Contributors

Ball State University Muncie, Indiana Healthy Weight Network and University of North Dakota School of Medicine University of Florida Gainesville, Florida University of Pittsburgh Medical Center International Food Information Council Foundation Washington, DC University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky Bryan-College Station Community Health Center Bryan, Texas University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Texas A& M University College Station, Texas Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise...

Sugar Alcohols GRAS

Sugar alcohols are not technically artificial sweeteners. Examples include sorbitol, xylitol, lactitol, mannitol, isomalt, and maltitol, which are used to sweeten sugar-free foods such as candy, cookies, and chewing gum. The alcohols have fewer calories than sugar, do not promote tooth decay, and do not cause a sudden increase in blood glucose because the bloodstream does not easily absorb them. They may cause, however, effects similar to a laxative if consumed in excess. Products containing...

Safety and Labeling

In the United States, the FDA has ruled that foods produced though biotechnology require the same approval process as all other food, and that there is no inherent health risk in the use of biotechnology to develop plant food products. Therefore, no label is required simply to identify foods as products of biotechnology. Manufacturers bear the burden of proof for the safety of the food. To assist them with this, the FDA developed a decision-tree approach that allows food processors to...

Benefits of Breastfeeding

Human milk contains the right balance of nutrients for human growth and development. It is low in total protein and high in carbohydrates, making it more digestible and less stressful on the immature kidneys. In addition, each mammal produces milk that is nutritionally and immunologically tailored for its young. In rare cases, such as galactosemia and phenylketonuria, some infants cannot metabolize human milk or other milk products. A significant benefit of human milk is that it contains many...

Breastfeeding

Before 1900, most mothers breastfed their infants. Breastfeeding rates declined sharply worldwide after 1920, when evaporated cow's milk and infant formula became widely available. These were promoted as being more convenient for mothers and more nutritious than human milk. Breastfeeding rates began rising again in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Promotes faster shrinking of the uterus Promotes faster return to pre-pregnancy weight Protects against infectious and noninfectious diseases...

Weight Loss Agents

Weight loss agents contain ingredients such as L-carnitine, which may prevent lactic acid accumulation but does not promote fat loss quercetin, an antioxidant that is important for the heart but does not aid the loss of body fat hydroxycitrate (a diuretic) ephedra caffeine, and senna and or cascara (herbal laxatives). Chitin, or chitosan (advertised as a fat trapper or fat blocker), is made from the shells of insects and shellfish and may lower cholesterol, but it also does not lower body fat...

Absorption

Absorption is the movement of molecules across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract into the circulatory system. Most of the end-products of digestion, along with vitamins, minerals, and water, are absorbed in the small intestinal lumen by four mechanisms for absorption (1) active transport, (2) passive diffusion, (3) endocytosis, and (4) facilitative diffusion. Active transport requires energy. Nutrient absorption is efficient because the GI tract is folded with several surfaces for absorption and...

Acknowledgements and Thanks

A project of this magnitude would not be possible without the dedication and hard work of many people. I wish to thank the associate editors, Dr. Catherine Christie and Dr. Ranjita Misra, for the many hours they spent recruiting authors and editing entries. Thank you for your timely turnaround of the materials. The project would not have been possible without the many authors who wrote, and sometimes rewrote, the entries. Thank you for sharing your expertise and time. Amanda Foote, Senior...

Adolescent Nutrition

Adolescence is the transition period between childhood and adulthood, a puberty time of onset of sexual maturity time of life that begins at puberty. For girls, puberty typically occurs be- tween ages 12 and 13, while for boys it occurs between ages 14 and 15. It is one of the fastest growth periods of a person's life. During this time, physical changes affect the body's nutritional needs, while changes in one's lifestyle may affect eating habits and food choices. Nutritional health during...

Advantages and Disadvantages

An advantage of the food exchange system is that it provides a system in which a wide selection of foods can be included, thereby offering variety and versatility to the person with diabetes. Other advantages of the lists are (1) they provide a framework to group foods with similar carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calorie contents (2) they emphasize important management concepts, such as carbohydrate amounts, fat modification, calorie control, and awareness of high-sodium foods (3) by making...

American Public Health Association

The American Public Health Association (APHA) is an association of individuals and organizations working to improve the public's health and to achieve equity in health status for all. Founded in 1872, APHA is the oldest and largest organization of public health professionals in the world. APHA members represent over fifty occupations of public health, including physicians, nurses, health educators, community dietitians, social workers, environmentalists, epidemiologists, and others. Members...

American School Food Service Association

The American School Food Service Association (ASFSA), founded in 1946, is dedicated to ensuring that healthful meals and nutrition education are available to all children. Its stated mission is to advance good nutrition for all children (ASFSA). The majority of ASFSA members are school food-service administrators, managers, educators, or personnel who advance the availability, quality, and acceptance of school nutrition programs as an integral part of education. Members can also join their...

