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FAT LOSS Activation

The program is authored by coach Ryan Faehnle (CSS FMS). Commonly known as The Ghrelin Guy, he is highly regarded as an industry leader. He has traveled the world in search of the best nutrition, recovery modalities, and motivation that lead to success. He can therefore undoubtedly be trusted and so should his product. His reputation is forged from experience and results. The product is about a program. The program generally has a three-action part methodology to help you achieve fat loss. These action methods include; Taming your hunger hormone (The ghrelin hormone) so that you do not overeat, activating your muscles so that you can combat an inactive lifestyle with shorter workouts. Working with your existing habits to make fat loss easier and sustainable. This product is in the format of e-books obtained on the web. It comes as a package with other bonuses in store. The program is intended for those who are not confident and comfortable with their body forms. The youth, both men and women and the old alike can benefit from this program. You do not require to have a particular set of skills to use this program, just following the guideline provided for you. And it does matter, whether you are a professional athlete wanting to get rid of that extra fat or if you are a gym new, the approach of this program is the same. Read more here...

FAT LOSS Activation Summary

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FAT LOSS ACTIVATION Review

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Dietary Management

The amount of snacking will probably be appropriate (Table 3). There is no consistent evidence that reduction of any particular energy source is more effective than any other in promoting fat loss, so 'balanced diets' conforming to the 'healthy diet' principles of WHO and many governments should be followed.

Smoking Cessation And Weight Gain

It is not clear whether weight gain during cessation is temporary or permanent, although the majority of studies indicate that some weight gain (about 5 pounds) is likely to be long-term. Although the mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are not clear, a number of hypotheses have been set forward. These include a metabolic effect for smokers this is supported by research indicating that smokers and nonsmokers have few differences in the amount of calories consumed. Another hypothesis is that smoking lowers the body's ''set point'' for weight and smoking cessation raises that set point to be equivalent to that of nonsmokers. A third hypothesis is based on the observation that an increase in caloric intake occurs in those who stop smoking, and increased consumption may be responsible for the weight gain. Although weight gain is likely to accompany cessation, actual weight gain during smoking cessation does not appear to be related to cessation outcomes. Nevertheless, in reaction...

Strategies Of Weight Control During Cessation

The focus of weight control strategies during cessation has revolved around diet, exercise, and most recently, pharmacologic agents. Weight control programs through behavioral self-management of dietary intake have been largely ineffective. In two large randomized trials of behavioral weight management during cessation, the standard care (control) groups with no weight control intervention had better cessation outcomes than the groups that received the behavioral intervention. One of the studies, however, reported that the amount of weight gained was lower for individuals receiving the dietary weight control intervention than individuals not receiving it. In recent years, a number of research studies examining the effect of physical exercise on weight control during cessation have been conducted. The majority of these studies have been conducted with women. The largest randomized study to date found that women who participated in exercise as well as a smoking cessation program were...

Regulation of Prostaglandin and Leukotriene Synthesis by Dietary Fatty Acids

The diverse physiologic and pathologic functions mediated by eicosanoids highlight the importance of their fatty acid precursors in the diet. Unlike cellular proteins that are genetically predetermined, the PUFA composition of cell membranes is dynamic and is pivotally dependent on dietary intake. The typical Western diet is high in the n-6 family of PUFA (up to 25-fold more n-6 fats than n-3 fats are consumed). This predominance of n-6 fat is due to the abundance in the diet of the 'parent' 18-carbon PUFA linoleic acid (LA 18 2 n-6), which is present in high concentrations in corn, soy, safflower, and sunflower oils. Once ingested, LA can be converted to AA by a series of elongation and desaturation enzymes (Figure 6). Hence AA is the predominant PUFA of membrane The enzymes involved in the metabolism of the 20-carbon PUFAs to PGs and LTs can use either n-9 (eicosatrienoic acid EtrA 20 3), n-6 (arachidonic acid AA 20 4), or n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 20 5) PUFAs as the substrate...

Dietary Protein Allowances and Implications of Adaptation

The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) defines the notional mean requirement for the population group. The Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) is defined according to the range of interindividual variability and is two standard deviations above the EAR. The RNI (or Recommended Dietary Allowance) is thus an intake that will meet the requirement of most of the population assuming normal distribution of requirements and is therefore a 'safe allowance.' The Lower Nutrient Reference Intake, which is two standard deviations below the EAR, defines the lowest intake that will meet the requirement of some of the population. It follows from these definitions that in deriving dietary allowances from nitrogen balance studies, the variability in the reported values is very important since this is used to set the RNI. The currently agreed value is based on an EAR of 0.66 g kg and a SD 12 (i.e., 0.82 g kg). Such calculations try to assess true between-subject variation rather than measurement errors....

Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes

This report is the sixth in a series of publications resulting from the comprehensive effort being undertaken by the Food and Nutrition Board's (FNB) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI Committee) and its panels and subcommittees. This initiative began in June 1993, when FNB organized a symposium and public hearing entitled, Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances Be Revised Shortly thereafter, to continue its collaboration with the larger nutrition community on the future of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), FNB took two major steps (1) It prepared, published, and disseminated the concept paper, How Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances Be Revised (IOM, 1994), which invited comments regarding the proposed concept, and (2) It held several symposia at nutrition-focused professional meetings to discuss FNB's tentative plans and to receive responses to the initial concept paper. Many aspects of the conceptual framework of the...

Dietary Sources and High Intakes

Table 2 lists the riboflavin contents of some commonly consumed foods in Western countries. As is the case with most other B vitamins, the richest food sources comprise items such as offal and yeast extract, with meat and dairy products also providing quite generous amounts fruit and vegetables somewhat less, and the smallest amounts, in relation to their energy content, being present in ungerminated grains and seeds, such as nuts. There is an enormous difference in intakes and in status observed between most Western countries, where the dietary intake tends to be quite generous, and many developing countries, which depend on monotonous and ribo-flavin-poor staple foods such as polished rice. In developing countries, riboflavin deficiency tends to

Professionalization of Dieting

In the history of dieting, various groups and individuals have been responsible for handing out dieting advice. From the 1860s to the 1950s, the church and religious groups, as well as celebrity and socialites from Lord Byron to Upton Sinclair, emphasized the importance of keeping the body pure (Griffith 2004 50). In the 1960s, people shifted from following traditional diet advice of keeping the body clean to conforming to a thinness campaign (Bordo 2003 102-3). Restrictive diets became popular and, thus, the average American looked to supermodels like Twiggy for advice. Again, in the 1980s, celebrity figures and fad doctors published the bulk of dieting books and gave out dieting tips on how they were able to achieve a slim figure. Celebrities like Jane Fonda and Oprah, among others, provided their personal dieting stories for Americans to follow. Currently, the research-driven food and dieting industry has caused a shift in dietary advice, which emphasizes the expertise of medical...

Selenium Distribution Status Assays and Dietary Reference Values

A summary of reference values and recommended intakes of selenium from three publications is presented in Table 2. Dietary reference values for Intake AI, Adequate Intake RDA, Recommended Dietary Sources UK Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom, Report on Health and Social Subjects No. 41. London HMSO. USA Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. Washington, DC National Academy Press. WHO FAO WHO FAO (2002) Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO WHO Expert Consultation, Bangkok, Thailand. Rome WHO FAO. More recently, selenium recommendations or reference values have been slightly lower. The US committee that set Dietary Reference Intakes in 2000 interpreted the Chinese estimate of 41 mg day needed to saturate GPx in adult men, and data from New Zealand indicating selenium intake adequacy at 38 mg day, as...

High intensity interval training HIIT for fat loss

After low intensity exercise, the magnitude of the EPOC is so small that its impact on fat loss is negligible. Somewhere between 9 and 30 extra calories are burned after exercise at an intensity of less than 60-65 of maximal heart rate. In other words, a casual stroll on the treadmill will do next to nothing to increase your metabolism. Ironically, weight training has a much higher magnitude of EPOC than aerobic training. Studies have shown increases in metabolic rate of as much as 4-7 over a 24hour period from resistance training. Yes - that means weight training does burn fat -albeit through an indirect mechanism. For someone with an expenditure of 2500 calories per day, that could add up to 100 - 175 extra calories burned after your weight training workout is over. The lesson is simple Anyone interested in losing body fat who isn't lifting weights should first take up a regimen of weight training, then - and only then -start thinking about the HIIT

Traditional Eating Habits

Traditional eating habits of Mediterranean countries, and those countries along the basin, include olives, fish, lamb, wheat, rice, chick peas and other In ancient times, sea trade brought many of the world's cultural and culinary achievements to the nations around the Mediterranean Sea. More recently, the Mediterranean diet which features low-cholesterol foods such as vegetables and fish, and includes very little meat has been recognized as one of the world's healthiest. Photograph by Annebicque Bernard. Corbis. Reproduced by permission. In ancient times, sea trade brought many of the world's cultural and culinary achievements to the nations around the Mediterranean Sea. More recently, the Mediterranean diet which features low-cholesterol foods such as vegetables and fish, and includes very little meat has been recognized as one of the world's healthiest. Photograph by Annebicque Bernard. Corbis. Reproduced by permission.

