World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

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The Research Question

Studies can also be criticized for attempting to answer questions that the discipline is not in a position to answer effectively. Some questions just cannot be answered by scientific methods. For example, how much longer would World War II have continued if the US military had not dropped atomic weapons on two Japanese cities There is no way to know. We cannot rerun the scenario with

Differences among Asian American Cultures

Japanese individuals first immigrated to the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s, with a desire for better education and financial opportunities as the primary force behind their immigration. While welcomed at first, anti-Asian sentiments resulted in the halting of immigration practices from 1931 to 1940. Whereas immigration was prevented quickly for the Chinese, this process took longer with the Japanese, allowing time for both males and females to immigrate to America. Thus, the Japanese-American population was not affected by the same setbacks suffered by the Chinese-American population. As a result, the Japanese-American population continued to thrive with two-thirds of the Japanese population being American-born by the 1940s. The discriminations directed against the Japanese-American population during World War II affected the acculturation of these citizens drastically, however, leading to less identification with America in some and highly overt identification, to...

Us Patterns And Trends

During World War II, methamphetamine and amphetamine were widely used by the American, British, German, and Japanese military as insomniacs and as stimulants to increase alertness during battle and night watches they were used as well by war-related industries to enhance worker productivity. Perhaps as many as 200 million tablets and pills were supplied to American troops during the war. The U.S. armed services authorized the issue of amphetamines on a regular basis beginning with the Korean conflict, escalating to well over 225 million standard-dose tablets dispensed between 1966 and 1969. R. R. Monroe and A. H. Drell (1947) reported that at the end of World War II, some soldiers who

International Patterns And Trends

The increase of methamphetamine abuse in Japan during the 1940s and early 1950s has been attributed to the wholesale appearance of the drug in the black market following World War II. Both amphetamine and methamphetamine were available to Japanese forces during the war and became widely used by the beleaguered civilian population following military defeat. In response to the escalation in abuse, Japan s Stimulants Drug Law of 1951 was enacted and the eventual decline in abuse was attributed to the effectiveness of the penal provisions of the law and subsequent control of the raw materials used to produce the drug. After a hiatus of fifteen years, Japan s methamphetamine abuse began to increase again and continued at relatively elevated levels through the mid-1980s. That epidemic was associated with illicit production of the drug and trafficking by criminal organizations Yakuza and Boryokudan. The downturn in recent years is being attributed to the implementation of a stimulant-abuse...

Bartlett Frederic Charles

Bartlett (1886-1969) was Britain's most outstanding psychologist between the World Wars. He was a cognitive psychologist long before the cognitive revolution of the 1960s. His three major contributions to current cognitive science are a methodological argument for the study of ecologically valid experimental tasks, a reconstructive approach to human memory, and the theoretical construct of the schema to represent generic knowledge. Through a complex series of events that occurred late in his career, Bartlett had a direct hand in initiating the information-processing framework that is a major component of current cognitive science. During World War II, a brilliant young student named Kenneth Craik came to Cambridge to work with Bartlett. Craik carried out early work on control engineering and cybernetics, only to be killed in a bicycle accident the day before World War II ended. Bartlett was able to see the importance of Craik's approach and took over its development....

Britain Drug Use In The legal use of

The first was Britain's involvement in an international system of drug control the second was the impact of World War I (1914-1918) and its aftermath. U.S. pressure on the international scene pushed an initially unwilling Britain into a system of control that rapidly extended from the 1909 Asian regulation discussed at Shanghai to the worldwide system envisaged in the 1912 Hague Convention. Prior to World War I, however, only the United States, by way of the HARRISON NARCOTICS ACT of 1914, had put this system of drug control into operation. Britain favored a simple extension of the existing Pharmacy Acts. The influence of emergency wartime conditions, however, brought a dif This system remained in operation for nearly 40 years, until the rapid changes of the 1960s. The 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s were decades when the numbers of addicts were small and there were few nonmedical users (less than 500). It is generally recognized that the British System of...

Introduction And Background

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) was created by the 104th Congress to stimulate basic research and technology development for environmental cleanup of the nation's nuclear weapons complex. The program was created in the conference report that accompanied the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill 1 The DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) which is responsible for cleanup of the nation's nuclear weapons complex and

Neuronal Representations Knowledge Stores

Broca's and Wernicke's seminal studies led to the golden age of the study of brain-behavior relationships called neuropsychology. This golden age lasted until the First World War, and then there was a shift in position to the mass action or nonlocalization hypothesis. The reason for the decline of the localizationist approach is not fully known, but there were probably two major factors. The first was a change in the political-philosophical Zeitgeist. Most of the early localizationist work was done on the European continent, primarily in France and Germany. After the First World War these continental European powers lost much of their power and their influence on Western thought, but the English-speaking countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom flourished. The Anglo-American social and political systems were strongly influenced by the philosophic writings of John Locke, who proposed that the brain was like a tabula rasa or a blank wax tablet. Unlike the modularity...

Table 51 Physiatrists

The specialty of physiatry took shape during the first half of the twentieth century when two major events occurred simultaneously the polio epidemics and injuries to soldiers fighting in World War II. There was a tremendous need to rehabilitate the more than six hundred thousand injured military personnel. At that time, a call was issued for doctors who would undergo specialized training in rehabilitation methods. The specialty of physiatry originated in these events and had some of its roots in patriotism and a deep commitment to helping people who have been through a serious illness or injury. Physiatrists make up a relatively small group of doctors (about eight thousand in the United States).

Exposure and Disposition

Asbestos has had a very wide array of uses. It has been used extensively for insulation and in textiles and has been mixed and bonded with cement, plastics, and resins. Production of asbestos products in the United States, Canada, and most other industrialized countries increased rapidly in the 20th century, particularly during World War II, and peaked in the early to mid 1970s. In 1973, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prohibited spraying of asbestos insulation, and further restrictions were later applied. Many other industrialized countries enacted similar regulations or outright bans, and the use and production of asbestos dropped rapidly.

Highfat diets cause ketosis and make you ill

In this connection it is interesting to note that in the backroom battles which were waged between the advocates and the opponents of pemmican as a ration for the Allied armies in the Second World War, fat burns only was one of the arguments used by the experts who succeeded in keeping pemmican out of the rations of our shock troops.

Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Origins of Adult Metabolic Diseases

Assessing the impact of maternal nutrition on health of the offspring in humans is difficult. However, investigations involving offspring conceived during conditions of famine have provided direct evidence of the effects that maternal nutrition during gestation and lactation has on the overall health of the adult offspring. The Dutch famine, which occurred in the western part of the Netherlands at the end of World War II, only lasted around 5 months from late November 1944 to early May 1945, and was therefore defined as a short period of famine. Prior to the onset of the famine conditions, the affected area of the Netherlands consisted of a reasonably well-nourished population. The occurrence of this abrupt famine therefore granted researchers a unique opportunity to retrospectively study the effect of maternal nutrition during specific stages of gestation on insulin-glucose homeostasis and obesity risk in adult offspring (Table 2).

Value Of The Emsp To The Cleanup Mission

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for cleanup of the nation's nuclear weapons complex, a vast network of industrial sites established during the Second World War and the Cold War to develop, test, and produce nuclear weapons.1 The EM cleanup mission is massive in scope it includes 3,700 contaminated sites in 34 states and territories more than 100 million gallons of radioactive and mixed wastes stored in 322 tanks 3 million cubic meters of radioactive or hazardous buried wastes 250 million cubic meters of contaminated soils from landfills and plumes more than 600 billion gallons of contaminated ground water and about 1,200 facilities that require decontamination and decommissioning.2 The Department estimates3 that cleanup of the weapons complex will cost between about 190 billion and 265 billion and take several decades to complete these estimates do not include costs for dealing with intractable problems such as the large...