American School Health Association

The American School Health Association (ASHA) was founded in 1927 by physicians who were members of the American Public Health Association. The main focus of the ASHA is to safeguard the health of school-age children. Over the years it has evolved into a multidisciplinary organization of administrators, counselors, dentists, health educators, physical educators, school nurses, and school physicians that advocates high-quality school environment surroundings health instruction, health services,...

Anemia

Anemia low level of red blood cells in the blood prevalence describing the number of cases in a population at any one time nutritional deficiency lack of adequate nutrients in the diet iron nutrient needed for red blood cell formation folate one of the B vitamins, also called folic acid genetic inherited or related to the genes thalassemia inherited blood disease due to defect in the hemoglobin protein sideroblastosis condition in which the blood contains an abnormally high number of...

Anthropometric Measurements

The term anthropometric refers to comparative measurements of the body. Anthropometric measurements are used in nutritional assessments. Those that are used to assess growth and development in infants, children, and adolescents include length, height, weight, weight-for-length, and head circumference (length is used in infants and toddlers, rather than height, because they are unable to stand). Individual measurements are usually compared to reference standards on a growth chart. Anthropometric...

Antioxidants

Americans spend several billion dollars a year on antioxidants in an effort to improve their health. Science has been looking at antioxidants and their role in everything from preventing cancer and heart disease to boosting the immune system and slowing the aging process. Antioxidants provide a layer of protection for the cells and tissues of the body, just as a thick coat of wax helps protect a car's finish. Specifically, antioxidants protect against free radical damage. What are free radicals...

Asian Americans Diets of

Asian Americans represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 11.9 million Asian Americans residing in the United States (4.2 percent of the total population) in the year 2000. Chinese Americans were the leading Asian group Asian-American diets are based on rice and rice products, with less emphasis on the regular consumption of meat and dairy products, which differs from traditional American fare. AP Wide World Photos....

Asians Diet of

With forty-seven countries, innumerable tribes, and thousands of distinct languages, Asia is home to more ethnic groups than any other part of the world. In addition, the geography and climate of Asia are as diverse as its nations and peoples. From the lush rice paddies of the Philippines to the crowded Tokyo metropolis to the rainforests of Indonesia, there is a staggering variety of fruit, food, and spices in this extraordinary part of the world. Asia can be divided into three regions East...

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, is the cause of more than half of all mortality in developed countries and the leading cause of death in the United States. When the coronary arteries are involved, it results in coronary artery disease (CAD). The hardening of the arteries is due to the build up of fatty deposits called plaque, and mineral deposits. As a result, the supply of blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) is reduced and can lead to ischema (deficiency of blood) to the...

Becoming Culturally Competent

Cultural competence is a developmental process that requires a long-term commitment. It is not a specific end product that occurs after a two-hour workshop, but it is an active process of learning and practicing over time. Becoming culturally competent is easier to talk about than to accomplish. Individuals working with different ethnic and cultural groups can become more culturally competent by advancing through three main stages developing awareness, acquiring knowledge, and developing and...

Benefits of Exercise

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Surgeon General have all issued statements that recommend placing an emphasis on adopting physical activity into one's lifestyle. Their intention is to make the public more aware of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity, as well as to Female rugby players form a lineout, waiting for the ball to be thrown. Rugby can improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness...

Beriberi

Water-soluble able to be dissolved in water energy technically, the ability to perform work the content of a substance that allows it to be useful as a fuel legumes beans, peas, and related plants vitamin necessary complex nutrient used to aid enzymes or other metabolic processes in the cell mineral an inorganic (non-carbon-containing) element, ion, or compound clinical related to hospitals, clinics, and patient care nervous system the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that extend throughout the...

Bioavailability

A nutrient's bioavailability is the proportion of the nutrient that, when ingested, actually gets absorbed by the body. The remaining amount cannot be metabolized and is removed as waste. The ability to absorb nutrients varies by gender, disease state, and physiologic condition (e.g., pregnancy, aging). The bioavailability of a nutrient can also increase or decrease if other substances are present. For example, calcium and magnesium lose much of their effectiveness if taken with fatty foods....

Biotechnology

The term biotechnology refers to the use of scientific techniques, including genetic engineering, to improve or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms. In its most basic forms, biotechnology has been in use for millennia. For example, Middle Easterners who domesticated and bred deer, antelope, and sheep as early as 18,000 B.C.E. Egyptians who made wine in 4000 B.C.E. and Louis Pasteur, who developed pasteurization in 1861, all used biotechnology. In recent years, however, food biotechnology...

Biotechnology and Global Health

The World Health Organization estimates that more than 8 million lives could be saved by 2010 by combating infectious diseases and malnutrition through developments in biotechnology. A study conducted by the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto identified biotechnologies with the greatest potential to improve global health, including the following Hand-held devices to test for infectious diseases including HIV and malaria. Researchers in Latin America have already made...

Calcium

Calcium is one of the most important elements in the diet because it is a structural component of bones, teeth, and soft tissues and is essential in many of the body's metabolic processes. It accounts for 1 to 2 percent of adult body weight, 99 percent of which is stored in bones and teeth. On the cellular level, calcium is used to regulate the permeability and electrical properties of biological membranes (such as cell walls), which in turn control muscle and nerve functions, glandular...

