathy for those who are suffering and has given me a deeper appreciation for life. These are things that make my writing stronger, and I am able to touch more people with my writing as a result.

Prohibition Of Alcohol

Given the common belief that Prohibition failed utterly to alter the consumption of alcohol or its adverse effects on health, it is appropriate to ask, To what extent did the law reduce alcohol use in the United States First, there is no question that it succeeded in eliminating 170,000 saloons, even if it did not change the attitudes of most Americans about the morality of drinking. And, while some writers have asserted that drunkenness actually increased during Prohibition, most available records point to the opposite conclusion (Aaron & Musto, 1981 Lender & Martin, 1987). The most consistent findings on the impact of Prohibition come from statistics on medical problems known to be linked to alcohol consumption, especially excessive alcohol consumption. Among these problems were hospital admissions for alcoholism and admissions to state mental institutions for alcoholic dementia and alcoholic psychosis. Striking decreases were observed in New York and Massachusetts, two states that...

Access

Significance of 'access' or 'accessibility' are nonetheless often left unclear. Insofar as it is important in equity it seems that it is cheapness of access that really matters, usually because the writer will have some notion underlying their concern for equity about the importance of meeting need, and access seems to be a precondition for having needs assessed in order that they might be met. Economists typically treat accessibility as a comprehensive term for 'price' that is, any user monetary fee that is to be paid plus time and transport costs, waiting, and any other element that constitutes a 'barrier' whether or not that barrier takes a monetary form or can be converted into a monetary form. This emphasizes financial barriers to access. Other barriers may be physical, institutional or social. Some may be direct, others indirect. For example, access to insurance may be the only route to accessing health care itself. The following have all been found to be important practical...

The power of focus

Like the soil, your subconscious mind is totally impartial - it doesn't discriminate. In it will grow whatever seeds you plant there or allow to be planted there. Many people have perfectly good intentions, but they unwittingly allow their subconscious to work against themselves by focusing on what they don't want. And, as metaphysical writer Louise Hay reminds us, The more you dwell on what you don't want, the more of it you create. Others simply pay no attention to their thoughts whatsoever, and like a garden that's neglected, soon enough, weeds start growing. Eventually, the weeds take over your garden. Here are a few examples of negative statements and self-defeating questions

The present book

Another way of describing what follows in this book is that it is, in the eyes of the writer, made up of all the interesting bits of psychology. It is intended for anyone who either wishes or is forced to study psychology for a year as part of some other qualification they are pursuing. They may never read any psychology again. If so, I would like to give them a large set of facts, ideas and suggestions that not only make more than common sense but also that they can use in their own lives. As a by-product, it may well also help them to pass whatever examination they have to take. If the aim of the book is successful, then anyone who has read it will, in fact, go on to read more psychology, for no reason other than interest. They will, however, have to choose carefully.

Definitions

As Van Gogh, Picasso, and Rembrandt composers such as Beethoven, Mozart, and Tchaikovsky writers such as Vonnegut, Fitzgerald, and Steinbeck are also creative. Coleridge, as quoted by Bronowski (1972), provided an explanation of artistic creativity that is similar to the one discussed about scientific creativity Artistic beauty is a unity in variety.

First catch your DNA

Beaton begins her recipe for jugged hare with the instruction First catch your hare. Before scientists can begin to make recombinant DNA, they need some fairly pure strands of the molecule to work with. Here's one tried-and-true recipe that should give satisfying results every time.

Domain Specificity

Extending Fodor, several writers have argued that certain conceptual processes, not just perceptual ones, are modular (Karmiloff-Smith 1992 Sperber 1994) or supported by systems of cognitive modules (e.g., Baron-Cohen 1995 Leslie 1994). In these claims each module works independently, achieving its own special representations. Thus, for the most part cognitive modules are like Fodor's perceptual ones, except that perceptual processes have, as input, information provided by sensory receptors, and as output, a conceptual representation categorizing the object perceived . . . conceptual processes have conceptual representations both as input and as output (Sperber 1994 40).

Explanation

Mary's action of working long hours in terms of her belief that this will help her to fulfill her desire to finish her Ph.D. dissertation. Many writers in philosophy of science and cognitive science have described explanations and theories in terms of schemas, patterns, or similar abstractions (Kitcher 1989, 1993 Kelley 1972 Leake 1992 Schank 1986 Thagard 1992).

