Fat Replacement Strategies

The purpose of fat-replacement strategies is to reduce the percentage of fat in various foods, without taking away the appealing taste of the food. There are three broad categories of fat-replacement strategies (1) adding water, starch derivatives, and gums to foods, (2) using protein-derived fat replacements, and (3) using engineered fats. The addition of water to foods lowers the quantity of fat per serving in the selected food item. When starch derivatives are added to food, they bind...

Additives and Preservatives

Additives are defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as any substance, the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food. In other words, an additive is any substance that is added to food. Direct additives are those that are intentionally added to foods for a specific purpose. Indirect additives are those to which the food is exposed...

Adult Nutrition

The science of nutrition is dedicated to learning about foods that the human body requires at different stages of life in order to meet the nutritional needs for proper growth, as well as to maintain health and prevent disease. A baby is born with a very high requirement for energy and nutrient intake per unit of body weight to provide for rapid growth. The rate of growth is the highest during the first year and declines slowly after the age of two, with a corresponding decrease in nutrient and...

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an extreme reduction in food intake leading to potentially life-threatening weight loss. This syndrome is marked by an intense, irrational fear of weight gain or excess body fat, accompanied by a distorted perception of body weight and shape. The onset is usually in the middle to late teens and is rarely seen in females over age forty. Among women of menstruating age with this disorder, amenorrhea is common. A clinical diagnosis of...

Baby Boomers and Nutritional Supplements

Informed, prosperous, and health-conscious, the baby boomers are known as a generation that plans to fight vigorously against the encroachments of age. During the 1990s, as the boomers began reaching their fifties, they increasingly turned to supplements to ward off osteoporosis, memory loss, and a host of other ailments. With increased demand, the vitamins, minerals, and herbs they sought migrated from health food stores to mass merchandisers. Between 1997 and 2002 the supplement industry...

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating, which are followed by purging to prevent weight gain. During these incidents, unusually large portions of food are consumed in secret, followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or diuretic and laxative abuse. Although the types of food chosen may vary, sweets and high-calorie foods are commonly favored. Bulimic episodes are typically accompanied by a sense of a loss of self-control...

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin action, insulin production, or both. Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps the body use and store glucose produced during the digestion of food. Characterized by hyperglycemia, symptoms of diabetes include frequent urination, increased thirst, dehydration, weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue, and, occasionally, coma. Uncontrolled hyper-glycemia over time damages the eyes, nerves, blood vessels,...

Dietary Supplements

The demand for dietary supplements in the United States catapulted what was once a cottage industry into a 14 billion per year business in the year 2000. In 1994, the U.S. Congress formally defined the term dietary supplement as a product taken by mouth that contains a dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet. The dietary ingredients in these products may include vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes, organ tissues, glandulars, and metabolites. Dietary supplements can also...

Dietary Patterns

Fruit and vegetable intake, although rising, is still below the five servings per day recommended in the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The average American eats one and one-half servings of vegetables and one serving of fruit per day. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, consumption of milk and eggs has been declining, while cheese consumption has gone up. Meat, poultry, and fish intake has climbed dramatically. Grain and cereal consumption has also risen. Vegetable fats are...

Effects of Socioeconomic Status Poverty and Health

Many of the foods commonly eaten by African Americans, such as greens, yellow vegetables, legumes, beans, and rice, are rich in nutrients. Because of cooking methods and the consumption of meats and baked goods, however, the diet is also typically high in fat and low in fiber, calcium, and legumes beans, peas, and related plants nutrient dietary substance necessary for health calcium mineral essential for bones and teeth SOURCE Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for...

Energy Boosters

Many athletes take supplements to boost energy, particularly ginseng, ephedra, and caffeine. Ginseng functions as an adaptogen, or immune system stimulant, but it does not have an effect on athletic performance. (Athletes who choose to take ginseng should look for Panax ginseng standardized to 4-7 percent ginsenosides, with the following dosing regimen 100-200 milligrams per day for two-three weeks, then one-two weeks of no use before resuming). Ephedra (also called Ma Huang, epitonin, and sida...

Exercise Prescription

Adequate physical activity is dependent on having a well-rounded program that encompasses all aspects of improving health and preventing disease. A well-rounded program includes cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, posture, and maintenance of body composition. The most effective way to participate in a well-rounded program is by following a simple mnemonic device called FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type). The FITT principle includes how many times a week...

Fat Nutrition

The energy value of fats is 9 kcal gram (kilocalories per gram), which supplies the body with important sources of calories. Calories are units of energy. The breaking of bonds within fat molecules releases energy that the body uses. A kilocalorie is the unit used to measure the energy in foods. It is the equivalent of calories listed on Nutrition Facts labels on food packaging. Some of the foods known to contain large amounts of fat include the obvious examples, such as butter on toast, fried...