Calorie

Technically, a calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) of water 1 degree Celsius. One calorie is 1 1000 of a kilocalorie (a kcalorie or Calorie). The kcalorie is the unit by which food, and the amount of energy a person takes in is measured. To maintain one's weight, energy intake should equal energy expenditure. If energy intake is negative (if a person consumes fewer kilocalories than he or she needs or expends) then weight loss will occur. If energy...

Careers in Dietetics

Nutrition the maintenance of health through proper eating, or the study of same clinical related to hospitals, clinics, and patient care diet the total daily food intake, or the types of foods eaten The science and profession of nutrition and dietetics is based on the application of foods and nutrition to promote health and treat disease. Most dietitians and nutritionists work in clinical, community, public health, or food service settings. Others work as consultants or researchers, in the food...

Categories of Fat Substitutes

Fat-substitute ingredients fall into three categories carbohydrate-based, protein-based, and fat-based. Carbohydrate-based fat substitutes are the most common. They are very versatile and found in many types of food products. Carbohydrate-based fat substitutes provide between zero and four calories per gram. When used to replace fat, they may significantly lower the calorie content of a food. Most carbohydrate-based fat substitutes are GRAS substances. Some of these ingredients are only...

Central American and Mexican Dishes

Beyond the basic staples, the cuisine of Mexico and Central America is rich with many regional variations. The tortilla-based Mexican preparations familiar in the United States are generally simpler in form in Mexico. Tacos are generally made with meat, chicken, or fish grilled or fried with seasoning and served on tortillas enchiladas are filled tortillas dipped in a chile-based sauce and fried and tostadas are fried tortillas topped with refried beans or meat, and sometimes with vegetables...

Central Europe Poland Hungary Czech Republic Slovakia

Total, CVD and cancer mortality in Central Europe was relatively low at the beginning of the 1960s, but then an increase occurred. While the differences in 1970 between the nations of the European Union (EU) and the heart disease any disorder of the heart or its blood supply, including heart attack, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease Central European communist countries were not great, from the mid-1970s on, the relative trends in CVD mortality in EU countries and Central Europe...

Chemical Structure

Carbohydrates are a main source of energy for the body and are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Chlorophyll in plants absorbs light energy from the sun. This energy is used in the process of photosynthesis, which allows green plants to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen and allows for the production of carbohydrates. This process converts the sun's light energy into a form of chemical energy useful to humans. Plants transform carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, water (H2O) from the...

College Students Diets of

When students first enter college, their diets often deteriorate and they often gain weight. There are many factors responsible for these changes. However, there are also several actions that can be taken to avoid the weight gain and decline in diet quality that may occur during the college years. The term freshman 15 refers to the number of pounds many students gain during their first year in college. This weight gain is related to stress, a sedentary lifestyle, and changes in food intake and...

Commodity Supplemental Food Program

The Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) works to improve the health of low-income pregnant and breastfeeding women, other new mothers up to one year postpartum, infants, children up to age six, and low-income elderly persons sixty years of age and older by supplementing their diets with commodity foods. Eligible people cannot participate in USDA's Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and CSFP at the same time. diet the total daily food intake, or the types...

Common Foods Associated with Intolerance

Foods associated with intolerance include preserved foods, foods containing monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer), and specific foods such as milk, pickled herring, soy sauce, chili peppers, and nutmeg. Intolerance to lactose is a major problem for many populations. In the United States, lactose intolerance is common among those of African and Asian descent. The Native American population also has a high prevalence of lactose intolerance. For many food intolerances, including those...

Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables

The region is a rich source of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Best known among these are the chile peppers, tomatoes, and tomatillos that are used in the salsas of Mexico. Avocado is also very popular in Mexican and Cen-cuisine types of food and traditions of tral American cuisines. Other commonly used vegetables include calabaza preparation (pumpkin), carrots, plantains, onions, locally grown greens, and cacti. Fruits are seasonal but abundant in the rural areas and include guavas,...

Breastfeeding Trends

Despite the many benefits of breastfeeding, only 64 percent of mothers in the United States initiate breastfeeding, with 29 percent still breastfeeding six months after birth. The U.S. goals for 2000 were to increase to 75 percent the proportion of women who initiate breastfeeding, and to increase to 50 percent the proportion of women who breastfeed for five to six months. In the United States, ethnic minorities are less likely to breastfeed than their white counterparts. Based on a 2001 report...

Concerns about Food Production

Some concerns about the use of biotechnology for food production include possible allergic reactions to the transferred protein. For example, if a gene from Brazil nuts that produces an allergen were transferred to soybeans, an individual who is allergic to Brazil nuts might now also be allergic to soybeans. As a result, companies in the United States that develop genetically engineered foods must demonstrate to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that they did not transfer proteins...