Dietary recommendations and therapeutic use

As presented here, PUFAs have the potential to affect a large number of metabolic processes and, therefore, these fatty acids are beneficial in obesity and its related diseases. The most important effect of omega-3 PUFAs, and in particular EPA and DHA, is the triglyceride-lowering effect observed in humans (Connor et al., 1993). Lowering circulating triglycerides has been proven to protect against coronary heart disease and the use of fish oil or increased consumption of fish after myocardial infarction reduced reinfarc-tion and mortality (Calder, 2004). The American Heart Association have presented guidelines for dietary fish intake, proposing that patients without documented coronary heart disease should eat a variety of fish, preferably oily fish, twice a week (Kris-Etherton et al., 2002). Patients with documented coronary heart disease should consume dietary supplementation of at least 1 g EPA and DHA per day. Long-chain omega-3 PUFAs derived from fish and fish oils have...

Dietary Exposure to Salt in the Young

CGregoy J, Foster K, Tyler H, Wiseman M. The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. HMSO (London, 1990). Source Gregory J, Foster K, Tyler H, Wiseman M. The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. HMSO (London, 1990). Source Gregory J, Foster K, Tyler H, Wiseman M. The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. HMSO (London, 1990).

Recommended Dietary Intake Chart

For more than 50 years, nutrition experts have produced a set of nutrient and energy standards known as the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). A major revision is currently underway to replace the RDA. The revised recommendations are called Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and reflect the collaborative efforts of both the United States and Canada. Until 1997, the RDA were the only standards available and they will continue to serve health professionals until DRI can be established for all nutrients. For this reason, both the 1989 RDA and the 1997 DRI for selected nutrients are presented here.

Recommended Dietary Intakes

1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Source RDA reprinted with permission from Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edition 1959 by the National Academy of Sciences. Courtesy of the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (Washington, D.C. National Academy Press, 1997). Source RDA reprinted with permission from Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edition 1959 by the National Academy of Sciences. Courtesy of the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (Washington, D.C. National Academy Press, 1997).

Dietary Reference Intakes Recommended Intakes for Individuals

Note This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 ) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

Dietary Reference Intakes Recommended Intakes for Individuals Continued

DAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE 1 ig (mcg) food folate 0.6 ig of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food 0.5 ig of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE 1 ig (mcg) food folate 0.6 ig of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food 0.5 ig of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. e Although Als have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

Dietary Sources of Thiamin

Thiamin is present in most foods but cereal products provide most thiamin for most people in the world, although the source is fundamentally different in developing and more industrialized countries. In the developing world, unrefined cereal grains and or starchy roots and tubers provide 60-85 of dietary thiamin, whereas most dietary thiamin in industrialized countries is obtained from fortified cereal products. In the United Kingdom, for example, wheat flour is fortified with 2.4 mg thiamin per kilogram and many breakfast cereals contain 30 or more of the daily thiamin requirement per portion. Thiamin is present in greatest amounts in brewers yeast, the germ and aleuron layers of fresh wheat, egg yolk, and mammalian liver. It is also present in meat flesh, particularly pork, and vegetables, nuts, and legumes (Table 1). Milk from both humans (0.49-0.79 mmol l 0.23 mg 4.2MJ (1000 kcal)) and cows (1.18-1.48 mmol l) is a poor source of thiamin. Thiamin is actively secreted into milk by...

Dietary Recommendations

International dietary Guidelines recommend increased grain consumption. At present, the USA is the only nation to specify exact quantities of whole grain foods, and it is only within the last few years that whole grains have been considered seperately from total grain foods. The recommendations for grains have evolved over time to reflect changes in research and to simplify and clarify consumer messages. The latest American Dietary Guidelines (2005) now state a recommendation of 3 or more ounce-equivalent portions of whole-grain foods daily, with a further recommendation that at least half of grain consumption should be whole-grain. In the UK, the Food Standards Agency explicitly encourages consumers to select whole-grain varieties in their healthy eating advice, although no exact quantities are given. Many other European countries also tend to place emphasis on only cereals and fiber, without necessarily specifically highlighting whole grains. a reduced risk of a number of chronic...

Dietary Reference Intakes

Nutrients arc coming to be seen more and more like medications, where the 'dose makes the poison'. The Dietary Reference Intakes (DR1) published by the Food and Nutrition Board now take into consideration, at least in principle, both lower and upper desirable limits. How to determine appropriate limits for individuals or groups remains the unresolved and much debated question. The Food and Nutrition Board has established a basic framework for tackling this question. Needs are considered separately for each of 22 groups delined by age. gender, as well as pregnancy and lactation status.

Dieting and Weight Loss

The 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data shows that up to 46 of U.S. women and 33 of U.S. men are presently trying to lose weight (Bish et al., 2005). Currently, the weight-loss charge is practiced most frequently by Hispanic (50 ), Caucasian and African-American (45-46 ) women, followed by Hispanic (34 ), Caucasian (32 ), and African-American (31 ) men based on data from over 180,000 participants in the BRFSS 2000 (Bish et al., 2005). Weight-loss strategies included eating fewer calories (56 of women, 53 of men). This strategy was most frequently used by non-Hispanic White women between the ages of 30 and 69 years, men over 50 years of age, and those who received a medical recommendation to lose weight (Bish et al., 2005). Physical activity was used by approximately 66 of men and women trying to lose weight. As with the strategy of cutting calories, physical activity was used most frequently by non-Hispanic White women (Bish et al., 2005). Although this...

Macronutrient Composition of the Diet

Dietary fat and fatty acids Most of the fat in the diet consists of TAG that are composed of three fatty-acid molecules bonded to glycerol. The contribution of TAG to total energy intake varies among individuals and populations, ranging from 15 to 40 of total nutrient energy. The fatty acids of TAGs are of several types saturated, cis-monounsa-turated, trans-monounsaturated, and polyunsatu-rated fatty acids. All fatty acids affect lipoprotein levels in one way or another. Table 2 lists the major fatty acids of the diet and denotes their effects on serum lipoproteins. Also shown are the effects of carbohydrates, which also influence serum lipopro-tein metabolism. It should be noted that all lipopro-tein responses are compared with and related to those of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, which are widely accepted to be neutral, or baseline. Saturated fatty acids The saturated fatty acids are derived from both animal fats and plant oils. Rich sources of dietary saturated fatty acids...

Nucleosides and Nucleotides in the Diet

Beneficial effects of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides There is substantial evidence (principally from research in animal models) that the presence of nucleotides or nucleosides in the diet helps cellular proliferation in the gut, in postoperative trauma, and in the development of the immune response. Although dietary purines are not taken into circulation from the gut, purine nucleotides influence the transcription of several genes in intestinal cells. Nucleotides based on both adenosine and uridine can activate the purinergic receptors on a wide range of cell types. In lymphocytes and other cells, synthesis of nucleotides de novo is expanded dramatically when a signal for proliferation is received the rate of pyrimidine biosynthesis increases more than that of purine biosynthesis. Thus, nucleotides are considered to be 'conditionally essential' since their provision in the diet will provide help through the salvage system where cells are dividing rapidly or where other nutrients,...

Hormones Used in Dieting

I n 2004, Forbes magazine reported that the thirty-two teams in the National Football League had an operating income of 851 million dollars on revenue of 5.3 billion dollars. As a result, players on professional sports teams are making millions. In 2003, the average salary for a Major League Baseball player was 2,555,476 dollars, amazingly high but not even the highest in professional sports. Players in the National Basketball Association in 2003 brought in an average of 4.5 million dollars a year. This is big-time money, and the players in these leagues are big-time athletes who work hard to keep their bodies at the peak of physical performance. Many times, players do more than just eat right and exercise to stay physically competitive they look for alternative means to enhance performance. Most often, these alternatives come in the form of supplements ranging from simple protein shakes to manufactured hormones. However, it is not just these professional athletes using hormone...

Polyunsaturated fatty acids on energy metabolism and other factors connected to weight control

The destiny of the PUFAs, rats were fed purified triglycerides containing oleic acid and long-chain PUFAs (Fahey et al., 1985). The results showed that the uptake of the PUFAs was significantly slower than the uptake of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids. This demonstrates that the PUFAs are absorbed and metabolised at a lower rate, which may influence both appetite and satiety, two factors that are of great importance in weight control. Studies in cell culture systems have demonstrated that fatty acids have effects on adipocyte proliferation and differentiation (Azain, 2004). Feeding rats a high-fat diet rich in PUFAs demonstrated no difference in pre-adipocyte replication compared with rats fed a normal diet, while a diet rich in saturated fats accelerated the replication (Shillabeer and Lau, 1994). Furthermore, the size of the adipose tissue was reduced in PUFA-fed rats compared with rats fed saturated fat and this was due to less efficient storage of triglycerides...

Method Used to Estimate Weight Maintenance in Overweight and Obese Adults

Since Dietary Reference Intakes are designed to apply to apparently health individuals, the EERs are defined as values appropriate for maintenance of long-term good health. Overweight and obese individuals have greater weight than is consistent with long-term good health, thus EER values given in previous sections are not intended for overweight or obese individuals or for those who desire to lose weight. Instead, weight maintenance TEE values are discussed, along with information on the relationship between reduction in energy intake and change in body composition. The coefficients and standard error derived for only overweight and obese men and women are provided in Appendix Table I-10. For the overweight and obese equations, the standard deviations of the residuals ranged from 190 to 331, with the highest value in the very active PAL category. The equations are shown below (see Table I-10 for coefficients used).

