At present, there are no validated biomarkers of satiety and satiation. Information on satiation and satiety can only be assessed by means of subjective introspection, such as by measuring the intervals between spontaneous requests for meals (satiety) or by measuring the energy intake from the meal (satiation). There is a need for more objective measures (biomarkers) of satiety and satiation, for example for efficacy testing of bioactive functional food (food with claimed health benefits based or scientific evidence) ingredients. Biomarkers will give more insight into the processes and mechanisms involved in satiety than subjective reports. Therefore biomarkers are more suitable for claim support. Another advantage of objective measures of satiety is that the number of subjects needed in an efficacy study could be diminished, because in general there is less variation in objective parameters compared with subjective reports.
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