Conclusion

Genetic modification of foods is an area of biotechnology that is developing very rapidly, with many potential applications for improving the quantity and quality of the food supply. As with any new food technology, however, the safety of the products derived from this technology must be carefully assessed. Consumer concerns will likely continue to fuel the debate. SEE also Biotechnology Food Safety Functional Foods Pesticides. M. Elizabeth Kunkel Barbara H. D. Luccia Institute of Food...

Control and Oversight

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensures that injury, such as disease or illness, will not result from substances in food by closely monitoring the food supply. This differs from monitoring for food hazards (the responsibility of the food handler), where harm is possible under normal conditions. Potential food hazards could include improper storage conditions and serving food at unsafe temperatures. The food handler is directly involved in controlling these potential hazards during...

Convenience Foods

Convenience foods are foods that have had preparation steps incorporated into their processing, or have been completely prepared during processing. This decreases preparation steps and time for the consumer. The convenience can mean the premixing of the ingredients for a cake or offering a fully prepared frozen meal. The term convenience food is generic and can apply to just about any food, but it is generally used in reference to canned items, instant foods or mixes, frozen foods or meals, and...

Coordination and Transport of Nutrients into the Blood or to the Heart

Hormones and the nervous system coordinate digestion and absorption. The presence of food, or the thought or smell of food, can cause a positive response from these systems. Factors that can inhibit digestion include stress, cold foods, and bacteria. After foods are digested and nutrients are absorbed, they are transported to specific places throughout the body. Water-soluble nutrients leave the GI tract in the blood and travel via the portal vein, first to the liver and then to the heart....

Corn or Maize Based Diets

Maize, the American Indian word for corn, literally means that which sustains life. After wheat and rice, it is the most important cereal grain in the world, providing nutrients for humans and animals. It also serves as a basic raw material for the production of starch, oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, and fuel. Maize has the highest average yield per hectare. Maize is an important food in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and parts of the former Soviet Union. Each country has one...

Cultural Competence

Despite notable progress in the overall health of Americans, there are continuing disparities in health status among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders, compared to the U.S. population as a whole. In addition, the health care system is becoming more challenged as the population becomes more ethnically diverse. Therefore, the future health of the U.S. population as a whole will be influenced substantially by improvements in the health of racial and ethnic...

Cultural Competence Cultural Sensitivity and Culturally Effective Health Care

The term cultural competence refers to the ability to work effectively with individuals from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, or in settings where several cultures coexist. It includes the ability to understand the language, culture, and behaviors of other individuals and groups, and to make appropriate recommendations. Cultural competence exists on a continuum from incompetence to proficiency. Cultural sensitivity, which is a necessary component of cultural competence, means that...

Culture

Mediterranean and Middle Eastern culture is centered on a strong patriarchal family. This has lessened in recent years, but family ties are still strong. Customs and family traditions influence nutrition greatly. Food is an integral part of family celebrations, special days of honor, and festivals. In the Middle Eastern nation of Israel, kosher dietary laws concerning the selection, preparation, and eating of food remains influential in Jewish life. The Jewish laws of kashrut, or keeping...

Definition of Terms

Physical activity is a broad term that encompasses all forms of muscle movements. These movements can range from sports to lifestyle activities. Furthermore, exercise can be defined as physical activity that is a planned, structured movement of the body designed to enhance physical fitness. Regimented or purposeful exercise consists of a program that includes twenty to sixty minutes of activity at least three to five days a week. Some examples of this type of activity include walking, running,...

Definitions

The term adverse reaction is used to describe health problems linked to food. Food allergy and food intolerance are two types of adverse food reactions (food-borne illnesses caused by bacterial, viral, or other forms of contamination are also adverse reactions). A food allergy is said to exist when the health problem is linked to a malfunction of the immune system. It is believed that this malfunctioning occurs when the body identifies a food protein (allergen) as a harmful substance. Food...

Dehydration

Dehydration is the excessive loss of water from the body. Water can be lost through urine, sweat, feces, respiration, and through the skin. Symptoms of dehydration in order of severity are thirst, nausea, chills, clammy skin, increased heart rate, muscle pain, reduced sweating, dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, dry mouth, fatigue, lack of sweating, hallucinations, fainting, and loss of consciousness. Dehydration can affect mental alertness, renal function, circulation, and total...

Dietary Trends International

What foods an individual eats is affected by the ability to access foods. Economic status, geography, and politics have influenced the diets of people throughout history. Poverty is linked to malnutrition, while economic growth and a rise in population pose new nutritional problems. Ironically, diets high in complex carbohydrates and fiber in poor economic times give way to consumption of foods high in sugars and fat when economic conditions improve. Between 1995 and 1997, among countries that...

Dietetic Technician Registered DTR

Nutrition the maintenance of health through proper eating, or the study of same diet the total daily food intake, or the types of foods eaten A dietetic technician, registered (DTR) is a professional who is knowledgeable about food, nutrition, and diet therapy, which is the use of diet and nutrition in the treatment of diseases. A person seeking DTR credentials must complete a two-year associate's degree in an accredited dietetic technician (DT) program, a minimum of 450 hours of supervised...