The psychological reason most people sabotage their efforts to lose body fat

Like the ship's crew, your subconscious mind accepts every command your conscious mind gives it - its sole purpose is to obey and carry out your orders, even if you give stupid ones like I'll never see my abs. Frequent repetition of thoughts (mental orders) is one of the most certain ways to penetrate the subconscious mind. This is why, by repeating I can't lose weight over and over, your subconscious will see to it that you never lose weight because that's its job - to follow your every command literally and without question. If you program your subconscious with negative suggestions often enough, your subconscious will lead you right into cheating on your diet, skipping workouts or some other form of self-sabotage.

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Dietary

Eggs (lacto ovo vegetarians) as part of their diet and thus a source of some, albeit reduced, dietary vitamin B12 still have reduced vitamin B12 status. Yet other communities who for religious or other reasons are strict vegetarians (vegans) have no source of vitamin B12 and are at high risk of deficiency. This risk can be reduced in some of these communities where fermented food is eaten, in which bacteria have introduced vitamin B12 also, it has been suggested that in some circumstances the food is contaminated by bacteria. However, vegans and in particular babies born to and weaned by strict vegan women are established to be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and such babies have been reported on several occasions to show the signs and symptoms of the neuropathy associated with such deficiency.

Metabolism of Dietary Nucleic Acids in Humans

Hman Nutrion Images

The metabolism of these exogenous nucleic acids follows a similar pattern to the intra-cellular process described previously, but the bacterial flora of the intestine are the first point of attack. This digestion is rapid. Studies in pigs (confirmed by later studies in humans) demonstrated that up to 50 of radiolabeled dietary purine was degraded and lost as carbon dioxide gas within 30 min, with the remaining 43 being recovered in the urine and 5 in the feces (Figure 3). It has been shown that dietary pyrimidine nucleotides, but not purines, are incorporated into RNA. Humans thus have no apparent requirement for purines from the diet, and the intestinal mucosa provides an effective barrier to their uptake through a battery of enzymes that rapidly degrade purine nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases to the metabolic waste product, uric acid. This phenomenon may represent an important evolutionary development to protect the integrity of the cellular DNA or to ensure that...

The Development of Food Based Dietary Guidelines

The population rather than in terms of specific nutrients or food components. Scientifically, these guidelines are based on the association between dietary patterns and the risk of diet-related diseases and incorporate recommendations that address major diet-related public health issues. In addition to communicating scientific knowledge about the association between food, dietary patterns, and health, development of FBDG provides an opportunity to strengthen consensus among various government and non-government organizations on important nutrition recommendations to be incorporated into educational programs. In addition, by expressing scientific principles in terms of food, FBDG recognize the consumer awareness of food rather than nutrients and emphasize to consumers the importance of meeting nutrient needs with foods. Thus, both the content of the FBDG and the process of development are important. Health statistics will indicate the major causes of morbidity and mortality in a...

The skinny on gaining muscle while losing fat

Supplement advertising in bodybuilding and fitness magazines has brainwashed many people into believing that gaining muscle and losing fat at the same is an easy and common occurrence (with the right miracle product, of course). IT'S NOT It's quite rare. Here's an illustration The average man with a daily maintenance level of 2800 calories needs approximately 500 calories extra to gain weight - a total of 3300 per day. To lose weight, he needs about a 500-calorie deficit - a total of only 2300 calories per day. The difference between these two nutrition programs is 1000 calories They are at completely opposite ends of the spectrum. The most efficient method of improving body composition is to put 100 focus on your single most important goal losing fat or gaining muscle - one or the other. If you have above average amounts of body fat, then your number one goal should be to focus on losing fat first. Then, once the fat is off, you can re-write your goals and work on gaining muscle...

Dietary Functional and Total Fiber

Dietary Fiber is defined in this report as nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants. Functional Fiber is defined 958 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES as isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans. Total Fiber is the sum of Dietary Fiber and Functional Fiber. Fiber includes viscous forms that lower serum cholesterol concentrations (i.e., soluble fiber oat bran, beans) and the bulking agents that improve laxation (i.e., insoluble fiber wheat bran). The AI for Total Fiber is 38 and 25 g day for 19- to 50-year-old men and women, respectively, based on a reduced risk of coronary heart disease for those within the highest quintiles of dietary fiber consumption (g 1,000 kcal) in several epidemiological studies and the median energy intake (Appendix Table E-1). Unlike the AI for some nutrients, this AI does not describe the median Total Fiber intake of a healthy population. Instead, it is based on health benefits...

Dietary Folate Equivalents

Molybdopterin

Has been used in depletion repletion studies to determine folate requirements, and is the form used in food fortification. In order to permit calculation of folate intakes in terms of both naturally occurring mixed food folates and added folic acid, 1 fg of dietary folate equivalent has been defined as the sum of fig of food folate + 1.7 x fg of folic acid (Institute of Medicine, 1998). Most of the dietary folate consists of polyglutamates a variable amount may be substituted with various one-carbon fragments or be present as dihydrofo-late derivatives. There is little information on either the distribution of folate vitamers in foods or their relative biological activities (Gregory, 2001). Unsub-stituted reduced folates in foods are chemically unstable and readily undergo cleavage to p-aminobenzoic acid and the pteridine between 50 to 75 of the folate in food may be lost during processing and storage (Scott, 1999).

Dietary Management of Secondary Overnutrition

The dietary management of secondary overnutrition would logically be to restrict the intake of the nutrients accruing in excess. This is not always facile or feasible, however, due to the intrinsic complexity of foods and beverages, where most are sources of multiple essential micronutrients. Marked reduction in total energy intake can jeopardize the intake of proteins and essential fats. For the metal-storage afflictions such as Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis, removing copper and iron from the diet, respectively, are the fundamental elements of management. Some additional benefits can be gained by blocking the metals' absorption, as with high doses of zinc in Wilson's disease or with strong black tea (tannins) in hemochromatosis. Fundamentally, however, the management of metal-storage diseases requires some interventions to selectively remove the overload by chelating agents in Wilson's disease and recurrent phlebotomy in hemochromatosis. In a related variant condition, African...

The zig zag calorie rotation method for maximum fat loss the most effective nutritional technique for fat loss ever

Fortunately, there is a way you can trick your body into keeping your metabolic rate up while you're dieting for fat loss - It's called the zig zag method and it's without question the most powerful fat burning technique ever developed. Adjustments in calories may need to be made according to your weekly results, and some experimentation is usually necessary before you find your correct numbers. For example, to accelerate fat loss, you could create a larger deficit of 25-30 for the low days and a 10 deficit on the high days. 30 is a large reduction, but as long as you raise your calories every fourth day, your metabolism won't be affected. If loss of LBM ever becomes a problem, you can raise the number of calories you consume on your high days, Accelerated fat loss zig zag rotation The zig zag method is without question, the most effective method of fat loss ever developed. It is also one of the best-kept secrets of the world's best natural bodybuilders and fitness models....

Make your goal to lose weight slowly at a rate of 12 lbs per week Be patient

The best way to lose fat permanently without muscle loss is to lose weight slowly with a focus on exercise rather than severe calorie cutting. In the chapter on goal setting, we already made the suggestion to lose no more than two pounds per week. Let's take a closer look at the logic behind that recommendation. In the ACSM's position statement on Healthy and unhealthy weight loss programs, The ACSM recommends losing weight at a maximum rate of two pounds per week. This two pound figure has become almost universally accepted as the standard guideline for safe weight loss. Over the years that I've been doing personal coaching programs, I've kept progress charts for every client that meticulously document skinfolds, body fat, body weight, lbs. of fat and lbs. of lean mass. I have literally hundreds of these charts in my files. Analyzing these real-life case studies has proven to me without a shadow of a doubt that when you lose more than two pounds per week, you almost always lose...

Distinguishing Features of Dietary Fiber Compared with Functional Fiber

Dietary Fiber consists of nondigestible food plant carbohydrates and lignin in which the plant matrix is largely intact. Specific examples are provided in Table 7-1. Nondigestible means that the material is not digested and absorbed in the human small intestine. Nondigestible plant carbohydrates in foods are usually a mixture of polysaccharides that are integral components of the plant cell wall or intercellular structure. This definition recognizes that the three-dimensional plant matrix is responsible for some of the physicochemical properties attributed to Dietary Fiber. Fractions of plant foods are considered Dietary Fiber if the plant cells and their three-dimensional interrelationships remain largely intact. Thus, mechanical treatment would still result in intact fiber. Another distinguishing feature of Dietary Fiber sources is that they contain other macronutrients (e.g., digestible carbohydrate and protein) normally found in foods. For example, cereal brans, which are obtained...

Dietary and Nutritional Management of Secondary Undernutrition

The syllogism for dietary and nutritional management is to get enough nutrients into the body to restore nutritional adequacy and balance, taking any chronic barriers to uptake and retention into consideration. The blend of nutrients must be tailored to the specific absorptive or utilization problems, e.g., compensatory fat-soluble vitamins in water-miscible forms with severe fat malabsorption, and extra doses of highly available iron with chronic blood loss. These can be delivered within a dietary context with supplements and fortified vehicles in nonacute conditions. Even nondietary routes have been devised as in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency due to Crohn's disease with tanning bed ultraviolet B radiation.