Freud Sigmund

A prolific and gifted writer, whose broad learning extended from neurophysiology and evolution to the literature of six languages, Sigmund Freud (1826-1939) was one of the most influential scientists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He was also one of the most controversial scientists of any time, so much so that both his critics and admirers have occasionally succumbed to the temptation to deny that he was a scientist at all.

Mental Illness

Nearly 20 million Americans suffer from depression, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. The disease has been described by physicians, scientists, and writers for centuries. In the fourth century bc, Hippocrates believed that mental illness was the result of an imbalance of four elemental body fluids-blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile- in a context of four elements air, fire, earth, and water. He viewed mental illness the same way that he viewed other medical disorders.

Lightness Perception

The first of these can be illustrated in simultaneous lightness contrast, the familiar textbook illusion, shown in figure 1. On its face this contrast illusion appears to provide further evidence of the relational determination of lightness. But if lightness depended simply on local luminance ratios, the two targets should look as different as black and white. So, in fact, the very weakness of the illusion shows that lightness is not tied to background luminance as strongly as Wallach's ratio rule implies. Quantitative work (Gilchrist 1988) has shown that lightness is just as independent of background luminance as it is of illumination level and this appears to require the ability to compute luminance ratios between remote regions of the image. In the early 1970s several writers (Land and McCann 1971 Arend, Buehler, and Lockhead 1971 Whittle and Chal-lands 1969) proposed a process of edge integration by which all edge ratios along a path between two remote regions are mathematically...

The Roots Of Disease

When people read Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, it often changes their lives because not only does it describe how healthy people look, feel, and eat, it also shows in painful detail what happens to those people when they abandon their native eating patterns and adopt modern foodstuffs. The pictures Price took of natives and moderns on what Price disdainfully called the displacing foods of modern commerce are horrifying and stand in stark contrast to the pictures next to them of healthy, smiling natives. Nutrition writer and Price enthusiast Sally Fallon explains

Supports

Students are expected to meet grade-level expectations and standards in a variety of writing formats and genres. Teachers are expected to differentiate instruction to teach writers of all levels and abilities. The teaching of writing requires knowing how to scaffold the instruction and provide the necessary structures and supports to students who need more help in the writing process. The following are strategies and tips for helping students become more successful writers

The Media

In response to parental concerns about the glam-orization of drug and alcohol use in films and on television, several groups organized to address these concerns. The family of actor Paul Newman founded the Scott Newman Center in memory of Mr. Newman's only son, Scott, who died of an overdose of alcohol and drugs. The Center bestowed awards to producers and writers who created television programs and films that contained strong no-use messages and that enhanced the public's understanding of substance-abuse issues and ways to deal with them successfully. The Entertainment Industries Council has advanced this strategy with its PRISM Awards, conducted in partnership with the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The Council also developed programs to work with film makers to educate them about the issue of substance abuse and to encourage them to de-glamorize drug use in movies. The National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences implemented strategies to enhance the industry's awareness of...

Discourse Processing

Most research on discourse comprehension has been based on written texts. Some researchers have used published texts (e.g., articles books) written by professional writers, whereas others have used specially constructed texts. The former approach has the advantage of ecological validity (applicability to real life), but poor control over many variables affecting comprehension. In contrast, the latter approach has the advantage that textual variables can be manipulated in a systematic way, but the resulting texts tend to be artificial and uninteresting. How should researchers proceed The best solution was proposed by Graesser

Back to Nature

T here is a common assumption in the twenty-first century that natural food is a prophylactic against obesity as well as illness. The French food writer Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin could write as late as 1825 that obesity is never found either among savages or in those classes of society, which must work in order to eat or which do not eat except to exist. But he provided a caveat, savages will eat gluttonously and drink themselves insensible when ever they have a chance to (Brillat-Savarin 1999 239 and 241). This is very much in line with Immanuel Kant's view of savages and alcohol use in his lectures on anthropology first held in 1772-3 and published by a student in 1831 (Kant 1831 299). Obesity, therefore, could be an illness of natural man as well as of civilization when the boundaries of power were transgressed. Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762-1836), one of the first modern medical commentators on dieting, recognized this when he commented a certain degree of cultivation is...