Digestion and Absorption

Digestion is the breakdown of food into smaller particles or individual nutrients. It is accomplished through six basic processes, with the help of several body fluids particularly digestive juices that are made up of compounds such as saliva, mucus, enzymes, hydrochloric acid, bicarbonate, and bile. The six processes of digestion involve (1) the movement of food and liquids (2) the lubrication of food with bodily secretions (3) the mechanical breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (4)...

Disaster Relief Organizations

Natural disasters, as well as some human-caused disasters, lead to human suffering and create needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance. Examples of disasters include hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, drought, blizzards, famine, war, fire, volcanic eruption, a building collapse, or a transportation wreck. When any such disaster strikes, a variety of international organizations offer relief to the affected country. Each organization has different objectives, expertise,...

Early History of Africa

The early history of man is the story of food in Africa. Homo sapiens evolved apart from other apes in Africa, and the adaptation of humans has been shaped by adaptations to diet. For example, some anthropologists believe diversity the variety of cultural traditions within a larger culture diet the total daily food intake, or the types of foods eaten that the selection pressure that led to bipedalism (walking on two legs) was an adaptation to changing environments that involved travel in search...

Ethical Considerations for Care

It is strongly advised that those suspected with or diagnosed with HIV infection seek professional attention from a qualified physician and a registered dietician. For these caregivers, the development of new antiviral drugs, changes in methods of administration of existing drugs, and new information regarding nutrition require diligent and regular review. It is important for health care workers to keep an open dialogue with the patient, so that they stay aware of the patient's health status...

European Settlement

The Arawaks and Caribs, the first natives of the islands, were not treated kindly, however, as the Spanish, French, Dutch, and British conquered the islands at different periods, all but wiping out the native populations. Today, only a few aboriginals remain in the Caribbean. The European settlers soon realized that sugarcane was a profitable crop that could be exported to the European market. However, there was a shortage of European farmers, and slaves were brought from Africa to work on the...

Exercise Addiction

Individuals with an exercise addiction are characterized by their compulsive exercise behaviors, an overinvolvement in exercise, and the presence of an activity disorder meaning they exercise at a duration, intensity, and frequency beyond that required for sport. A rigid schedule of intense exercise is maintained, accompanied by strong feelings of guilt when this schedule is violated. These individuals resist the temptation to lapse into nonexercise, and if they do lapse, the amount of exercise...

Expanded Food Nutrition and Education Program

The Expanded Food Nutrition and Education Program (EFNEP), established in 1968, is funded by the United States Department of Agriculture. By providing grants to local communities, the program assists U.S. counties in developing programs to improve home and family life. EFNEP's purpose is to help economically and socially disadvantaged families improve diet the total daily food intake, or the their food practices and their diet. This may include advice on planning types of foods eaten meals...

Exposure to Foods

There are innumerable flavors and food combinations. A liking for some flavors or food combinations is easily acceptable, but others must develop or be learned. Sweetness is a universally acceptable flavor, but a taste for salty, savory, spicy, tart, bitter, and hot flavors must be learned. The more a person is exposed to a food and encouraged to eat it the greater the chances that the food will be accepted. As the exposure to a food increases, the person becomes more familiar and less fearful...

Fast Foods

Fast foods are relatively inexpensive foods that are prepared and served quickly. The fast-food industry had its beginnings around the mid-twentieth century, and it grew tremendously during the last three decades of the twentieth century. Growth of the fast-food industry is projected to be even greater outside the United States during the twenty-first century. The most common type of U.S. fast-food restaurant specializes in a meal consisting of a hamburger, French fries, and a beverage....

Fat Substitutes

Nutrient dietary substance necessary for health essential fatty acids particular molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that the human body must have but cannot make itself vitamin necessary complex nutrient used to aid enzymes or other metabolic processes in the cell energy technically, the ability to perform work the content of a substance that allows it to be useful as a fuel hormone molecules produced by one set of cells that influence the function of another set of cells Since the...

Fiber

Fiber, which is found in all plant-based foods, is composed of a group of compounds that makes up the framework of plants. Although fiber cannot be digested, it is an essential nutrient for good health. The health benefits of a diet rich in fiber include lower cholesterol and a reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers. Also referred to as roughage, fiber is made up of many compounds, mostly carbohydrates. It can be found in a variety of foods, including wheat, potatoes, and certain...

Food Aid for Development and the World Food Programme

Food aid has been a key to global agricultural development and trade policy since the end of World War II. Food aid creates agricultural development and income growth in poor nations, and thus creates future markets for donor countries, according to Christopher Barrett. However, food aid may be inflationary because it increases demand and costs for nonfood items in the recipient countries. The World Food Programme (WFP), the food-assistance agency of the United Nations, was established in 1963...

