Best Weight Loss Programs That Work

The 3 Week Diet

3 Week Diet is a program that covers the weight loss trifecta of dieting, exercise, and motivation and is intended to produce extremely quick fat loss results, guaranteeing to shed off 12 to 23 pounds in only 21 days. Expect this program to change your eating habits, teach you to follow a strict eating program that restricts carbohydrates while utilizing strategic protein consumption, go on an exercise habit, and keep a close eye on your progress. Brian Flatt who is health coach and nutritionist discovered these quick weight loss secrets after 12 years of research. Lots of people successfully burn fat with the help of these secrets. The main secret behind this program is signaling body to burn stored fat for energy and then creating starvation mode into the body. When body enters into starvation mode then body will burn stored fat for fueling liver, heart and other organs of the body. This is completely safe, natural and scientific proved weight loss technique. Read more here...

The 3 Week Diet Overview


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Impact of Lifestyle on Dietary Intakes

Slimming or weight control (whether justified or not) peer group pressure to consume certain foods or brands the development of personal ideology, such as the use of vegetarian diets following a specific diet to enhance sporting prowess or even convenience. Energy and nutrient intakes are influenced by specialized eating patterns, thus it is important to consider life-style choices when interpreting dietary survey data.

Other Factors that Impact on Dietary Intakes

Comparisons between boys and girls often reveal differences in dietary patterns, yet these are seldom consistent between surveys. On the whole, boys eat more meat and dairy products, while girls favor fruit, salad vegetables, and artificially sweetened drinks. The dietary practices of girls are more likely to be influenced by a desire to limit energy intakes. Lower intakes of dairy products, meat, and breakfast cereals seen in older adolescent girls explain their typically poor intakes of iron and calcium. children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Such a dietary pattern, characterized by lower than optimal levels of protective nutrients, combined with a higher prevalence of smoking, may partly explain the higher burden of chronic disease experienced by people from lower socioeconomic groups.

Using Dietary Reference Intakes To Assess Nutrient Intakes Of Groups

Suggested uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) appear in Box S-2. The transition from using previously published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to using each of the DRIs appropriately will require time and effort by health professionals and others. For statistical reasons that are addressed briefly in Chapter 13 and in more detail in the report Dietary Reference Intakes Applications in Dietary Assessment (IOM, 2000), the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the appropriate reference intake to use in assessing the nutrient intake of groups, whereas the RDA is not. When assessing nutrient intakes of groups, it is important to consider the variation in intake in the same individuals from day to day, as well as underreporting. With these considerations, the prevalence of inadequacy for a given nutrient may be estimated by using national survey data and determining the percentage of the population below the EAR (see Chapter 13). Less than...

What Are Dietary Reference Intakes

The reference values, collectively called the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), include the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (Box 1-1). Establishment of these reference values requires that a criterion of nutritional adequacy be carefully chosen for each nutrient, and that the population for whom these values apply be carefully defined. 22 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES BOX 1-1 Dietary Reference Intakes Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. a In the case of energy, an Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is provided. The EER is the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent...

Dietary Iron Absorption

The efficiency of iron absorption depends on both the bioavailability of dietary iron and iron status. Typically, 5-20 of the iron present in a mixed diet is absorbed. Dietary iron exists in two forms, heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from animal source food and is more bioavailable than non-heme iron, with approximately 20-30 of heme iron absorbed via endocytosis of the entire heme molecule. Iron is then released into the enterocyte by a heme oxidase.

Dietary Compounds With The Ability To Induce Production Of Endogenous Antioxidants

Dietary plants rich in compounds that induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes include the vegetables broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale, cauliflower, carrots, onions, tomatoes, spinach and garlic. The evidence for phase 2 enzyme inductions at ordinary intake levels of plant foods in humans is, however, limited, and the importance of this defense mechanism in the overall protection against oxidative damage is still uncertain.

Dietary Compounds With The Ability To Directly Scavenge Or Neutralize Reactive Oxidants

In addition to the well-known antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium, there are numerous other antioxidants in dietary plants. Carotenoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, and as many as 1000 naturally occurring variants have been identified. At least 60 carotenoids occur in fruit and vegetables commonly consumed by humans (Lindsay & Astley, Phenolic compounds are also ubiquitous in dietary plants (Lindsay & Astley, 2002). They are synthesized in large varieties belonging to several molecular families, such as benzoic acid derivatives, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, stilbenes, coumarins, lignans, and lignins. Over 8000 plant phenols have been isolated. Plant phenols are antioxidants by virtue of the hydrogen-donating properties of the phenolic hydroxyl groups. Glutathione, thioredoxin, and many antioxidant enzymes are present in abundant amounts in the diet, but they are not absorbed as such from the diet. They are broken down to their constituent amino acids by...

Causes of Folate Deficiency Dietary

The most common cause of folate deficiency is undoubtedly due to inadequate dietary intake. The naturally occurring folates, unlike the synthetic form of the vitamin folic acid, are chemically unstable (Figure 3). The folate in food after harvesting or during processing is subject to deterioration.

Is there a link between obesity and GERD in the United States

The average body weight of Americans is slowly going up. Obesity is becoming a major issue in our society, starting in young children and continuing through adulthood (See Figure 4.). Two-thirds of Americans are overweight, and 1 in 3 are obese or about 30 pounds overweight and at increased risk of obesity-related disease. The number of obese and morbid obese (100 pounds over your normal weight) people is increasing annually and is considered an epidemic. Changes in the American diet are responsible. Food is cheap and available. Portion size is increasing in an attempt to give the consumer better value and to attract more customers. Food is more calorie dense, meaning it contains more calories per portion and includes more fat and sugar. Sugar-laden sodas are ubiquitous and are marketed directly to children, creating a generation of people addicted to liquid candy. and home commitments cause people to make certain sacrifices, such as forgoing the time it takes to prepare wholesome...

Potential Health Effects Of Dietary Antioxidants

Understanding the complex role of diet in chronic diseases is challenging because a typical diet provides more than 25,000 bioactive food constituents, many of which may modify a multitude of processes that are related to these diseases. Because of the complexity of this relationship, it is likely that a comprehensive understanding of the role of these bioactive food components is needed to assess the role of dietary plants in human health and disease development. We suggest that both their numerous individual functions as well as their combined additive or synergistic effects are crucial to their health beneficial effects thus, a food-based research approach is likely to elucidate more health effects than those derived from each individual nutrient. Most bioactive food constituents are derived from plants those so derived are collectively called phytochemicals. The large majority of these phytochemicals are redox active molecules, and therefore defined as antioxidants. It is...

Dietary Recommendations for Increased Antioxidant Defense

Dietary recommendations that would result in increased antioxidant defense are not inconsistent with accepted recommendations for healthy eating. The recommendation to increase the consumption of plant-based foods and beverages is one that is widely perceived as health promoting, and the consistent and strong epidemiological links between high fruit and vegetable intake and the greater life expectancy seen in various groups worldwide whose diet is high in plant-based foods indicate that more emphasis should be given to this particular dietary recommendation. Vitamin C, vitamin E, various carotenoids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phenolic acids, organosul-fur compounds, folic acid, copper, zinc, and selenium are all important for antioxidant defense, and these are found in plant-based foods and beverages such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, teas, herbs, and wines. Dietary strategies for health promotion should be directed towards optimizing the consumption of these items. people in...

Where Do You Carry Your Weight

Where do you carry your weight Before you read any further, do a quick visual evaluation of your fat pattern. Put on a swimsuit, stand in front of a full-length mirror, and take a look at where your body stores fat. Be honest about what you see. Does your weight distribution follow the classic male or female pattern Or have you already crossed over into a high-risk reverse fat pattern Have someone take pictures of you from the front, back, and side. Put them up someplace where you can see them every day such as on your bathroom mirror or refrigerator door. These pictures will become your motivation to stick with this program, and you will use them to evaluate your amazing progress as you drop inches and lose body fat.

BMI To Assess Overweight and Obesity

There are a number of accurate methods to assess body fat (e.g., total body water, total body potassium, bioelectrical impedance, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), but no trial data exist to indicate that one measure of fatness is better than any other for following overweight and obese patients during treatment. Since measuring body fat by these techniques is often expensive and is not readily available, a more practical approach for the clinical setting is the measurement of BMI epidemiological and observational studies have shown that BMI provides an acceptable approximation of total body fat for the majority of patients. Because there are no published studies that compare the effectiveness of different measures for evaluating changes in body fat during weight reduction, the panel bases its recommendation on expert judgment from clinical experience Practitioners should use the BMI to assess overweight and obesity. Body weight alone can be used to follow weight loss, and to...

