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Contributor contact details xi

Preface xv

Part I Food and obesity

1 Lipid metabolism: its role in energy regulation and obesity 3

M. Leonhardt and W. Langhans, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Lipid metabolism: from digestion and synthesis to storage 4

1.3 Adipose tissue 5

1.4 De novo lipogenesis 9

1.5 Future trends 16

1.6 References 17

2 Hunger and satiety: relation to body weight control 28

H. F. J. Hendriks, G. C. M. Bakker, W. J. Pasman, A. Stafleu and W. A. M. Blom, TNO Quality of Life, The Netherlands

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 Factors influencing satiety and satiation 29

2.3 The impact of different food components on satiety 32

2.4 The need for biomarkers of satiety 35

2.5 Developing new biomarkers 36

2.6 Future trends 37

2.7 References 38

3 Glycaemic control, insulin resistance and obesity 43

I. Aeberli and M. Zimmermann, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 The glycaemic index of foods and its effect on insulin response and glycaemia 44

3.3 The effect of food processing on the glycaemic index . . . . 46

3.4 The glycaemic load 48

3.5 Association of glycaemic response with satiety and food intake 48

3.6 Carbohydrate type, glycaemic response and weight control 50

3.7 Future trends 52

3.8 Sources of further information and advice 53

3.9 References 54

4 Controlling lipogenesis and thermogenesis and the use of ergogenic aids for weight control 58

A. Palou and M. L. Bonet, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain

4.1 Introduction 58

4.2 Overview of nutrition and thermogenesis 59

4.3 Overview of nutrition and lipogenesis 65

4.4 Nutrition and development of lean body mass and body fat mass 68

4.5 Using food and food components to control lipogenesis and thermogenesis 71

4.6 Using ergogenic aids for weight control 84

4.7 Future trends 87

4.8 Sources of further information and advice 89

4.9 References 90

5 Food ingredients implicated in obesity: sugars and sweeteners 104

G. H. Anderson, T. Akhavan and R. Mendelson, University of Toronto, Canada

5.1 Introduction 104

5.2 Definition of sugars and alternative sweeteners 105

5.3 Sugars and alternative sweeteners: role in obesity 106

5.4 Conclusion 120

5.5 Implications and recommendations 121

5.6 Future trends 121

5.7 References 122

Part II Ingredients from grains, fruits and vegetables for weight control 6 b-Glucans 131

J.-A. Nazare, M. Laville Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Rhône Alpes, France, C. G. Biliaderis, A. Lazaridou, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece, G. Onning, Lund University, Sweden, M. Salmenkallio-Marttila, VTT, Finland and A. Triantafyllou, Ceba Foods, Sweden

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Sources of P-glucans 131

6.3 P-Glucan structure and related properties 133

6.4 Effects of P-glucans on lipid metabolism 135

6.5 Effects of P-glucans on energy and carbohydrate metabolism 138

6.6 P-Glucans and weight control 140

6.7 P-Glucans in the regulation of satiety and acceptance by consumers 141

6.8 Use of P-glucans in food products 143

6.9 Future trends 145

6.10 Acknowledgements 145

6.11 References 145

7 Non-digestible oligosaccharides 153

N. M. Delzenne, P. D. Cani, E. Delmée and A. M. Neyrinck, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Dietary fibres and food intake 153

7.3 Sources and properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides 155

7.4 Effect of non-digestible oligosaccharides on glucose and lipid metabolism: a phenomenon linked to a decrease in food intake 158

7.5 Non-digestible oligosaccharides, food intake and weight control: a key role for gastro-intestinal peptides 160

7.6 The role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the improvement of food intake, fat development and diabetic state by non-digestible oligosaccharides 164

7.7 Relevance of non-digestible oligosaccharide effects in human studies 165

7.8 Conclusions and future trends 167

7.9 References 168

8 Resistant starch 174

A. M. Birkett, National Starch Food Innovation, USA and

I. L. Brown, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA

8.1 Introduction 174

8.2 Background 175

8.3 Role of resistant starch in weight management 182

8.4 Increasing the resistant starch content of foods 189

8.5 Sources of further information and advice 192

8.6 Future trends 192

8.7 Conclusion 193

8.8 References 193

9 Modified carbohydrates with lower glycemic index 198

B. R. Hamaker, G. Zhang and M. Venkatachalam, Purdue University, USA

9.1 Introduction 198

9.2 Methods of producing carbohydrates with lower glycemic index 200

9.3 Slow-digestion and digestion-resistant characteristics of raw starch 200

9.4 Starch structural modification 203

9.5 Influence of other food components 207

9.6 Future trends 212

9.7 References 213

10 Novel ingredients for weight loss: new developments 218

J. D. Stowell, Danisco Sweeteners, UK

10.1 Introduction 218

10.2 Criteria for a successful new ingredient for weight loss . . . 220

10.3 (-)-Hydroxycitric acid 222

10.4 Hoodia gordonii 225

10.5 Other (potential) weight loss ingredients 228

10.6 Future trends 230

10.7 References 231

Part III Dairy ingredients and lipids for weight control

11 Dietary and supplemental calcium and its role in weight loss: weighing the evidence 237

G. Gerstner, Jungbunzlauer Ladenburg GmbH, Germany and M. de Vrese, Federal Research Center for Nutrition and Food, Germany

II.1 Introduction: role of dietary and supplementary calcium in weight control 237

11.2 Determining the role of calcium in weight control 238

11.3 Mechanisms: calcium and the regulation of energy metabolism 245

11.4 Dietary versus supplementary calcium and weight control 247

11.5 Using calcium in functional food products 248

11.6 Conclusions and future trends 256

11.7 Sources of further information and advice 257

11.8 References 258

12 Conjugated fatty acids, body composition and weight control 263

J. L. Sebedio, UMR, 1019, INRA-Universite d'Auvergne, France

12.1 Introduction 263

12.2 Sources of conjugated linoleic acid and estimated daily intake 264

12.3 Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition 267

12.4 Safety issues 272

12.5 Conclusions: conjugated linoleic acid and functional foods 275

12.6 References 276

13 Omega-3 fatty acids and other polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight control 281

M. Sorhede Winzell and B. Ahren, Lund University, Sweden

13.1 Introduction 281

13.2 Determining the role of omega-3 fatty acids and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in weight control 282

13.3 Effects of omega-3 fatty acids and other polyunsaturated fatty acids on energy metabolism and other factors connected to weight control 289

13.4 Producing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids 294

13.5 Omega-3 and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in functional food products 295

13.6 Future trends 295

13.7 Sources of further information and advice 297

13.8 Acknowledgements 297

13.9 References 298

14 Medium-chain and structured triglycerides: their role in weight control 305

I. Rudkowska and P. J. H. Jones, University of Manitoba, Canada

14.1 Introduction: medium-chain triglycerides and weight control 305

14.2 Metabolic effects of medium-chain triglycerides related to weight control 307

14.3 Effects of structured lipids related to weight control 317

14.4 Producing oils and using medium-chain triglycerides 318

14.5 Future trends 321

14.6 Sources of further information and advice 322

14.7 References 323

15 Trans-free oils and fats 326

E. Flöter and G. van Duijn, Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, The Netherlands

15.1 Introduction 326

15.2 Requirements for trans-free fat compositions 333

15.3 Production of trans-free fats and their application 335

15.4 Implementation of trans-free fats in manufacturing and the supply chain 341

15.5 Future trends 342

15.6 Conclusions 342

15.7 References 343

Index 345

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