Food and Nutrient Intakes of College Students

Of the three nutrients that provide calories (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), carbohydrate (particularly sugar) and fat intake often exceeds recommended levels. College students also tend to have a low intake of dietary fiber, carbohydrate food molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, including sugars and starches protein complex molecule composed of amino acids that performs vital functions in the cell necessary part of the diet fiber indigestible plant material that aids digestion...

High Risk Groups

While alcohol abuse and alcoholism affect virtually every segment of the population, certain groups are at greater risk. Young adults between the ages of eighteen and twenty-nine have the highest prevalence of alcohol abuse, and persons who begin to drink at an early age, especially before the age of fourteen, have a greater risk for developing problems with alcohol. Persons with a family history of alcohol abuse or alcoholism are also more likely to experience alcohol-related problems. In the...

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is the result of either too little insulin or of the body's inefficient use of insulin. Indicators of hyperglycemia include frequent urination, thirst, high levels of sugar in the urine, and high blood sugar. Failure to address hyperglycemia results in dehydration and ketoacidosis. Over the long term, hyperglycemia causes heart disease, foot problems, blindness, kidney disease, and nerve damage. For diabetics, frequent blood glucose testing and diet...

Increased Nutritional Needs

The physical changes of adolescence have a direct influence on a person's nutritional needs. Teenagers need additional calories, protein, calcium, and iron. Calories. Adolescents need additional calories to provide energy for growth and activity. Boys ages 11 to 18 need between 2,500 and 2,800 calories each day. Adolescent girls need approximately 2,200 calories each day. This is a significant increase from childhood requirements. To meet these calorie needs, teens should choose a variety of...

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, or abnormally low blood sugar, is caused by the impaired response (or failure) of the liver to release glucose as blood sugar levels decrease. The imbalance in the rate of glucose released from the liver and its use by other body tissues can result in the following hypoglycemic symptoms hunger, nervousness, dizziness, confusion, sleepiness, difficulty speaking, feeling anxious or weak, irritability, sweating, loss of consciousness, and increased blood pressure. In diabetic...

Influence of Diet on Health

Childhood and adulthood obesity are on the rise. Between 1988 and 1994, 11 percent of U.S. children and adolescents aged six to nine years of age were overweight or obese. During this same period, 35 percent of the American adult population aged twenty and over were obese, compared to 25 percent during the years 1976 through 1980. The rising trend in obesity pervades the Middle East, the Caribbean, Europe, Latin America, Brazil, Japan, South East Asia, Australia, and China. Since being...

Lifestyle and Nutrition

The socioeconomic situation in the democratic part of Europe and in the United States after World War II was substantially different than that in the Soviet bloc. The United States and the European democratic states were prosperous countries with effective economies and a rich variety of all kinds of foods. The communist states, however, had ineffective centralized economies and lower standards of living. The amount of various foods, especially foods of animal...

Nutritional Needs of the Mother

Milk production requires about 800 calories a day. The Recommended Dietary Allowances for calories during breastfeeding is 500 more calories a day than is required by a nonpregnant woman. Nutritional requirements do not change significantly from pregnancy, with the exception of decreases in folate and iron, and increases in vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, and zinc. The diet can be the same as during pregnancy, plus an additional glass of milk. Women who are on medication should check with their...

Policies and Recommendations

A woman's ability to breastfeed for the optimal recommended time depends on the support she receives from her family, health care providers, and the workplace. Health care institutions should adopt policies and initiatives that include A written breastfeeding policy A breastfeeding education program Rooming-in of mother and child Limited use of pacifiers, water, and formula With the increased number of women in the workforce, employers can do a lot to support and encourage breastfeeding, such...

Potential Nutrition Related Problems

Adolescents are at risk for obesity, obesity-related chronic diseases, and eating disorders. Obesity, Diabetes, and Heart Disease. All over the world, adolescent obesity is on the rise. This has led to an increase in obesity-related diseases like diabetes and heart disease. Experts believe this rise in obesity is due to lack of physical activity and an increase in the amount of fast food and junk food available to adolescents. Staying active and eating foods that are low in fat and sugar...

Present Day Eating Habits

Today, the Mediterranean region is characterized by a high increase in modernization. The traditional diet of the Mediterranean region has been affected by modernization, particularly in the area of agricultural production for trade. The countries of North Africa and the Middle East struggle the most with modernization problems. This has led to an increase in the dependence on costly food imports from outside the region. While the Greek economy remains rooted in agriculture and the government...

Protective Factors

During digestion in the stomach, large proteins break down into smaller protein forms, and harmful bacteria can become inactive. Hydrochloric acid is especially important for this because it lowers the pH of the stomach contents below 2. Along with the uncoiling of protein in the stomach, a little carbohydrate and lipid are broken down with the help of enzymes (called amylase and lipase, respectively). In the stomach, carbohydrates in foods turn to starch, but it is not until the chyme reaches...