Supplementation with Dietary Fatty Acids

Various dietary fatty acids have been shown to have numerous immunomodulatory effects. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20 4 n-6) is synthesized in mammalian tissues from the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (18 2 n-6), found in many plant products. The release of AA from cell membrane phospholipids via the action of phospholipase A2 results in the subsequent production of AA-derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin (PG) E2 and leukotriene (LT) B4, which have potent proinflammatory and chemo-tactic effects. Alternatively, when AA is replaced with an n-3 fatty acid in the diet, such as eicosapen-taenoic acid (EPA, 20 5 n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 6 n-3), there is competitive inhibition of the use of AA as a substrate, and eicosanoids with different biological activity (PGE3 and LTB5) are produced through the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxy-genase cellular metabolic pathways (Figure 1). More specifically, EPA-derived eicosanoids result in decreased platelet aggregation, reduced...

Measurement of Degree of Overweight and Obesity

Patients should have their BMI and levels of abdominal fat measured not only for the initial assessment of the degree of overweight and obesity, but also as a guide to the efficacy of weight loss treatment. Although there are no RCTs that review measurements of overweight and obesity, the panel determined that this aspect of patient care warranted further consideration and that this guidance was deemed valuable. Therefore, the following four recommendations that are included in the Treatment Guidelines were based

Developing An Action Plan For Obesity Prevention

The Institute of Medicine Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth was charged with developing a prevention-focused action plan to decrease the prevalence of obesity in children and youth in the United States. The primary emphasis of the committee's task was on examining the behavioral and cultural factors, social constructs, and other broad environmental factors involved in childhood obesity and identifying promising approaches for prevention efforts. The plan consists of explicit goals for preventing obesity in children and youth and a set of recommendations, all geared toward achieving those goals, for different segments of society (Box ES-1). Obesity prevention requires an evidence-based public health approach to assure that recommended strategies and actions will have their intended effects. Such evidence is traditionally drawn from experimental (randomized) trials and high-quality observational studies. However, there is limited experimental evidence in this...

Goals of Obesity Prevention in Children and Youth

The goal of obesity prevention in children and youth is to create through directed social change an environmental-behavioral synergy that promotes Reduction in the incidence of childhood and adolescent obesity Reduction in the prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity Improvement in the proportion of children meeting Dietary Guidelines for Americans A healthy weight trajectory, as defined by the CDC BMI charts Because it may take a number of years to achieve and sustain these goals, intermediate goals are needed to assess progress toward reduction of obesity through policy and system changes. Examples include Increased number of new industry products and advertising messages that promote energy balance at a healthy weight Changes that lead to healthy communities, such as organizational and policy changes in local schools, school districts, neighborhoods, and cities, are equally important. At the state and national levels, large-scale modifications are needed in the ways in which...

Dietary Intakes In The United States And Canada Sources of Dietary Intake Data

The major sources of current dietary intake data for the U.S. population include the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), which was conducted from 1988 to 1994 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), which was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from 1994 to 1996. NHANES III examined 30,000 individuals aged 2 months and older. A single 24-hour diet recall was collected for all participants. A second recall was collected for a 5 percent nonrandom subsample to allow adjustment of intake estimates for day-to-day variation. The CSFII collected two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls from approximately 16,000 individuals of all ages. Both surveys used the food composition database developed by USDA to calculate nutrient 50 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Appendix D provides the mean and the 1st through 99th percentiles of intake for added sugars and amino acids from NHANES...

Very Low calorie dieting increases the chance of rebound weight gain

Almost everyone loses weight initially on a very low calorie diet, but it never takes long before the body catches on and starts conserving energy. That's when you hit a plateau. Once you hit the plateau, it becomes much harder to keep losing weight even if your calories are extremely low. With each repeated bout of dieting, your metabolism becomes less and less efficient and you can actually become progressively fatter while eating less food.

Eat more frequently and never skip meals

Your goal should be to eat approximately every three hours. Establish scheduled meal times and stick to them. Regularity in your eating habits is critical. By eating smaller portions more frequently, you'll be able to eat more food than you've ever eaten before without being deprived or starving yourself. Most people say they eat more on this program than they've ever eaten yet they get leaner than they've ever been before.

Dietary Carbohydrate

There is little evidence that total dietary carbohydrate intake is associated with type 2 diabetes (Colditz et al., 1992 Lundgren et al., 1989). There may be an increased risk, however, when the glycemic index of a meal is considered instead of total carbohydrates (Salmer n et al., 1997a, 1997b). Some studies have found that reducing the glycemic index of a meal can result in short-term improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals (Frost et al., 1998 Jenkins et al., 1988 Liljeberg et al., 1999 Wolever et al., 1988). Additional long-term studies are needed to elucidate the true relationship between glycemic index and the development of type 2 diabetes and to determine its effect on glucose tolerance and insulin.

Confronting The Childhood Obesity Epidemic

The committee acknowledges, as have many other similar efforts, that obesity prevention is a complex issue, that a thorough understanding of the causes and determinants of the obesity epidemic is lacking, and that progress will require changes not only in individual and family behaviors but also in the marketplace and the social and built environments (Box ES-2). As the nation focuses on obesity as a health problem and begins to address the societal and cultural issues that contribute to excess weight, poor food choices, and inactivity, many different stakeholders will need to make difficult trade-offs and choices. However, as institutions, organizations, and individuals across the nation begin to make changes, societal norms are

Resistant Starch Oligosaccharides or Just Dietary Fiber

There has been much debate of the definition of dietary fiber and in particular whether it should include carbohydrates other than nonstarch poly-saccharides. Recently, the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) proposed a new definition of dietary fiber, which would include both oligosaccharides and resistant starch as well as associated plant substances. This new definition would also require complete or partial fermentation and demonstration of physiological effects such as laxation, and reduction in blood glucose or blood cholesterol. A similar approach to include beneficial physiological effects is also proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine. Thus, it is being increasingly recognized that oligosaccharides, resistant starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides are very similar especially in their effects on gut physiology and colonic fermentation. A comparison of their actions is summarized in Table 7. This inclusion of resistant starch and...

Fat Carbohydrate Fiber and Recommendations for Healthy Eating

The transition from the high-fat, milk-based diet of the young infant to the generally accepted adult recommendations for healthy eating should be gradual, beginning from the onset of weaning. There is little consensus as to when qualitative adult intakes should be achieved, although dietary modification is not recommended by any authority for children younger than the age of 2 years and most agree that an adult-type diet is appropriate from the age of 5 years. Some authorities recommend a gradual change between the ages of 3 and 5 years, whereas others suggest that for most children a low-fat, cereal vegetable predominant diet is suitable from age 2 years. If changes toward 'healthy eating' are made at too young an age, there is a danger that an inadequate energy and nutrient intake will result because infants and young children find it difficult to consume adequate quantities of such a bulky diet.

Demographic Variations in Overweight and Obesity Prevalence

Although NHANES III data show that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is much higher in African-American and Mexican-American women than in white women or in men, these data provide ethnicity-specific estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence for only three racial-ethnic groups non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican-Americans. Examination survey data indicating a high overweight and obesity prevalence in other ethnic groups (e.g., for Puerto Ricans and Cuban-Americans) are available from the Hispanic HANES (HHANES) (1982-1984) 27 and for American Indians 26 and Pacific-Islander Americans, 50 from smaller population-specific studies (see Appendix III). The prevalence of overweight and obesity is generally higher for men and women in racial-ethnic minority populations than in U.S. whites, with the exception of Asian-Americans, for whom overweight and obesity prevalence is lower than in the general population. 51 In the 1982-1984 HHANES, the age-adjusted...

Carbohydrate type glycaemic response and weight control

It has been debated whether excess dietary carbohydrate can increase adipose stores. Although test animals are able to convert significant amounts of ingested carbohydrate into body fat, in humans, de novo lipogenesis from carbohydrate appears to be limited (Strawford et al., 2004). Despite this, excess dietary carbohydrate may indirectly increase body fat stores. Dietary carbohydrate, in the form of starch or sucrose, increases blood insulin levels, which in turn increase activity of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase. Lipoprotein lipase mediates storage of dietary fat in adipose cells. At the same time, insulin decreases the activity of hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase, an enzyme that regulates the release of fatty acids from stored fat. Thus, excess dietary carbohydrate increases the amount of dietary fat that is stored, and decrease fat turnover (Allred, 1995). GI of the diet by giving brief instructions and a handout about dietary changes to the parents, resulted in a reduction...

Economic Costs of Overweight and Obesity

Alarm about the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States in recent years 54, 55 centers on the link between obesity and increased health risks, 42, 56 which translates into increased medical care and disability costs. 46,57 The total cost attributable to obesity amounted to 99.2 billion in 1995. Approximately 51.6 billion of these dollars were direct medical costs associated with diseases attributable to obesity. The direct costs also associated with obesity represent 5.7 percent of the national health expenditure within the United States. 58 The indirect costs attributable to obesity are 47.6 billion and are comparable to the economic costs of cigarette smoking. 58, 59 Indirect costs represent the value of lost output caused by morbidity and mortality, and may have a greater impact than direct costs at the personal and societal levels. 58 Although a comprehensive cost analysis of obesity is beyond the scope of this panel, a systematic review of the...