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994

Dietary supplement usage in the United States has increased significantly since the passage in 1994 of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, pronounced Dee-shay). This legislation defined dietary supplements as distinct from food and drugs, and it allowed them to be sold without a prescription. The passage of DSHEA provided consumers with the right to purchase dietary supplements that they felt would help them attain their personal health goals. At the same time, DSHEA transferred to consumers the responsibility for making informed choices about the supplements that they used. In contrast to prescription and over-the-counter drugs, where effectiveness and safety must be demonstrated prior to marketing of the drugs, premarket approval is not required of manufacturers of dietary supplements. As a result, there is a greater potential risk that dietary supplements may be ineffective, or even harmful, as compared with drugs. The dietary supplements industry is not...

Roman Medicine and Dieting

E arly Roman medicine, following the lead of classical Greek medicine, saw obesity as a sign of illness. This was best articulated in the works of the Alexandrian physician Celsus (fl. 30 ce). He argued, however, that the body tended toward fat naturally. Nevertheless, too much weight was a sign of disease. The obese, many of them, are throttled by acute diseases and difficult breathing they die often suddenly, which rarely happens in the thinner person (Celsus 1935 I 97). In treating extra weight, he suggests tepid saltwater baths, hard exercise, food of an austere kind, and restricted sleep (Paulus Aegineta 1844 I, 81). Fat and Lean Mode of Life, the causes of illness lie in those things that are non-natural, (i.e., not the humors) res contra naturum aer (light and air), cibus et portus (food and drink), motus et qies (movement and rest), somnux et vigilia (sleeping and waking), exkreta et sekreta (metabolism), and affectus animi (affect). This was an argument that made nurture...

Methods for Estimating Dietary Intake at the Household Level Household Budget Surveys

A record is made by a respondent of details of all quantities of food entering the household (purchased, home grown, or received over a period), usually over a period of 7 days. Changes in larder stocks are not estimated as on average some households will gain and some will use up stocks. Estimates of losses and wastage during preparation are made. This method is used for the UK Expenditure and Food Survey (until 2001 the National Food Survey), and has included consumption of food, confectionery, soft drinks, and alcohol outside the home since 1992. As consumption outside the home now accounts for a substantial proportion of dietary intake in the UK the method was modified in 2001 to include the use of till receipts and individual 2-week diaries for each household member aged 7 years or older. This method can be used to measure seasonal variation in intake over 1 year.

Obesity and Physical Activity

Strategy Development Workshop for Public Education on Weight and Obesity--Summary Report. Summary of a 1992 workshop held to identify issues in educating the public, identifying priority audiences, approaches, and communications channels for weight and physical activity. Available at http www.nhlbi.nih.gov nhlbi cardio obes prof obeshc.htm

A simple test to determine your true ideal weight

Now that you understand the importance of body fat versus body weight and you understand that height and weigh charts are worthless, how do you figure out your ideal weight Well, first of all, it doesn't matter what you weigh If you are solid muscle without an ounce of visible fat on your body, do you honestly care how much you weigh That said, it's still wise to have a weight goal in pounds as well as a body fat percentage goal. You can only determine a true ideal weight if you know your current body fat and the body fat level you want to reach. The ideal weight formula To find your ideal bodyweight, you need to know your desired body fat percentage your current weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass. Then, to calculate your ideal weight, you simply divide your current lean mass by your percentage of lean mass at your target body fat percentage. The formula is Example You are male Your weight 194 Your body fat 18 percentage to yield your ideal weight (159.1 .88 181) Thus, your...

Body Mass Index another useless indicator

Body Mass Index (BMI) is another popular way to determine whether someone is at a healthy weight. Like the height and weight charts, BMI is a poor measure of fitness because it doesn't take into account fat versus lean tissue. According to the textbook, Physiology of Sport and Exercise by Wilmore and Costill, BMI is defined as, A measurement of body overweight or obesity determined by dividing weight (in kilograms) by height (in meters) squared. The text says you are considered overweight if you're female with a BMI is 27.3 or greater or if you're male with a BMI of 27.8 or higher. It also says that BMI correlates highly with body composition and is a better indicator of fitness than your weight alone. (It even says you're more likely to die if your BMI is 25 or greater). Shape up America, the anti-obesity campaign started by Dr. C. Everett Koop, recently published a statement pointing out the shortcomings of BMI. According to the Shape up America website, BMI misclassifies one out of...

Figuring your ideal Weight

How much should you weigh The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has devised its own tables of body mass index (BMI), a height weight measure. This information provides some basic guidance on how much weight is too low, just right, and over the top for your height. You can easily determine your current body mass index by checking Table 15-2, a table of BMI levels provided by the NHLBI. The BMI is derived from a rather complicated formula, but you don't have to drag out your calculator or your old high school math book to do the equations. The nice people who made the chart have done all those calculations for you. (You can also find a handy online calculator at www.nhlbisupport.com bmi .) Note If you don't find your height weight combination in Table 15-2, check out the online calculator. Another BMI chart is also available at www.nhlbi. nih.gov guidelines obesity bmi_tbl2.htm for BMIs greater than 35. Find out where you fit on the BMI chart, based on your height and...

Why skipping meals is one of the cardinal sins of fat burning nutritionand how to eat more food and lose more fat at

Skipping meals (or leaving long gaps between meals) is the cardinal sin of fat-burning and muscle-building nutrition. Missing meals slows down your metabolism, causes muscle loss and triggers your body's starvation responses. If skipping meals is the cardinal sin of fat burning and muscle building nutrition, then skipping breakfast is a capital crime suited for the death penalty And yet everybody is doing it When I analyze nutrition programs for my clients, one of the most common errors I see is skipping breakfast or eating it late, around 10 00 a.m. or even later. I don't have time is usually the excuse justifying this unforgivable blunder. Let's take a close look at the devastating impact this lack of planning and discipline has on your fat loss efforts If we add up those calories, it totals only 1600 for the entire day. In theory, at least according to the calorie calculations you did previously, you should be losing fat - quite rapidly if you're a man. So why aren't you It's...

Introduction mediumchain triglycerides and weight control

Lct Mct Digestion

Conventional fats and oils are composed of glycerides of 12- to 18-carbon long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). These compounds are known as long-chain triglycerides (LCT) and are the predominant form of lipids in the diet. Lipids are an essential source of energy and essential fatty acids, and a vital component of body cells. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a dietary fat with the added benefit of anti-obesity properties. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have a number of unique characteristics relating to energy density, absorption and metabolism, which give them advantages over the more common LCT. Upon hydrolysis, MCT yield medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), capric (C10), lauric (C12) (Papamandjaris et al., 1997). Naturally occurring sources of MCT are rare, but include milk fat, palm kernel oil, and coconut oil. Human consumption of MCT is currently low but intake should perhaps be greater due to the distinctive properties of MCT, which cause an...

Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Intake Measurements

In reality, 'the same circumstances' can never exist in relation to dietary measurements because diet (whether of individuals, households, or countries) varies over time, be it on a daily, weekly, seasonal, or annual basis. In epidemiological studies, the aim is usually to assess 'usual' intake. Part of the variation in any dietary measurement will thus relate to genuine variability of diet. The remaining variation will relate to biases associated with the method. Due consideration must be given to these time-related factors when evaluating the reproducibility and validity of dietary measures, and a well-designed validation study will separate the variability associated with reproducibility (the error in the method) from that associated with genuine biological variation over time. Validity is an expression of the degree to which a measurement is a true and accurate measure of what it purports to measure. Establishing validity requires an external reference measure against which the...

The Pellagragenic Effect of Excess Dietary Leucine

Pellagra was a major problem in parts of India where jowar (Sorghum vulgare) is the dietary staple, despite the fact that the tryptophan content of sorghum proteins is higher than that of maize, the cereal traditionally associated with endemic pellagra. The intake of tryptophan and niacin was as great among people whose dietary staple was jowar as that of rice eaters, yet pellagra was common among jowar eaters and not in rice-eating communities, suggesting that the relatively high content of leucine in the proteins of jowar might be a contributory factor. A number of studies have demonstrated a pellagragenic effect of excess dietary leucine in experimental animals and in human beings (Gopalan and Rao, 1975), although other studies failed to show any effect (Manson and Carpenter, 1978a, 1978b). Magboul and Bender (1983) showed that, when rats were fed diets that were only marginally adequate with respect to tryptophan and niacin, the addition of 1.5 leucine led to a significant...

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) prepared Dietary Guidelines for all Americans 2 years of age and older. (http www.nal.usda.gov fnic dga). The seven guidelines are 2. Balance the food you eat with physical activity -- maintain or improve your weight. Dietary Guidelines for Americans For more specific guidance on food selection, the USDA and the DHHS developed the food guide pyramid in Figure 3-1.

Dietary Sources High Intakes and Antimetabolites

As can be seen from Table 1, different types of foods differ considerably, not only in their total contribution to nicotinic acid equivalents, but also in the ratio of the contribution from preformed niacin and from tryptophan. In a typical Western diet, it has been calculated that if the 60 mg tryptophan 1 mg niacin formula is applied, then preformed niacin provides about 50 of the niacin supply in the diet. In practice it seems possible for all of the niacin requirement to be provided by dietary tryptophan in Western diets. As is the case for the other B vitamins, meat, poultry, and fish are excellent sources of niacin equivalents, followed by dairy and grain products, but as noted above, certain grains such as maize, and whole highly polished rice, can be very poor sources and may be associated with clinical deficiency if the diets are otherwise poor and monotonous.