Food and Agricultural Organization

The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) is one of the largest specialized agencies of the United Nations. Founded in 1945, it is responsi-nutrition the maintenance of health ble for raising levels of nutrition and standards of living, increasing hr ugh proper eating, or the study of agricultural productivity, and improving rural living conditions throughout the world. The FAO is an international organization that has 183 member countries, plus one member organization, the European...

Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations FDPIR

The FDPIR provides monthly food packages of commodity foods to low-income American Indian households living on or near Indian reservations. Currently there are some 243 tribes receiving benefits under the FDPIR. Household eligibility for the program is based on income and resource standards set by the federal government. Many people participate in FDPIR as an alternative to the Food Stamp Program because they lack easy access to food stamp offices or authorized grocery stores. Households cannot...

Food Preparation and Storage

Grilling, frying, grinding, and stewing are the most common ways of preparing meats in countries bordering the Mediterranean Basin. A whole, roasted lamb or leg of lamb is a special dish prepared for festive gatherings. Spices and seasonings are essential in the preparation of Middle Eastern dishes. Common spices and herbs include dill, garlic, mint, cinnamon, oregano, parsley, leek, and pepper. Many Middle Eastern nations, such as Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon, have predominantly Muslim...

Food Safety

One of the many luxuries Americans enjoy is access to the safest and most abundant food supply in the world. This stems from many advances and improvements in food safety, sanitation, and crop production that reduce the chance of food-safety problems, including food-borne illness, pesticide contamination, or infectious disease. There are many reasons why food safety has become an issue. First, medical advances have made it possible for people to live longer, creating an aging population more...

Food Sources

Humans consume many foods that contain proteins or amino acids. One normally need not worry about getting enough protein or amino acids in A diabetic child injects herself with insulin. Composed of 51 amino acids, insulin is a small protein used by the body to regulate glucose levels in the blood. Custom Medical Stock Photo. Reproduced by Permission. A diabetic child injects herself with insulin. Composed of 51 amino acids, insulin is a small protein used by the body to regulate glucose levels...

Food Borne Illness

Each year, millions of people become ill from food-borne illness, the most common food safety-issue, although many cases are not reported. Food-borne illness is caused when toxic levels of pathogens or bacteria are present in food. Microbial food-borne illness, commonly called food poisoning, is monitored closely because the cases of food poisoning far outweigh any other type of food contamination. In the case of an infection from a pathogen such as Salmonella, contamination and food-borne...

For Your Reference

SELECTED METRIC CONVERSIONS liver, carrots, kale, red peppers, milk, spinach, eggs, butter meat, whole grains, cabbage, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, liver, fish, tomatoes, spinach, beets, asparagus, potatoes, liver, wheat germ, soybeans, cabbage, whole grains, eggs, milk, meats tomatoes, potatoes, most fruits and vegetables milk, liver, fatty fish like herring, chicken skin, egg yolks broccoli, turnip greens, lettuce, liver, cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, meats, whole grains, potatoes,...

Functional Foods

Functional food food whose health benefits are claimed to be higher than those traditionally assumed for similar types of foods nutrition the maintenance of health through proper eating, or the study of same fiber indigestible plant material that aids digestion by providing bulk calcium mineral essential for bones and teeth Functional foods are foods that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition due to certain physiologically active components, which may or may not have been manipulated...

Functions of Proteins

Proteins act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. They maintain fluid balance and acid and base balance. They also transport substances such as oxygen, vitamins, and minerals to target cells throughout the body. Structural proteins, such as collagen and keratin, are responsible for the formation of bones, teeth, hair, and the outer layer of skin, and they help maintain the structure of blood vessels and other tissues. In contrast, motor proteins use energy and convert it into some form of...

Genetically Modified Foods

Genetic modification employs recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology to alter the genes of microorganisms, plants, and animals. Genetic modification is also called biotechnology, gene splicing, recombinant DNA technology, or genetic engineering. Contemporary genetic modification was developed in the 1970s and essentially transfers genetic material from one organism to another. The modification of organisms has existed for centuries in the form of plant-breeding techniques (such as...

Global Database on National Nutrition Policies and Programmes

Hunger and malnutrition occur throughout the world, though the knowl- malnutrition chronic lack of sufficient edge and resources exist to eliminate them. The challenge lies in changing nutrients to maintain health political will, developing realistic policies, and taking determined actions both nationally and internationally. These are the basic beliefs of the Global Database on National Nutrition Policies and Programmes (GDNNPP). GDNNPP was created by the World Health Organization (WHO) in...

Glycolysis

The molecular bonds in food products do not yield high amounts of energy when broken down. Therefore, the energy contained in food is released within cells and stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a high-energy compound created by cellular energy-production systems. Carbohydrates are metabolized and used to produce ATP molecules through a process called glycolysis. Glycolysis breaks down glucose or glycogen into pyruvic acid through enzymatic reactions within the cytoplasm of the...

Goiter

A goiter is a noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland in the front of the neck. Many conditions can cause goiter, but the most common is a lack of sufficient iodine in the diet, which is usually a result of the soil in which food is grown being iodine-poor a condition that occurs in many mountainous regions away from the sea. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolism. About 740 million people have goiters, but the percentage varies...