Other Past Drug Epidemics

About the same time that the international agreements on opium and opium products were passed, the United States experienced an increase in tobacco smoking, ultimately with peak population levels of tobacco smoking occurring during World War II and the following years, before declines occurred in conjunction with the surgeon general's 1962 report on smoking and health and other publicity about the health hazards of smoking. When one considers the social climate of the 1990s, a time when tobacco smoking was not at all a socially approved drug-use practice, it may be difficult to imagine that during World War II Lucky Strikes and other cigarettes were passed out to soldiers as part of their daily food rations. This turned out to be an effective way to sustain the epidemic of tobacco smoking, but one cannot be sure whether the tobacco industry's intent was primarily to boost the morale of soldiers or to create and build market strength for tobacco cigarettes. Someone interested in the...

Psychological Conceptions and Measures of Anxiety

The study of anxiety within the discipline of psychology certainly came into its own in psychology after the Second World War an estimated 5,000 articles or books on it were published between 1950 and 1970 (Spielberger 1972a). Here I consider the predominant conceptions of anxiety, the measures used, and research into the relationship between anxiety and performance. behaviourism and aspirations to be 'scientific', psychological work after the Second World War almost invariably assumed that anxiety was observable - marked by the naming of the first self-report scale as the 'Manifest Anxiety Scale' (Taylor 1953) -and quantifiable. In the 1950s and 1960s, conceptions of 'general anxiety', 'test anxiety', and a host of more 'specific' anxieties (that is, towards specific objects or contexts) were developed, as well as standardised scales to measure them. During this early period, there was controversy as to whether anxiety might best be represented as a personal characteristic...

Aggression vs Altruism

It is possible to relate brain chemistry and behavior by means of matrix algebra. One can relate specific neurotransmitters and hormones to specific mental functions in vertical axis (columns) and mental processes on the horizontal axis (rows). The entries in the matrix can be used to relate the relative roles of different complex systems of neu-rotransmitters to different mental functions. Matrices have long been used to solve multiple linear equations, and they have played an important role in the development of computers after World War II.

Welfare States beyond Ideology

Not coincidentally, the low-tax, high-income countries are mostly English-speaking ones that share a direct historical lineage with 19th-century Britain and its theories of economic laissez-faire. These countries include Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the U.K. and the U.S. The high-tax, high-income states are the Nordic social democracies, notably Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, which have been governed by left-of-center social democratic parties for much or all of the post-World War II era. They combine a healthy respect for market forces with a strong commitment to anti-poverty programs. Budgetary outlays for social purposes average around 27 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in the Nordic countries and just 17 percent of GDP in the English-speaking countries.

Historical Cultivation And Usage

The history of GSE started with its development by Dr Jacob Harich, a physicist originally born in Yugoslavia and who was educated in nuclear physics in Germany. After surviving World War II, Harich decided to devote the rest of his life to improving the human conditions. He expanded his educational pursuits to include medicine specifically, gynecology and immunology. He migrated to the United States in 1957, and was interested in studying natural substances that might help to protect the body from pathological substances. In 1963 he moved to Florida, which is considered by many to be the heart of grapefruit country, and began research on the practical biocidal aspects of grapefruit seeds. Nowadays GSE, also known as citrus seed extract, is a liquid derived from the seeds, pulp, and white membrane of grapefruit. The extract is commercially distributed in two forms, as a liquid or a powder.

Kohlberg Lawrence 19271987

As a young man, Kohlberg served in the U.S. Merchant Marine after World War II. He then volunteered to help smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and through a British blockade into British-controlled Palestine. He was captured and held in a detention center on Cyprus, finally being rescued by the Haganah, a Jewish fighting force.

Population Level Cognitive Phenomena

At the close of World War II, Seymour Kety and his colleagues opened the modern era of studies of brain circulation and metabolism, introducing the first quantitative methods for measuring whole-brain blood flow and metabolism in humans. The introduction by Kety's group of an in vivo tissue autoradiographic measurement of regional blood flow applicable only in laboratory animals (Kety 1960 Landau et al. 1955) provided the first glimpse of quantitative changes in blood flow in the brain related directly to brain function. This work clearly foretold what was to come in the modern era of functional brain imaging with PET and MRI.

Ending The Commercial Opium Trade

The U.S. government stimulated the convening of several international conferences from 1909 to 1914. These conferences reached agreements that all signatory governments would enact legislation ending commercial opium trading and restricting opium and cocaine to ''legitimate medical practice.'' The Indo-Chinese opium trade ended in 1914. These international conventions were included in the Versailles Treaty that ended World War I. ''Legitimate medical practice'' and appropriate controls and or penalties were not specified in the international treaties.

Pressure Toward Criminal Penalties

In 1914, when the international opium convention (Hague Convention) was to go into effect, several British agencies could not decide which one should take responsibility for implementing legislation and regulation of drugs. Then World War I began in August 1914 and Sir Malcolm Delevingne, an undersecretary at the Home Office, took pri After World War I, Delevingne argued that drug control was a police responsibility for the Home Office (where it has remained ever since). The 1920 Dangerous Drug Act was vague about two critical issues whether doctors pharmacists could prescribe for themselves, and whether doctors could maintain addicts. In 1921 and 1924, the Home Office proposed regulations that ignored the rights of professionals and imposed many complex procedures. It also sought powers of search and seizure, higher fines, and longer sentences for convictions. Thus, the Home Office was making regulations that would subject doctors to criminal sanctions and circumscribe their...

Costs Of Smoking And Drug Abuse

The calculations used to arrive at these figures are quite complex. Cigarettes smoked in different years may have variant health effects. Tar content in cigarettes, for example, has decreased three to four percent since World War II. It is generally believed that cigarettes containing lower amounts of tar cause fewer health problems. Since over the course of a smoking career the social costs generally precede the benefits, the net benefit to society was reduced if future costs and benefits were discounted (standard practice in accounting). The appropriate discount rate to be applied to these calculations is a matter of some dispute. It turned out that with a discount rate of five percent, the lifetime present value of the external effects of smoking amounted to a net external cost of 0.15. Manning et al. point out that smokers more than pay this cost in the form of the state and federal excise taxes imposed on tobacco. The external effects in this calculation are all financial they...

Taxonomies of Personality

He received his Ph.D. in 1940 and after World War II became director of the psychology department at the Maudsley Hospital' s new Institute of Psychiatry in London. Eysenck' s subsequent productivity was enormous, with more than 40 books and 700 articles to his name. Hans Eysenck was the most cited living psychologist until he died in 1998.

Infectious parotitis See mumps

Still, because there were far more deadly diseases to worry about, even in the beginning of this century the flu did not attract much medical attention until the great Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, the worst of the pandemics, killing 10 million more people than did World War I. In the United States alone, 550,000 people died. The Spanish flu of 1918 left about 21 million dead out of about 1 billion cases before it vanished scientists still don't know where it went and worry that another outbreak could occur. Its name was particularly insulting to Spaniards, since this particular pandemic appeared to have actually begun in the United States. Since World War II, vaccines have helped cut the death rate, which was very low in the 1957 pandemic of Asian flu, and in the 1968 pandemic. In 1976, an outbreak of swine flu in Fort Dix, New Jersey, set off alarms throughout the United States, since it was swine flu that was believed to have caused the mass mortality in 1918, although no one knows...

Emanuel Felke and his Therapeutic Concept Homoeopathy and Naturopathy

Kneipp (1821-1896), who did not reject orthodox medicine in principle, Felke was also sharply criticized by the naturopaths for supporting homoeopathy. They observed with unease how the number of Felke's followers grew there were 21 Felke societies before World War I, all in the German Rhine-Ruhr area. By the mid-1930s the association counted more than 4,000 members.323 There had always been attempts at denying the Felke societies the right to call themselves association for natural living and healing .324 Numerous voices warned against the creeping in of remedial doctrines into natural healing.325 One of them was Dr Chr. Diehl who, in the journal Naturarzt, called the synthesis of homoeopathy and naturopathy a jumble and spoke rather cynically of Felke and his healing approach 326

Stress Inoculation Training

In 2004, Hurricane Ivan left its destructive wake through Florida's panhandle and the coastal regions of Alabama and Mississippi. Furthermore, due to the Global War on Terrorism operations and the storm's destruction of several military treatment facilities, I became the sole military psychologist providing psychosocial interventions for the region at Naval Hospital, Pensacola, Florida. To address the burgeoning and heterogeneous myriad of patients suffering from various anxiety disorders, I formed a closed process- oriented group utilizing Meichenbaum's Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) model (Meichenbaum, 1993, 1996, 2005).

