Simple Carbohydrates

Simple carbohydrates, or simple sugars, are composed of monosaccharide or disaccharide units. Common monosaccharides (carbohydrates composed of single sugar units) include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose is the most common type of sugar and the primary form of sugar that is stored in the body for energy. It sometimes is referred to as blood sugar or dextrose and is of particular importance to individuals who have diabetes or hypo-glycemia. Fructose, the primary sugar found in fruits,...

Diabetes Heart Disease and Stroke

Many people with diabetes are not aware that they are at particularly high risk for heart disease and stroke, which can result from the poor blood flow that is a symptom of diabetes. In addition, people with type 2 diabetes have higher rates of hypertension and obesity, which are additional risk factors. Diabetics are two to four times more likely to have a heart attack than nondiabetics, and at least 65 percent of people with diabetes die from heart attack or stroke. While deaths from heart...

Caffeine and Health

Calcium mineral essential for bones and teeth osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure Current research on how caffeine affects a variety of health issues is summarized below. Keep in mind that most experts agree that moderate use of caffeine is not likely to cause any health problems. Studies have looked at the effects of caffeine on heart health. Moderate caffeine consumption does not appear to adversely affect cardiovascular health. Caffeine appears to increase the excretion of calcium,...

Glisson Francis

English scholar, physician, and scientist 1597-1677 Francis Glisson was born in Rampisham, England, and attended Cambridge University, with which he had a long relationship. During his life he acted as a dean, senior fellow, and professor at the university. He also had a private medical practice. The Royal College of Physicians of London admitted Glisson as a candidate in 1634, the same year he received his medical degree from Cambridge. Within the Royal College he played the roles of fellow,...

Goldberger Joseph

Often considered a significant contributor to the field of nutrition science, Joseph Goldberger was born to a Jewish family in Girald, Austria-Hungary. When he was six years old, Goldberger and his family emigrated to the United States, settling on Manhattan's East Side. Goldberger enrolled in City College in New York at the age of sixteen, determined to study engineering. At the end of his second year, Goldberger decided to switch to medicine after attending a lecture at Bellevue Hospital...

Aids Cure In Natural

HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) system, 1 236, 2 121, 172 Haggis, 2 85 Halal foods, 1 258, 259i, 2 177 Hand washing, 2 3, 12, 120, 121 Hardening of the arteries. See Atherosclerosis Harris-Benedict equation, 2 101, 102 defined, 2 101 Harvey, William, 1 205 Hawaiians. See Pacific Islander Americans, diet of Pacific Islanders, diet of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, 1 236, 2 121, 172 HDL defined, 1 191 See also High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Head Start...

Food Intolerance Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

Health problems caused by food intolerance vary depending upon the food and chemical involved. The amount of a food eaten may also play a role. Lactose intolerance is usually characterized by gastrointestinal problems such as bloating and diarrhea. Sulfite intolerance is typically characterized by difficulty in breathing. Those sensitive to MSG may experience a variety of symptoms, such as headache, numbness, and rapid heartbeat. Tyramine, found in pickled herring, soy sauce, red wine, and...

Alternative Medicines and Therapies

Alternatives to conventional medical care are increasingly popular in the United States, and their growing use by consumers represents a major trend in Western medicine. Alternative therapies appear to be used most frequently for medical conditions that are chronic, such as back pain, arthritis, sleep disorders, headache, and digestive problems. Surveys of U.S. consumers have shown that more people visit alternative practitioners each year than visit conventional primary-care physicians....

How Caffeine Affects the Body

Caffeine is best known for its stimulant, or wake-up, effect. Once a person consumes caffeine, it is readily absorbed by the body and carried around in the bloodstream, where its level peaks about one hour after consumption. Caffeine mildly stimulates the nervous and cardiovascular systems. It affects the brain and results in elevated mood, decreased fatigue, and increased attentiveness, so a person can think more clearly and work harder. It also increases the heart rate, blood flow,...

Caffeine in Food and Drugs

Due to its stimulant properties, caffeine is used around the world in any of its many forms, such as coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate. The accompanying table displays the amount of caffeine in foods. An eight-ounce cup of drip-brewed coffee has about 85 milligrams of caffeine, whereas the same amount of brewed tea contains about 47 milligrams. Twelve-ounce cans of soft drinks (soda) provide about 35 to 45 milligrams of caffeine. The caffeine content of coffee and tea depends on the...