Rheumatic Heart Disease

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) involves damage to the heart and heart vessels caused by rheumatic fever. A susceptible person acquires a streptococ-cal infection, which may trigger an autoimmune reaction in the heart tissue. Rheumatic fever can cause swelling (inflammation) in the heart, joints, brain, and spinal cord. Rheumatic fever produces fatigue (tiredness) and the infection can damage or weaken heart valves. Problems with the heart may be evident early, or it may occur long after the...

Role of Exercise in Disease Prevention

Studies have shown that exercise can have a direct effect on preventing heart disease, cancer, and other causes of premature death. Furthermore, participation in regular physical activity may reduce the rate of occurrence of these maladies. An inverse relationship exists between disease and exercise, meaning that with increased levels of physical activity there is a decreased prevalence for certain diseases. Currently, there is strong evidence that exercise has powerful effects on mortality,...

Selecting a CAM Modality

When selecting a CAM modality, it is important to have clearly defined health goals. In other words, what are you trying to accomplish, and is this modality an appropriate fit for you If selecting a therapy, determine if the practitioner of the therapy being considered is a licensed health care practitioner. Licensure does not guarantee the modality will successfully meet one's needs, but it does provide some assurance of training and competency on the part of the practitioner. This information...

The Comprehensive School Health Program

The CSHP is an organized set of policies, procedures, and activities designed to protect and promote the health and well-being of students and staff (Cottrell, Girvan, and McKenzie, p. 67). This program traditionally includes three components health education, a healthful school environment, and health services. It was expanded in 1987 (see Allensworth and Kolbe) to include physical education, nutrition services, counseling services, community and family involvement, and health promotion for...

The Relationship between Diet Physical Activity and Cancer

While the exact mechanisms by which diet is related to cancer have not been completely understood, research has shown that food plays a role in cancer prevention. For example, populations whose diet includes at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day have lower rates of some of the most common cancers. Fruits and vegetables contain many antioxidants and phytochemicals, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and beta-carotene, which have been shown to prevent cancer. It is not completely...

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is classified into four categories type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and other. In type 1 diabetes, specialized cells in the pancreas are destroyed, leading to a deficiency in insulin production. Type 1 diabetes frequently develops over the course of a few days or weeks. Over 95 percent of people with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed before the age of twenty-five. Estimates show 5.3 million people worldwide live with type 1 diabetes. Although the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes...

Types of Fiber

Complex carbohydrates, which are a major source of energy for the body, are comprised of two main classes starch, which is digestible, and fiber, which is generally not digestible. There are also two kinds of fiber insoluble and soluble. Insoluble fiber, found in wheat bran and some fruits and vegetables, cannot be dissolved in water. This type of fiber is made up of cellulose and hemicellulose, substances that offer rigidity to plant material (e.g., the peels and skins of fruits and...

What Are Fat Substitutes

Substitutes, or fat replacers, provide the sensory and functional qualities normally provided by fat. For example, fat provides moistness in baked goods, texture in ice cream, and crispiness in potato chips. Because fat has so many diverse functions in foods, it is virtually impossible to replace it with a single compound or process. The ingredients used in place of fat depend on how a food product will be eaten or prepared. For instance, not all fat-substitute ingredients are stable when...

Artificial Sweeteners

Glucose a simple sugar the most commonly used fuel in cells carbohydrate food molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, including sugars and starches metabolism the sum total of reactions in a cell or an organism insulin hormone released by the pancreas to regulate level of sugar in the blood Artificial sweeteners may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, and control of blood glucose for diabetics. It has also been suggested that low-calorie sweeteners may stimulate the...

Food Habits

Two key elements draw the diverse cultures of the Asian region together (1) the composition of meals, with an emphasis on vegetables and rice, with relatively little meat and (2) cooking techniques. Eating is a vital part of the social matrix, and Asian-American cuisine includes a wide variety of meals, snacks, and desserts for social occasions. Asian food preparation techniques include stir-frying, barbecuing, deep-frying, boiling, and steaming. All in- Asian-American diets are based on rice...

Generally Recognized as Safe GRAS

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a list of seven hundred food substances that were exempt from the then new requirement that manufacturers test food additives before putting them on the market. The Generally Recognized as Safe, or GRAS, list acknowledged that many additives had existing scientific evidence of long and safe use in food. Among the additives on the list are sugar, salt, spices, and vitamins. Manufacturers can petition for GRAS status for new...

How Much Fiber Is Necessary

According to the American Dietetic Association, the daily goal for fiber intake is between 20 and 35 grams. However, the average intake in the United States is only 12 to 15 grams. In contrast, people in China consume as much as 77 grams of liber per day. Children also need fiber, although in different nutrient dietary substance necessary for health diet the total daily food intake, or the types of foods eaten cholesterol multi-ringed molecule found in animal cell membranes a type of lipid...

Uses of the Food Guide Pyramid

Individuals can use the Pyramid educational materials to plan a diet that contains all needed nutrients and is moderate in fat and saturated fat. This is important in the United States, where the major causes of death, such as heart disease, are related to diets high in fat, especially saturated fat. Obesity is also a major health concern in the United States. Although physical activity is a critical component of weight management, food intake also plays a role in energy balance. The Food Guide...