Dietary fibres and food intake

It was proposed, more than 30 years ago, that DFs act as a physiological obstacle to energy intake by different mechanisms including (a) displacement of available calories and nutrients from the diet (b) increasing chewing - which limits intake by promoting saliva and gastric juice resulting in an increased satiety and (c) decreasing the absorption efficiency of the intestine (Heaton 1973). During ad libitum energy intake, a mean loss of weight of about 1.9 kg was found to have occurred after 14 g per day of additional fibre intake, which may have been due to the 10 lower energy intake observed. This effect was more pronounced in obese subjects (Howarth Various types of DF may be of interest. Maeda et al. (2005) demonstrated that the addition of agar in the diet resulted in marked weight loss due to a reduction of food intake, and also improved cholesterol level, glucose and insulin response, and blood pressure. The Framingham Offspring Study reported that the prevalence of metabolic...

Healthy eating habits in preschool children

Good preschool eating patterns are important because they influence both energy and nutrient intake, and dental health. An optimum eating pattern would be regular meals and nutritious, low fat, low sugar snacks. Young children have small appetites but large nutrient needs relative to their body size, therefore regular refueling is required. An eating pattern based on distinct meals is generally beneficial and also promotes dental health. Dental caries is prevalent in preschool children and it is directly related to the amount and frequency of consumption of non-milk extrinsic sugars in the diet (Holt, 1991). Family meal patterns are inevitably affected by family routines, parents working hours and the child's appetite at different times of day. Regular meals allow opportunities for socializing and for parents to set a good example with respect to food choices and eating behavior (Graham, 1972).

Key Elements of a Weight Gain Prevention Plan

Weight gain and obesity develop when the energy intake from food and drink exceeds energy expenditure from physical activity and other metabolic processes. It is often assumed that the prevention of weight gain should focus solely on attempting to alter these behaviors within individuals and communities. However, research has consistently shown that numerous and diverse factors, including environmental and social factors, influence the behaviors that lead to excessive weight gain. Addressing aspects of the obesogenic (obesity-promoting) environment, as well as individuals' eating and physical activity patterns, is considered to be critical to the success of any obesity prevention program. The 2003 WHO report on diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic disease undertook a detailed review of the literature and identified a range of key factors that either increase or decrease the risk of weight gain and the development of obesity (Table 2). These factors were rated on the quality...

Use of Biological Markers to Validate Dietary Intake Measurements

Nutritional biomarkers are those elements or compounds in biological samples capable of reflecting relationships between diet, nutritional status, and disease processes. Not all biomarkers are suitable for use in dietary validation studies. One of the key features of a marker should be its ability to reflect intake over a wide range of intakes. and levels in diet. Vitamin E shows a more or less linear relationship between blood and dietary levels across a broad range of intakes. Riboflavin appears in urine only after tissues are saturated and any excess is excreted. An alternative measure to assess riboflavin, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient), is a sensitive biomarker of intake only at low levels. Vitamin C in blood is a poor marker at low levels of intake, increases in sensitivity as a marker of intake across the middle range of intakes, and is poor once again at high levels of intake where excess vitamin is excreted in the urine. Retinol is stored in the liver...

Mechanical Complications of Obesity Arthritis

Obesity is frequently complicated by degenerative arthritis (DJD). Increased body weight leads to trauma of the weight-bearing joints and speeds the development of osteoarthritis in obesity. Knee and hip joints are particularly affected. However, obese patients have increased DJD of the hands, perhaps due to cytokines produced by adipose tissue, which may damage the cartilage in joints. Flattening of the arc of the planter surface of the feet (flat feet) occurs more frequently in obese people, presumably due to the stress of carrying excess body weight. Flat feet may lead to unsteady gait and aches and pains after walking. Increased fat deposition, particularly in the abdominal region, can change the natural curvature of the spine, causing lordosis and resulting in backache in obese people.

The National Weight Control Registry

Registry participants are recruited through newspaper and magazine articles and thus are a self-selected population. The registry members are primarily female (80 ) and Caucasian (97 ). Many have a strong genetic predisposition to obesity, with 73 having one or both parents with obesity and 46 having been overweight as a child. Participants in the registry are asked to indicate how they lost their weight in this successful effort. Approximately half say they lost the weight entirely on their own, whereas the other half reported receiving some type of assistance from a physician, dietician, or commercial program. The combination of diet plus exercise was used by 89 , with the most common dietary strategy being restricting intake of certain types of foods. The final characteristic of registry members is that they weigh themselves regularly. More than 44 weigh themselves daily and 31 weigh themselves at least once a week. Frequent monitoring of weight may allow these individuals to...

Issues Associated with Measurement of Dietary Intake

There is potential for the occurrence of measurement error with the measurement of any exposure such as when using dietary methods to measure nutritional intake. Errors may arise as a result of flaws in the design of the measurement instrument or during data collection or processing. Measurement error may also occur as a result of individual characteristics of participants in studies. Measurement error can be defined as the difference between the measured exposure (or measure of dietary intake) and the true exposure. All measurement of dietary exposures is subject to some degree of measurement error making it difficult to achieve measurements of true intake. Efforts to reduce measurement error during data collection and processing should be introduced into the protocol of all studies, however, even if preven-tative measures are taken it is impossible to eliminate it altogether. It is difficult to identify the type and structure of measurement error associated with dietary intake....

Type of Dietary Carbohydrate and the Glycemic Index

Nondigestable complex carbohydrates are commonly known as dietary fiber the more correct terminology is nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs). NSPs are either soluble or insoluble. Clinical studies have shown that diets rich in soluble fiber NSPs, such as guar gum, pectin, and sugar beet fibers, lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. Guar gum, a 3-glactomannan from the Indian locust bean, also reduces postprandial lipemia. Nonsoluble NSPs have no effect on dietary glycemic index. Soluble NSPs, such as pulse vegetables, whole fruits, oats, and barley, form gelatinous gels within the stomach that delay gastric emptying and enzy-mic digestion, the latter by forming a physical barrier around the carbohydrate. Insoluble NSPs have little effect on gastric emptying and no effect on glucose absorption. High-fiber high-NSP diets are therefore not necessarily synonymous with low gly-cemic foods. Cellulose is the most widely used NSP in household cereals, whole meal bread, and brown...

How to use performance feedback to lose body fat

I tell you this story because it's the perfect analogy for fat loss. The process of losing body fat is a lot like the takeoff and flight of an airplane. Some people take a long time to get off the ground. Instead of being patient and waiting out the storm, they quit before they even get to takeoff speed. Others get off the ground, but as soon as they hit any turbulence, they quit and land the plane. Some people even manage to start coasting comfortably towards their destination, making substantial progress. But the minute they find themselves off course, they too join the quitters instead of simply adjusting their direction.

The Dietary Supplement Health And Education Act Dshea Of 1994

The current U.S. approach to the regulation of herbal products is rather complex and generally considered to be unsatisfactory. Until 1994, the FDA classified most herbal remedies as either food additives or drugs, and manufacturers had to meet strict FDA standards before placing their products on the U.S. market. This changed in 1994 when Congress enacted the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which placed herbs together with vitamins and minerals in a category know as dietary supplements. DSHEA defines a dietary supplement as follows a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any (of these ingredients).

Dietary Lipid Approaches to the Prevention and Management of CVD

Level of Dietary Fat Dietary fat serves as a major energy source for humans. One gram of fat contributes 9 cal, a little more than twice that contributed by protein or carbohydrate (4calg 1) and somewhat more than that contributed by alcohol (7calg 1). When considering the importance of the level of dietary fat with respect to CVD prevention and management there are two major factors to consider the impact on plasma lipoprotein profiles and body weight. The potential relationship with body weight is important because of secondary effects on plasma lipids, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes, all potential risk factors for CVD. With respect to the effect of the level of dietary fat on plasma lipoprotein profiles, the focus is usually on triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels or total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratios. Evidence indicates that when body weight is maintained at a constant level, decreasing the total fat content of the diet, expressed as a per cent of...

The carbohydrate tapering technique for maximum fat loss

In chapter seven, we talked about meal frequency and timing. I mentioned that although you'll be eating a meal approximately every three hours, not all these meals have to be the same size. If you want to get leaner quickly, a simple way to accelerate fat loss is to reduce the size of your late day meals. This technique is known as calorie tapering or carbohydrate tapering.

Food Pyramids Obesity And Diabetes

An estimated 60 of Americans are overweight and 25 are obese. Obesity can be measured in several ways. One method states that if a person weighs more than 20 of the ideal weight according to the height weight chart, the person is obese. This method does not take into account an athlete who may weigh more than a nonathlete because of muscle, not fat. Another method of measuring obesity is to measure percentage of body fat. If a person's body fat is more than 25 for a man or 30 for a woman, that person is considered obese. A third method bases obesity on a calculation called the body mass index (BMI). This index calculates a ratio of body weight to height and attempts to adjust for body size. According to the World Health Organization, obesity has become a worldwide problem that has significant effects on health. Problems that were once considered limited to developed or industrialized countries now affect everyone. Because of obesity, the incidence of diseases such as heart disease,...

Recommended Potassium Intake Current Intake and Dietary Sources

On the basis of available data, an Institute of Medicine committee set an Adequate Intake for potassium at 4.7g day (120 mmol day) for adults. This level of dietary intake should maintain lower blood pressure levels, reduce the adverse effects of salt on blood pressure, reduce the risk of kidney stones, and possibly decrease bone loss. Current dietary intake of potassium is considerably lower than this level. Dietary intake surveys typically do not include estimates from salt substitutes and supplements. However, less than 10 of those surveyed in NHANES-III reported using salt substitutes or a reduced-sodium salt. Because a high dietary intake of potassium can be achieved through diet rather than pills and because potassium derived from foods also comes with bicarbonate precursors, as well as a variety of other nutrients, the preferred strategy to achieve the recommended potassium intake is to consume foods rather than supplements. Dietary sources of potassium, as well as bicarbonate...