Men And Power

Just as women's popular fiction appears to be preoccupied with romantic love, so men's appears to concentrate on the adventurous (though the adventures are interspersed with encounters with women who supply spice and sex). Much of popular male fiction stresses the heroic, the adventurous, the virile, and sometimes the cruel. (I would include here writers such as Harold Robbins, Norman Mailer, and Eric van Lustbader.) I have suggested elsewhere that the appropriate name for this genre might be Herotica. Just as the female romance novel has been called the female pornography, I think a case could be made for Herotica as the male romance. (The one recent, and in my judgment excellent, novel which appears to be a hybrid and incorporates elements of both Harlequin and Herotica is John Le Carre's The Little Drummer Girl. It is a gothic embedded within a thriller format.) This difference in fantasy fodder reflects the differences both in the romances to which each sex is socialized and in...

Figure 1210

Interpreted differ greatly across genres. There is also the communication level, which refers to the ways in which the writer tries to communicate with his or her readers. However, some readers may not form a representation at the communication level. As Graesser et al. (1997, p. 169) pointed out, The reader of a novel may not construct an invisible, virtual writer or storyteller that communicates with the reader, unless there are explicit features in the text that signal that communication level.

Presupposition

There are two principal aspects of the meaning conventionally conveyed by a linguistic expression, its presupposed content and its proffered content (Stalnaker 1979 Karttunen and Peters 1979 Heim 1982 Roberts 1996b). The proffered content is what we usually think of as the literal content of the expression what is asserted by using a declarative sentence, the question raised by an interrogative, the command (or wish, or suggestion, etc.) posed by an imperative. It is the information that is treated as new by the speaker (or writer, etc.). The presupposed content is ostensibly old information it is information that the speaker (behaves as if she) assumes is already known in the context of the discourse in progress. Hence, a presupposition imposes a requirement on the context of use, the requirement that it already contain the presupposed information. An older view of presuppositions treats them as semantic that is, as entailments of both a sentence and its negation (Van Fraas-sen...

Figure 135

Are expert writers helped by their use of either rough drafts (an initial version of the text) or outlines (focus on main themes) Kellogg (1988) asked his participants to learn several facts about a controversy over bussing systems for the handicapped, and then to write a business letter arguing for a particular system. Producing an outline increased the quality of the letter, whereas producing a rough draft did not. The proportion of the time during writing devoted to different processes is shown in Figure 13.5. Outline producers spent more time in sentence generation than did the no-outline participants, but less in planning and reviewing or revising. Kellogg (1994, p. 160) came to the following conclusion Studies on writing fluency speed and quality generally show no difference between composing on a computer or with pen and paper a writer should select whatever tool he or she finds comfortable and useful. What is important is that the writer has access to all the relevant...

Sexual Orientation

B ody image and dieting patterns differ both intercultur-ally as well as intraculturally. Subcultures built around sexual orientation and or sexual practices possess varying corporeal aesthetics. The gay and lesbian community in the industrialized West, for example, is a multilayered subculture that has developed a specific set of body ideals and a definitive politics of consumption, of which dieting forms a part. Nancy Barron, lesbian founder of Ample Opportunity (AO), a size-positive organization, asks Are lesbians more size acceptant (Atkins 1998 10). The answer to this question appears to be yes. Bisexual freelance writer Greta Christian is convinced that dykes are far more tolerant and appreciative of other women's bodies than straight men are (Atkins 1998 76). Whatever one's opinions, the embrace of sexual marginality has also meant to some extent an embrace of other kinds of marginality, such as having an overweight body.

Becomes Chronic

Many accomplished people are shy, including singer Barbra Streisand, writer J. D. Salinger, and painter Andrew Wyeth (Stocker, 1997). What shy persons have in common is that they desire friendships and social interactions but are held back by their insecurities and fears. Consequently, they avoid the spotlight, avoid face-to-face interaction, and ruminate excessively after conversations, worrying about whether they said the right things, made a good impression, or sounded stupid. The inner experience of a shy person in an interaction is quite different from that of someone else in the same interaction who is not shy.