Regulation of Dietary Supplements

Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which President Bill Clinton signed into law the same year. One provision of DSHEA clarified the definition for dietary supplements outlined above. DSHEA also mandated the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) within the National Institutes of Health. The ODS coordinates research on dietary supplements and acts as a clearinghouse for regulatory issues. It also maintains an excellent...

Aging and Nutrition

Aging Americans will make up an unprecedented proportion of the population as the 78 million baby boomers reach age 50. The baby boomers, those born between 1946 and 1964, will first reach age 65 in 2011, transforming the 35 million people over age 65 in 2000 to an estimated 69 million by 2030. With improved health care, socioeconomic status, and health behaviors, people 85 and over are expected to be the fastest-growing group of elderly persons, tripling from 4 million in 2000 to about 14...

Dietary Trends American

Americans have become more aware of what they eat, and how it might affect their health. Concerns about the safety of the food supply are on the rise, and increasing nutritional awareness has led to an increase in vegetarian, organic, and health-food options in supermarkets. Lite food is in, and indulgence is out. But are Americans practicing what they preach A closer look at American dietary trends reveals that parts of the American diet are still lacking in nutritional quality, despite...

Dietary Fat A Good Thing in Moderation

Despite fat's bad reputation, it is a very important nutrient. Dietary fat plays many critical roles in the body, such as providing essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and energy. It also serves structural functions in hormones and in cells. Fat is also a key factor in how foods taste. Fat absorbs the essence of spices and flavors and allows people to experience their full aroma. Not only does fat carry flavor, it also determines whether a cookie crunches or a muf- Fat substitutes come...

Nutritional Limitations

Unfortunately, limited financial access to this variety of foods for many people in Central America and Mexico means that the diet often does not include sufficient levels of vitamins and minerals. For low-income groups, fat type of food molecule rich in carbon and hydrogen, with high energy content staples essential foods in the diet amino acid building block of proteins, necessary dietary nutrient protein complex molecule composed of amino acids that performs vital functions in the cell...

Alcoholism

Although there is a debate among experts over whether alcoholism should be considered a disease, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism recognizes alcoholism as a disease. The risk for developing alcoholism is influenced by a person's genes and lifestyle behaviors. Alcoholism is a chronic disease that lasts for a lifetime. If diagnosed and treated early, however, alcoholism may be completely cured and severe complications prevented. Chronic alcohol abuse increases a person's...

The 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Aim for a healthy weight Be physically active each day Let the Pyramid guide your food choices Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily Choose a diet that is low in fat and cholesterol and moderate in fat Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugar Choose and prepare foods with less salt If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation salt, and sugar. There was heated debate among nutrition scientists when...

Can Fat Substitutes Help to Reduce Dietary

Several studies have shown that using reduced-fat versions of food products can significantly reduce the amount of fat that people eat. For some people, eating less fat may lead to eating fewer calories and, eventually, to weight loss. As illustrated in the table above, by using reduced-fat foods, a typical lunch can be trimmed of one-third of its calories and three-fourths of its fat. A common misconception about reduced-fat foods is that they also are low in calories. For many products,...

Dietary Reference Intakes

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of nutrient reference values. They are used to help people select healthful diets, set national nutrition policy, and establish safe upper limits of intake. DRIs include four sets of nutrient standards Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Starting in the mid-1990s, DRIs began to replace RDAs and Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians, which had been...

Peanut Allergies

Peanut allergies, which are among the most widespread food allergies, affect more than 1.5 million people in the United States. Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include a flushed face, hives, difficulty breathing or swallowing, vomiting, dizziness, chills, and loss of consciousness. The reaction of an allergic person to peanuts can be rapid and dramatic, sometimes causing death within minutes. The incidence of peanut allergies among children doubled in the United States between 1997 and...

Battle Creek Sanitarium Early Health

The Western Health Reform Institute, which opened in 1866, was originally a residence belonging to Benjamin Graves, a judge of the Michigan Superior Court. Set on eight acres of land, this farm house gave no hint of what it was to become, but already there were ideas and propositions for the building that would lead to a worldwide reputation. Upon its opening, in 1866, the Western Health Reform Institute was heralded far and wide through the Seventh-day Adventist journal Review and Herald. Dr....

Food Guides versus Dietary Guidelines

Food guides are practical tools that people can use to select a healthful diet. Food guide recommendations, such as how many servings of grains to eat, are based on dietary guidelines that are overall recommendations for healthful diets. For example, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans include the recommendation that Americans choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains. To help people reach this goal, the USDA's Food Guide Pyramid is built on a base of grain foods and recommends...