The future of antibiotic therapy

Bacteriophages, the viruses with bacteria as their hosts, are among the most common organisms on earth. Bacteriophage-induced lysis (killing) of bacteria is highly efficient and specific for different types of bacteria. In the war of species between phages and bacteria, humans are bystanders. Bacteriophages were discovered during World War I by Twort and d'Here-lle at the Pasteur Institute 54 . They were named in 1917 by d'Herelle, who predicted that these biologic agents would produce a revolution in the treatment of infectious diseases. He believed that nature had provided us with a living weapon against bacteria. However, their role as therapeutic agents has not shown much promise. Hundreds of types of phages exist each kills only one type of bacteria, and contaminants of bacterial lysis left in phage preparations are toxic to humans. Although Eli Lilly manufactured therapeutic phages for the United States market in the 1930s, they were quickly outpaced by penicillin. However,...

Clinical Homoeopathy109

112 Fritz Donner, pupil of Hans Wapler, had first been assistant physician and then registrar at the Robert Bosch Hospital in Stuttgart and worked in Berlin from 1931 where he first was registrar (1931-1939) at the homoeopathic university polyclinic under Ernst Bastanier. From 1934 to 1945 he was lecturer for homoeopathy at the Berlin academy for medical studies. From 1936 to 1943 he took on the homoeopathic department of the Rudolf-Virchow-Hospital in Berlin. From after the war till his retirement he was medical director of the municipal Behring Hospital in Berlin-Zehlendorf and of the Internal and Infection Department. After World War II he ceased practising clinical homoeopathy. Cf. Schroers (2006), p. 26.

Have Feelings Of Disgust Evolved From A Need To Avoid Disease

This stronger criterion requires that participants should also be told, and agree with, the aims and objectives of the research, as well as the procedure. This principle would require the researcher to declare up front that the purpose of the study was to test a theory that the emotion of disgust had evolved as an adaptive response to disease. If this is done, the people taking part truly are participating in the research effort as co-operative partners. It is difficult to follow this principle in psychology, because of the strong possibility that knowledge of the aims of a study will influence the way participants think and behave. However, psychologists only conceal information from participants to the extent that is absolutely necessary, and reveal the aims as soon as possible. It is also considered inappropriate to carry out a study if participants would be likely to be upset when they eventually discovered the research aims.

Is smoking good for PD

Smoking has been inversely associated with PD, but whether this reflects a biologic effect on the underlying disease process or merely selection bias is uncertain. The authors compared smoking histories in male twin pairs identified from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council World War II Veteran Twins. The amount of cigarettes smoked (in pack-years) was collected until the time of PD onset in the affected twin or until the time of death for the unaffected twin. Differences in pack-years smoked until PD onset and until 10 and 20 years before onset were compared using standard statistical methods. To assess the role of shared environment, correlation for smoking behaviors was compared between pairs, both of whom had PD and pairs where only one of the

Single Remedy Homoeopathy

The proponents of single remedy homoeopathy were not only concerned about what they perceived to be a lack of efficacy in the complex remedies, but also about the vast number of lay practitioners offering remedy mixtures who had sprung up like mushrooms in recent years .89 Fritz Donner (1896-1979) thought that the rising number of lay practitioners after World War I was due to changing values that led more people to become health practitioners.90 According to the Reich statistics the number of practitioners had risen by 63 per cent between 1909 and 1927, but the number of qualified physicians has also grown by 27 per cent in 1909 there were 4,414 lay practitioners and 31,969 physicians in 1927 there were 11,791 lay

Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand 18691948

Later in his life, Gandhi became a greater figure of political, cultural, and economic protest. His eating habits became part and parcel of his politics. Gandhi first protested in attempt to eradicate race prejudice in South Africa in 1893. Later, after years of civil protest in South Africa, he returned to his homeland, India, where he spoke of a new India in which Indians could be free of class constraints. Following the passage by the English ruling government of India of the repressive Rowlatt Act of i9i9, Gandhi called for a general strike against Englishmen throughout the country, and, after 400 Indians were killed in the Amritsar Massacre that year, he called for non-cooperation with British courts, stores, and schools. In 1921, the Congress Party, a coalition of various nationalist groups, voted again for a nonviolent disobedience campaign. After England's entry into World War II, Gandhi proposed non-cooperation, and, as a result, he was imprisoned along with other members of...

Sulfanilamide Determination

When the Japanese in World War II took control of Indonesia they shut off the Allies' sole source of quinine, the drug of choice for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Cinchona tree plantations in Indonesia provided the bark from which quinine was extracted. In 1941, the world's demand for Cinchona bark exceeded 700 ton year and 90 of that supply came from Indonesia (1). Synthetic antimalarials like quinacrine were the only option available. Quinicrine was a synthetic antimalarial drug discovered in Germany in 1932. Winthrop Chemical in the US made this drug and sold it under the trade name Atabrine . In (1) Slater, L.B. (2004) Malaria chemotherapy and the kaleidoscopic organization of biomedical research during World War II. Ambix. 51(2) 107-134. (3) Joy, R.J.T. (1999) Malaria in American troops in the South and Southwest Pacific in World War II. Medical History. 43(2) 192-207.

Hay William Howard MD 18661940 Creator of the Hay Diet in 1911 the original inspiration for food combining

In his interest to improve national health and decrease mortality, Hay became more interested in natural medicine. He resolved, to take such things as he believed were intended by nature as foods for men after he cured himself of Bright's disease (now known as nephritis, or kidney disease) (Hay 1933 13). He also lost weight by changing his diet, and at the end of three months he was able to run long distances without distress. His weight decreased from 225 lbs. to 175 lbs years seem to fall away from him, and he felt younger and stronger than before for many years (Hay 1934 14). He accomplished this all by eating foods in their natural, unprocessed state and not eating to excess Proportion the amounts to the real desire at the time do not try to eat the whole because it is offered a mistake that is often made by those following suggested diets (Hay 1934 158). In addition, he believed that exercise is needed to keep us clean inside, and to enjoy all these periods as only one can do who...

Economic and Social Class

This hypothesis states that growing up with a different cultural heritage, speaking a nonstandard form of English, and experiencing hostility from the dominant culture creates intelligence differences. For instance, it has been shown that the B-W difference shrinks (and the averages of both groups increase) as one moves from the American southeast to the Pacific Northwest (Lynn, 1997). Although it is often assumed that this reflects regional differences in racial attitudes and overt racial discrimination, this same pattern is apparent in the IQs of preschool children (Jensen, 1998). Furthermore, racism or cultural alienation hypotheses do not tend to hold when applied to other groups. As noted previously, Asian Americans consistently out-score their White counterparts in America despite historical racism. For instance, after experiencing a century of racial prejudice that banned access to community resources and trade unions, the Japanese of the west coast suffered extreme racism...

Basic Instincts Sex and Aggression

In his later formulations, however , Freud collapsed the self-preservation and sexual instincts into one, which he called the life instinct. And, due in part to his witnessing the horrors of World War I, he developed the idea of a death instinct. Freud postulated that humans had a fundamental instinct toward destruction and that this instinct was often manifest in aggression toward others. The two instincts were usually referred to as libido for the life instinct and thanatos for the death instinct. Although the libido was generally considered sexual, Freud also used this term to refer to any need-satisfying, life-sustaining, or pleasure-oriented ur ge. Similarly, thanatos was considered to be the death instinct, but Freud used this term in a broad sense to refer to any urge to destroy, harm, or aggress against others or oneself. Freud wrote more about the libido early in his career , when this issue was perhaps relevant to his own life. Later in his career , Freud wrote more about...

