Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on energy expenditure

Many animal studies have shown that diets high in MCT increase thermo-genesis, leading to less fat deposition as compared with diets high in LCT (Bray et al., 1980 Baba et al, 1982 Geliebter et al, 1983 Rothwell and Stock, 1987). An animal study by Lasekan et al. (1992), showed lower weight gain and 8-13 greater EE in rats fed a 3 1 mixture of MCT and LCT in emulsion compared with only LCT. Overall, animal studies suggest the possibility for MCT to increase EE in humans, thus potentially...

Mouthfeel

The mouthfeel of a product is a multidimensional oral sensation. The main aspects of the mouthfeel are the structure breakdown on mastication, the release of flavor as a function of emulsion break-up, the cooling effect due to melting and, preferentially, the absence of waxy aftertaste due to high melting material. The fat crystals present directly influence these properties to a great extent. On mastication and heating the fat crystals start to melt and to dissolve. Intense mixing with saliva...

Effects of Pglucans on energy and carbohydrate metabolism

P-Glucan has been suspected of influencing glucose metabolism by modulation of glycaemia or insulin response to a meal. It works by slowing the rate of nutrient absorption leading to a smaller increase in glycaemia and insu-linaemia whenever nutrients are ingested concomitantly with P-glucans as opposed to without P-glucans.61 A study by Battilana et al.62 performed in healthy subjects was designed to observe the action of P-glucans on postprandial metabolism independently of a delayed...

Red wine polyphenolics

The well publicized French paradox means that when in France one can eat and drink with abandon without fear of becoming obese. Red wine consumption has often been cited as the protective factor in this phenomenon. The good news is that there may well be a scientific basis for this happy situation. Pal et al. (2004) studied the impact of acute consumption of red wine polyphenolics in postmenopausal women. They found that red wine polyphenolics attenuate postprandial chylomicron and chylomicron...

Overview of nutrition and thermogenesis

Total body energy expenditure represents the conversion of oxygen and food (or stored forms of energy) to carbon dioxide, water, biological work and heat, the production of which is inherent to net biochemical reactions in energy metabolism. Energy expenditure at rest can be measured directly as heat produced, hence the term thermogenesis, or indirectly as the amount of oxygen consumed. Total energy expenditure can be broken down into three components (a) obligatory energy expenditure required...

Adipocyte hyperplasia

Besides adipocyte hypertrophy, another process that favors WAT enlargement is adipocyte hyperplasia, i.e. the increment of adipocyte number. Adipocytes are formed through proliferation of committed precursor cells (pre-adipocytes) residing in fat depots and subsequent differentiation of the progeny into cells capable of regulating fat accumulation and release. This differentiation process, called adipogenesis, implies the concerted induction and activation of a series of adipogenic...

Chromium and chromium picolinate

Chromium is an essential trace mineral and cofactor to insulin. Chromium picolinate is an organic compound of trivalent chromium and picolinic acid (a naturally occurring derivative of tryptophan), which is better absorbed than dietary chromium. Reported effects of chromium in connection with body weight management found in some clinical trials include an increase in lean body mass, a decrease in percentage body fat and an increase in basal metabolic rate (reviewed in reference 182). However,...

Sugars caloric sweeteners

Sugars are classified into three groups monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The simplest molecules of sugars are the monosaccharides, which include galactose, fructose and glucose, the only monosaccharides absorbed by humans. Disaccharides (including lactose, maltose and sucrose) and trisaccharides (including raffinose, found in cottonseed and sugar beets), are derived from the union of monosaccharides. All of these sugars provide approximately 4 cal g. Household 'sugar', or...

Association of glycaemic response with satiety and food intake

Satiety signals are physiological responses that follow food consumption and they are believed to terminate eating and or maintain inhibition of further intake. Many different meal factors - including volume, weight, energy content, macronutrient composition and energy density - may lead to different satiety signals. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone secreted into the bloodstream by cells in the proximal small intestine after ingestion of food. CCK has been identified as an important satiety...