Central Europeans and Russians Diets of

A health gap separates Central and Eastern Europe from the United States, Canada, Japan, and the Western part of Europe. This East-West gap in health started during the 1960s. Almost half of this gap was due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality differentials. There has been a marked increase of CVD in Central and Eastern Europe, which is only partially explainable by the high prevalence of the three traditional CVD risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking) in these...

Anabolic Agents

The most frequently and widely used category of ergogenic aids is those with supposed anabolic effects that is, they mimic the benefits of steroids (in a legal manner). Creatine is the most widely used supplement taken by both recreational and professional athletes. Creatine is synthesized in the kidneys, pancreas, and liver from amino acid precursors (methionine, arginine, and glycine), and is also found in meat, fish, and poultry. The ergogenic effect of supplemental creatine is attributed to...

Why and How People

They also eat to express appreciation, for a sense of belonging, as part of family customs, and for self-realization. For example, someone who is not hungry may eat a piece of cake that has been baked in his or her honor. People eat according to learned behaviors regarding etiquette, meal and snack patterns, acceptable foods, food combinations, and portion sizes. Etiquette refers to acceptable behaviors. For example, for some groups it is acceptable to lick one's...

S

Saccharin, 1 47 Saffron, 2 204, 205 Salmonella food-borne illness, 1 236, 2 2, 119, 120i hand washing, 2 3 organic foods, 2 116 photographs, 1 237, 2 2 Scandinavia, 2 187 Salmonellosis, defined, 2 118 Salt. See Sodium Salvation Army World Service Office (SAWSO), 1 175i Sanitarium Food Company, 2 17 Sarcoma, 1 88 Syndrome), 2 262 Satiety, 2 187 See also Appetite Weight management Saturated fat actual and recommended intake, 1 217, 218 and cardiovascular disease, 1 101 chemical structure, 1...

Carotenoids

Carotenoids are a group of red and yellow fat-soluble compounds that pigment different types of plants, such as flowers, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and carrots, as well as animals, such as salmon, flamingos, and goldfish. The ingestion of carotenoids is essential to human health, not only because some convert into Vitamin A, but also because they have antioxidant effects, which may combat such diverse problems as cancer and macular degeneration. Carotenoids also help prevent heart disease by...

Carcinogenesis Process

All cancers involve the malfunction of genes that control cell growth and division. The process by which cancers develop is called carcinogenesis. This process usually starts when chemicals or radiation damage DNA, the genetic structure inside cells. Viruses induce carcinogenesis by introducing new DNA sequences. Most of the time, when DNA becomes damaged the body is able to repair it. In cancer cells, however, the damaged DNA is not repaired. While normal cells with damaged DNA die, cancer...

Greeks and Middle Easterners Diet of

The Mediterranean diet gained much recognition and worldwide interest in the 1990s as a model for healthful eating habits. The diet is based on the traditional dietary patterns of Crete, a Greek island, and other parts of Greece and southern Italy. The diet has become a popular area of study due to observations made in 1960 of low incidences of chronic disease and high life-expectancy rates attributed to the populations who consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet. This healthful diet model...

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Anemia in the developing world is most commonly caused by an iron deficiency, which affects up to 50 percent of the population in some countries. Iron deficiency not only impairs the production of red cells in the blood, but also affects general cell growth and proliferation in tissues like the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Red cells in a patient with iron-deficiency anemia are both microcytic and hypochromic. Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes normal red blood...

Dieting

The term dieting refers to restrictive eating or nutritional remedies for conditions such as iron-deficiency anemia, gastrointestinal diseases, pernicious anemia, diabetes, obesity, or failure to thrive. Someone can be on a heart-healthy diet that encourages the consumption of reasonable amounts of whole grains and fresh fruits, vegetables, beans, and fish, but limits foods high in saturated fat and sodium, or one can be on a weight loss diet. Examples of weight loss diets include the Atkins...

Commodity Distribution to Other Programs

The USDA also donates food commodities to a variety of programs. The largest donations go to school food programs at more than 94,000 public Workers prepare to redistribute surplus foods purchased by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The USDA's commodity foods programs serve a dual purpose, maintaining the price of certain food products and ensuring that at-risk populations get the food they need. Photograph by Ken Hammond. USDA. Reproduced by permission. Workers prepare to redistribute...