Explanatory Style

The reformulation of learned helplessness theory focuses on the cognitions, or thoughts, a person has that may lead to feelings of helplessness. More specifically, the focus is on the explanations that people give for events in their lives, particularly the unpleasant events (Peterson et al., 1993). Imagine that you had submitted a paper in your class and that you received a surprisingly low grade on that paper. A common question you might ask yourself is What caused the low grade on my paper Your explanation for the cause of the low grade might reveal something about your explanatory style. When things go wrong, who or what typically gets the blame Psychologists prefer the term causal attribution to refer to a person's explanation of the cause of an event. To what cause would you attribute your paper's low grade Was it because you happened to be in a rush and submitted a quickly written paper Was it because you are simply a poor writer Was it because the professor who graded it was...

Aboulia

Fat people suffer from aboulia once they acknowledge their impairment. Obesity, as the French writer on taste Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826) states in his handbook on food and diet at the beginning of the nineteenth century, is not actually a disease, it is at least a most unpleasant state of ill health, and one into which we almost always fall because of our own fault (Brillat-Savarin 1999 245).

Chevese Turner

Canadian-born sociologist and writer Erving Goffman described stigma as the process by which the reactions of others spoil normal identity (Goffman 1963). BEDA and others recognize that the designation of BED as a mental health disorder alone provides an immediate level of stigma for those suffering. What is not always understood, even among some eating disorders clinicians and researchers, is the additional layer of stigma placed on the person with BED who is living in a larger body and what this means to the possibility of recovery. This external manifestation of size often results in multiple insults to a person's sense of self and mental physical health status on a daily basis.

Nonhypoglycemia

The attribution of these patients' illness to hypo-glycemia had its origins in the early 1950s with the appearance, in the US, of a book by Drs Abrahams and Pezet entitled 'Body, Mind and Sugar.' Other American practitioners, notably John Tintera, founder of the Hypoglycemia Foundation Inc., Stephen Gyland, Harry Saltzer and, others, including the medical writer Carlton Fredericks, publicized the concept. This led to 'hypoglycemia' being held, by a large section of the public, responsible for such diverse diseases as coronary artery disease, allergy, asthma, rheumatic fever, susceptibility to viral infections, epilepsy, gastric ulcer, alcoholism, suicide, and even homicide, as well as for a whole galaxy of symptoms in their own right. 'Hypoglycemia' was treated as though it were a disease entity and asserted by its advocates to be 'one of the most common illnesses in the United States' and that because of it 'thousands of Americans have forgotten, or perhaps never known, what it is...

Winter savory

Winter savory is dried and powdered and mixed with grated breadcrumbs, 'to bread their meat, be it fish or flesh, to give it a quicker relish'. It is recommended by old writers, together with other herbs, in the dressing of trout. When dried, it is used as seasoning in the same manner as summer savory, but is not employed medicinally.

William A Frosch

This writer's experience with treatment of drug abusers in a therapeutic community suggested that the trait is an important consideration in predicting outcome in combination with other traits and environmental considerations. Drug abusers who were also high sensation seekers had a special susceptibility to boredom. What can substitute for the kind of exciting lives they led as part of the drug scene If they cannot obtain an interesting job, providing varied kinds of stimulation, or if they cannot find exciting friends like those still involved with drugs, they soon turn to drugs themselves. Therapists sometime assume that drugs were used to deal with Anxiety and Depression, or as self-medication. This only happens in a minority of cases. Early substance abuse is primarily driven by sensation seeking and impulsivity, not by neurotic needs. Anxiety and depression usually emerge as a reaction to drugs or their Withdrawal and to the stresses of drug-life and quickly subside when the user...

Figurative Language

Figurative language allows speakers writers to communicate meanings that differ in various ways from what they literally say. People speak figuratively for reasons of politeness, to avoid responsibility for the import of what is communicated, to express ideas that are difficult to communicate using literal language, and to express thoughts in a compact and vivid manner. Among the most common forms of figurative language, often referred to as tropes or figures of speech, are metaphor, where ideas from dissimilar knowledge domains are either explicitly, in the case of simile (e.g., My love is like a red, red rose ), or implicitly (e.g., Our marriage is a roller-coaster ride ) compared metonymy, where a salient part of a single knowledge domain is used to represent or stand for the entire domain (e.g., The White House issued a statement ) idioms, where a speaker's meaning cannot be derived from an analysis of the words' typical meanings (e.g., John let the cat out of the bag about Mary's...