Health

Health is a measure of quality of life that is difficult to define and measure. In the 1940s, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. At the first International Conference on Health Promotion in Ottawa, Canada (1986), the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion built on the WHO's concept and further defined health as a resource for everyday life a positive concept...

Health Claims

As part of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) implemented regulations defining what terms may be used to describe the level of a nutrient in a food, as well as what claims nutrient dietary substance necessary could be made about the relationship between a nutrient or a food and the for health risk of a disease or health-related condition. Prior to the implementation of calcium...

Health Communication

Health communication is the discipline that studies and develops appropriate communication strategies to inform individuals and communities about ways to enhance health. It is used at all levels of disease prevention and health promotion and can contribute to improving health and delaying disease, disability, and death. Health communication can be used to (1) improve patientprovider relationships, (2) assist individuals to search for and use reputable health information and services, (3) enable...

Health Promotion

Achieving optimal health is not the sole responsibility of the individual. Health promotion enables individuals to improve their health and delay disease, disability, and death. Health-promoting activities include healthful eating, adequate physical activity, stress management, not smoking, and state f nervousness adequate sleep. On a societal level, health promotion focuses on achieving equity in health among all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Health disparities can be reduced or eliminated...

Healthy

Food labeling regulations allow manufacturers to make a healthy claim on the label. Due to the types of foods that are regulated by each agency, however, the FDA's definition of healthy is different from the USDA's definition. Under the FDA, healthy may be used if the food is low in fat and saturated fat and has a limited amount of sodium and cholesterol. In addition, single-item foods must provide at least 10 percent of one or more of vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, and fiber....

Hivaids

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) was identified in 1983 by the French scientist Luc Montagier and his staff at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Ever since that discovery, scientists have been searching for ways to treat those infected with HIV, and to produce a vaccine to prevent its spread. While new antiviral treatments have been developed, a vaccine has yet to be found. HIV causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), an unpredictable condition that may progress over many years and is...

Homelessness

According to a 1996 United Nations report, 500 million people worldwide were homeless or residing in low-quality housing and unsanitary conditions in 1995. The number of homeless continues to rise, however, and quantifying this population is difficult. Most homelessness rates are reported by service providers, and countries with the best-developed service systems will therefore report the highest number of homeless, a condition referred to as the...

How Many People Suffer from Eating Disorders

According to the National Institute of Mental Health Between .5 percent and 3.7 percent of women suffer from anorexia nervosa at some point in their lives. Between 1.1 and 4.2 percent of women suffer from bulimia nervosa at some point in their lives. Between 2 and 5 percent of Americans experience binge-eating disorder during any six-month period. Women are more likely than men to develop eating disorders. Only 5 to 15 percent of those with anorexia or bulimia are men, and only 35 percent of...

Hypertension High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood against the walls of arteries. It is recorded as two numbers the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the pressure as the heart beats, while diastolic pressure measures the pressure when the heart relaxes between beats. Blood pressure is normally measured at the brachial artery with a sphyg-momanometer (pressure cuff) in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and given as systolic over diastolic pressure. Normal blood...

Influence of Central American and Mexican Culture

As two cultures intermingle, foods and preparations from each tend to infiltrate the other. This is clearly the case near the U.S.-Mexican border, where Mexican immigrants and return immigrants have incorporated foods from U.S. diets into their traditional diets. The result has been a modified form of Mexican cuisine popularly known as Tex-Mex. Beyond the border, this Americanized version of popular Mexican foods has spread throughout the United States through the popularity of Mexican...

J

Jamaica, 1 110 Japan diet, 1 53-54 food-borne illness, 2 118 life expectancy, 2 28 organic foods, 2 115 postmenopausal symptoms, 2 208 stomach cancer, 1 88 Japanese Americans, diet of, 1 50 Jefferson, Thomas, 2 79 Jejunum, 1 170 Jerk meat, 1 108, 109 Jewish food practices, 1 259, 2 176, 177-178, 178t Job sharing, defined, 1 77 Johnson, Howard, 2 14-16, 2 15 Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto, 1 67, 68 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV AIDS, 1 280 Judaism. See Jewish food...

K

Kashrut, 1 259, 2 177-178 Kava, 2 131 Kcalorie, 1 87, 216 See also Calories Kellogg, John Harvey, 1 60, 61, 255, 2 16-18, 2 17, 254 See also Battle Creek Sanitarium Kellogg, Will Keith, 2 16, 17, 17 Kempner, Walter, 2 181-182 Keto-acid, defined, 2 157 Ketoacidosis, defined, 1 146 Ketones, 1 210 defined, 1 146 Ketosis, 1 97, 2 56 defined, 1 97 Kidney and diabetes, 1 146 and hypertension, 1 289, 289 and mineral toxicity, 2 61 Kidney stones, defined, 1 84 Killer-cell, defined, 1 43 Kilocalorie, 1...