L

Lactase, 1 26, 28, 172, 2 21, 22 Lactation. See Breastfeeding Lacteals, 1 216 Lactic acid, defined, 1 96 Lacto vegetarians, 2 229 Lacto-ovo vegetarians, 2 179, 229 Lactose, 1 93, 94, 94t, 2 6, 21 Lactose intolerance, 1 26, 28, 2 21-23 and absorption, 1 172 Asia, 1 56 clinical diagnosis, 2 22 congenital, 2 22 defined, 1 18 nutrition for, 2 22-23 prevalence, 2 21-22, 22 secondary, 2 22 structure and functions of lactose, 2 21 treatment, 1 29 types, 2 22 Lactose tolerance test, 2 22 Laotians, diet...

Growth and Spread of Cancer

Cancer develops when cells in a particular part of the body begin to grow out of control. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly way. Cancer cells, however, continue to grow and divide without dying. Instead, they outlive normal cells and continue to form new abnormal cancer cells. As most cancer cells continue to grow, they lump together and form an extra mass of tissue. This mass is called a malignant tumor. As a malignant tumor grows, it damages nearby tissue. Some cancers,...

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any one of the conditions that affect the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow and nutrients to the heart. According to the American Heart Association, heart disease is the most common cause of cardiac arrest, and 95 percent of cardiac arrest patients die before they reach the hospital. That high mortality rate has prompted the placement of portable defibrillators in places such as schools, airplanes, police cars, and in this service plaza along the...

Five FDAApproved GRAS Artificial Sweeteners

Acesulfame potassium (Acesulfame-K) was discovered in 1967 and approved for use in the United States in 1988. Its trade name is Sunette. Two hundred times sweeter than sucrose, this sweetener is stable when heated, making it suitable for cooking. However, when used in large amounts it has a bitter aftertaste. It is not broken down by the body, and it does not provide any calories. Over ninety scientific studies have been conducted by the FDA, and the World Health Organization's Joint Expert...

Breast Implants and Breast Reduction

Many women with breast implants breastfeed successfully, though it is not known whether the health of the infant is affected by breast implants. Human milk contains nutrients and antibodies that keep babies healthy. Although it is considered the ideal feeding method for infants, 36 percent of mothers in the United States do not breastfeed at all. Photograph by Jim Trois. Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. Human milk contains nutrients and antibodies that keep babies healthy....

Myocardial Infarction MI

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the clinical term for a heart attack. It is caused by occlusion (blockage) of the coronary artery (atherosclerosis) or a blood clot (coronary thrombosis), resulting in the partial or total blockage of one of the coronary arteries. When this occurs, the heart muscle (myocardium) does not receive enough oxygen. If the MI is mild, the heart muscle may partially repair itself. Permanent damage may occur when a portion of the heart muscle dies (called an infarction). MI...

College Binge Drinking

Alcohol abuse is considered the most significant public health problem facing college students in the United States. It is estimated that more than 500,000 injuries and 70,000 cases of sexual assault a year result from alcohol abuse among students, and more than 1,400 students die each year as a result of their injuries. Two out of every five students report an episode of binge drinking which is usually defined as five or more drinks in a row in any given two-week period. During the 1990s, as...

Medical Physical and Functional Problems

Many chronic medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, depression, and diabetes have nutritional consequences. Loss of body water, lean body mass, and bone mass decline of the immune response over- and underweight malnutrition and declining taste, smell, and thirst are among the problems that affect physical strength, functional ability, and vitality. At times, specialized diets or medical nutrition therapy are needed these are Many elderly people live alone and may have less...

East Asian Food

Different regions of China have distinct tastes in food. Shang-hainese cooking is known for its spicy chili flavoring and trademark red-colored meats. The Cantonese and Chaozhao regions are known for cooked meats and vegetables and in the Beijing, Mandarin, and Shandong regions steamed bread and noodles are used as staples instead of rice. The most prized food staples in China are rice and wheat, though yams, taros, and potatoes are eaten when rice and wheat are not available. Chinese...

Consequences of Long Term Undernutrition among Homeless Children

The Institute of Medicine has estimated the number of homeless children in the United States to be approximately 100,000 each night. Almost half of these children are younger than six years of age. Although this is a growing population, few studies have examined the effect of undernutrition on homeless children. However, recent studies have found that a poor diet diet the total daily food intake, or the types of foods eaten obesity the condition of being overweight, according to established...

Eating and Snacking Patterns

Adolescents tend to eat differently than they did as children. With after-school activities and active social lives, teens are not always able to sit down for three meals a day. Busy schedules may lead to meal skipping, snacking throughout the day, and more eating away from home. Many teens skip breakfast, for example, but this meal is particularly important for getting enough energy to make it through the day, and it may even lead to better academic performance. When teens skip meals, they are...