BGlucan structure and related properties

Mixed-linkage (1 3, 1 4) linear P-D-glucans (P-glucans) are major components of endosperm cell walls of commercially important cereals, such as oat, barley, rye and wheat. P-Glucans from cereals are linear homopoly-saccharides of D-glucopyranosyl residues (Glcp) linked via a mixture of P-(1 3) and P-(1 4) linkages. The structure features the presence of consecutive (1 4)-linked P-D-glucose in blocks (i.e. oligomeric cellulose segments) that are separated by single (1 3) linkages. Although most...

Biomarkers in blood

Recently developed techniques and acquired knowledge on the regulation of blood parameters known to be involved in signaling satiety and satiation - such as cholecystokinin, glucose, insulin, leptin, GLP-1 and others - enable the measurement of physiological correlates of satiation and satiety. In addition to these 'classic' parameters, new techniques can be used to find biomarkers of satiety. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition is a promising...

Central and nutritional control of adaptive thermogenesis

Adaptive thermogenesis is under central control. Exposure to cold and diet is detected by the brain, resulting in the activation of efferent pathways controlling energy dissipation. The SNS, which heavily innervates thermo-genic targets such as BAT and skeletal muscle, appears to be the main effector of this response (reviewed in references 4 and 42). The sympatho-adrenergic control of BAT thermogenesis is well understood (Fig. 4.2). In BAT, the noradrenaline released by the activated SNS...

Conjugated linoleic acid CLA

CLA is the acronym that describes a group of octadecadienoic acids (18 2) that are isomers of the essential fatty acid linoleic (C18 2, n-6) but whose double bonds are not separated by a methylene group but are conjugated. CLA is naturally present in certain foods, such as the meat of ruminants (e.g. beef, lamb) and dairy products (e.g. milk, cheese) where they can represent 0.5-2 of the fatty acids. In these products the predominant isomer (about 75-90 ) is cis-9,trans-11 CLA. Three other...

Contents

Contributor contact 1 Lipid metabolism its role in energy regulation and obesity 3 M. Leonhardt and W. Langhans, ETH Z rich, Switzerland 1.2 Lipid metabolism from digestion and synthesis to 1.3 Adipose 1.4 De novo 1.5 Future 2 Hunger and satiety relation to body weight control 28 H. F. J. Hendriks, G. C. M. Bakker, W. J. Pasman, A. Stafleu and W. A. M. Blom, TNO Quality of Life, The Netherlands 2.2 Factors influencing satiety and 2.3 The impact of different food components on satiety 32 2.4 The...

Effects of structured lipids related to weight control

MCT derivatives produced by the interesterification process are referred to as structural lipids or structural TGs. Interesterification is a process by which LCFA, such as oleic acid, are introduced into the final product. In the case of MCT derivatives, the product created is a rearranged TG with both MCFA and LCFA, in the desired ratios, on the same glycerine molecule. The existence of physiological actions of structured lipids on body weight and composition is explored in this section. Human...

Formulating foods with resistant starch ingredients

RS is found in starchy foods that we eat every day, but the amount present is very small. Ingredients rich in RS can be used to increase the RS content of a wide variety of foods including breads, buns, breakfast cereals, extruded foods, cereal bars, pasta, noodles, biscuits, confectionery, beverages and yogurt. These ingredients can increase the RS content, increase the total dietary fiber content, add physiological benefit and improve food quality. Table 8.7 Important digestive health...

Functional benefits of trans fatty acids

In the early 1990s partially hydrogenated fats could be found in essentially all fat applications that involved some kind of challenge to the fat composition. Partially hydrogenated fats were the most important and versatile ingredient for fat technologists. In simple terms, this role was based on three distinct properties (1) the high chemical stability against oxidation of the partially hydrogenated fats, corresponding to the significantly reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)...

Hydrothermal modification

Hydrothermal modification is one of the physical methods commonly used to modify the functional properties of starch granules while maintaining granular structure. Three parameters are varied in hydrothermal treatment of starch granules temperature, moisture, and time. Hydrothermal treatments can be divided into two general areas annealing and heat-moisture treatment. Annealing is usually performed in conditions of excess (> 66 ) or intermediate water content (40-55 w w), while heat-moisture...