Micronutrient Deficiency

Micronutrients are essential vitamins and minerals that the body does not naturally produce. A certain amount of these vitamins and minerals are cuisine types of food and traditions of preparation protein complex molecule composed of amino acids that performs vital functions in the cell necessary part of the diet legumes beans, peas, and related plants vitamin necessary complex nutrient used to aid enzymes or other metabolic processes in the cell mineral an inorganic (non-carbon-containing)...

Foods of the Islands

The foods of the Caribbean are marked by a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, meats, grains, and spices, all of which contribute to the area's unique cuisine. Foods of Creole, Chinese, African, Indian, Hispanic, and European origin blend harmoniously to produce mouth-watering dishes. Fruits and Vegetables. There are many fruits and vegetables found in the various Caribbean Islands, and because many of them have been exported to North America and Europe, people have become familiar with them....

Portion Sizes Caloric Intake and Obesity

Scientists have begun to trace the link between portion sizes and increased obesity in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, between 1971 and 2000 American women increased the number of calories they consumed by 22 percent (from 1,542 to 1,877 per day), while men increased their intake by 7 percent (from 2,450 to 2,618 calories). Government recommendations, by contrast, are a mere 1,600 calories a day for women and 2,200 a day for men. Many of the...

Regulations Related to Functional Foods

Functional foods are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the authority of two laws. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD& C) of 1938 provides for the regulation of all foods and food additives. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 amended the FD& C Act to cover dietary supplements and ingredients of dietary supplements. Functional foods may be categorized as whole foods, enriched foods, fortified foods, or enhanced...

Design and Recommendations of The Food Guide Pyramid

USDA nutritionists spent many years designing, testing, and refining the Food Guide Pyramid. The goal was to have an easy-to-use graphic that would help people select a diet that promoted nutritional health and decreased the risk of disease. They designed the Pyramid to be flexible enough to be used by most healthy Americans over the age of two. However, they also recognized that people with substantially different eating habits, such as vegetarians, may need a different food guidance system....

Evolution of the Dietary Guidelines

During the 1970s, scientists began identifying links between people's usual eating habits and their risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. They realized that a healthful diet was important not only to prevent nutrient deficiencies, but because it might play a role in decreasing the risk for chronic diseases. Since heart disease and cancer were, and still are, major causes of death and disability in the United States, there was a need to help Americans select...

Controversies Surrounding the Use of Dietary Supplements

Opponents of DSHEA claim that the issue of public safety is their primary concern. Steven H. Zeisel, of the University of North Carolina School of Public Health and School of Medicine, writes that DSHEA modifies the regulatory environment so that it becomes possible, even likely, that products will be marketed that inadvertently harm people (Zeisel, p. 1855). Zeisel believes that the DSHEA legislation makes it easy for small enterprises to market products without investing the time and money...

The Westernization of Dietary Patterns

Toward the end of the twentieth century, economic growth among developing countries caused the phenomenon of the Westernization of traditional eating patterns. Industrialization and modern transportation brought baking technology and Western food styles to developing countries. New and tasty foods high in fat, sugar, and salt became the choice of the new rich. Trendy fast foods, soft drinks, and meat products replaced traditional ethnic foods. Fortunately, in many emerging societies the poor...

Uses of Additives and Preservatives in Foods

Leavening yeast or other agents used for rising bread food additive substance added to foods to improve nutrition, taste, appearance, or shelf-life microorganisms bacteria and protists single-celled organisms oxygen O2, atmospheric gas required by all animals nutrient dietary substance necessary for health vitamin necessary complex nutrient used to aid enzymes or other metabolic processes in the cell mineral an inorganic (non-carbon-containing) element, ion, or compound enrichment addition of...

Treatment Modalities

Treatment is based on a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and nutritional counseling. Goals include restoration of healthy body weight, correction of medical complications, adoption of healthful eating habits and treatment of maladaptive food-related thought processes, treatment of coexisting psychiatric conditions, and prevention of relapse. Depending on the severity of the illness, therapy may be conducted on an outpatient, day treatment, or inpatient basis. Outpatient therapy....

Effects of Excess Dietary Fat Intake

The recommended intake of fats in the American diet is to limit fats to below 30 percent of the total daily caloric intake. One-third of fats should come from saturated fats, with the other two-thirds split evenly between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. It is estimated that in the average American diet (as of 2002), fats make up 42 percent of calories, with saturated fat making up between a third and a half of that amount. The effects of this excess intake of dietary fat has some...

Types of Hypertension

Hypertension is classified as either primary (or essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension has no specific origin but is strongly associated with lifestyle. It is responsible for 90 to 95 percent of diagnosed hypertension and is treated with stress management, changes in diet, increased physical activity, and medication (if needed). Secondary hypertension is responsible for 5 to 10 percent of diagnosed hypertension. It is caused by a preexisting medical condition...

Components of Physical Fitness

The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity. This is dependent on the ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to the working muscles. As fitness levels improve, the body functions more efficiently and the heart can better withstand the strains of everyday stress. The maximal amount of force a muscle can exert with a single maximal effort. Strong muscles are important for carrying out everyday tasks, such as...