Prevention of Overweight and Obesity

Prevention of overweight and obesity is as important as treatment. Prevention includes primary prevention of overweight or obesity itself, secondary prevention or avoidance of weight regain following weight loss, and prevention of further weight increases in obese individuals unable to lose weight. 44 64 National and international observational data suggest that environmental and behavioral factors are likely to be important in the tendency of individuals within and between populations to be obese during childhood or to gain weight progressively with age during adulthood. 65 These factors are also influenced by the genetic makeup of individuals. There has been a paucity of intervention research to demonstrate how these factors can be manipulated to prevent obesity. 64 In two community studies, namely the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Stanford Five City Study, multifaceted weight loss and weight control programs within the community were not associated with prevention of...

Method Used to Estimate Weight Maintenance in Normalweight Overweight and Obese Adults

TEE predictive equations were also developed combining normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults (BMI 18.5 kg m2 and higher) as mentioned earlier the coefficients and standard errors are shown in Appendix Table I-11. Mean of the residuals did not differ from zero. For the combined data sets, the standard deviations of the residuals ranged from 182 to 321. The adult predictive equations for TEE were subjected to statistical testing of their estimated coefficients and asymptotic standard deviations using a chi-square distribution (Hotelling T-squared test). The specific equations for the overweight and obese men and women (BMI from 25 kg m2 and higher) given above were not statistically different from the equations derived solely from normal-weight individuals given in the previous section (BMI from 18.5 up to 25 kg m2 P > 0.99) or normal plus overweight and obese individuals shown below (BMI from 18.5 kg m2 and higher P 0.96-0.99). In addition, the equations generated to predict...

Normalweight Overweight and Obese Women Ages 19 Years and Older TEE 387 731 x age [y PA x 109 x weight [kg 6607 x

Current consensus guidelines for the management of obesity in adults (BMI 30 kg m2 and higher) recommend weight loss of around 10 percent of initial weight over a 6-month period (NIH, 2000). For overweight individuals (BMI from 25 up to 30 kg m2) who have no other risk factors, a motivation and desire to lose weight is an important consideration for recommending weight loss. Persons who do not wish to lose weight should receive advice and monitoring aimed at weight maintenance and risk reduction. Nevertheless, there is consensus that BMIs of 25 kg m2 and higher increase risk of premature morbidity and mortality (Chan et al., 1994 Colditz GA et al., 1995 Rimm et al., 1995 Stevens et al., 1998 Willett et al., 1999), and that relatively modest weight loss can improve blood pressure (Huang Z et al., 1998 Kannel et al., 1967 Reisin et al., 1978 Schotte and Stunkard, 1990), serum lipid (Grundy et al., 1979 Kesaniemi and Grundy, 1983 Osterman et al., 1992 Wood et al., 1988, 1991), and...

How to break a fat loss plateau

Usually when you hit a plateau, it means you need to work harder You need to crank up the intensity and frequency of your training. You also need to tighten up your diet. People often underestimate the amount of effort it requires to develop a lean body. They've been so brainwashed by the media and advertisements for weight loss scams that their perception of the amount of work required is flawed. It takes hard work to get lean and if the degree of effort you're putting in isn't working, then quietly (without complaining) accept the fact that you have to work harder.

Dietary Intakes of Catechols

Manach et al. (2004) reviewed and summarised data from several countries, including the United States, Denmark, the Netherlands and Spain and concluded that the total intake of polyphenols probably reached 1,000 mg d-1 in individuals who ate several portions of fruit and vegetables each day. The consumption of flavonols probably accounted for 20-50 mg d-1, only a proportion of which would be the glycosides of quercetin and other catechols. Levels of anthocyanins consumed were estimated to be broadly similar (though somewhat higher in Finland where appreciable amounts of berries are commonly eaten). However, depending upon individual dietary habits, the intakes of both total and specific polyphenols are likely to be highly variable. In some individuals, chlorogenic acid may predominate as a result of coffee consumption and could amount to more than 200 mg d-1 (Clifford 2000a), whereas drinkers of tea may well ingest comparable amounts of catecholic flavanols and proanthocyanidins...

Estimation of Energy Expenditure for Weight Maintenance in Overweight Children Ages 3 Through 18 Years

While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently defines childhood risk of overweight as greater than the 85th percentile for BMI and overweight as greater than the 95th percentile of BMI, it gives no definition for obesity in childhood. Several organizations, however, define childhood obesity as a BMI above the 95th age-adjusted percentile (Barlow and Dietz, 1998 Bellizzi and Dietz, 1999). An international standardized approach was also recently proposed, based on identifying the childhood BMI at different ages that would be equivalent to a BMI of 25 kg m2 (for overweight) or 30 kg m2 (for obese) at age 18 years (Cole et al., 2000). Using this approach, the cutoff for obesity would fall near the 97th percentile of the current CDC growth charts (Figure 5-10). For this report, the CDC definitions of risk of overweight and overweight are accepted for children, namely BMI above the 95th percentile for overweight and above the 85th percentile for risk of overweight.

Dietary Fiber and the Colon

Nondigestable carbohydrates, traditionally defined as deriving from plant sources (but recently encompassing some non-plant-derived polysaccharides), that escape digestion and reach the colon nearly 100 intact compromise dietary fiber. The common short-chain fatty acids produced by fermentation include acetate, butyrate, and proprio-nate. The pattern of short-chain fatty acid production is dependent on several dynamic factors, including the type of fiber or oligosaccharide present in the diet, the transit time and exposure to bacteria, and the bacteria flora to which the substrate is being exposed. Short-chain fatty acids influence colonic physiology by stimulating colonic blood flow as well as fluid and electrolyte uptake. Butyrate in particular is thought to be preferred fuel for the colonocyte. This short-chain fatty acid is thought to have a role in maintaining the normal phenotype in these cells (i.e., in decreasing the risk of dyplasia by promoting differentiation and apoptosis...

Weight Reduction in Overweight Children Ages 3 Through 18 Years

Weight reduction at a rate of 1 lb m (15 g d) is equivalent to a body energy loss of 108 kcal d (assuming the energy content of weight loss averages 7.2 kcal g Saltzman and Roberts, 1995 ), an amount that is small enough to be achievable by either an increase in EEPA, a reduction in energy intake, or a combination of both. There is currently no information on changes in TEE with negative energy balance in children, and no information even from adults on changes in TEE at low levels of negative energy balance. Thus, the extent to which TEE falls when energy intake is reduced with the intention of producing very slow weight loss in children is not known. This lack of data makes it impossible to describe the relationship between change in energy intake and change in body energy for children in whom weight loss is indicated. However, if the negative energy balance is achieved by a reduction in energy intake alone, at least a 108 kcal d decrease in energy intake (i.e., equivalent to the...

Dietary Supplements An Advertising Guide for Industry

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has responsibility for monitoring the advertising of dietary supplements in print and broadcast advertisements, infomercials, catalogs, and similar direct marketing materials. Such advertising must be truthful, substantiated, and not misleading. The FTC has taken action against supplement manufacturers, advertising agencies, distributors, retailers, catalog companies, and others involved in the deceptive promotion of herbal products. (See Chapter 11 for more information on the role of the FTC.)

Extent and Consequences of Childhood Obesity

Overall trend data clearly indicate that obesity prevalence in U.S. children and youth has risen to distressing proportions, but many questions remain about the nature, extent, and consequences of this problem. How much do we really know about how this epidemic is unfolding Which population groups are most affected What does the available evidence tell us about how to address this problem Finally, what are the potential consequences of inaction with respect to social, developmental, and health outcomes and the associated health-care system costs This chapter's discussion of these questions informs the recommendations throughout the remainder of this report.

Sources and Types of Dietary Fiber

The main sources of dietary fiber in most Western diets are well characterized, and high-quality data are available for both food composition and dietary intakes. This is not always true for diets in developing countries, however, and this problem bedevils attempts to investigate the importance of fiber by making international comparisons of diet and disease. Another problem is that different analytical approaches give slightly different values for the dietary fiber content of foods, and do not reflect the physical and chemical properties of the different polysaccharide components. The use of enzymic hydrolysis to determine the 'unavailable carbohydrate' content of foods was refined by Southgate, and his technique was used for the 4th edition of the UK standard food tables, The Composition of Foods published in 1978. The 6th edition, published in 2002, contains values for nonstarch polysacchar-ides, derived using the Englyst technique, but recommends use of AOAC methods for food...

Recommended Dietary Allowances

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) shown in Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 are the amounts of the vitamins and minerals, respectively, that a healthy person should eat to meet daily requirements. The RDAs are designed to meet the daily requirements for most healthy people. The RDAs are undergoing revisions and new standards are gradually becoming available. These new standards are called the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). The military has also developed a set of allowances known as the Military DRIs (MDRIs) to be used for designing military rations.