The Physics of Radioactivity

During World War II, Enrico Fermi and his colleagues at the University of Chicago invented the nuclear reactor. Neutrons could bombard different chemicals to create radioactive tracers more easily and cheaply than was possible with a cyclotron. Therefore, the cyclotron was put on a back burner in biomedical research until the 1970s, when there was a resurgence of interest in carbon-11, oxygen-15, fluorine-18 and nitro-gren-13, elements of enormous biological importance that could only be produced in a cyclotron. On December 7, 1946, New York internist Sam Seidlin and his colleagues made the exciting announcement that radioiodine could not just ameliorate but could cure meta-static cancer of the thyroid. Marshall Brucer at Oak Ridge has written that, within days every Congressman heard the news from his constituents. On Janaury 1, 1947, the U S Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) took over the distribution of radioisotopes from the super secret Manhattan District Project of World War II...

Ainsworth Mary Dinsmore Salter 19131999

Mary Dinsmore Ainsworth

Their daughter Mary was a gifted child who learned to read at the age of three, and was very attached to her father. During her undergraduate years at the University of Toronto, William Blatz, who had developed ''security theory,'' sparked Salter's interest in psychology. According to this theory, the family is the secure base from which a developing individual can move out to develop new skills and interests. Salter's dissertation, entitled ''An Evaluation of Adjustment Based on the Concept of Security,'' was completed in 1939. In 1950 Salter married Leonard Ainsworth, a World War II veteran and graduate student in psychology at Toronto. Both went to London, where Leonard completed his doctoral studies and Mary applied for a research position on John Bowlby's team at the Tavistock Institute for Human Relations. She was offered the position, and her collaboration with Bowlby changed the direction of her career.

Cattell James 18601944

Alfred Binet

Critic of university governance and individual university administrators. Cattell was a pacifist and vigorously opposed the entry of the United States into World War I (this made him even more unpopular). As a result of accumulated tensions, he was dismissed from Columbia in 1917. Four years later he founded the Psychological Corporation, which was intended to be a nonprofit psychological consulting firm that would provide testing services to clients through the cooperative efforts of applied psychologists throughout the country. Virtually every big name in applied psychology at the time bought shares in the Psychological Corporation or agreed to join the external consulting staff of the corporation. The profits from the endeavor were to be returned to psychology in the form of research support. Cattell believed firmly that research support should be centered in scientific organizations and not in government agencies or universities. Until his death in 1944, Cattell remained active in...

Twentiethcentury developments

During the First World War the demand for massage to treat the injured grew and many more massage therapists were trained. Membership of the Society of Trained Masseuses grew and in 1920 it amalgamated with the Institute of Massage and Remedial Exercise. In recognition of the valuable work contributed by its members during the war, a Royal Charter was granted and the title was changed to the Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics. The title Name three eminent doctors who promoted massage for healing purposes. Explain why the reputation of massage grew during and after the First World War. Name the examining body that established the first beauty therapy course in colleges of further and higher education.

Motivation and Persistence

Fusion Hypothalamus

Even after Harlow's dramatic description of the effects of frontal lobe injury, not much research was performed on the functions of the frontal lobes until 1934, when Kleist had the opportunity to examine many of the soldiers who injured their frontal lobes during the First World War. He noted that these veterans also were apathetic and abu-lic, with a loss of drive and initiative. We still do not fully understand why the frontal lobes are so important for goal-oriented behavior however, Nauta (1971) a Dutch neuroanatomist who worked at MIT, provided us with one of the best explanations. He noted that information from the outside world is first transmitted to the primary sensory areas. As I mentioned, the auditory system projects to the superior portion of the temporal lobes, touch projects to the anterior portions of the parietal lobes, and vision projects to the occipital lobes (see Figure 3.6). These primary sensory areas perform elementary sensory analyses. Each of these primary...

Pritikin Nathan 191585 Creator of the Pritikin Diet

Heart disease and diabetes in Europe during World War II. Lester Morrison, a Los Angeles cardiologist, had given half of a group of cardiac patients a diet mimicking the low-fat wartime food rations. By 1955, the cholesterol levels of the experimental low-fat, low-cholesterol group

Gavril W Pasternak

Dole and Marie Nyswander in response to prevailing concerns about epidemic levels of heroin addiction and related health problems, mortality (especially among young people 15 to 35 years old) and high relapse rates. Methadone itself had been synthesized in Germany in World War II as a synthetic analgesic and was studied at the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, after the war. It was approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration in August 1947 for use in the treatment of pain. Its initial use in the treatment of addiction was to ease withdrawal in addicts being treated for heroin addiction it was subsequently determined to be well suited to long-term maintenance treatment. As a treatment tool, methadone provides a safe and effective way to eliminate drug craving, withdrawal, and drug-seeking behavior, and free patients to lead productive lives. In conjunction with educational, medical, and counseling services, it has been thoroughly documented as enabling...

Amphetamines and Related Drugs

For many years after their invention, amphetamines were tolerated and their use was even encouraged by authorities. Soldiers in World War II received rations of amphetamines to make them march longer and fight better. The governments of several countries, among them the Soviet Union, experimented with giving amphetamines to factory workers, hoping to make them more productive (which, in the long run, they failed to do). Doctors in this country have prescribed them in great quantity for even more questionable reasons.

Scientific evaluation of the Intermed

Initially, an item pool characterizing biopsychosocial case complexity was selected on the basis of face validity and evidence from the literature that a given item is known to increase case complexity and associated health care use. As an example, the item Chronicity (history, biologic domain) has been selected, because the distinction between acute and chronic diseases has proven helpful for the conceptualization of somatic diseases and the patient's care needs, especially in the elderly. The approach to treating chronic illnesses cannot be treated based solely on standardized, scientific evidence. An evidence-based approach must be complemented by an adjustment of treatment goals that are realistic for a given individual. Management of diabetes in an elderly man who suffered from the consequences of the Second World War in his youth and who is slightly depressed after the death of his wife cannot follow the same lines as the management of a diabetic young school teacher who engages...

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

Ganglion cells, and several species suffer nerve demye-lination. Fish exhibit fused gill lamellae, clumping of mitochondria, and kidney lesions. Signs specific for pantothenate depletion are not well characterized for humans. A syndrome that included 'burning feet' has been described in tropical prisoner-of-war camps during World War II, and it was said to respond to pantothenic acid supplements however this was likely to have been a more complex deficiency. A competitive analog of pantothenate, w-methyl pantothenate, interferes with the activation of pan-tothenic acid it also produces burning feet symptoms, Reye-like syndrome, cardiac instability, gastrointestinal disturbance, dizziness, paraesthesia, depression, fatigue, insomnia, muscular weakness, loss of immune (antibody) function, insensitivity to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and increased sensitivity to insulin. Large doses of pantothenate can reverse these changes. One of the earliest functional changes observed in mildly...

Homoeopathy and Homotoxicology

Already before World War II Reckeweg had tried to find out why, under the influence of homoeopathic remedies, one disease disappeared while another one emerged instead.732 He was not convinced by Hahnemann's explanation that the actual disease was eliminated by the secondary disease which was artificially induced by the homoeopathic remedy, and thought that the scientific insights of chemistry, physiology and medicine had progressed beyond that.733 He explained the effect mechanism of homoeotherapy with his doctrina medica accord

Food Aid for Development and the World Food Programme

Food aid has been a key to global agricultural development and trade policy since the end of World War II. Food aid creates agricultural development and income growth in poor nations, and thus creates future markets for donor countries, according to Christopher Barrett. However, food aid may be inflationary because it increases demand and costs for nonfood items in the recipient countries. World Food Programme. Fighting the Global War on Hunger from the Frontline. Available from

Cortical Localization History of

The last years of the nineteenth century saw several acrimonious controversies about the location of the various cortical sensory areas, involving such figures as David Ferrier, E. A. Schafer, and Hermann Munk. These issues were resolved first in monkeys and then in humans, so that by the end of World War I (with its rich clinical material), the location and organization of the primary visual, auditory, somes-thetic, and motor areas of the cortex had been defined. By this time, the cerebral cortex had been divided up into multiple regions on the basis of regional variations in its cellular or fiber structure. The more lasting of these cortical architectonic parcellations were those by Korbinian Brodmann and Constantin von Economo, who created the numbering and lettering schemes, respectively, that are still in use. Despite their new labels, however, the functions of vast regions of the cortex, other than the primary sensory and motor areas, remained mysterious. These regions were...