The contribution of reduced thermogenesis and fat oxidation to obesity and its metabolic complications

In rodents, there is compelling evidence that obesity may develop as a result of a deficit in energy expenditure and more specifically in adaptive thermogenesis. A feature of most animal models of obesity, whether genetic-or lesion-induced, is a decreased energy expenditure and an abnormally low BAT thermogenic response to cold or feeding 26 in these models, even when food intake is restricted to that of wild-type or control animals (a maneuver termed pair feeding) marked obesity still develops. The contribution of reduced energy expenditure to human obesity is less clear. The concept was supported by early epidemiological studies showing that obese subjects maintained their obese state with self-reported energy intakes that were on average less than those of lean subjects, but has been challenged by more recent studies - using the doubly labeled water method, which allows capturing of total energy expenditure for long periods of time with the individual under free-living conditions -...

Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health

Partes Del Cuerpo Humano

Plants produce a very impressive array of antioxi-dant compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, benzoic acids, folic acid, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and tocotrienols, and plant-based foods are our major source of dietary antioxidants. Antioxidant compounds are concentrated in the Humans also can upregulate the synthesis of endogenous antioxidants, but this facility is very limited. For example, production of the antioxidant enzyme SOD is increased with regular exercise, presumably as an adaptation to the increased ROS load resulting from higher oxygen use. However, an increase in other endogenous antioxidants, such as bilirubin and uric acid, is associated with disease, not with improved health. Increasing the antioxi-dant status of the body by purposefully increasing the production of these antioxidants, therefore, is not a realistic strategy. However, the concept that increased antioxidant intake leads to increased anti-oxidant defense, conferring increased...

The fat loss success system that never fails

Based on the principles of NLP, I have developed a seven-step fat loss formula that is 100 guaranteed to help you reach the goals you've set. The system cannot fail - you can only fail to use the system. Think of this system as your own personal guidance system. Here are the seven steps If you want to lose body fat permanently, does it make sense to model the 95 of the population who lose weight and gain it back Of course not Yet that is exactly what most people do. Following the herd mentality, they do what everyone else does, only to end up one of the 95 who fail in the long run. Someone once said that if you follow the herd, you're going to step in a lot of manure. Don't do that. Instead, model those who have mastered the art and science of permanently losing fat while maintaining muscle. No one fits this description better than natural bodybuilders and fitness competitors. You are a unique creation. Because no other human being has the exact body type or physiology that you do,...

Dietary Reference Intakes for Infants

For infants, evaluation of evidence to establish the DRIs consistently revealed a paucity of appropriate studies on which to base an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or UL. A Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) could not be calculated if a value for the EAR was not established, in which case the recommended intake was based on an Adequate Intake (AI). The nutrient recommendations for infants from birth through 6 months of age for all nutrients except for energy and vitamin D were set as an AI, a value that represents ''the mean intake of a nutrient calculated based on the average concentration of the nutrient in human milk from 2 to 6 months of lactation using consensus values from several reported studies,'' multiplied by an average volume (0.780 l day) of human milk. The predicted daily volume of breast milk ingested by an infant was based on observational studies that used test weighing of full-term infants. For infants aged 7-12 months, the AI for many nutrients was based on...

A4 Annotated Bibliography of Studies Specifically Designed To Achieve Weight Reduction in Special Populations

The following annotations describe weight reduction studies in special populations or situations. From the total number of studies identified in which minorities or other special populations were included, the studies listed below are those for which the treatment or intervention program included design features specifically geared to the needs of a minority population or other special population of interest. Thus, these studies provide examples of ways in which researchers or service practitioners have attempted to adapt conventional weight reduction approaches to the needs of diverse client groups. The annotations highlight the published reports with respect to the setting and the nature of the program. Study results are not included because relatively few studies are randomized controlled trials, several are pilot studies or program descriptions, and many do not lend themselves to a clear evaluation of success rates. Boldface material indicates the particular population or...

Optimum BMI and Healthy Weight

The concept of optimum BMI can be applied to populations. For countries such as the United States, where undernutrition is not as common as in developing countries,3 a BMI-distribution median of around 21 kg m2 may be optimal (WHO, 2000). Population weight goals for obesity prevention in adults can also be stated in terms of decreasing the proportion that exceed the threshold of 30 kg m2, although this goal includes both preventing new cases of obesity and reducing weight among those already over the threshold. The same principles are appropriate for assessing the population of children in the United States in pursuit of the committee's primary objective to stop, and eventually reverse, current trends toward higher BMI levels. Also, as discussed in Chapter 2, there are particular concerns about the population of obese children becoming heavier. Achieving this objective would have the effects of reducing the mean BMI as well as decreasing the proportion of children and youth in the...

Recommended Dietary Allowance

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is an estimate of the minimum daily average dietary intake level that meets the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group (see Figure 1-1). The RDA is intended to be used as a goal for daily intake by individuals as this value estimates an intake level that has a high probability of meeting the requirement of a randomly chosen individual (about 97.5 percent). The process for setting the RDA is described below it depends on being able to set an EAR and estimating the variance of the requirement itself. Note that if an EAR cannot be set due to limitations of the data available, no RDA will be set. This approach differs somewhat from that used by the World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO FAO IAEA) Expert Consultation on Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health (WHO, 1996). That publication uses the...

The Metabolism Of Dietary Isothiocyanates In Vivo

Gsts Reaction

The first step in the metabolism of dietary or synthetic ITCs involves their conjugation with the nucleophilic sulfhydryl group of glutathione in the mercapturic acid pathway (Fig. 3) (96). After GSH conjugation the resultant ITC conjugates pass through a series of catabolic steps mediated by the enzymes g-glutamyltranspepsidase, cysteinylglycinase, aminopeptidase, and N-acetyltransferase to the final mercapturic acid metabolite excreted in urine, the N-acetylcysteine-S or, alternatively, conjugates. Several in vivo studies in A J mice and rats have identified N-acetylcysteine conjugates of AITC, BITC, sulforaphane, and PEITC in urine, after feeding with either synthetic or plant-derived ITCs (these data are summarized in Table 3). Common to all these studies is the rapid rate at which ITCs are detoxified and excreted in the urine typically between 30 and 80 of the total ingested ITCs is excreted within 24 hr. Disposition and pharmacokinetic studies using 14C PEITC and 14CPHITC in...

Box 10 Assess Reasons for Failure to Lose Weight

If a patient fails to achieve the recommended 10 percent reduction in body weight in 6 months or 1 year, a reevaluation is required. A critical question is whether the level of motivation is high enough to continue clinical therapy. If motivation is high, revise the goals and strategies (see Box 8). If motivation is not high, clinical therapy should be discontinued, but the patient should be encouraged to embark on efforts to lose weight or to at least avoid further weight gain. Even if weight loss therapy is stopped, risk factor management must be continued. Failure to achieve weight loss should prompt the practitioner to investigate energy intake (dietary recall including alcohol intake, daily intake logs), energy expenditure (physical activity diary), attendance at behavior therapy group meetings, recent negative life events, family and societal pressures, or evidence of detrimental psychiatric problems (depression, binge eating disorder). If attempts to lose weight have failed,...

Major Contributors of Dietary Saturated Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol

The major types of dietary fats and oils are generally broken down on the basis of animal and plant sources. The relative balance of animal and plant foods is an important determinant of the fatty acid profile of the diet. However, with the increasing prominence of processed, reformulated, and genetically modified foods, it is becoming more difficult to predict the fatty acid profile of the diet on the basis of the animal verses plant distinction. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) recall data from 1999-2000, the 10 major dietary sources of saturated fatty acids in US diets are regular cheese (6.0 of the total grams of saturated fatty acids consumed), whole milk (4.6 ), regular ice cream (3.0 ), 2 low-fat milk (2.6 ), pizza with meat (2.5 ), French fries (2.5 ), Mexican dishes with meat (2.3 ), regular processed meat (2.2 ), chocolate candy (2.1 ), and mixed dishes with beef (2.1 ). Hence, the majority of saturated fatty acids are contributed by...

Principles of Dietary Management of Diabetes

Developing the diabetes nutrition plan With the emphasis on individualization, the meal plan is driven by the diagnosis, pharmacologic treatment, lifestyle, and treatment goals. Important consideration is given to dietary preferences, socioeconomic factors, and the patient's ability to understand and implement instructions. Some patients will need instruction on fine points such as carbohydrate counting others will benefit from the crudest of prescriptions, such as advice to stop buying concentrated sweets or frequenting fast-food restaurants. Total energy intake The total energy requirement to maintain constant body weight may be calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation, taking into consideration the patient's activity level. The weight-maintaining requirement is then adjusted according to the therapeutic objective to accomplish weight loss, maintenance of weight, or weight gain. Examples of how to make these calculations are shown in Table 3. Specific conditions such as...