Diabetes Complications

Plasma the fluid portion of the blood, distinct from the cellular portion hemoglobin the iron-containing molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen ketoacidosis accumulation of ketone bodies along with high acid levels in the body fluids energy technically, the ability to perform work the content of a substance that allows it to be useful as a fuel ketones chemicals produced by fat breakdown molecule containing a double-bonded oxygen linked to two carbons electrolyte salt dissolved in...

Requirements and Supplementation

Dietary calcium requirements depend in part upon whether the body is growing or making new bone or milk. Requirements are therefore greatest during childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Recommended daily intake (of elemental calcium) varies accordingly 400 mg for Calcium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis, which is a condition that occurs when bone breaks down more quickly than it is replaced. In this illustration, the bone above is normal, but the bone below is more...

Artificial Sweeteners Pending FDA Approval

Alitame is two thousand times sweeter than sugar. An FDA petition was filed in 1986. Like neotame, alitame is a derivative of aspartame. It is approved for use in a variety of food and beverage products in Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China. Cyclamate was discovered in 1937, banned in 1969, and a petition for approval was refiled in 1982. After being banned by the FDA in 1969, due to findings that high doses cause bladder tumors in mice,...

Contributors

Ball State University Muncie, Indiana Healthy Weight Network and University of North Dakota School of Medicine University of Florida Gainesville, Florida University of Pittsburgh Medical Center International Food Information Council Foundation Washington, DC University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky Bryan-College Station Community Health Center Bryan, Texas University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Texas A& M University College Station, Texas Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise...

Sugar Alcohols GRAS

Sugar alcohols are not technically artificial sweeteners. Examples include sorbitol, xylitol, lactitol, mannitol, isomalt, and maltitol, which are used to sweeten sugar-free foods such as candy, cookies, and chewing gum. The alcohols have fewer calories than sugar, do not promote tooth decay, and do not cause a sudden increase in blood glucose because the bloodstream does not easily absorb them. They may cause, however, effects similar to a laxative if consumed in excess. Products containing...

Safety and Labeling

In the United States, the FDA has ruled that foods produced though biotechnology require the same approval process as all other food, and that there is no inherent health risk in the use of biotechnology to develop plant food products. Therefore, no label is required simply to identify foods as products of biotechnology. Manufacturers bear the burden of proof for the safety of the food. To assist them with this, the FDA developed a decision-tree approach that allows food processors to...

Benefits of Breastfeeding

Human milk contains the right balance of nutrients for human growth and development. It is low in total protein and high in carbohydrates, making it more digestible and less stressful on the immature kidneys. In addition, each mammal produces milk that is nutritionally and immunologically tailored for its young. In rare cases, such as galactosemia and phenylketonuria, some infants cannot metabolize human milk or other milk products. A significant benefit of human milk is that it contains many...

Breastfeeding

Before 1900, most mothers breastfed their infants. Breastfeeding rates declined sharply worldwide after 1920, when evaporated cow's milk and infant formula became widely available. These were promoted as being more convenient for mothers and more nutritious than human milk. Breastfeeding rates began rising again in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Promotes faster shrinking of the uterus Promotes faster return to pre-pregnancy weight Protects against infectious and noninfectious diseases...

Weight Loss Agents

Weight loss agents contain ingredients such as L-carnitine, which may prevent lactic acid accumulation but does not promote fat loss quercetin, an antioxidant that is important for the heart but does not aid the loss of body fat hydroxycitrate (a diuretic) ephedra caffeine, and senna and or cascara (herbal laxatives). Chitin, or chitosan (advertised as a fat trapper or fat blocker), is made from the shells of insects and shellfish and may lower cholesterol, but it also does not lower body fat...

Absorption

Absorption is the movement of molecules across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract into the circulatory system. Most of the end-products of digestion, along with vitamins, minerals, and water, are absorbed in the small intestinal lumen by four mechanisms for absorption (1) active transport, (2) passive diffusion, (3) endocytosis, and (4) facilitative diffusion. Active transport requires energy. Nutrient absorption is efficient because the GI tract is folded with several surfaces for absorption and...

Adolescent Nutrition

Adolescence is the transition period between childhood and adulthood, a puberty time of onset of sexual maturity time of life that begins at puberty. For girls, puberty typically occurs be- tween ages 12 and 13, while for boys it occurs between ages 14 and 15. It is one of the fastest growth periods of a person's life. During this time, physical changes affect the body's nutritional needs, while changes in one's lifestyle may affect eating habits and food choices. Nutritional health during...

Advantages and Disadvantages

An advantage of the food exchange system is that it provides a system in which a wide selection of foods can be included, thereby offering variety and versatility to the person with diabetes. Other advantages of the lists are (1) they provide a framework to group foods with similar carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calorie contents (2) they emphasize important management concepts, such as carbohydrate amounts, fat modification, calorie control, and awareness of high-sodium foods (3) by making...