Geographic Differences In Rates Of Parkinsons Disease

Although the findings are inconsistent, a higher prevalence of PD in urban areas argues for byproducts of industrialization as risk factors for PD. Several studies suggest that increasing industrialization may increase PD risk. Schoenberg et al. compared the prevalence of PD in Copiah County, Mississippi, U.S.A. (341 100,000 over age 39) to Igbo-Ora, Nigeria (67 100,000 over age 39) using similar methodology, and studying genetically similar populations. They concluded that environmental factors may be responsible for the observed higher prevalence in the industrialized U.S. population (26). In contrast, a study (27) of PD in Estonia found a similar prevalence of PD in urban and rural regions, although the definitions of urban and rural were unclear. A small study (25) conducted in a health district in Canada found a lower risk of PD in industrialized areas of the district. In a population-based mortality study, Rybicki et al. (28) demonstrated that counties in Michigan, U.S.A. with a...

Luria Alexander Romanovich

In the late 1930s, largely to remove himself from public view during the period of purges initiated by Stalin, Luria entered medical school where he specialized in the study of aphasia, retaining his focus on the relation between language and thought in a politically neutral arena. The onset of World War II made his specialized knowledge of crucial importance to the Soviet war effort, and the widespread availability of people with various forms of traumatic brain injury provided him with voluminous materials for developing his theories of brain function and methods for the remediation of focal brain lesions. It was during this period that

Day Care as a Social Phenomenon

The use of day care has increased dramatically as increasing numbers of mothers have chosen to work outside of the home. According to the U.S. Census, only 31 percent of mothers of infants were working in 1976. This percentage climbed to 47 percent in 1984 and to 59 percent in 1998. As mentioned in a review by Kathleen McCartney and Deborah Phillips, societal views of day care have also changed over time. When day care was first formally established in the United States, a stigma was attached to its use. In the late 1800s through the early 1900s, day nurseries were established to make up for the ''poor home environments'' of working immigrants. Societal views changed during the Great Depression and World War II, when the need for day care was seen as temporary the expectation was that mothers would later return home to their children, and federal funds for day-care

Second Period 19501966

After World War II, the prevalence of Heroin addiction in the United States markedly increased. Heroin replaced morphine as the primary narcotic used. Annual admissions to the two hospitals doubled from the 1940s to the 1950s. The prewar addicts differed from their postwar counterparts. More of the postwar addicts came from large cities, and more came from minority groups (mainly black and Hispanic).

Nutrient Gene Interactions in Chronic Disease

Develop very rapidly if poor lifestyle choices are made. In support of this argument, one has only to examine the numbers of new cases of diabetes in times of abundant food supplies and in times of food restriction. During World War II when food was rationed (as was gasoline for automobiles), people ate less and were more active. During this period, the number of new cases of type 2 diabetes declined. The number of new cases of type 1 diabetes (autoimmune diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes) remained fairly constant. Because food was rationed and activity was increased, fewer people had excess fat stores, and this was probably a contributing factor to the decrease in diabetes development. When food became abundant after the war, food intake again was unrestricted, and over time the prevalence of both diabetes and obesity increased.

Historical Background

Research studies that involved serious ethical lapses have led to federal regulations and professional guidelines regarding the ethical conduct of research with human participants. During World War II, Nazi experiments intentionally inflicted serious harms on prisoners who gave no consent. In response to these atrocities, the Declaration of Helsinki of 1964 required consent from research subjects and established the need to balance the risks and benefits of the study.1 In 1972, news reports revealed egregious misconduct in the Tuskegee study, which was conducted by the U.S. government. Researchers deceived impoverished, poorly educated, African-American men into believing they were receiving treatment for syphilis and later withheld antibiotics after they became available.2 Revelations about the Tuskegee study led to the promulgation of federal regulations on the ethical conduct of human subjects research, the requirement of informed consent from subjects, and the creation of...

The Twentieth Century

World War I prompted national austerity programs in many countries that curtailed the diversion of foodstuffs to alcoholic beverages but didn't quite reach the full prohibition for which the United States became famous. Absinthe was thought to be medically so dangerous that it was banned in several European countries, and Iceland banned beer but not wine or liquor. Sweden experimented with rationing, and the czar again tried prohibition in Russia. The worldwide economic depression of the 1930s appears to have slowed the growth of alcohol consumption, which grew rapidly during the economic boom that followed World War II. The Scandinavian countries, beset by a pattern of binge drinking, often accompanied by violence, tried a variety of systems of regulation, including state monopolies, high taxation, and severely restricted places and times of sale, before turning to large-scale social research. Consumption of all alcoholic beverages increased gradually in the U.S. from repeal until...

Battle Creek Sanitarium Early Health

The sanitarium, in its heyday during the 1880s, was the most famous health institution in the country, a reputation it held until World War II. The sanitarium was also instrumental in spawning the health food industry and lent strong support to the concept of vegetarianism. The Battle Creek Sanitarium represented a haven to those who made pilgrimages to its abundant facilities. It afforded indoor exercise facilities, a steam-heated environment, and all the amenities of a first-class hotel, including Edison electric lights and polite attendants. In 1927, its golden anniversary year, the Battle Creek Sanitarium treated more than 7,000 patients. It eventually became the Percy Jones Army Hospital, which treated casualties of World War II and the Korean War. see also Kellogg, John Harvey White, Ellen G.

What Else May Be Important In Causing Multiple Sclerosis

The notion of an infectious cause of MS gained support when the disease emerged in the Faroe Islands, off the coast of England, after occupation by British troops during World War II. It has been speculated that dogs kept as pets by the British brought canine distemper or another virus to the island, exposing the native human inhabitants. However, no links to the canine distemper virus have been demonstrated.

The Changing Nature of Adoption

One significant outcome of the reduced availability of adoptable infants was that many individuals began to consider adoption through private placements, which frequently offered greater hope for finding a baby, rather than through licensed agencies. Today, healthier newborn infants are placed for adoption through independent means than through the adoption agency system. In other cases, prospective adoptive parents began looking beyond the borders of the United States in their effort to adopt children. Beginning after World War II and escalating after the Korean and Vietnam wars, international adoption has become a major source of children for individuals wishing to become adoptive parents. In 2000, for example, U.S. citizens adopted more than 16,000 children from other countries, with the greatest numbers coming from Russia, China, South Korea, eastern Europe, and Central and South America. In many cases, these adoptions involved placements across racial lines. Still other...

International Academy for Child Brain Development

During World War I the first massive use of psychological tests of intelligence was begun with the testing of military recruits. Hundreds of psychologists and graduate students in psychology were recruited to administer the tests to recruits. After the war critics were outraged to find that the Army test suggested that southern and eastern Europeans were inferior to northern Europeans, and that blacks were inferior to whites. Some believe it was these test results that prompted restrictive emigration policies in America in 1924 and fanned the flames of racial prejudice against blacks and other minorities.