What Is a Dietary Supplement How Are They Regulated in Different Countries

Each country has developed regulatory definitions and systems that place dietary supplements, particularly botanicals, into categories of drugs, traditional medicines, or foods. However, in the late 1980s, many countries launched major changes in regulations that may or may not have been approved at the time of this writing. Many regulations are still in draft form. The US Congress defined the term 'dietary supplement' in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994. A dietary supplement is a product, taken orally, that contains a 'dietary ingredient' that is intended to supplement the diet. The dietary ingredient includes vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake (e.g., enzymes or tissues from organs or glands), or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, or extract. Dietary supplements may be found in many forms, such as tablets, capsules, softgels,...

Weight Reduction in Overweight and Obese Adults

When obese individuals need to lose weight, the necessary negative energy balance can theoretically be achieved by either a reduction in energy intake or an increase in energy expenditure of physical activity (EEPA). Most usually, a combination of both is desirable (NIH, 2000) because it is hard to achieve the high levels of negative energy balance necessary for 1 to 2 lb wk weight loss with exercise alone. In support of this contention, meta-analyses show very low levels of weight loss in structured exercise programs (Ballor and Keesey, 1991), but at the same time several studies suggest that the combination of dietary change and increased physical activity appears effective for promoting weight loss and successful weight maintenance after weight loss, perhaps by promoting DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE 5-30 Basal and Total Daily Energy Expenditure in Women 30 Years of Age as Calculated from Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) Equations for Normal-weight, Overweight, and Obese Women...

Inadequate Dietary Intake of Zinc

In general, the risk of inadequate intake of dietary zinc within a population may be associated with the nature of the food supply, and its content and relative bioavailability of zinc. Animal source foods, in particular shellfish, small whole fish, beef, and organ meats such as liver and kidney, are rich sources of zinc. Furthermore, the zinc contained in animal source foods is more highly bioavailable than from plant source foods the presence of certain amino acids (e.g., histidine, methioinine), or perhaps other unidentified factors, may facilitate the intestinal absorption of zinc from animal flesh foods. Plant source foods, such as most fruits and vegetables including green leaves, and starchy roots and tubers, have relatively low zinc content. While whole grains and legumes have moderate to high zinc content, these foods also contain large quantities of phytate (phytic acid or myo-inositol hexaphos-phate), the most potent identified dietary inhibitor of zinc absorption. The zinc...

Approach For Setting Dietary Reference Intakes

The scientific data used to develop Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have come from observational and experimental studies. Studies published in peer-reviewed journals were the principal source of data. Life stage and gender were considered to the extent possible, but the data did not provide a basis for proposing different requirements for men, for pregnant and nonlactating women, and for nonpregnant and nonlactating women in different age groups for many of the macronutrients. Three of the categories of reference the values the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), and Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) are defined by specific criteria of nutrient adequacy the third, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), is defined by a specific endpoint of adverse effect, when one is available (see Box S-1). In all cases, data were examined closely to determine whether a functional endpoint could be used as a criterion of adequacy. The quality of studies was...

Substances reducing the rate of de novo lipogenesis and their possible therapeutic potential for the control of obesity

C75, an inhibitor of the enzyme FAS, was initially developed for the treatment of certain cancers (Kuhajda et al. 2000) because many common human cancers express high levels of FAS. Subsequent tests revealed that systemic and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of C75 in mice reduced food intake and body weight (Loftus et al. 2000), making FAS also an interesting target in the therapy of obesity. C75 blocks the conversion of malonyl-CoA into fatty acids and, hence, increases tissue levels of malonyl-CoA Although C75 clearly increases malonyl-CoA, which should inhibit CPT 1 and, hence, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (McGarry and Foster 1980) (Fig. 1.1), the published results on the effect of C75 on CPT 1 activity and fatty acid oxidation are controversial. Bentebibel et al. (2006) demonstrated that the CoA derivative of C75 is a potent inhibitor of CPT 1 and fatty acid oxidation, whereas Thupari et al. (2002) showed that i.p. injected C75 increased CPT 1 and fatty acid...

Effects of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol on Lipoprotein Metabolism

The cholesterolemic effects of dietary fatty acids have been extensively studied. The saturated fatty acids Ci2 o, C14 0, and C16 0 have a hypercholester-olemic effect, whereas Cig 0 has been shown to have a neutral effect. Monounsaturated and polyunsatu-rated fatty acids in their most common cis configuration are hypocholesterolemic in comparison with saturated fatty acids. The effects of trans fatty acids on lipid levels are under active investigation. Our current knowledge shows that their effect is intermediate between saturated and unsaturated fats. The effect of dietary cholesterol on lipoprotein levels is highly controversial. This may be due in part to the dramatic interindividual variation in response to this dietary component. Specific effects of dietary fats and cholesterol on each lipoprotein fraction are the focus of other articles and they are only briefly summarized below and in Table 3.

Burn the Fat Feed the Muscle does not confuse weight loss with fat loss

Weight loss and fat loss are not the same thing. You must learn to distinguish between the two. The scale can be very misleading if it's the only criteria you use for measurement. For example, a woman could weigh 105 pounds and have 33 body fat. That's what I call a skinny fat person. In contrast, a female bodybuilder could weigh 160 pounds and be quite lean, with body fat in the low teens. With this in mind, your goal should never be weight loss. Your goal should be losing fat while maintaining muscle. As long as your body is solid muscle, then you shouldn't worry about what the scale says. Your ratio of muscle to fat is what really counts. Burn the Fat Feed the Muscle will explain to you all the common methods of body fat testing and teach you how to use body fat to measure your results and chart your progress. You will also learn how to break a plateau and adjust your approach when your body fat isn't decreasing at the rate you want it to.

Burn the Fat Feed the Muscle is not just a nutrition program it merges nutrition with exercise a combination essential

To lose body fat, you must create a calorie deficit. There is no other way. A calorie deficit means that you burn more calories than you consume every day. There are two ways you can create this calorie deficit 1) decrease your caloric intake from food, or 2) increase the amount of calories you burn through exercise. Paradoxical as it may seem, the secret to fat loss is to allow yourself to eat more (of the right foods) and use exercise to burn off the fat. Ironically, most people do the opposite They slash their calories to starvation levels and exercise little or not at all. This slows the metabolism, decreases lean body mass and invokes the body's starvation response. Exercise allows you to create the calorie deficit and burn fat without slowing down the metabolism.

Obesity Associated with Recognized Medical Condition

There are conditions in which obesity is part of a recognized genetic defect, clinical syndrome, or acquired pathological condition (Table 2). Together, these conditions account for only a very small Table 2 Specific conditions associated with obesity in childhood Congenital obesity Inherited syndromes associated with childhood obesity proportion of obese children. With the exception of very rare single gene defects in leptin metabolism, obesity is a secondary feature in these conditions and presentation is usually for some other aspect of the condition. Single gene defects affecting leptin are associated with progressive gross obesity from early life and may respond with dramatic fat loss with leptin treatment. Where obesity is only a part of a spectrum of abnormalities, common associated features are short stature, developmental delay, and craniofacial and other bony abnormalities. Chromosomal abnormalities are more frequent causes of a predisposition to obesity. Prader-Willi...

Dietary Factors with Limited or Uncertain Effect on Blood Pressure

The body of evidence implicating magnesium as a major determinant of blood pressure is inconsistent. In observational studies, often cross-sectional in design, a common finding is an inverse association of dietary magnesium with blood pressure. However, in pooled analyses of clinical trials, there is no clear effect of magnesium intake on blood pressure. Hence, data are insufficient to recommend increased magnesium intake alone as a means to lower blood pressure. Numerous studies, including both observational studies and clinical trials, have examined the effects of fat intake on blood pressure. Overall, there is no apparent effect of saturated fat and n-6 polyunsatu-rated fat intake on blood pressure. Although a few trials suggest that an increased intake of monounsa-turated fat may lower blood pressure, evidence is insufficient to make recommendations. Likewise, few studies have examined the effect of dietary cholesterol intake on blood pressure. Hence, although modification of...

Other Dietary Approaches for the Prevention and Management of CVD

When considering diets very low in fat and high in carbohydrates ('very low-fat' diets), it is important to separate the effects of the composition of the diet from confounding factors associated with intentional weight loss. For the purposes of this discussion, a very low-fat diet will be defined as less than 15 of energy as fat. Consumption of a very low-fat diet without a decrease in energy intake frequently decreases blood total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels and increases the total cholesterol HDL cholesterol ratio (less favorable) and triglyceride levels. A mitigating factor may be the type of carbohydrate providing the bulk of the dietary energy complex (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) or simple (fat-free cookies and ice cream). The reason for this later observation has yet to be investigated. Notwithstanding these considerations, for this reason moderate fat intakes, ranging from < 30 to 25 to 35 of energy Dietary soluble fiber, primarily -glucan, has been reported...

Major Dietary Sources

The major sources of cholesterol in the diet are eggs, meat, and dairy products. A large egg contains approximately 215 mg of cholesterol and contributes approximately 30-35 of the total dietary cholesterol intake in the United States. Meat, poultry, and fish contribute 45-50 , dairy products 12-15 , and fats and oils 4-6 . In the United States, the range of dietary cholesterol intake is 300-400 mg per day for men and 200-250 mg per day for women thus, for much of the population the national goal of a dietary cholesterol intake of less than 300 mg per day has been met.