Fat Function Metabolism and Storage

Fats and lipids play critical roles in the overall functioning of the body, such as in digestion and energy metabolism. Usually, 95 percent of the fat in food is digested and absorbed into adipose, or fatty, tissue. Fats are the body's energy provider and energy reserve, which helps the body maintain a constant temperature. Fats and lipids are also involved in the production and regulation of steroid hormones, which are hydrophobic (or water-fearing) molecules made from cholesterol in the...

Diabetes Carbohydrate Modified Diets and Carbohydrate Counting

Diabetes is a condition that alters the way the body handles carbohydrates. In terms of diet modifications, diabetics can control blood sugar levels by appropriately managing the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in their meals. The amount of carbohydrates, not necessarily the source, is the primary issue. Blood glucose levels after a meal can be related to the process of food preparation, the amount of food eaten, fat intake, sugar absorption, and the combination of foods in the meal or snack....

Food Allergy Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

Health problems associated with food allergies can involve the gastrointestinal system, the respiratory system, the skin, and the eyes. Persons with a food allergy may have difficulty breathing, or they may have problems with itching, rashes, swelling, nausea, or vomiting. A food allergy may also be a cause of asthma. allergic reaction immune system reaction against a substance that is otherwise harmless processed food food that has been cooked, milled, or otherwise manipulated to change its...

Diagnosis

Individuals with eating disorders are obsessed with food, body image, and weight loss. They may have severely limited food choices, employ bizarre eating rituals, excessively drink fluids and chew gum, and avoid eating with others. Depending on the severity and duration of their illness, they may display physical symptoms such as weight loss amenorrhea loss of interest in sex low blood pressure depressed body temperature chronic, unexplained vomiting and the growth of soft, fine hair on the...

The Future

The future of functional foods will undoubtedly involve a continuation of the labeling and safety debates. As consumers become more health conscious, the demand and market value for health-promoting foods and food components is expected to grow. Before the full market potential can be realized, however, consumers need to be assured of the safety and efficacy of functional foods. Future research will focus on mechanisms by which food components such as phytochemicals positively affect health,...

Government Programs to Reduce Hunger and Undernutrition

According to the United States Census Bureau, 5 million adults and 2.7 million children lived in hungry households in 1999. To combat hunger and the undernutrition problem, the United States government funds and administers several food programs, including the Food Stamp Program the National School Lunch Program the School Breakfast Program the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children the Child and Adult Care Food Program the Emergency Food Assistance Program and...

Regulating Safety of Food Additives and Preservatives

Based on the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD& C) Act of 1938, the FDA must approve the use of all additives. The manufacturer bears the responsibility of proving that the additive is safe for its intended use. The Food Additives Amendment excluded additives and preservatives deemed safe for consumption prior to 1958, such as salt, sugar, spices, vitamins, vinegar, and monosodium glutamate. These substances are considered generally recognized as safe...

Dietitian

Nutrition the maintenance of health through proper eating, or the study of same physiology the group of biochemical and physical processes that combine to make a functioning organism, or the study of same entrepreneur founders of new businesses clinical related to hospitals, clinics, and patient care diabetes inability to regulate level of sugar in the blood A dietitian is a professional nutritionist an educated food and nutrition specialist who is qualified by training and examination to...

Food Security

A far greater threat comes from increasingly insecure food sources (a lack of consistent and affordable food staples) arising from adverse weather (drought and floods) and war. During the late 1900s, famine became increasingly frequent in Africa. In addition, a new threat to the food supply emerged due to the worsening HIV AIDS epidemic. As adults fall ill and die, agricultural production declines. Rural communities are the hardest hit, and women are particularly at risk given their unique...

Historical Background

In 1950, the following problems that had led to inconsistencies in food recommendations for persons with diabetes were identified (1) methods used diet the total daily food intake, or the to estimate the composition of a diet were prolonged and needlessly pre- types of foods eaten cise (2) there were many inconsistencies in the inclusion or restriction of foods and (3) sizes of recommended portions were often stated in impractical amounts that were difficult to measure. Recognizing these facts,...

Treatment for Diabetes

Treatment for diabetes involves following a regimen of diet, exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and taking medication or insulin injections. Although type 1 diabetes is primarily managed with daily insulin injections, type 2 diabetes can be controlled with diet and exercise. However, when diet and exercise fail, medication is added to stimulate the production of insulin, reduce insulin resistance, decrease the liver's output of glucose, or slow absorption of carbohydrate from the...