African Americans Diet of

Census revealed that there were almost 35 million African Americans, or about 13 percent of the total U.S. population. This small percentage of the populace has had a significant influence on American cuisine, not only because African-American food is diverse and flavorful, but also because of its historical beginnings. Despite their cultural, political, economic, and racial struggles, African Americans have retained a strong sense of their culture, which is, in part, reflected in...

Alternatives to Oral Nutrition

Alternative routes for nutrition must be considered in patients with fungal growth in the oral cavity, inflammation of the gums and oral mucosa, open sores, difficulty in swallowing, and other debilitating diseases of the oral-pharyngeal region and or gastrointestinal tract. These alternatives include parenteral (PN) and enteral nutrition. PN replaces essential nutritional requirements via intravenous (IV) access. The IV may be placed in a peripheral vein or in a large central vein, depending...

American Public Health Association

The American Public Health Association (APHA) is an association of individuals and organizations working to improve the public's health and to achieve equity in health status for all. Founded in 1872, APHA is the oldest and largest organization of public health professionals in the world. APHA members represent over fifty occupations of public health, including physicians, nurses, health educators, community dietitians, social workers, environmentalists, epidemiologists, and others. Members...

American School Food Service Association

The American School Food Service Association (ASFSA), founded in 1946, is dedicated to ensuring that healthful meals and nutrition education are available to all children. Its stated mission is to advance good nutrition for all children (ASFSA). The majority of ASFSA members are school food-service administrators, managers, educators, or personnel who advance the availability, quality, and acceptance of school nutrition programs as an integral part of education. Members can also join their...

American School Health Association

The American School Health Association (ASHA) was founded in 1927 by physicians who were members of the American Public Health Association. The main focus of the ASHA is to safeguard the health of school-age children. Over the years it has evolved into a multidisciplinary organization of administrators, counselors, dentists, health educators, physical educators, school nurses, and school physicians that advocates high-quality school environment surroundings health instruction, health services,...

Anemia

Anemia low level of red blood cells in the blood prevalence describing the number of cases in a population at any one time nutritional deficiency lack of adequate nutrients in the diet iron nutrient needed for red blood cell formation folate one of the B vitamins, also called folic acid genetic inherited or related to the genes thalassemia inherited blood disease due to defect in the hemoglobin protein sideroblastosis condition in which the blood contains an abnormally high number of...

Anthropometric Measurements

The term anthropometric refers to comparative measurements of the body. Anthropometric measurements are used in nutritional assessments. Those that are used to assess growth and development in infants, children, and adolescents include length, height, weight, weight-for-length, and head circumference (length is used in infants and toddlers, rather than height, because they are unable to stand). Individual measurements are usually compared to reference standards on a growth chart. Anthropometric...

Antioxidants

Americans spend several billion dollars a year on antioxidants in an effort to improve their health. Science has been looking at antioxidants and their role in everything from preventing cancer and heart disease to boosting the immune system and slowing the aging process. Antioxidants provide a layer of protection for the cells and tissues of the body, just as a thick coat of wax helps protect a car's finish. Specifically, antioxidants protect against free radical damage. What are free radicals...

Asian Americans Diets of

Asian Americans represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 11.9 million Asian Americans residing in the United States (4.2 percent of the total population) in the year 2000. Chinese Americans were the leading Asian group Asian-American diets are based on rice and rice products, with less emphasis on the regular consumption of meat and dairy products, which differs from traditional American fare. AP Wide World Photos....

Asian Fruit

The fruits of Asia are unlike those of any other part of the world. The tropical climate of South and Southeast Asia, and the mild climate of East Asia, create a hospitable environment for many different fruits to grow. Fruit is a significant part of the Asian diet and is usually eaten as a dessert with lunch or dinner. In East Asia, oranges, quince, dates, pears, strawberries, cherries, watermelon, peaches, and grapefruit are eaten widely. In South and Southeast Asia, there are unique fruits...

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, is the cause of more than half of all mortality in developed countries and the leading cause of death in the United States. When the coronary arteries are involved, it results in coronary artery disease (CAD). The hardening of the arteries is due to the build up of fatty deposits called plaque, and mineral deposits. As a result, the supply of blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) is reduced and can lead to ischema (deficiency of blood) to the...

Becoming Culturally Competent

Cultural competence is a developmental process that requires a long-term commitment. It is not a specific end product that occurs after a two-hour workshop, but it is an active process of learning and practicing over time. Becoming culturally competent is easier to talk about than to accomplish. Individuals working with different ethnic and cultural groups can become more culturally competent by advancing through three main stages developing awareness, acquiring knowledge, and developing and...

Benefits of Exercise

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Surgeon General have all issued statements that recommend placing an emphasis on adopting physical activity into one's lifestyle. Their intention is to make the public more aware of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity, as well as to Female rugby players form a lineout, waiting for the ball to be thrown. Rugby can improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness...