American physician credited with first suggesting calorie counting as a means of gaining and losing weight

Peters served as chairman of the Public Health Committee of the California Federation of Women's Clubs in Los Angeles. She is the author of the first bestselling American diet book, Dieting and Health With Key to the Calories, published in 1918. Framed as a response to World War I (and dedicated to Herbert Hoover, whose claim to fame at that point was that he fed starving Belgium ) it set out obesity as a crime to hoard food for which one would be fined or imprisoned. How dare you hoard food when our nation needs it (Peters 1918 12). The book is said to have sold 2 million copies and was published in more than fifty-five editions by i939. As the model for recent modern diet books, it was directed and marketed primarily to women, written in a popular style, and included testimonials of successful weight loss. Unlike modern diet books, however, Peters included suggestions for weight gain as well as beauty tips, such as how to eliminate wrinkles.

Dieting and Eating Disorders

Until the end of the nineteenth century, concerns about obesity centered on men's bodies, and men generated the bulk of dietary advice literature (Gilman 2004 4-5). Even in the early twentieth century when women received the most biting commentary on their weight, attention to male standards continued, and both men's and women's magazines featured slim male models (Sterns 1997 98-9). In fact, during World War I, there was widespread cultural anxiety about the fitness of men's bodies as emblematic of the health of the nation overall. In the first two decades of the century, scientists and physicians sought to create a powerful, gutsy nation through transforming men's physical bodies (Carden-Coyne 2005). In the 1950s, diet books written particularly for men began to emerge, and they developed an immediate and huge following. This literature, however, rejected the aesthetic concerns most often associated with women and promoted weight loss, instead, as a means of improving one's...

Historical Overview Of Treatments

When heroin was first commercially marketed by the Bayer Company as a morphine-like cough suppressant, it was thought to have fewer side effects than morphine. It was also used in the treatment of morphine addiction since it enters the brain more rapidly than does morphine. Instead, heroin introduced a new, more potent addiction. An over-the-counter industry in the legal sale of morphine and codeine elixirs also existed until opiates were outlawed by the Harrison Narcotics act of 1914 and subsequent laws were passed during World War I (1914-1918).

Lifestyle and Nutrition

The socioeconomic situation in the democratic part of Europe and in the United States after World War II was substantially different than that in the Soviet bloc. The United States and the European democratic states were prosperous countries with effective economies and a rich variety of all kinds of foods. The communist states, however, had ineffective centralized economies and lower standards of living. The amount of various foods, especially foods of animal origin, was almost always insufficient in the USSR and the majority of its satellite countries. Data on food consumption compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) confirm that meat consumption was, between 1961 and 1990, substantially lower in the USSR, Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria than in Western Europe or the United States. Similarly, the consumption of milk and butter in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania was significantly lower in comparison with Western and Northern Europe.

Neuropsychology Behavioral Neurology And Neuropsychiatry

Sir William Osler first used the term neuropsychology in 1913 however, neuropsychology, at least as a clinical endeavor, did not emerge as a subdiscipline of psychology until the 1940s, largely in response to demands for the assessment and rehabilitation of brain-injured soldiers in World War II (1). The likely first published use of a clinical neuropsychological test with persons having parkinsonian syndrome is Shaskin et al.'s (2) administration of the Wechsler Bellevue Scale, an intelligence scale, to postencephalitic parkinsonians. Neuropsychology shares with behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry the goal of relating behavior to underlying brain structure and function (3). However, neuropsychology's principal clinical method, namely its standardized, quantitative, norm-referenced approach to the evaluation

The Historical Perspective

These activists often held influential and respected positions in politics and medicine, which enabled them to promote their views, with very little opposition, debate or calls for evidence to justify such beliefs. One belief was based on the then popular eugenic ideology that focused on breeding a superior human race, which later became more notoriously associated with the atrocities carried out by the Nazis in the Second World War (Lyn 2001). Such beliefs encouraged the segregation of men and women in institutions and can be brought to life in the prejudiced words of the activist Mary Dendy (early twentieth century) '. . . so as to prevent, transmitting their mental and social ineptitude to their offspring . . . the evil can be cured by preventing it' (cited in Wright & Digby 1996).

International Context International Promotion

Hunger and malnutrition were put on the international agenda by the League of Nations in the 1930s, and the first conference of the United Nations in 1943 was devoted to food and agriculture. It remained an important focus of the United Nations technical agencies, FAO, WHO, and UNICEF, which were created immediately after World War II. Other international organizations have since been established, including the World Food Programme, World Food Council, International Fund for Agriculture Development, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, the World Bank, and the Consultative Group on International Agriculture. All these organizations and other international

Quality specifications and commercial issues

Although oregano has been known and used for centuries, it has only lately gained mass popularity, largely because of its relationship with marjoram (O. marjorana), the popular and botanical terms for both species having long been confused. While sweet marjoram was one of the most popular herbs during the Middle Ages, oregano was scarcely cultivated, probably because of the plant's tendency to compete against other plants growing nearby. On the other hand, wild oregano has been traditionally collected in Mediterranean countries and in Mexico for use in many of the favourite dishes (e.g. for tomato-based sauces, lamb, seafood, chilli peppers and almost any garlic flavoured dish). The rest of the world discovered oregano after World War II, with the expansion of pizza consumption (and to a lesser-degree, Mexican-style foods). Oregano consumption boomed from almost nil to a consumption volume of over 500 000 tonnes, demonstrating a per capita increase of importation into the USA of 3800...

Negative consequences of not using a technology

One technology that is only 'emerging' because of its limited application in the market is that of irradiation. Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation has been researched for decades. A report by the World Health Organization concluded that food irradiated to any dose to achieve the intended technological objective is safe to consume and nutritionally adequate (WHO, 1999). However, consumers associate the process with the negative effects of radiation on humans resulting from atomic bombs and the fear of nuclear war and accidents at nuclear power facilities such as those at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Activists have viewed the process as a way to mask contamination, and they claim it destroys nutrients and creates harmful chemicals. Consumer misconceptions about the

Environmental factors

Exposure to ionizing radiation and certain toxic chemicals may predispose individuals to leukemia and other problems involving the bone marrow. Many Japanese who were exposed to fallout from the atomic bomb during World War II and some of the people living near the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine have developed leukemia. However, children exposed to irradiation from the bombs while in the mothers womb did not have an increased risk of developing leukemia.

Pregnancy and Fetal Growth

Since World War II, the role of maternal nutrition in fetal growth and development has been extensively studied in the context of protein-calorie malnutrition. The role of n-3 fatty acids has only recently come into focus, despite the evidence of its importance having been demonstrated in a series of studies between 1928 and 1930 involving rats and primates. Lipid nutrition during pregnancy and lactation is of special relevance to human development, because brain development in the human takes place during fetal life and in the first 2 years after birth. DHA is found in larger amounts in the gray matter of the brain and in the retinal membranes, where it accounts for 30 or more of the fatty acids in the ethanolamine and serine phos-pholipid. DHA accumulates in the neurons of the brain between weeks 26 and 40 of gestation in humans.

Russell Lillian 18611922 American singer and actress

Debutantes in her column, Russell discussed women's health, love, and, most provocatively, women's suffrage, a cause to which her mother had been devoted. After World War I broke out, she was a recruiter for the Marine Corps and raised money for the American Legion. In 1922, she acted as a special investigator on immigration for President Warren G. Harding in Europe. After her death, she was buried with full military honors because of her contributions to the war effort.

Professionalization of Dieting

The shift from individuals following the advice from diet gurus to diet professionals is evident in the increasing number of members of the American Dietetic Association (ADA). As of 2006, the ADA had 65,000 members and was the U.S.A.'s largest food and nutrition organization. The ADA was founded in 1917 in Cleveland, Ohio by a group of women who wanted to enhance America's health and nutrition during World War I. Since the early 1900s, the ADA has evolved into an organization of people with diverse practice areas (ADA). Whether dieters actually check to see if their dietitian or doctor is a member of the ADA is unknown however, as in other professions, belonging to the national organization is important. According to the ADA's vision statement, its members are the most valued source of food and nutrition services, because of their extensive training.