Associations between Dietary Fiber and Disease Processes

Unknown among the latter, in contrast to white South Africans. Dietary fiber was known to resist digestion by human intestinal enzymes, which helped to explain the greater fecal bulk seen with higher fiber intakes. This was thought to lower colonic exposure to carcinogens through a simple dilution effect with fiber consumption. Subsequently, it was suggested that diabetes may be related to a deficiency of fiber in the diet whereas other epidemiological studies have shown associations between more dietary fiber consumption and lower risk of some of the hormone-dependent cancers (prostate and breast). Many of these observational population studies are limited by their reliance on reported food intakes which may be compromised in turn by food compositional data because the latter can be limited by the analytical methodology used. Multinational comparisons may be affected by the fact that food sources and processing vary between countries. There are other potential confounders. For...

Dietary Fiber Complex Carbohydrates and Health Outcomes A Need for Fiber Equivalents

Technology has proved to be a significant issue in human fiber research. Early studies were limited by the relatively simple analytical methods then current. These were designed to measure the fiber components of forage consumed by important ruminant farm animals. Forage foods are high in insoluble polysaccharides and contain lignin (which is not a carbohydrate but a complex polyphenolic ether) and look 'fibrous,' so dietary fiber was equated with roughage and was defined as ''those structural and exudative components of plants that were resistant to digestion by human gut enzymes.'' The methods used initially were quite severe and, with increasing sophistication of analytical methodology (notably chromatography), it became apparent that lignin was only a minor component of fiber compared with nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs). Technological advances have revealed the importance of fractions such as soluble NSPs. As their name suggests, these dissolve in water but not necessarily under...

Dietary Fiber and the Etiology of Hormone Dependent Cancers

Cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, and prostate fall into the hormone-dependent classification. An association between hormonal status and cancer risk arose from observations of oestrogen deprivation and breast cancer and testosterone deprivation and prostate cancer. Nutritional influences on breast cancer have been studied extensively and several (but not all) studies show diminished risk with greater intakes of dietary fiber. The situation for other cancers, especially prostate cancer, appears to be rather unclear, but given the commonality of the proposed protective mechanisms, it is reasonable to expect that some linkage may be found. Male vegetarians have been reported to have lower testosterone and oestradiol plasma concentrations compared to omnivores, and inverse correlations of testosterone and oestradiol with fiber intake have been reported. There are many published studies that have produced mixed and inconsistent results on the potential mechanisms involved....

Dietary Fiber Obesity and the Etiology of Diabetes

In 1975, Trowell suggested that the etiology of diabetes might be related to a dietary fiber deficiency. This is supported by several key pieces of evidence. Vegetarians who consume a high-fiber lacto-ovo vegetarian diet appear to have a lower risk of mortality from diabetes-related causes compared to nonvegetarians. Consumption of whole grain cereals is associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Importantly, the same dietary pattern appears to lower the risk of obesity, itself an independent risk factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is emerging as a problem of epidemic proportions in affluent and developing countries. Consumption of whole grain cereal products lowers the risk of diabetes. A report showed that in 91 249 women questioned about dietary habits in 1991, greater cereal fiber intake was significantly related to lowered risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, glycemic index (but not glycemic load) was also a significant risk factor, and this interacted with a...

Dietary Intake Measurements

Table 1 describes the advantages and limitations of the main types of dietary methods, which are suitable for different purposes. Of the individual methods weighed records, estimated food records, 24-h recalls (24-h), and dietary histories are more intensive. The quantity of food consumed may be weighed directly or estimated using household measures such as cups and spoons, photographs, standard units, or average portions (see Table 2). For all methods the amount consumed can be measured or described either including or excluding wastage material usually discarded during food preparation, e.g., outer leaves and peel from vegetables or bones from cuts of meat. Some considerations when choosing a dietary method are shown in Table 3.

Individual Dietary Intake Methods

Many methods are available for estimating individual dietary intake measures and can be divided into two types retrospective measures of intake such 24-h recalls (24-HR), dietary history or food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), or current measures of intake such as weighed or estimated food records. Qualitative information is available from all methods but quantitative estimates for nutrient consumption are possible only if data for weighed or estimated portion weights are available. Most methods may be either self-completed or completed by a surrogate. The diet history consists either of an interview administered 24-HR or establishing usual eating pattern over a 1-week period, followed by a frequency questionnaire to provide additional information. The dietary history provides a representative pattern of usual intake and is interview administered only. For weighed food records (WRs) all food consumed over a period is weighed and recorded with details of food type and method of...

Selection of Dietary Assessment Measure

There are several alternative methods of dietary assessment that may be selected to assess intake. At the household level, a commonly used approach may be referred to as the food account method. A person in the household who is responsible for the acquisition and or use of food is selected to keep a daily record of all the food that enters the household for a specified period - often 1 week. This includes household food purchases, food production, and food received as gifts during that period. This provides a general picture of the food that passes through the household in a given week. There are several limitations to this approach, including the assumption of constant food stores, which may not be the case. For the purpose of better understanding the dietary intake within households, more elaborate methods are needed. One approach is to use a household diet record. In this case the household respondent is asked not only to report inflows of food, but also to record actual use and...

KObesity and Womens Reproductive Health

Menstrual Function and Fertility Obesity in premenopausal women is associated with menstrual irregularity and amenorrhea. 112,116 As part of the Nurses' Health Study, a case control study suggested that the greater the BMI at age 18 years, even at levels lower than those considered obese, the greater the risk of subsequent ovulatory infertility. 117 The most prominent condition associated with abdominal obesity is polycystic ovarian syndrome, 118 a combination of infertility, menstrual disturbances, hirsutism, abdominal hyperandrogenism, and anovulation. This syndrome is strongly associated with hyper-insulinemia and insulin resistance. 119 Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased morbidity for both the mother and the child. A tenfold increase in the prevalence of hypertension and a 10 percent incidence of ges-tational diabetes have been reported in obese pregnant women. 122 Obesity also is associated with difficulties in managing labor and delivery, leading to a higher...

L Psychosocial Aspects of Overweight and Obesity

A number of reviews have been published on the psychosocial aspects of obesity. 124-128 183 The specific topics that will be reviewed here include social stigmatization, psychopathology, binge eating, and body image perceptions. Much of the research on the social stigma of obesity has suffered from methodological limitations. For example, a number of the early studies relied on line drawings rather than more lifelike representations of obese people and on checklists that forced one to make YES or NO choices. More importantly, there has been a lack of research that has looked at the impact of obesity in the context of other variables, such as physical attractiveness, the situational context, and the degree of obesity. 184,185 In addition, social stigma toward the obese has primarily been assessed among white individuals. There is some evidence that members of other racial and ethnic groups are less harsh in their evaluation of obese persons. One study assessed 213 Puerto Rican...

Dietary protein and amino acids

High-protein diets for weight management have being revisited in recent years (reviewed in references 46 and 129). Proteins are more thermogenic (see Section 4.2.3) and satiating (see Chapter 2) than fats and carbohydrates. There is convincing evidence from human intervention studies that a higher protein intake (25 or more of the total energy as protein) increases ther-mogenesis and satiety, and reduces subsequent energy intake in the short-term compared with diets having the usually recommended protein content (15 or less of total energy as protein).46 1 29 There is also evidence that higher-protein diets can result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared with diets lower in protein, probably due to reduced perceived hunger and energy intake.46'129'130 Higher fat loss with high-protein diets is evident, however, even under isocaloric conditions, where total weight loss is not affected, pointing to a metabolic effect of protein favoring energy repartitioning towards lean...

Classification of Eating Disorders Obesity

Obesity can be classified as an eating disorder since, primarily or secondarily, obese patients eat These abnormalities are seen in individuals who can no longer control their weight by dieting and exercising and have to resort to abnormal subterfuges, such as the following 1. An intrusive body image delusion makes the patients see themselves as being overweight when they are actually severely undernourished. This leads to a pathological fear of fatness (dys-morphophobia), a chronic voluntary starvation, and resistance to any external pressures to gain weight. Anorexic patients hide and dispose of food in the most ingenious ways to avoid eating.

Overweight Obesity and Morbidity in Minority Populations

The data on overweight and obesity in minority populations include men and women across a wide age range and geographic area. Relevant studies increasingly consist of well-designed, population-based surveys and longitudinal studies. These studies have standardized, objective measurements of overweight and obesity and risk factors or disease outcomes. There is now a wealth of evidence to demonstrate that overweight and obesity incidence (both generalized and abdominal) predisposes to chronic diseases in racial ethnic minority populations as it does in whites, though the absolute risk may differ. 51-52, 271-284 Indications for treatment of overweight and obesity in minority populations are, therefore, the same as those for non-Hispanic whites. Apparent differences in the strength of association between obesity and disease in various populations are not necessarily relevant to individuals in clinical settings, and obesity should be treated in any situation in which excess weight is...