The Introverted Type

Introverted consciousness doubtless views the external conditions, but it selects the subjective determinants as the decisive ones. The type is guided, therefore, by that factor of perception and cognition which represents the receiving subjective disposition to the sense stimulus. Two persons, for example, see the same object, but they never see it in such a way as to receive two identically similar images of it. Quite apart from the differences in the personal equation and mere organic acuteness, there often exists a radical difference, both in kind and degree, in the psychic assimilation of the perceived image. Whereas the extraverted type refers pre-eminently to that which reaches him from the object, the introvert principally relies upon that which the outer impression constellates in the subject. In an individual case of apperception, the difference may, of course, be very delicate, but in the total psychological economy it is extremely noticeable, especially in the form of a...

Vegetarianism

Body purism and the notion that vegetable matter is less corrupting than flesh become part of a cult of hygiene in the course of the nineteenth century. The Prague Jewish writer Franz Kafka complains in 1909 that My paternal grandfather was a butcher in a village near Strakonitz I have to not eat as much meat as he butchered and it gives me something to hold on to being related means a lot to me (Kafka 1990 59). Kafka's conversion to vegetarianism is seen by him as a true transformation. He compared vegetarians with the early Christians, persecuted everywhere, everywhere laughed at, and frequenting dirty haunts. 'What is meant by its nature for the highest and the best, spreads among the lowly people' (Brod 1963 74). Kafka sees his eating habits as being linked to who he is, to his sense of self, but also to his marginal world. Kafka's guru Moriz Schnitzer, the non-Jewish health faddist, gave his hygienic, vegetarian regime biblical underpinnings Moses led the Jews through the desert...

Sugar Busters

Sugar Busters is a popular high-protein diet developed by a group of New Orleans based physicians (and a layperson) in the late twentieth century. The authors of the popular diet book, Sugar Busters include Samuel S. Andrews, MD (endocrinologist), Morrison C. Bethea, MD (thoracic surgeon), Luis A. Balart, MD (gastroenterologist), and H. Leighton Steward (the ghost writer and a New Orleans entrepreneur). Their premise, Sugar is toxic claims refined sugars are toxic for the body, causing it to release insulin and store excess body sugar as body fat. The diet calls for avoiding refined sugar and processed grain products. It is not a no sugar diet, but a less sugar diet. The theory behind Sugar Busters is

Love and attachment

Love itself is a huge and fascinating topic about which writers of fiction and poetry have probably done rather better than psychologists. Before talking a little about the attachments that make up romantic love, it is important to say that this is only one type of love. There are others. A psychologist called Richard Sternberg (1986) provides a very full breakdown of the various types of love relationship.

Same Object YN

The claims made by proponents of embodied comprehension, for example about the activation of visual representations during language comprehension, may at the same time seem trivial and counterintuitive. They will seem trivial to the lay person, or even to people with great expertise in the use of language, such as novelists and poets. Of course, words can be used to conjure up images in the reader's mind However, these same claims will seem counterintuitive to researchers trained in traditional cognitive science. To them, the claim that meaning can be captured by experiential representations does not make sense. For one, the claim opens the door to the homunculus problem, and thus to an infinite regress. If there are pictures in the head, then there must be a little person in there looking at the pictures. And if so, who's in that person's mind There are two responses to this criticism. First, this problem also seems to apply to the amodal view. After all, where is the little person...

Wood betony

Use wood betony for Perhaps this echo of magic and folklore has swayed many classically trained herbalists against betony, and some modern writers are dismissive of its efficacy. We see it as an herb, like St John's wort or vervain, that meets ever-changing physical and spiritual needs.

Notes black Mustard

Zohary favors Brassica nigra, the black mustard, as the grain of mustard seed in the Bible. As an Israeli botanist, he would certainly know better than I that Brassica nigra is the tallest of the local species of Brassica and closely related Sinapis, and that its seeds are small (circa 1 mm). But he also admits that The Greek sinapis is undoubtedly 'mustard'. No need to quibble about whether it is the least of seed or not. (I suspect a mustard seed is a hundred times heavier than orchid seed, even than Artemisia annua seed.) I suspect that in biblical times, as in Maryland fields in spring, few but botanists make distinctions between the Brassica and Sinapis. Many writers do not distinguish between black, brown (Indian), and white mustard (Brassica nigra, Brassica juncea, and Sinapis alba, respectively) but the spice and medicine trades seem to favor the white. And the canola and rapeseed varieties have been hopelessly manipulated, even in the GMO field. Few if any taxono-mists and...