Dietary Carbohydrate

High carbohydrate (low fat) intakes tend to increase plasma tri-acylglycerol and decrease plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations (Borkman et al., 1991 Brussaard et al., 1982 Marckmann et al., 2000 West et al., 1990 Yost et al., 1998). This effect has been observed especially for increased sugar intake (Mann et al., 1973 Rath et al., 1974 Reiser et al., 1979 Yudkin et al., 1986). Fructose is a better substrate for de novo lipogenesis than glucose or starches (Cohen and Schall, 1988 Reiser and Hallfrisch, 1987), and Parks and Hellerstein (2000) concluded that hypertriacylglycerolemia is more extreme if the carbohydrate content of the diet consists primarily of monosaccharides, particularly fructose.

What is an obesityrelated illness

Obesity-related illnesses and conditions include elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, diabetes and prediabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, blood clots in the legs and lungs, sleep apnea, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts. If you have one of these conditions gastric surgery can be considered when the BMI is 35 or higher. In many cases gastric bypass surgery can dramatically improve obesity-related conditions. I have had many patients who after gastric bypass surgery were able to give up their blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol lowering medications. Many young women who have been unable to become pregnant conceive and go on to have healthy babies (more on this later).

The Observational View of Dietary Antioxidants

Cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the two leading causes of death worldwide, diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions, and dementia and maculopathy are largely untreatable irreversible disorders that are increasingly common in our aging population. The prevalence and standardized mortality rates of these diseases vary considerably between and within populations. Mortality from CVD varies more than 10-fold amongst different populations, and incidences of specific cancers vary 20-fold or more across the globe. This enormous variation highlights the multiple factors at play in the etiology of chronic age-related diseases. These factors include smoking habit, socioeconomic status, exposure to infectious agents, cholesterol levels, certain genetic factors, and diet. Dietary factors have long been known to play an important role in determining disease risk. Indeed, 30-40 of overall cancer risk is reported to be diet-related, and there is a wealth of compelling...

Permanent Weight Control

Americans are now among the fattest people on earth. One third of the nation is obese, and between 1980 and 1994, the percentage of obese teenagers doubled. New studies report that 55 percent of American women, 63 percent of men, and 25 percent of children are overweight. Americans' sedentary lifestyle and preference for high-fat, cholesterol-laden meals expose them to numerous health risks. Physicians estimate that 300,000 Americans die annually from obesity-related illnesses, which include heart disease, gall-bladder disease, diabetes, stroke, some cancers, and arthritis. Many doctors are calling obesity an epidemic, especially among the young. For many people dieting is a constant battle. Most believe that to lose weight they have to go on a low-calorie diet, often starving until the diet is no longer tolerable. Then the weight comes right back and then some. Very-low-calorie diets are doomed because they lower the body's metabolic rate, which makes losing weight even more...

Dietary Cholesterol Intake Patterns

Dietary cholesterol intakes in the United States have been declining, from an average of 500 mg per day in men and 320 mg per day in women in 1972 to levels in 1990 of 360 mg per day in men and 240 mg per day in women. This decline is due in part to dietary recommendations to the US public to reduce total and saturated fat intake and to reduce dietary cholesterol daily intake to less than 300 mg and in part from the increased availability of products with reduced fat and cholesterol content. Major efforts in the early 1970s by public health agencies and advertising emphasized reducing dietary cholesterol as a means to lower plasma cholesterol levels, leading to a high degree of consumer concern regarding cholesterol-containing foods and demand for low-cholesterol products. Today, practically all foods sold in the United States are labeled for their cholesterol content and their percentage contribution to the daily value of 300 mg for cholesterol.

Dietary Cholesterol and Plasma Cholesterol

The effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol levels has been an area of considerable debate. In 1972, the American Heart Association recommended that dietary cholesterol intake should average less than 300mgperday as part of a 'heart-healthy,' plasma cholesterol-lowering diet. Since that initial recommendation, a number of other public health dietary recommendations in the United States have endorsed the 300 mg daily limit. Interestingly, few dietary recommendations from other countries contain a dietary cholesterol limitation. The evidence for a relationship between dietary cholesterol and plasma cholesterol indicates that the effect is relatively small, and that on average a change of 100 mg per day in dietary cholesterol intake results in a 0.057 mmoll-1 (2.2mgdl-1) change in plasma cholesterol concentrations. Studies have also shown that the majority of individuals are resistant to the plasma cholesterol-raising effects of dietary cholesterol 'nonresponders' and have...

PMS and Dietary Factors

Modern Western diets high in refined cereals lack magnesium. Many dietary surveys, including those sponsored by governments throughout the Western world, have shown that the mean intake of magnesium for women is below recommended dietary standards, with subgroups having exceptionally low intakes. Decreased intake or absorption or increased renal excretion may lead to a reduced intracellular magnesium. Indeed, perhaps the most consistent physiological abnormality yet found for PMS subjects has been the reduced magnesium level in red blood cells compared with controls. While severe magnesium deficiency is characterized by a progressive muscle weakness, failure to thrive, neuromuscular dysfunction, and tachycardia, symptoms of marginal deficiency are more subtle. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that magnesium supplementation of the diet can alleviate a variety of conditions in which there is an element of muscular overcontraction, such as hypertension and High...

Dietary Recommendations for Fibromyalgia Patients

The following is a series of practical dietary recommendations for the fibromyalgia patient written by Katie Holton, MPH. It is no surprise that many people find it challenging these days to know how to eat healthy, much less how to lose weight. We are bombarded with conflicting information that we are left to wade through on our own. This article will give you some solid strategies that you can use no matter if your quest is to lose weight or just to improve your diet in the hopes of improving your fibromyalgia symptoms. 1. Diet just means what you eat. There are plenty of diet fads being advertised these days that tell people how to drastically change their diets if they want to look like a model. If you go on a diet to lose weight, what do you expect to happen when you go off the diet To optimize health and to lose weight, you really need to alter your thinking toward a gradual change of eating habits for the long-term. 2. The 90 percent-10 percent rule. Think about eating...

Effects of Dietary ALA Compared with Long Chain n3 Fatty Acid Derivatives on Physiologic Indexes

Several clinical and epidemiologic studies have been conducted to determine the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFAs on various physiologic indexes. Whereas the earlier studies were conducted with large doses of fish or fish oil concentrates, more recent studies have used lower doses. ALA, the precursor of n-3 fatty acids, can be converted to long-chain n-3 PUFAs and can therefore be substituted for fish oils. The minimum intake of long-chain n-3 PUFAs needed for beneficial effects depends on the intake of other fatty acids. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to long-chain n-3 PUFAs. While keeping the amount of dietary LA constant (3.7g) ALA appears to have biological effects similar to those of 0.3 g long-chain n-3 PUFAs with conversion of 11 g ALA to 1 g long-chain n-3 PUFAs. Thus, a ratio of 4 (15gLA 3.7 gALA) is appropriate for conversion. In human studies, the conversion of deuterated ALA to longer chain metabolites...

Pregnancy Weight Gain Recommendations

In 1970, the US National Academy of Sciences published guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy in the report, Maternal Nutrition and the Course of Pregnancy. The recommended pregnancy gain was 24 lb (10.9 kg), with a range of 10-25 lb (9.1-11.4 kg). The report advised health care providers and pregnant women not to restrict weight gain a practice that had been fairly widespread during the previous decade in order to reduce the perceived risks of labor complications, preeclampsia, and excess weight retention postpartum. In fact, many obstetricians had been recommending gains of only 15-20 lb (6.8-9.1 kg). Even with the more generous recommendations set in 1970, by the 1980s it had become clear that average gains of women in the United States far exceeded these guidelines. An analysis of data from the National Natality Survey in 1980 showed the average pregnancy weight gain to be 29 lb (13.2 kg), and by the time of the National Maternal Infant Health Survey in 1988 the average had...

The reason why calories count

From these basic explanations and definitions, you can now clearly recognize the importance of counting calories. Keeping track of calories is just as important as keeping track of the deposits and withdrawals to your bank account. If you fail to pay attention to your finances and you make more withdrawals than deposits, you would soon find yourself broke and in debt. It's the same with your body, although in the case of calories, the reverse is true If you don't keep track of your calorie deposits, you'll soon find yourself with an overstuffed calorie account in the form of unsightly and unwanted body fat According to the calories-don't-count theory, if you eat certain foods, or certain combinations of foods, you can eat as much as you want and you'll still lose weight. In our lazy and pleasure-seeking society today, this idea sounds wonderful, but this is physiologically impossible. The reason you lose weight on VLCDs without setting calorie limits or requiring calorie counting is...

Appetite Suppressant And Weightloss

Weight-loss products often contain guarana, in the belief that it suppresses appetite and may have thermogenic and diuretic activities. An animal study designed to evaluate the effects of guarana and decaffeinated guarana found that only the caffeinated herb was effective for weight loss (Lima et al 2005). To date, most clinical studies have investigated the effects of guarana in combination with other herbs. A double-blind, RCT testing a combination of yerbe mate (leaves of Ilex paraguayenls), guarana (seeds of Paulllnla cupana) and damiana (leaves of Turnera dlffusavar. aphrodlslaca) found that the preparation significantly delayed gastric emptying, reduced the time to perceived gastric fullness and induced significant weight loss over 45 days in overweight patients (Andersen & Fogh 2001). Another randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of guarana in combination with Ma Huang (Ephedra spp.) and concluded that the formula was effective for...

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Weight Loss All Star

Weight Loss All Star

Are you looking to lose weight or even just tone up? What is stopping you from having the body you want and help you feel great at the same time? I created Weight Loss All-Star for all those wanting to lose weight, and keep the weight off. I know how hard it is to do diets and stick with them, and get the motivation to get up and exercise.

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