Obesity and Mortality

As stated in the introduction to the guidelines, in the majority of epidemiologic studies, mortality begins to increase with BMIs above 25 kg m2. 28-32 The increase in mortality generally tends to be modest until a BMI of 30 kg m2 is reached. 28, 29, 31 32 For persons with a BMI of 30 kg m2 or above, mortality rates from all causes, and especially from cardiovascular disease, are generally increased by 50 to 100 percent above that of persons with BMIs in the range of 20 to 25 kg m2. 28,31,32 Three aspects of the association between obesity and mortality remain unresolved

Relationship Between the Childhood and Adult Obesity Epidemics

The obesity epidemic that began in the early 1970s and escalated after 1980 for children and youth has progressed similarly in adults over the same time period. As depicted in Figures 2-6 and 2-7, between the 19711974 NHANES and the 1999-2000 NHANES the prevalence of obesity-defined as a BMI at or above 30 kg m2 more than doubled (from 14.5 FIGURE 2-6 Overweight and obesity by age in the United States, 1960-2000. NOTE Percents for adults are age-adjusted. Obesity for children is defined as a BMI at or above the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile BMI cutpoints from the 2000 CDC BMI charts. Obesity for adults is defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 30. Obesity is a subset of the percent of overweight. SOURCE CDC, 2003.

Behavioral Weight Control

Because the majority of individuals with BED are also overweight and want to lose weight, and because obesity is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences, weight loss is a potentially important outcome in the treatment of BED. Numerous studies have documented that calorie restriction does not exacerbate binge eating in BED patients. Indeed, participation in behavioral weight control programs that focus on calorie restriction, provide education about sound nutritional principles, and promote physical activity may decrease binge eating and improve mood in BED patients. Therefore, concerns about the potentially deleterious effects of dieting should not deter obese patients who binge eat from attempting behavioral weight management. Weight lost through dieting is frequently regained, and sustained weight change involves a permanent modification of eating and exercise patterns. However, it is not necessary to achieve large weight losses to improve risk factors for...

Examples of Dietary and Functional Fibers

As described in the report, Dietary Reference Intakes Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber (IOM, 2001), Dietary Fiber includes plant nonstarch polysaccharides (e.g., cellulose, pectin, gums, hemicellulose, P-glucans, and fibers contained in oat and wheat bran), plant carbohydrates that are not recovered by alcohol precipitation (e.g., inulin, oligosaccharides, and fructans), lignin, and some resistant starch. Potential Functional Fibers for food labeling include isolated, nondigestible plant (e.g., resistant starch, pectin, and gums), animal (e.g., chitin and chitosan), or commercially produced (e.g., resistant starch, polydextrose, inulin, and indigestible dextrins) carbohydrates.

BAssociation of Body Mass Index With Mortality in Older Adults

Factors have been proposed to explain this observation. Older adults are more likely than younger adults to have diseases that both increase mortality and cause weight loss leading to lower body weight. 291-293 In addition, as people age, they tend to have larger waist circumferences that increase their risk of mortality even at lower BMIs. 294 Also, weight in middle age is positively related to risk of mortality in old age.292 The impact of smoking on body weight and mortality is likely to be much stronger in older adults because of the cumulative health effects of BMI, which is an indirect estimate of adiposity, may underestimate adiposity in older adults whose BMI is similar to younger adults. 296 It is also possible that persons most sensitive to the adverse health effects of obesity are more likely to have died before reaching older ages, resulting in older cohorts that are more resistant to the health effects of obesity. Recently, a 20-year prospective study of a nationally...

Using ergogenic aids for weight control

A comprehensive definition of the use of nutritional ergogenic aids is 'dietary manipulation to improve physical and sports performance'. Nutritional ergogenic aids are a growing market and are increasing in popularity and variety. There are a large number of products marketed as nutrititional ergogenic aids that also claim to assist in weight management, by virtue of a purported capability to affect some aspects of energy metabolism or, more often, body composition, increasing lean body (muscle) mass and or reducing fat mass. These include protein and amino acid supplements, and combinations of ephedrine and caffeine, already presented in the preceding section. Caffeine has been proven to have ergogenic effects in a number of human studies, although the mechanism(s) behind these effects are largely unknown the popular view is that caffeine, by virtue of its capability to inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterases, increases fat supply to the muscle, which in turn can increase fat oxidation,...

Description of the Common Dietary and Functional Fibers

Below is a description of the Dietary Fibers that are most abundant in foods and the Functional Fibers that are commonly added to foods or provided as supplements. To be classified as a Functional Fiber for food labeling purposes, a certain level of information on the beneficial physiological effects in humans will be needed. For some of the known beneficial effects of Dietary and potential Functional Fibers, see Physiological Effects of Isolated and Synthetic Fibers and Evidence Considered for Estimating the Requirement for Dietary Fiber and Functional Fiber. DIETARY, FUNCTIONAL, AND TOTAL FIBER 345 Humans lack digestive enzymes to cleave P-(1,4) linkages and thus cannot absorb glucose from cellulose. Powdered cellulose is a purified, mechanically disintegrated cellulose obtained as a pulp from wood or cotton and is added to food as an anticaking, thickening, and texturizing agent. Dietary cellulose can be classified as Dietary Fiber or Functional Fiber, depending on whether it is...

C Association of Body Mass Index With Mortality in Ethnic Minorities

The levels of BMI associated with increased mortality are based on epidemiological studies of primarily white populations. The interest in confirming the association between BMI and mortality in other racial ethnic groups stems partly from observations that lower-than-average total mortality has been observed among some populations with a high BMI level, 299 and partly from observations that within certain populations there appears to be no effect of obesity at all or based on data from white populations. 300-303 Although the shape of the association of BMI and mortality in two large, representative U.S. data sets (the National Health and Nutrition Examination Follow-up Study and the National Health Interview Survey) is similar for black and white males and females, 304 the BMI-related increase in risk begins at a 1 to 3 kg m2 higher BMI level for blacks than for whites. For example, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Follow-up Survey, the estimated BMI associated with...

Health Benefits Of Dietary Fiber

Consuming a high level of dietary fiber food has a number of important physiological effects in humans and has been associated with the prevention of several diseases. According to results published in the literature, adults in the United States consume less than half (Slavin, 2005) of recommended levels of 25 30 g dietary fiber per day (Cummings and Stephen, 1980), whereas adults in the United Kingdom (51 of men and 69 of women) fell short of the minimum recommended intake of 18 g per day (Food Standard Agency, 2007). In a review paper by Slavin (2005), a strong positive correlation of dietary fiber intake with prevention of obesity was reported, and there was an inverse relationship with body weight, body fat, and body mass index, probably because the addition of dietary fiber generally decreases food intake. It was suggested that dietary fiber can control weight through promoting satiation, decreasing absorption of macronutrients, and altering secretion of gut hormones. Dietary...

Dietary Fiber In Bread Making Technology

Traditionally, bread is considered a nutritious food rich with carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, and vitamins and essential components of the daily diet. To provide more variety in functional breads, different sources of dietary fiber have often been used in recipes, such as wheat bran, barley, oat, rye, and rice brans (Katina et al., 2006 Rakha et al., 2010 Sudha et al., 2007 Wang et al., 2002). Fiber-supplemented breads show a pronounced decrease in quality parameters, and there is a significant effect on mixing and viscoelastic properties and fermentation behavior during bread preparation. Dietary fiber addition increases water absorption (Sudha et al., 2007), decreases loaf volume (Katina et al., 2006), and affects fari-nograph parameters and shelf life (Katina et al., 2006). Arabinoxylans are the major high-molecular polymers of cell walls and components contributing to the dietary fiber value in breads. Biliaderis et al. (1995) studied the functional role of various amounts...

How else can I change my eating habits to prevent GERD

Changing your lifestyle and eating habits is easier said than done. However, by making some simple modifications you can improve GERD symptoms and decrease some of the dangers associated with GERD. Dieting can be difficult, and by definition when you are dieting you are sacrificing or withholding something from yourself. Reading labels and educating yourself and understanding what you are eating enables you to make small, sensible changes that are easy, less painful, and maintainable in the long run. All of these strategies can help you lose weight and maintain it and control a major cause of GERD. My grandson asked one day, Grampie, why don't you put dressing on your salad Over the years, I have come to realize that certain types of foods upset my stomach, whereas others have a settling effect. I try to live by the USDA food pyramid and really limit my sweets, condiments, and processed foods. The more I adhere to the USDA food pyramid, the better my stomach feels and the less acid...

Integrated View of the Consequences of Childhood Obesity

In reviews of the correlates of childhood obesity, discussions of the physical impacts and of the social and emotional impacts are often separate. But this distinction may be artificial. First, although the brain plays a central role in the regulation of energy balance and obesity (Schwartz et al., 2000), it is also the central organ for integrating social stimuli, regulating emotion, and executing social interaction. Not surprisingly, cues that affect both eating and activity behaviors are often social in nature, ranging from sadness to anxiety to boredom. Social and emotional factors must therefore be recognized not only as potential consequences of obesity but also as potential causes. For example, depressed mood in children and adolescents may precede the development of obesity and not just follow it (Pine et al., 2001 Goodman and Whitaker, 2002 Richardson et al., 2003). In a nationally representative sample of 8-to 11-year-olds, clinically meaningful behavioral problems have been...