Psychopathology

According to Eysenck (1995), Aristotle claimed, No great genius has ever been without some madness. According to Simonton (1999), Aristotle also wrote, Those who have become eminent in philosophy, politics, poetry and the arts all had tendencies toward melancholia. John Adams said, Genius is sorrow's child. In his book, Eysenck tried to make the argument that there is a strong relationship between creativity, psychosis, and schizophreniform thinking, but then quoted Eisenman's studies that demonstrate that schizophrenics are even less creative than normal hospital employees, who Eysenck noted are not particularly creative. Kraepelin in 1921 noted that manic-depressive psychosis was often associated with enhanced creativity (Weisberg, 1994). Post (1996) studied the biographies of a large group of world-famous creative people, such as composers, scientists, artists, and writers. To classify these people, Post used the diagnostic criteria found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of...

Glisson Francis

Though primarily known for his pioneering work on rickets, Francis Glisson contributed to the body of knowledge in general anatomy and physiology of the digestive organs. In the opening paragraph of A Treatise of the Rickets, he wrote that infantile rickets was an entirely new disease, that was never described by any of the ancient or modern writers. He was able to show that infantile scurvy was a separate disease from rickets, although the two usually occur together. see also Nutritional Deficiency Rickets.

Writing Systems

Jack Goody and Ian Watt (1963) held that Western habits of thought, such as emphasis on logic, require not merely literacy but specifically phonographic script. However, although it is historically true that the Chinese were much less interested than the Greeks in logical issues, it is very hard to see how the special nature of Chinese writing can have been relevant to that fact. Many other writers do not claim that different script types have differential consequences for human thought, but they urge that the difference between possession and lack of writing has massive consequences for the intellectual life of societies and individuals. Because professional academics live by the written word, this is a natural view for them to hold at an earlier period, it ranked as an unquestioned though vague truism. More recently, scholars such as Walter Ong (1982) have tried to be more specific about the cognitive consequences of literacy. At the same time, several writers have argued that...

Notes Vine of Sodom

Non-Israeli writers often identify this as the biblical vine of Sodom, but Israeli Zohary (ZOH) identifies it as Calotropis (which see) and does not identify this Solanum species or any of its synonyms in the Flora of Palestine (FP3). A useless weed in the past, this plant might be investigated as a source of steroids. Bad spiny weeds like this might be reduced in whole plant utilization schemes, harvesting the biomass for useful phytochemicals, producing power alcohol from the residual biomass in the process. (ZUL entries below apply to S. sodomeum var. hermannii.) The American Herbal Products Association (AH2) has designated the name Solanum anguivi as the standardized common name (Scn.) listing the ayurvedic name brihati (often spelled brahati), a name often associated with Solanum indicum L. But AH2 equates it with Solanum indicum auct., so I cannot necessarily be sure of which species they are talking. Solanum indicum L. is also an important and useful species. In the Useful...

Honey versus Sucrose

In preindustrial times, honey was the main source of concentrated sweetness in the diets of many peoples. There are no precise figures for historical consumption because honey was part of either a hunter-gatherer or subsistence economy. Until recently historians and food writers have proposed that it was a scarce commodity available only to a wealthy few. However, a reappraisal of the evidence in the Stone Age, Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and early Modern times suggests that ordinary people ate much larger quantities of honey than has previously been acknowledged. The Ancient Egyptians, for example, made frequent use of honey in their spiced breads, cakes, and pastries, and for priming beer and wine. In Roman times, half the recipes in a famous cookery book call for honey, and in Ancient Greece, those who died some distance from home were sometimes preserved in honey. These details give an impression of plenty. Even the poorest people could own a beehive because bees often made their...