Beriberi

Water-soluble able to be dissolved in water energy technically, the ability to perform work the content of a substance that allows it to be useful as a fuel legumes beans, peas, and related plants vitamin necessary complex nutrient used to aid enzymes or other metabolic processes in the cell mineral an inorganic (non-carbon-containing) element, ion, or compound clinical related to hospitals, clinics, and patient care nervous system the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that extend throughout the...

Bezoars

Bezoars are balls of undigested materials, insoluble fiber, and undissolved medicines that resist the action of digestive enzymes in the stomach. Be-zoars are the result of a lack of stomach hydrochloric acid secretion, without which medicine like sulfa drugs, iron, and antacid tablets may not dissolve. They may also be caused by poor stomach emptying. Bezoars in humans cause the feeling of fullness, pain, nausea, and vomiting, and they reduce or prevent stomach emptying. Treatment may include...

Bioavailability

A nutrient's bioavailability is the proportion of the nutrient that, when ingested, actually gets absorbed by the body. The remaining amount cannot be metabolized and is removed as waste. The ability to absorb nutrients varies by gender, disease state, and physiologic condition (e.g., pregnancy, aging). The bioavailability of a nutrient can also increase or decrease if other substances are present. For example, calcium and magnesium lose much of their effectiveness if taken with fatty foods....

Biotechnology

The term biotechnology refers to the use of scientific techniques, including genetic engineering, to improve or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms. In its most basic forms, biotechnology has been in use for millennia. For example, Middle Easterners who domesticated and bred deer, antelope, and sheep as early as 18,000 B.C.E. Egyptians who made wine in 4000 B.C.E. and Louis Pasteur, who developed pasteurization in 1861, all used biotechnology. In recent years, however, food biotechnology...

Biotechnology and Africa

Many scientists believe that biotechnology is the most promising route to fighting and possibly eradicating chronic malnutrition among the 800 million people in the developing world who live in poverty. Researchers are working to develop improved versions of African staples, including a strain of sweet potato that is resistant to a virus that regularly devastates the crop, cassava that is resistant to the cassava mosaic virus, and corn that is resistant to the maize streak virus. Also under...

Biotechnology and Global Health

The World Health Organization estimates that more than 8 million lives could be saved by 2010 by combating infectious diseases and malnutrition through developments in biotechnology. A study conducted by the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto identified biotechnologies with the greatest potential to improve global health, including the following Hand-held devices to test for infectious diseases including HIV and malaria. Researchers in Latin America have already made...

Calcium

Calcium is one of the most important elements in the diet because it is a structural component of bones, teeth, and soft tissues and is essential in many of the body's metabolic processes. It accounts for 1 to 2 percent of adult body weight, 99 percent of which is stored in bones and teeth. On the cellular level, calcium is used to regulate the permeability and electrical properties of biological membranes (such as cell walls), which in turn control muscle and nerve functions, glandular...

Calorie

Technically, a calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) of water 1 degree Celsius. One calorie is 1 1000 of a kilocalorie (a kcalorie or Calorie). The kcalorie is the unit by which food, and the amount of energy a person takes in is measured. To maintain one's weight, energy intake should equal energy expenditure. If energy intake is negative (if a person consumes fewer kilocalories than he or she needs or expends) then weight loss will occur. If energy...

Careers in Dietetics

Nutrition the maintenance of health through proper eating, or the study of same clinical related to hospitals, clinics, and patient care diet the total daily food intake, or the types of foods eaten The science and profession of nutrition and dietetics is based on the application of foods and nutrition to promote health and treat disease. Most dietitians and nutritionists work in clinical, community, public health, or food service settings. Others work as consultants or researchers, in the food...

Categories of Fat Substitutes

Fat-substitute ingredients fall into three categories carbohydrate-based, protein-based, and fat-based. Carbohydrate-based fat substitutes are the most common. They are very versatile and found in many types of food products. Carbohydrate-based fat substitutes provide between zero and four calories per gram. When used to replace fat, they may significantly lower the calorie content of a food. Most carbohydrate-based fat substitutes are GRAS substances. Some of these ingredients are only...

Central American and Mexican Dishes

Beyond the basic staples, the cuisine of Mexico and Central America is rich with many regional variations. The tortilla-based Mexican preparations familiar in the United States are generally simpler in form in Mexico. Tacos are generally made with meat, chicken, or fish grilled or fried with seasoning and served on tortillas enchiladas are filled tortillas dipped in a chile-based sauce and fried and tostadas are fried tortillas topped with refried beans or meat, and sometimes with vegetables...

Central Europe Poland Hungary Czech Republic Slovakia

Total, CVD and cancer mortality in Central Europe was relatively low at the beginning of the 1960s, but then an increase occurred. While the differences in 1970 between the nations of the European Union (EU) and the heart disease any disorder of the heart or its blood supply, including heart attack, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease Central European communist countries were not great, from the mid-1970s on, the relative trends in CVD mortality in EU countries and Central Europe...