Aging and Cognition

Both distal and proximal interpretations of the age-related decline in fluid cognitive abilities have been proposed. Distal interpretations focus on factors from earlier periods in the individual's life that may have contributed to his or her level of performance at the current time. Examples are speculations that the age-related declines are attributable to historical changes in the quantity or quality of education, or to various unspecified cultural characteristics that affect cognitive performance. In fact, comparisons of the scores of soldiers in World War II with the norms from World War I (Tuddenham 1948), and a variety of time-lag comparisons reported by Flynn (1987), suggest that the average level of cognitive ability has been improving across successive generations. However, the factors responsible for these improvements have not yet been identified (see Neisser 1997), and questions still remain about the implications of the positive time-lag effects for the interpretation of...


Analogy is also used in communication and persuasion. For example, President Bush analogized the Persian Gulf crisis to the events preceding World War II, comparing Saddam Hussein to Hitler, Spellman and Holy oak 1992). The invited inference was that the United States should defend Kuwait and Saudi Arabia against Iraq, just as the Allies defended Europe against Nazi Germany. On a larger scale, conceptual metaphors such as weighing the evidence and balancing the pros and cons can be viewed as large-scale conventionalized analogies (see cognitive linguistics). Finally, analogy and its relative, similarity, are important because they participate in many other cognitive processes. For example, exemplar-based theories of conceptual structure and case-based reasoning models in artificial intelligence assume that much of human categorization and reasoning is based on analogies between the current situation and prior situations (cf. judgment heuristics).


Prisoners were used as research subjects millennia ago by Persian kings. Researchers in the U.S. used prisoners in pellagra studies in the late 1800s and malaria studies in the early 20th century. During World War II, U.S. prisoners participated in numerous medical experiments and received public praise for their contribution to the war effort. 3 As pharmaceutical research expanded dramatically after WWII, many prisoners became research subjects. Some prisons even had special units dedicated to drug company research.3 By the end of the 1960s an estimated 85 of new pharmaceuticals were tested on prisoners.4'5 There were many potential advantages to researchers and pharmaceutical companies for using this captive population. Prisoners were stably housed and easy to follow throughout the study period. Conducting studies in prisons could be less expensive than among the non-incarcerated.


The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) was created by the 104th Congress to stimulate basic research and technology development for cleanup of the nation's nuclear weapons complex. The EMSP is a mission-directed basic research program and is designed to support a much larger technology development program within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program is managed jointly by EM and the Office of Energy Research (ER). Unlike other federal programs that address environmental problems, the EMSP is explicitly focused on EM's problems and has the specific objective to improve the effectiveness of the cleanup effort over the long term.

Mental Illness

Between 50 and 60 million war-related deaths occurred during World War II. The World Wars, and the Korean and Vietnam Wars, made the twentieth century the most bloody of all times (Ferguson, 2007). These wars witnessed great levels of atrociousness, barbarity, cruelties, and genocides. Political efforts have been unable to solve the problems of killings, war, and destruction. The League of Nations, the United Nations, treaties outlawing war, and arms control agreements have all failed. Only strength and deterrence by individual nations brought peace after World War II and produced democracy in Germany, Japan, Italy, and Austria. Strong evidence that human beings are inclined toward evil is provided by fascism and other horrors of World War II. Even today, negative campaigning in elections appeals to the public's innate selfishness, where the candidates present the election as a conflict between good and evil. A great fear is that Islamist extremists within the Pakistani army will take...


Cannabis sativa grows in the tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. It is generally considered a single species of the mulberry family (Moraceae) with multiple morphological variants (e.g., C. indica or C. americana). It is an herb of varying size some are quite bushy and attain a height of 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.6 m). Due to genetic differences, some plants produce strong fibers (but little THC) and others produce a substantial quantity of THC but weak fibers. The fiber-producer is grown commercially for cloth, rope, roofing materials, and floor coverings this was cultivated as a cash crop in colonial America for such purposes (Hart, 1980). During World War II, when it appeared that the United States might be cut off from Southeast Asian hemp, necessary to the war effort, the plants were cultivated in the mid-western states. Some of them continue to grow wild today,


The treatment of orthopoxvirus infections has become of widespread interest recently due to the terroristic threat of biological warfare with smallpox virus. Clinical trials using vaccinia as a gene delivery vector would benefit greatly from a drug or compound that could turn off viral replication. Vaccinia immunoglobulin (VIG) is the only approved product available for treating complications of vaccinia infection. VIG has been owned by the Department of Defense, with a small amount available through the Centers for Disease Control (55). No randomized controlled clinical trials have been performed to evaluate therapeutic efficacy and prevention therefore, there is doubt as to its effectiveness in established complications from vaccinia. A randomized trial examining comcomitant treatment with vaccinia and VIG demonstrated a significantly lower rate of postvaccinal encephalitis.

Hal Anger

From July 1943 to December 1945, Hal helped develop radar jamming, which became crucial in the air war in Europe during World War II. He also worked on anti-jamming methods to counter the jamming by the Germans at that time. In 1948, Hal went to work at the Donner Laboratory, which was part of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, named for Nobel laureate, Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron in the early 1930s. John Lawrence, brother of Ernest, was head of the Donner Lab, but Hal's immediate boss was the late Cornelius (Toby) Tobias, one of the many Hungarian refugees who came to the US in 1939, and contributed so much to radiation sciences in America. Tobias was a founding member of the Donner Laboratory, who pioneered the study of the biological effects of cosmic rays. He worked with Luis Alvarez and Emilio Segre, two other Nobel laureates in the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. Tobias became famous for his work in radiation therapy based on the use of the fifth of Ernest...

What causes MS

Population studies have yielded information from which it has been inferred that an environmental factor exists. Persons moving from high-risk to low-risk areas take the risk with them if they move after the age of 15 years. Conversely, if they move before the age of 15 years, they appear to leave the risk behind. This information comes from studies of populations moving from Europe (a high-risk area) to Africa (a low-risk area). Similar observations have been noted in the populations moving into Israel. These findings, as well as the occurrence of an epidemic of MS in the Faeroe Islands after the invasion of those islands by British troupes at the outset of World War II, suggest that an infectious agent is playing a role in MS.

When Smoking Was In

Until late in the twentieth century, cigarette smoking was more in the public eye. In the early days of TV, many newscasters used cigarettes as sophisticated props. There were clever ads for smoking on TV, and magazines were filled with colorful full-page ads for different brands of cigarettes. Cigarette companies even advertised in medical journals. During World War II, the government regularly issued cigarettes to everyone in the armed forces. In movies, leading characters often smoked, making the habit seem glamorous to viewers.

Twin Studies

Although earlier twin studies in PD were inconclusive (19-21), Tanner et al. (22) demonstrated the presence of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PD when disease begins at or before age 50 years. They studied twins enrolled in the twin registry of the National Academy of Science and the National Research Council World War II Veteran Twins Registry. No genetic component was evident when the onset of symptoms occurred after age 50 years. A more recent study using the Swedish Twin Registry, conducted by Wirdefeldt et al. (23), demonstrated low concordance rates in twins, whether monozygotic or dizygotic. However, both of these studies were largely based on limited, cross-sectional clinical observations, and diagnostic accuracy might be improved by longitudinal evaluations (24).

Dangerous Research

During World War I, Marie, with the help of her daughter Irene, worked on X-rays for medical diagnosis in the treatment of wounded soldiers. After the war, Marie continued her research in radiation therapy, for which she won international acclaim. When she became ill with leukemia and died, Irene and her husband carried on with the work. Like her mother, Irene became ill with leukemia and died from it in 1956 in the Curie Hospital in Paris.

Nuclear Radiation

Nuclear radiation has caused thousands of cancer deaths. In World War II, when atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the bombs released huge amounts of nuclear radiation. Among those who survived the explosions, many were diagnosed with leukemia in the following years. There was a 50 percent increase in the number of leukemia cases in Japan from 1946 to the early 1950s.