Tape recorder

I started keeping a journal in the hospital, but I was just too upset and exhausted to write in it faithfully. A good friend who was a writer by profession told me to use a tape recorder. It was a great idea and saved a lot of time. I could say everything that had happened in just a few

Sentence Processing

There are two main levels of analysis in the comprehension of sentences. First, there is an analysis of the syntactical (grammatical) structure of each sentence this is known technically as parsing. What exactly is grammar It is concerned with the way in which words are combined. However, as Altmann (1997, p. 84) pointed out, it the way in which words are combined is important, and has meaning, only insofar as both the speaker and the hearer (or the writer and the reader) share some common knowledge regarding the significance of one combination or another. This shared knowledge is grammar. As Harley (1995, p. 236) pointed out, The study of pragmatics looks at how we deal with those aspects of language that go beyond the simple meaning of what we hear and say. Thus, pragmatics is concerned with the ways in which language is actually used for purposes of com munication. It is important to consider pragmatics, because the literal meaning of a sentence is often not the one that the writer...

Notes Myrrh

All three versions seethe with sex and myrrh, a not uncommon linkage in the Bible. But which myrrh I doubt that Herbal PDR and Commission-E writers are any wiser than the wise men of the Nativity or Felter in 1898 or Madaus in 1938 or even me in 1985, 1999, 2005, or today, at knowing which species of Commiphora is myrrh, especially when faced only with the imported gum, and not flowering and fruiting herbarium vouchers. Myrrh shows up in at least a dozen places in ten books of the Bible. We will never know which of many species it was, of the complicated genus Commiphora. Many authors equate this one with the biblical myrrh, but none with final authority. PH2 entries below were derived from Gruenwald's entry for C. molmol. The USDA (USN) and

Synonyms

Many scholars have identified this as the reed of the Bible, while Zohary has instead picked the very similar Phragmites communis, which see, from four species of reed in Israel with long root-stocks and tall stems, hollow and jointed, entirely covered with large leaves, each ending in tassels of flowers. But Zohary admits to a collective colloquial concept of reeds much broader than the taxonomist's narrower concepts (ZOH). Presenting us with some interesting information on Arundo donax, as well as several common names, the USDA's R.E. Perdue (now retired) also noted that many of these common names are applied to both Arundo and Phragmites. With no voucher specimens, who knows what was really in the hands or minds of early biblical writers and fisherfolk Various authors state that both the names and uses are almost interchangeable. (But only Arundo of these seems to contain the rather dangerous compound bufotenine.) What follows is some of what I wrote in 1985, hoping that it accrues...

Notes Giant Milkweed

Only Zohary, among the biblical scholars I have read, suggests this species as a biblical species, noting, as I have noted, that it is very common in the Holy Land wherever it is found, it is called by its Arabic name osher. The apple of Sodom, he continues, is more a symbol than a botanical, gently criticising other writers, like perhaps even me, who have equated the Apple of Sodom with such species as Citrullus colocynthis, Solanum incanum, or Solanum sodomaeum, unjustifiably see the latter species). Symbolizing the evil Gomorrah and Sodom, its cursed fruit is devoid of flesh and full of hairs (the silk). The juice is poisonous. Sodom was once happy, famed for its fruits and wealth. It was burned by lightning but there are still remainders of that divine fire, and traces of the five cities are still there. The Calotropis fruits may look fit to eat, but when picked they dissolve into smoke and ashes. That certainly could apply to our local milkweed fruits and could apply equally well...

Equisetum

In spring, fertile stems grow up from deep underground rhizomes. These stems are bare with conelike heads full of spores - drumsticks poking out of the ground, says one author. Another writer thinks it resembles moth-eaten asparagus. These softish stems die back and are replaced in summer by segmented, stiff and infertile stems with narrow leaves sprouting from nodes, something like pine needles on a bamboo.

Figure 134

There is generally little relationship between the writer's knowledge of the topic (mainly conceptual knowledge) and the quality of the text produced. For example, Kellogg (1987) asked his participants to write a persuasive essay on why the United Nations should remain in New York. Those with much relevant knowledge did not write better essays than those with less knowledge. However, Kellogg (1987) also obtained a measure of cognitive effort by measuring time to respond to an occasional stimulus during the writing process. Participants with more knowledge devoted less effort to writing (see Figure 13.4) According to Hayes and Flower (1986), strategic knowledge also plays a major role in the construction of a writing plan. Strategic knowledge concerns ways of organising the goals and sub-goals of writing to construct a coherent writing plan. Hayes and Flower found that good writers use strategic knowledge very flexibly. The structure of the writing plan often changes as dissatisfaction...

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