Methods of Cooking

The traditional preparation of maize involves boiling and soaking dried maize in a lime-water solution and then grinding it to form a soft dough called masa. Soaking in lime softens the maize and is an important source of calcium in the diet. The masa is shaped and cooked on a flat metal or calcium mineral essential for bones and teeth clay surface over an open fire. In some areas, lard or margarine, milk, cheese, and or baking powder may be added to the tortilla during preparation. Beans are...

North Africa

The countries of North Africa that border the Mediterranean Sea are largely Muslim countries. As a result, their diet reflects Islamic traditions. The religion of Islam does not permit eating pork or any animal product that has cuisine types of food and traditions of preparation North African cuisine reflects the Islamic traditions of the region. Here, a man cooks with traditional Moroccan tajines, conical clay pots used for lamb stews and curries. Photograph by Owen Franken. Corbis. Reproduced...

Nutrition and Disease

White South Africans (Dutch descendants called Afrikaaners), Europeans, and Asian Indians in Africa have diets similar to their countries of origin. In urban areas, however, the diet of (black) Africans is increasingly dependent on meat, much like the diet of some West African pastoral tribes, as well as on empty calories from prepackaged foods similar to those found in the West. The result is an unbalanced diet. In many parts of Africa, the traditional diets of indigenous peoples are often...

Nutrition and Weil Being A to Z

James, Editor in Chief An imprint of Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation Detroit New York San Francisco San Diego New Haven, Conn. Waterville, Maine London Munich Delores C. S. James, Ph.D., RD, LD N University of Florida Department of Health Science Education Gainesville, Florida Catherine Christie, Ph.D., RD, LD N, FADA University of North Florida Jacksonville, Florida Ranjita Misra, Ph.D., CHES Texas A& M University Department of Health and Kinesiology College...

Nutrition for Hivaids

In the absence of a cure, it is important to control symptoms, support the immune system, and lower the levels of HIV circulating in the blood. To lower the level of HIV in the blood, patients take a prescribed combination of antiviral drugs. The role nutrition plays will vary along the disease continuum (disease progression over many years), with consideration given to the patient's age, gender, behaviors, current medication, drug history, socioeconomic status, and associated health concerns....

Nutrition Labeling

FDA's voluntary nutrition labeling program was initiated in 1976. Under this program, unless the product bore a nutrition claim or nutrients were added to the product, food manufacturers had the option of providing nutrition information on their products. On November 8, 1990, President George Bush signed into law the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA), requiring nutrition labeling for most foods (except meat and poultry) and outlining the appropriate use of nutrient content and...

Nutrition Screening Initiative

Elderly individuals are at increased risk for problems that affect their nutritional status. The nationwide Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) categorizes these problems as those affecting functional, social, or financial status and access to food and drink. These problems can affect quality of life and the Elderly people face unique nutritional challenges. Although age can diminish appetite and physical mobility, the body still requires as many nutrients as a younger adult's. Photograph by...

Nutritional Issues

Many fast foods are fried (which facilitates quick preparation), high in fat and sodium, and low in fiber, vitamins, and some minerals. The added value option, whereby customers can order larger sizes for a minimal additional charge, adds to the total calorie and fat intake. Many of these eateries now offer salads, low-calorie or fat-free dressings, low-fat ice cream, and plain, broiled chicken sandwiches or other foods low in fat and or calories. Menu options will probably continue to increase...

Obtaining Storing Using and Discarding Food

Humans acquire, store, and discard food using a variety of methods. People may grow, fish, or hunt some of their food, or they may purchase most of it from supermarkets or specialty stores. If there is limited access to energy sources, people may store small amounts of foods and get most of what they eat on a day-to-day basis. In homes with abundant space and energy, however, people purchase food in bulk and store it in freezers, refrigerators, and pantries. In either case there must also be...

Organizational Responsibilities

It is important for health care organizations and professional preparation programs to articulate a commitment to cultural competence and to initiate cultural-competence initiatives. Many organizations are getting social and legal pressures to do this from different segments of the population. In addition to the social impact of diversity, these organizations are beginning to realize that a commitment to diversity makes good business sense. Professional preparation programs can play a...

Organizations Providing Community Based Solutions to Homelessness

Several community-based solutions to homelessness have been developed, such as emergency shelters, transitional housing, permanent housing for formerly homeless individuals, voucher distribution for housing, food pantries, soup kitchens and meal distribution programs, mobile food programs, physical and mental health, alcohol and or drug, HIV AIDS, and outreach programs, drop-in centers, and migrant housing. Examples of organizations seeking to provide solutions to hunger and homelessness...

Origins of the African American Diet The Aftereffects of Slavery

Diversity the variety of cultural traditions The roots of the diversity of African-American cuisine may be traced back within a larger culture to 1619, when the first African slaves were sold in the New World. In a quest to build new cities in America, Europeans actively transported Africans and West Indians (people from the West Indies) to the new land. The West Indies (in the Caribbean Sea) was part of the slave route to America. Because the West Indians' skin color was similar to that of...