Genetic Influence in the Development of Overweight and Obesity

Obesity is a complex multifactorial chronic disease developing from interactive influences of numerous factors social, behavioral, physiological, metabolic, cellular, and molecular. Genetic influences are difficult to elucidate and identification of the genes is not easily achieved in familial or pedigree studies. Furthermore, whatever the influence the genotype has on the etiology of obesity, it is generally attenuated or exacerbated by nongenetic factors. A large number of twin, adoption, and family studies have explored the level of heritability of obesity that is, the fraction of the population variation in a trait (e.g., BMI) that can be explained by genetic transmission. Recent studies of individuals with a wide range of BMIs, together with information obtained on their parents, siblings, and spouses, suggest that about 25 to 40 percent of the individual differences in body mass or body fat may depend on genetic factors. 329-331 However, studies with identical twins reared apart...

Evidence Considered For Estimating The Requirement For Dietary Fiber And Functional Fiber

There is no biochemical assay that reflects Dietary Fiber or Functional Fiber nutritional status. Clearly one cannot measure blood fiber concentration since, by definition, fiber is not absorbed. Instead, the potential health benefits of fiber consumption, which may be compromised by a lack of fiber in the diet, have been reviewed. Throughout each section and the discussion of each indicator, a delineation is made between Dietary Fiber and Functional Fiber. It should be kept in mind that although high Dietary Fiber intake is associated with decreased risk or improvements in several chronic diseases, a report of the National Academy of Sciences states there is no conclusive evidence that it is dietary fiber rather than the other components of vegetables, fruits, and cereal products that reduces the risk of those diseases (NRC, 1989). The definition of Dietary Fiber in this report states that it must be intrinsic and intact in plants. Thus, the reported benefits are due to the fiber...

Dietary Supplementation for Active Individuals

A wide variety of supplements are used with the aim of improving or maintaining general health and exercise performance. In particular, supplement use is often aimed at promoting tissue growth and repair, promoting fat loss, enhancing resistance to fatigue, and simulating immune function. Most of these supplements have not been well researched, and anyone seeking to improve health or performance would be better advised to ensure that they consume a sound diet that meets energy needs and contains a variety of foods. See also Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Appetite Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects. Bone. Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance. Electrolytes Water-Electrolyte Balance. Energy Balance. Exercise Beneficial Effects. Fats and Oils. Osteoporosis. Protein Synthesis and Turnover Requirements and Role in Diet. Sports Nutrition. Supplementation Dietary Supplements Role of Micronutrient Supplementation...

Mechanisms by Which Dietary Fibers May Protect Against CHD

While not explicit, several hypotheses exist to explain the mechanisms by which Dietary Fiber may protect against CHD. The lowering of serum cholesterol concentration by viscous Dietary or Functional Fibers is thought to involve changes in cholesterol or bile acid absorption, hepatic production of lipoproteins, or peripheral clearance of lipoproteins (Chen and Anderson, 1986). Viscous fibers may interfere with the absorption and enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids and cholesterol in the intestine, forcing the liver to synthesize more cholesterol to meet the need for bile acid synthesis, and thus decreasing circulating cholesterol. This cannot be the sole explanation, however, since not all viscous fibers increase fecal bile acid excretion, and the magnitude of the increase, when present, is often small. In addition to delaying or interfering with the absorption of cholesterol and bile acids, viscous fibers may delay the absorption of macro-nutrients, including fat and...

Dietary Fats and Oils The Good Bad and Ugly

Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that they have good, bad, and ugly connotations. The aspects of dietary fat that are classified as good include serving as a carrier of preformed fat-soluble vitamins, enhancing the bioavailability of fat-soluble micronutrients, providing essential substrate for the synthesis of metabolically active compounds, constituting critical structural components of cells membranes and lipoprotein particles, preventing carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia, and providing a concentrated form of metabolic fuel in times of scarcity. The aspects of dietary fat that can be classified as bad include serving as a reservoir for fat-soluble toxic compounds and contributing dietary saturated and trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. Aspects of dietary fat that can be classified as ugly include providing a concentrated form of metabolic fuel in times of excess and comprising the major component of atherosclerotic plaque, the

Dietary Fats and Oils and Cholesterol

Dietary fat serves critical functions in the human body. It provides a concentrated source of energy, slightly more than twice per gram than protein or carbohydrate. For this reason, the causes of energy imbalances are often attributed to this component of the diet. However, definitive data in this area are lacking. In addition to providing a source of metabolic energy, dietary fat provides a source of essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (18 2), and or other fatty acids that are derived from linoleic acid. Dietary fat is the major carrier of preformed fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K). The bioavailability of these fat-soluble vitamins is dependent on fat absorption. Dietary fatty acids are incorporated into compounds that serve as structural components of biological membranes and lipoproteins, and as such they serve as a reservoir for fatty acids having subsequent metabolic fates.

Fatty Acid Profile of Common Dietary Fats

Dietary fats and oils derive from both animal and plant sources, primarily in the form of triacylgly-cerol. The fatty acid profile of dietary fats commonly consumed by humans varies considerably (Figure 8). In general, fats of animal origin tend to be relatively high in saturated fatty acids, contain cholesterol, and are solid at room temperature. A strong positive association has been demonstrated in epidemiological, intervention, and animal data between cardiovascular disease risk and intakes of saturated fatty acids. The exception is stearic acid (18 0), a saturated fatty acid of which a large proportion is metabolized to oleic acid (18 1), a mono-unsaturated fatty acid. Fats and oils of plant origin tend to be relatively high in unsaturated fatty acids (both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) and are liquid at room temperature. Notable exceptions include plant oils termed tropical oils (palm, palm kernel, and coconut oils) and hydrogenated fat. Tropical oils are high in...

Dietary Fiber Functional Fiber and Colon Health

Constipation, Laxation, and the Contribution of Fiber to Fecal Weight. Consumption of certain Dietary and Functional Fibers is known to improve laxation and ameliorate constipation (Burkitt et al., 1972 Cummings et al., 1978 Kelsay et al., 1978 Lupton et al., 1993). In most reports there is a strong positive correlation between intake of Dietary Fiber and daily fecal weight (Birkett et al., 1997). Also, Dietary Fiber intake is usually negatively correlated with transit time (Birkett et al., 1997). Although what constitutes constipation is variously defined, diets that increase the number of bowel movements per day, improve the ease with which a stool is passed, or increase fecal bulk are considered to be of benefit. For example, in a weight-loss study, obese individuals were put on a very low energy diet with or without 30 g d of isolated plant fiber (Astrup et al., 1990). Those receiving the fiber supplement had a higher number of bowel movements per day (1.0) compared to those not...

Composition of Dietary Fats

Cholesterol in these fats is 33, 14, 0, and 12 mg table-spoon, respectively. Types of fat relatively high in monounsaturated fatty acids include canola oil (56 ), olive oil (73 ), and peanut oil (46 ). Types of fat relatively high in polyunsaturated fatty acids include soybean oil (51 ), corn oil (58 ), safflower oil (74 ), and sunflower oil (66 ). None of the vegetable oils high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids contain cholesterol. The fatty acid profile of diets varies widely among individuals and depends on such factors as availability, cultural and religious dietary patterns, price, and personal preferences.

How to adjust your calories for fat loss

Now let's talk about how many calories you should eat to lose body fat. A calorie deficit that's too large or maintained for too long, will eventually invoke the starvation response and slow your metabolism. Nevertheless, you must have a calorie deficit if you want to lose fat. The secret is to use a small calorie reduction and to avoid any diet that calls for extremely large calorie reductions. Body fat is nothing more than stored energy. To release stored energy, you must be in a calorie deficient state. Calories not only count, they are the most important factor in a fat loss program. If you are eating more calories than you burn, you will not lose fat, no matter what you're eating or what kind of training you're doing. Some foods may get stored as fat more easily than others because of the way they affect your hormones and blood sugar, but always bear in mind that too much of anything will get stored as fat. You can never override the laws of energy balance. There are 3500...

Reduce your calories by 1520 below maintenance for optimal safe fat loss

Remember, the larger of a deficit you create, the sooner your body will catch on that you are dieting and the sooner it will start slowing your rate of calorie burning. Your weight is 172 lbs. Your calorie deficit to lose weight is 500 calories Your calorie deficit to lose weight is 20 (.20 X 2822 564 calories) Your optimal caloric intake for weight loss 2258 calories

Dietary Fiber Intake and Colonic Adenomas

People with colonic adenomas are at elevated risk of developing colon cancer (Lev, 1990). Several epidemiological studies have reported that high Dietary Fiber and low fat intakes are associated with a lower incidence of colonic adenomas (Giovannucci et al., 1992 Hoff et al., 1986 Little et al., 1993 Macquart-Moulin et al., 1987 Neugut et al., 1993). For example, Giovannucci and coworkers (1992) studied a population of 7,284 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and found a significant negative relationship between Dietary Fiber intake and colonic adenomas. The inverse relationship with Dietary Fiber persisted when they adjusted for other nutrients commonly found in fruits and vegetables. The overall median dietary intake of Dietary Fiber in this population was 21 g d, with a median intake of 13 g d for the lowest quintile and 34 g d for the highest quintile. A reanalysis of 16,448 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study that controlled for folate intake did not...

