To improve functionality and create value-added starch-based products, native starches are additionally subjected to various chemical modifications to overcome some of the structural and rheological problems that they inherently have during food processing and storage. These include: loss in viscosity; acid, shear, and/or heat stability; pasting; thickening; syneresis; and retrogradation. Although most chemical treatments have been intended to improve the functionality of the starches in foods, some recent work has focused on such treatments for creating slowly digesting and resistant starches. Many chemical modifications essentially result in the creation of RSs (Wolf et al., 1999). Chemically modified starch derivatives such as citrate starches (Wepner et al., 1999) and cross-linked starches (Woo and Seib, 2002; Shin et al., 2000) have been shown to decrease starch digestion rate depending on the type and degree of modification, extent of gelatinization, and digestion conditions employed. Han and BeMiller (2006) demonstrated high SDS amounts in 2-octen-1-ylsuccinic anhydride esterified waxy starch, and relatively high SDS and RS amounts in cross-linked hydroxypropylated and acetylated waxy starches. However, clinical trials need to be carried out to evaluate the efficacy of such starches in creating low-GI foods.
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