Great expectations

Between 1950 and 1984, world grain output rose an astonishing 260 percent, thanks to a combination of improved varieties, irrigation, artificial fertilizers, and chemical pest control. During the same period, the number of people on the planet almost doubled. Today, world population growth adds about 90 million new mouths to feed every year, while land degradation, pest resistance, pollution, and climate changes have slowed or leveled growth in crop production. In the early 1990s, world grain production per capita began to decline for the first time since the Second World War. There are many who believe that biotechnology may now be the only way to reverse this problematic new trend and maintain food supplies (Figure 4.1).

Machine Translation

MT is the intellectual precursor to the field of computational linguistics (also called NATURAL language processing), and shares interests with computer science (artificial intelligence), linguistics, and occasionally anthropology. Machine translation dates back to the work of Warren Weaver (1955), who suggested applying ideas from cryptography, as employed during World War II, and information theory, as outlined in 1947 by Claude Shannon, to language processing. Not surprisingly, the first large-scale MT project was funded by the U.S. government to translate Russian Air Force manuals into English. After an initial decade of naive optimism, the ALPAC (for Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee) report (Pierce et al. 1966), issued by a government-sponsored study panel, put a damper on research in the United States for many years. Research and commercial development continued largely in Europe and after 1970 also in Japan. Today, over fifty companies worldwide produce and sell...

Newell Allen

Newell was born on March 19, 1927, in San Francisco, the son of Dr. Robert R. Newell, a distinguished radiologist on the faculty of the Stanford Medical School, and Jeanette LeValley Newell. He attended San Francisco public schools, and served in the Navy after World War II, assisting in mapping radiation intensities at the Eniwetok A-bomb tests, an experience that awoke his interest in science. In 1949, he received a B.S. degree in Physics at Stanford, then spent a postgraduate year studying mathematics at Princeton University. A desire to learn more about applications domains led him to a position studying logistics and air defense organization at Rand in Santa Monica, a think tank supported by the U.S. Air Force, and gave him early contact with the then emerging electronic digital computers.

Drug Treatment

It was the experimental success of Methadone Maintenance that finally altered the discussion of opioid maintenance. Methadone, a synthesized drug with opioid properties, was invented by German pharmacologists during World War II and had been used at the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital at Lexington to block addicts' withdrawal symptoms. In 1963 and 1964, with the support of the prestigious Rockefeller University, medical researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander began to study its wider use in the treatment of heroin addiction. Their research proceeded despite opposition by the federal Bureau of Narcotics, and was first published in 1965. The remarkable changes they observed in their patients soon were replicated by other scholars. Methadone maintenance attracted considerable notoriety and generated new enthusiasm for maintenance as a strategy of treatment.

Good vs Evil

Chesterton described his sitting by a pond on a lovely summer afternoon watching children torturing a cat. This convinced him of the reality of original sin (Wills, 1999). Judaism, Christianity, and Islam trace their origins back to the creation of evil by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. St. Augustine taught that God created nature. Adam caused things to go wrong. His fall gave birth to seven deadly sins lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, wrath, envy and pride. Human virtues persisted chastity, abstinence, liberality, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility. These virtues provided the foundation of morality and ethics, and they made possible the survival of the human race. Today, after the development of nuclear weapons, selfishness and aggressiveness threaten the survival of the human species. In 1835, Alexis de Tocquiville attributed the extraordinary political and personal freedom of the people in the United States to their being intensely religious. President Franklin...

Human Data

Ecological studies present fairly convincing evidence that nutrition, isolated to some extent from other historical circumstances, has played a direct role in TB morbidity and mortality. In 1938, Faber reported on TB epidemiology in Denmark during World War I. For most of the war, neutral Denmark exported the bulk of its meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products to the extent that the local diet lacked these protein-, vitamin-, and mineral-rich foods. TB rates increased The third important contribution to the early literature was Leyton's study of TB morbidity among British and Russian prisoners of war (POW) held in German POW camps during World War II. The prisoners shared the same diet, but the British received Red Cross food supplements amounting to 30 g protein and 1000 kcal per day. In a subsequent radiographic survey, the TB rate among the British was only 1.2 and their plasma proteins were higher than those of the Russians, who had a TB rate of 15-19 . Both groups shared the same...

Mary L Tenopyr

Rater source is another area that affects appraisal-based criteria. It has been known since the end of World War II that supervisor and peer ratings do not necessarily measure the same factors (Springer, 1953). This type of finding was recently confirmed by Ones et al. (2000). Furthermore, Schmidt and Hunter (1998) treat peer ratings as a predictor that is only moderately correlated with supervisors' rat


And, little known today, conkers were used for explosives during the First World War. With other sources of acetone unavailable, British children collected 3,000 tons of conkers secretly in summer 1917 (their schools received a certificate). The research chemist seconded to the government's chestnuts plan, Chaim Weizman, then in Manchester, would become first president of Israel in 1948.

Secondary Syphilis

Syphilis Face Rash

While infrequently seen now, neurosyphilis had significant impact in the past. It is estimated to have caused 5 to 10 of first-time admissions to U.S. mental health hospitals prior to World War II and widespread availability of penicillin (9). As discussed previously, hematogenous dissemination and direct invasion can produce acute neurosyphilis during the secondary stage however, the CNS can also be involved in tertiary neurosyphilis. Most commonly, this infection is asymptomatic and picked up with an abnormal finding on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. This may occur in up to 40 of untreated syphilitics (7). As this asymptomatic infection is curable with antibiotic therapy, lumbar puncture should be performed if the adequacy of prior treatment is in question.

Need to Belong

Several lines of empirical research support Baumeister and Leary's theory about the need to belong. First, external threats have been shown repeatedly to increase group cohesion (Stein, 1976). In one study , World War II veterans were examined for enduring social ties (Elder & Clipp, 1988). Remarkably , their strongest social ties 40 years after the war were with comrades who had experienced combat together . This effect was intensified among the units in which some comrades had died, suggestin that, the more intense the external threat, the greater the social bonding.

Historical Roots

After the United States entered World War II in 1941, Mexico was asked to provide opium for the war effort, since it was processed into MORPHINE, a medication used extensively for war-related wounds. In both Mexico and the United States, HEMP was grown to fill U.S. military need for rope and cordage hemp is processed from Cannabis sativa, which is also used as marijuana. By mid-1943, opium constituted the most profitable cash crop in Mexico's northwestern state of Sinaloa. Despite Mexico's efforts to control the production of these crops after the war, drugs were grown, processed, and smuggled into the United States from Mexico.

Production and trade

The tree is indigenous to West Indies (Jamaica). The trees are also found in Central America (Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Cuba) and in the neighbouring Caribbean islands, although its original home is in dispute. Christopher Columbus discovered allspice in the Caribbean islands in about 1494. Spanish explorers and later settlers in Jamaica harvested and used the leaves and berries. Reports indicate that, there has been continuous production of berries in Jamaica from about 1509 to the present day. The berries reached London in 1601 as described by Clusius in his Liber Exoticorum and the plants were first cultivated in England in a hot house in 1732 (Weiss, 2002). Before World War II, allspice was more widely used than today however, during the war many trees were cut down and there was a shortage of the spice. Though cultivation was taken up after the war, production never fully recovered.


Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase

From being a meat- and milk-eating community, they became, and have remained, largely maize eaters, and pellagra continued to be a major problem of public health nutrition in South Africa throughout much of the twentieth century. The other region where pellagra was a major problem at the beginning of the twentieth century was the southern part of the United States. The social and economic upheaval of the American Civil War led to a poor maize-based diet for large sections of the population, and it was not until the entry of the United States into the second World War that increasing employment and a rise in the general standard of living solved the dietary problem. Although Casal had considered pellagra to be due to a dietary deficiency, investigations at the beginning of the twentieth century started from the assumption that, like other diseases, it was an infection. It was the pioneering studies of Gold-berger and coworkers in the United States that showed that the condition was...

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