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994

Dietary supplement usage in the United States has increased significantly since the passage in 1994 of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, pronounced Dee-shay). This legislation defined dietary supplements as distinct from food and drugs, and it allowed them to be sold without a prescription. The passage of DSHEA provided consumers with the right to purchase dietary supplements that they felt would help them attain their personal health goals. At the same time, DSHEA...

Types of CAM Modalities

The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine divides the various CAM modalities into five categories (1) alternative medical systems, (2) mind-body interventions, (3) biologically-based treatments, (4) manipulative and body-based methods, and (5) energy therapies. These modalities include a wide variety of approaches, from acupuncture to nutrition to meditation to chiropractic. Alternative medical systems include medical practices that are traditional in other cultures, such...

Eating Disorders throughout History

Although eating disorders first came to widespread attention in the 1970s, self-starvation and other pathological eating practices are found throughout recorded history. Bulimia was widely known in both Greek and Roman societies and was recorded in France as early as the eighteenth century. Self-starvation for religious reasons became widespread in Europe during the Renaissance, as hundreds of women starved themselves, often to death, in hopes of attaining communion with Christ. During the...

Characteristics of the Hispanic Diet

The contemporary diet of Hispanics in the United States is heavily influenced by the traditional dietary patterns of their countries of origin, as well legumes beans, peas, and related plants macronutrient nutrient needed in large quantities fiber indigestible plant material that aids digestion by providing bulk calcium mineral essential for bones and teeth zinc mineral necessary for many enzyme processes saturated fat a fat with the maximum possible number of hydrogens more difficult to break...

Conclusion

The traditional diet of Mexico and Central America is based on corn and beans, but offers a wide diversity of preparations. Coupled with locally available fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products, the diet can be highly nutritious. However, poverty frequently limits access to an adequate variety of quality foods, resulting in malnutrition. At the same time, the increasing malnutrition chronic lack of sufficient use of processed foods is contributing to obesity, diabetes, and other chronic...

Diarrhea in Developing Nations

Diarrhea is a major cause of death in much of the world, particularly in developing nations, where the effect is greatest among the young. The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes 3.5 million deaths a year to diarrhea, with 80 percent of these deaths occurring in children under the age of five, and most occurring in children between six months and three years of age. Children are the most susceptible because a smaller amount of fluid prevalence describing the number of cases in a...

Looking Forward to a Healthier Tomorrow

African-American food and its dietary evolvement since the beginning of American slavery provide a complicated, yet extremely descriptive, picture of the effects of politics, society, and the economy on culture. The deep-rooted dietary habits and economic issues that continue to affect African Americans present great challenges regarding changing behaviors and lowering disease risk. In January 2000, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive,...

Nutritional Adequacy

Many adult women fail to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B6, magnesium, and zinc. Adult men fall short on vitamin E, magnesium, and zinc. Men consume about 4,000 milligrams of sodium each day, while women consume about 3,000. Both exceed the recommended level of no more than 2,400 milligrams of sodium per day. All age groups above age two exceed the recommended intake of fat (no more than 30 percent of calories) and saturated fat (no more than 10...

Minerals and Vitamins

The nutritional disease pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency in niacin, is associated with maize-based diets in the Americas and Africa. While niacin is readily available in corn, it exists in a bound form (niacytin) that is not biologically available to monogastric (single-stomach) animals. Furthermore, In the early twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of people in the southern United States suffered from pellagra, a serious disease that affects people whose diet does not include...

Brillat Savarin Jean Anthelme

French politician and writer 1755-1826 Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin was a French lawyer and politician. He served as mayor of Belley, the city where he was born, but his opposition to the Jacobins during the French Revolution made it necessary for him to flee to Switzerland in 1792. He then made his way to New York, where he taught language and played violin in the John Street Theater Orchestra to support himself. After two years in New York, Brillat-Savarin spent time in Connecticut...

Acculturation and the Hispanic Diet

Just as Hispanics have altered American cuisine, American culture has also altered the diet of Hispanic Americans. As with many other immigrant groups in the United States, the lifestyle of Hispanic Americans is undergoing a transition away from one based on the traditional values and customs of their ancestry, as they begin to adopt the values and behaviors of their adopted country. With regard to health behaviors, this process of acculturation is typically characterized by a more sedentary...