Possible Reasons for the Lack of a Protective Effect of Dietary Fiber in Some Trials

Some of the recent prospective studies, such as the Nurses' Health Study (Fuchs et al., 1999) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (Giovannucci et al., 1994), have failed to show a protective effect of Dietary Fiber intake against colon cancer when early indications from these same cohorts suggested that they would. As noted above, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study showed a protective effect of Dietary Fiber from the diet against colonic adenomas (Giovannucci et al., 1992). However, when the same cohort was later investigated for the relationship between intake of Dietary Fiber and colon carcinoma, no relationship was found (Giovannucci et al., 1994). A partial explanation for the difference is due to differences in ways that the data were analyzed based on information that was known at the time of analysis. A similar situation was found in the Nurses' Health Study cohort, which initially found that the combination of high Dietary Fiber and...

Dietary Fiber and Protection Against Breast Cancer

A growing number of studies have reported on the relationship of Dietary Fiber intake and breast cancer incidence, and the strongest case can be made for cereal consumption rather than consumption of Dietary Fiber per se (for an excellent review see Gerber 1998 ). Between-country studies, such as England versus Wales (Ingram, 1981), southern Italy versus northern Italy versus the United States (Taioli et al., 1991), and China versus the United States (Yu et al., 1991), and one study within Spain (Morales and Llopis, 1992), all showed an inverse correlation between bread and cereal consumption and breast cancer risk. The findings of 378 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

Body mass index (BMI) is an indirect measure of obesity based on the readily determined measures of height and weight. This report uses the term obese to refer to children and youth with BMIs equal to or greater than the 95th percentile of the age- and gender-specific BMI charts developed by BMI calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height measured in meters (kg m2) is the recommended indicator of obesity-related risks in both children and adults. For adults, overweight is defined as a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg m2 and obesity is defined as a BMI equal to or greater than 30 kg m2 (NHLBI, 1998). The BMI cut-off points were based on epidemiological data that show increasing mortality above a BMI of 25 kg m2, with greater increases above 30 kg m2 (NHLBI, 1998). However, the term obese more effectively conveys the seriousness, urgency, and medical nature of this concern than does the term overweight, thereby reinforcing the importance of taking immediate action....

Dietary Fiber and Other Cancers

Although the preponderance of the literature on fiber intake and cancer involves colon cancer and breast cancer, several studies have shown decreased risk for other types of cancer. Because Dietary Fiber has been shown to decrease serum estrogen concentrations, some researchers have hypothesized a protective effect against hormone-related cancers such as endometrial, ovarian, and prostate. Studies on Dietary Fiber intake and endo-metrial cancer have shown both significant and nonsignificant decreases in risk (Barbone et al., 1993 Goodman et al., 1997 McCann et al., 2000). In addition, studies have shown a decreased risk in ovarian cancer with a high intake of Dietary Fiber (McCann et al., 2001 Risch et al., 1994 Tzonou et al., 1993). However, no significant associations have been observed between Dietary Fiber intake and risk of prostate cancer (Andersson et al., 1996 Ohno et al., 1988 Rohan et al., 1995). Although interesting to note, this literature is in its infancy and cannot be...

Obesity Prevention Goals

Clear specification of obesity prevention goals is essential in shaping an action plan and evaluating its success. Pertinent issues for setting obesity prevention goals for populations include concepts of optimum population BMI and healthy weight levels, potential effects on food intake and patterns of physical activity and inactivity (the primary modifiable determinants of obesity), as well as attitudes and social norms related to food and eating, physical activity and inactivity, body size, and dietary restrictions (WHO, 2000 Kumanyika et al., 2002). For children and youth, these considerations must be framed not only within the context of healthy physical, psychological, and cognitive development but in recognition that the increased prevalence of childhood obesity has broadened the emphasis of dietary guidance to address the overconsumption of energy-dense foods and beverages and physical activity patterns (ADA, 2003, 2004). For individual children and youth, obesity prevention...

Intake Of Dietary Fiber Food Sources

Marlett (1992) reported on the Dietary Fiber content of 117 frequently consumed foods. Dietary Fiber was present in the majority of fruits, vegetables, refined grains, and miscellaneous foods such as ketchup, olives, and soups, at concentrations of 1 to 3 percent, or 1 to 3 g 100 g of fresh weight. Nuts, legumes, and high fiber grains typically contained more than 3 percent Dietary Fiber. About one-third of the fiber in legumes, nuts, fruits, and vegetables was present as hemicelluloses. Approximately one-fourth of the fiber in grains and fruit and one-third in nuts and vegetables consisted of cellulose. Although fruits contained the greatest amount of pectin, 15 to 20 percent of the fiber content in legumes, nuts, and vegetables was pectin. DIETARY, FUNCTIONAL, AND TOTAL FIBER 391

Adverse Effects of Dietary Fiber Mineral Bioavailability

Within the last 20 years, several animal and human studies have shown that foods or diets rich in fibers may alter mineral metabolism, especially when phytate is present (Sandstead, 1992). Fibers may reduce the bioavailability of minerals such as iron, calcium, and zinc (AAP, 1981 Williams and Bollella, 1995). However, levels of 10 to 12 g of Dietary Fiber 1,000 kcal have been suggested as safe even for Japanese adolescents, who tradition- 392 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES DIETARY, FUNCTIONAL, AND TOTAL FIBER 393 394 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Calcium. Most studies investigating the effects of cereal, vegetable, and fruit fibers on the absorption of calcium in animals and humans have reported no effect on calcium absorption or balance (Spencer et al., 1991 Wisker et al., 1991). However, some studies described a decrease in calcium absorption with ingestion of Dietary Fiber under certain conditions (Knox et al., 1991 O'Brien et al., 1993). Slavin and Marlett (1980) found that supplementing...

The Food Guide Pyramid

You must have noticed the food guide pyramid on food labels. The USDA and the DHHS designed this pyramid to be a flexible dietary guide for Americans. Each compartment contains a different food group and the recommended number of servings that should be consumed daily. The primary macronutrient (see Chapter 2) found in each food group is written in parenthesis. See Figure 3-1. Figure 3-1. Food Guide Pyramid Figure 3-1. Food Guide Pyramid Although this Food Guide Pyramid can be found on most food labels, many people are still unsure how to use its information. The most common questions concern both the size of a serving and how many servings should be eaten. Often people overestimate the size of a serving, thereby eating more kcals than they anticipated. Table 3-1 and Table 3-2 help answer questions about serving sizes. Table 3-1 gives an estimate of the amount of food per serving for each food group, and Table 3-2 lists the number of servings required from each food group to meet the...

Management Dietary Elimination

The management of food allergy consists largely of elimination from the diet of the trigger food or foods. Elimination diets are used either for the diagnosis or the treatment of food intolerance, or for both. A diet may be associated with an improvement in symptoms because of intolerance to the food, a placebo effect, or the improvement may have been a coincidence. The degree of avoidance that is necessary to prevent symptoms is highly variable. Some patients are intolerant to minute traces of food, but others may be able to tolerate varying amounts. Strict avoidance and prevention of symptoms are the aims in certain instances, but in many cases it is unknown whether allowing small amounts of a food trigger could lead to either enhanced sensitivity or to the reverse, increasing tolerance. The duration required for dietary avoidance varies. For example, intolerance to food additives may last only a few years, whereas intolerance to peanuts is usually lifelong. Although food allergy is...

Compilations of Composition Data for Dietary Supplements

As the use of dietary supplements increases worldwide, there is an increasing need to quantify intakes of nutrients and botanical products from these sources. Compiling nutrient profiles of such products into tables can be very time-consuming because the number of products continues to grow and formulations of existing products often change over time. Furthermore, average analytic data are seldom available from the supplement manufacturers, and thus database compilers must rely on whatever information is available from the product label. In many countries, a label showing the amount of each nutrient in the product is required.

How can I rationalize surgically changing my insides and risking significant complications even death just to lose

An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (January 8, 2003) reported that marked obesity in a man aged twenty to thirty could reduce his life expectancy by up to thirteen years. An extremely obese woman in this same age range might expect to lose up to eight years compared to her normal-weight friends. These are not small numbers. People who are overweight are more likely to develop obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, diabetes, sleep apnea, and arthritis. And obese people are much more likely than lean people to develop blood clots in the legs and lungs, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts. ally save your life. Nonetheless, many of these problems may be still very abstract for you. You may feel perfectly well and quite unafflicted by any problems related to your obesity....

Changes in Dietary Practices

Throughout the world, the diets of traditional cultures have experienced what has been called the nutrition transition, particularly during the last few decades of the twentieth century. In Mexico and Central America, as elsewhere, this transition has been fueled by globalization and urbanization. Major dietary changes include an increased use of animal products and processed foods that include large amounts of sugar, refined flour, and hy-drogenated fats. At the same time, a decline in the intake of whole grains, fruit, and vegetables has been documented. While the increased variety has improved micronutrient status for many low-income groups, the inclusion of more animal fat and refined foods has contributed to a rapid increase in obesity and chronic disease throughout the region.

Maintain A Healthy Weight

Achieving a healthy weight means eating Your current weight is the result of lifelong eating habits, heredity, and level of physical activity. Changing your weight is a matter of energy balance. Food energy is measured in calories. Carbohydrates, protein, fat, and alcohol are the sources of energy in foods. Fat is the most concentrated source of calories. If you are eating more calories than your body needs, regardless of the source, you will gain weight. If you are not getting enough calories, you will lose weight. If you are not as active as you once were, you may need fewer calories to maintain your weight. It may be important to choose more carefully. If your dexterity and ability to prepare food have decreased, you may be eating less and losing weight. If you have a poor appetite or are too fatigued, you may be eating less and losing weight. A healthy weight is important for maximizing your ability to ambulate, as well as helping to control blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and...

BGlucans and weight control

Various epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between fibre intake and body weight, BMI and body fat.75 In the CARDIA study, a population-based cohort study of the change in cardiovascular risk factors over 10 years, it was shown that dietary fibre was inversely associated with fasting insulin levels (mean difference across quintiles -5.6 pmol l, p 0.007 in whites -9.7 pmol l in blacks, p 0.01), weight gain (mean difference across quintiles in both populations -3.65 kg, p > 0.001) and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young adults.76 White men and women consuming diets supposed to be the lowest in GI (high fibre, high fat) had the least weight gain over 10 years compared with those consuming supposedly high-GI diets (low fibre, low fat). Another epidemiological study carried out on a cohort of 27 802 men demonstrated a reduced risk of weight gain (8 years of observation) associated with increased whole-grain or bran intake.77 Dietary fibre was...

Types Of Dietary Fat And Their Sources

Fatty acids are long, straight-chain molecules of 4 to 24 carbon atoms that can be categorized as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated. The differences between these are based on the chemistry of the molecule. Saturated fats contain only single bonds between all carbon atoms single bonds leave the maximum number of bonding sites open, which are then filled by hydrogen atoms. As a result, these compounds are said to be fully saturated with hydrogen. In contrast, mono-unsaturated fatty acids contain one double bond, and polyunsaturated fatty acids contain more than one double bond. The primary dietary source of saturated fats is animal fats, the primary source of monounsaturated fats is olive oil, and that of polyunsaturated fats is vegetable oils like corn oil.

Dietary Contamination

Nickel and bismuth are not considered to be common dietary contaminants. Nickel is mainly inhaled as a dust by workers, whereas bismuth is mainly ingested in bismuth-containing medications such as Pepto-Bismol. Vegetables contain more nickel than other foods, and high levels of nickel can be found in legumes, spinach, lettuce, and nuts. Baking powder and cocoa powder may also contain excess nickel, possibly by leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking water and acid-containing beverages can dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Daily nickel ingestion can be as high as 1 mg (0.017mmol) but averages between 200 and 300 mg (3.4 and 5.1 mmol).

Fructose Consumption Body Weight and Obesity

With the increase in fructose intake, primarily as sugar-sweetened beverages, occurring coincidently with the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity during the past two decades, it is important to examine the evidence that links fructose consumption and body weight gain. In epidemiological studies, consumption of larger amounts of soft drinks and sweetened beverages is associated with greater weight gain in women and increased energy intake and higher body mass index in children. In experimental studies, when fructose- or sucrose-sweetened beverages are added to the diet, subjects do not compensate for the additional energy provided by these beverages by reducing energy intake from other sources, and total energy intake increases. Possibly, this lack of compensation may be explained by the lack of a significant effect of fructose ingestion on the secretion of hormones involved in the long-term regulation of food intake. Data comparing the effects of ingesting fructose-and...

Increased Calorie Intake

Calorie intake by itself may stimulate cancer progression, and dietary fat is a major source of calories. In a study of 149 women treated for breast cancer, higher levels of total fat intake were associated with increased risks of recurrence and death. A large part of this risk increase appeared to be due to increased calorie intake.59 In rats, a 30 percent reduction of calorie intake reduced growth of transplanted human prostate cancer cells, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and tumor angiogenesis.60 Interestingly, exercise, which burns calories, reduced the growth of transplanted human breast cancer cells in mice fed a high-fat diet.61

The most important lesson you will ever learn about dieting to lose body fat

The most important lesson you can ever learn about nutrition and fat loss is to master the fundamentals first. The great motivational speaker and writer Jim Rohn once said, You should always be suspicious of someone who says they've discovered a new fundamental. That's like someone saying they're opening a factory to manufacture antiques. The problem with most people is they are always looking for the newest, latest, greatest craze, but they are overlooking the fundamentals. Why Because fundamentals are boring. Fundamentals are basic. Fundamentals aren't glamorous. Fundamentals aren't marketable. Fundamentals are also responsible for 80 of your results It doesn't make any sense to try and squeeze out the last 20 when you haven't even captured the first 80 . But that's exactly what most people are doing - looking for the secret ratios or diet plan, all the while missing the simple and obvious factors that will make the biggest impact on their physiques.

Commentary Do the same treatment approaches for overweight and obesity fit diverse patient populations

Whether or not the same weight reduction program will accomplish equivalent weight change in ethnically diverse population groups can be questioned on theoretical grounds. Weight reduction programs address motivations and behaviors strongly influenced by sociocultural factors that vary with ethnicity. 257 496 497 Sociocultural factors may also influence the relative efficacy of behavioral programs in young, middle, and older adulthood men or women or any other patient groups where the motivations and lifestyle factors targeted may vary from those commonly assumed to be in operation. Innate or acquired physiological factors that affect energy metabolism may also influence the relative efficacy of behavioral weight reduction programs. For example, some cross-sectional comparisons have suggested that the relative weight loss achieved for a given degree of calorie restriction will be lower in African-Americans than whites because of a lower resting metabolic rate in African-Americans....

Adjustments to the baseline diet ratios for maximum fat loss

For short periods of time when maximum fat loss is desired, the baseline ratio of 50-55 carbohydrates, 30 protein and 15-20 fat can be shifted to a higher ratio of protein fat and a lower ratio of carbohydrates. This increases metabolism through the thermic effect of food and it also controls insulin more effectively.

Obesity and Glycemic Index

Obesity contributes to the pathogenesis and morbidity of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with changes in carbohydrate and fat metabolism that are central to the development of insulin resistance. Although low glycemic index diets enhance insulin sensitivity and improve metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, they will not reduce weight unless part of an energy-deficient diet. However, in obese subjects, when low glycemic carbohydrates are incorporated into a hypocaloric diet, there is a greater decrease in insulin resistance than can be accounted for by weight loss alone. Evidence from both animal and human studies demonstrates a change in body composition (decrease in fat but no change on overall weight) when exposed to a low glycemic index diet.

Proposed Mechanism by which Dietary Carbohydrates Glycemic Index Influence Insulin Resistance

Adipocyte metabolism is central to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dietary carbohydrates influence adipocyte function. The previous simplistic view that insulin resistance resulted from the down-regulation of the insulin receptors in response to hyperinsulinemia is being replaced by the hypothesis that high circulating NEFA levels both impair insulin action and reduce pancreatic fi cell secretion. It is plausible that low glycemic index carbohydrates

Dietary Management

There has been a substantial change in the predominant view regarding the relationship between diet and gout. It has even been said that ''dietary considerations now play a minor role in the treatment of hyperuricemia, despite a fascinating history and abundant literature. The relationship between gout and gluttony (overindulgence of food and alcohol) dates back to ancient times. In the fifth- century bc, Hippocrates attributed gout to dietary excesses of food and wine he advised dietary restriction and reduction of alcohol consumption. Historically, the dietary management of gout has focused on two goals (i) reducing the amount of uric acid that may be deposited as crystals in joints or soft tissues, leading to the clinical syndrome of gout, and (ii) managing the disorders that occur with increased frequency among patients with gout, including diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Although some practitioners may still advocate the traditional...

Uicnih Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy

The UIC NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplement Research is a new initiative, designed to employ a multidisciplinary approach in studies involving the clinical safety and efficacy of botanicals. One initial focus will be on herbs used to treat women's health, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and red clover (Trifolium pratense), which show promise in the relief of symptoms associated with menopause.

Diet Tweak System

Diet Tweak System

Trying To Lose Weight Can Be Tough. But... Not Losing Weight and Gaining What You Lost Back, Sucks. If you've ever felt that no matter what you do to lose weight nothing seems to work. If you've ever felt that there has got to be some kind of a system or way to lose weight...but just have not found it yet.

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