Hydroxycitric acid 1031 Background

Garcinia cambogia is an evergreen tropical shrub of the Guttiferae family native to Southeast Asia and in particular South India. It typically grows wild but is also cultivated in some areas. The fruits of G. cambogia are about the size of an orange but resemble a small yellowish or reddish pumpkin. The dried rinds of the fruit are used in food preparation in several Southeast Asian countries where, amongst other attributes, they are said to be effective in making meals 'more filling' (FDA,...

Implementation of transfree fats in manufacturing and the supply chain

The nature of the successful replacement of partially hydrogenated fats, as outlined above, yields a number of specific solutions to specific product applications. The identification of the respective best set of solutions for a manufacturer is more complicated. On implementing a technical solution, the balance between utilization of a special fat composition, re-design of the manufacturing process and complexity of the supply chain - more raw materials on-site - has to be found. All three...

Importance of de novo lipogenesis assessed by transgenic animal technology

The general importance of DNL is emphasized by the finding that the generation of homozygous knock-out mice lacking important enzymes of DNL - such as CL (Beigneux et al. 2004), ACC 1 (Abu-Elheiga et al. 2005) and also FAS (Chirala et al. 2003) - is impossible because these mice have lethal development defects, suggesting an important role for DNL in embryonic development (Beigneux et al. 2004). As already mentioned, one important step of DNL is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form...

Introduction

The functionality of fats and oils in food products is twofold. These two main, unfortunately contradicting, aspects are nutrition and physical structure - related to oils and fats (solids) respectively. The term oil implies compositions essentially free of solid material at ambient temperature. Fats in contrast are at least semi-solid lipid materials. The physical functionality of fats is strongly related to the presence of saturated and trans fatty acids (TFA). These types of fatty acids do...

Micronutrients

Anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium have been demonstrated in rodents, in which calcium supplementation attenuates the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity, accelerates weight and fat loss under energy restriction conditions, and limits weight and fat gain during refeeding after weight loss (reviewed in reference 138). Dairy products were found to be more potent than supplemental calcium in these animal studies. In humans, observational studies have noted an inverse relationship...

Nutrition and development of lean body mass and body fat mass

Because lean body mass is the main single determinant of resting energy expenditure, methods to possibly increase lean body mass at the expense of fat body mass are of great relevance in the context of weight-management strategies. Preservation of lean body mass during weight loss helps further weight loss, and a preferential regain of lean body mass over fat mass helps body weight maintenance after weight loss. Body composition is very much dependent on the balance between lipogenesis and fat...

Optimal intake of mediumchain triglycerides

The recommended dietary allowance for healthy adults for MCT ranges from 30 to 100 g day, which would cover up to 40 of daily energy requirements. The ingestion of too large a dose of MCT, such as 85 g, or not enough progressive incorporation into the diet may cause adverse symptoms in healthy volunteers, including nausea, vomiting, bloating, emesis, gastrointestinal discomfort, abdominal cramps, and osmotic diarrhea (Hopman et al., 1984). Temporary interruption or provision of a small initial...

Other constituents

The rate of starch digestion is seen to be influenced by several minor plant constituents (usually referred to as anti-nutrients) such as phytates, phenolic compounds (tannins), saponins, lectins, and several enzyme inhibitors. These components interfere with the catalytic activity of the glucosidase enzymes through different mechanisms, thereby limiting their action (Thompson, 1988). Fish and Thompson (1991) showed that lectin and tannic acid (from red kidney bean) individually could inhibit...

Other food and food components of interest

Capsaicin is the major pungent component in fruits of Capsium. In experimental animals it was reported to enhance adrenal catecholamine secretion, activate BAT function, enhance energy expenditure and suppress body fat accumulation upon long-term treatment (see references 175 and 176). Capsaicin-rich foods (e.g. chilli peppers and red peppers) have been shown to stimulate fat oxidation and thermogenesis in humans,177,178 although the effects appear to be weaker in obese subjects.179 Non-pungent...

Plant ingredients interfering with the sympathoadrenal system

Because thermogenesis and fat oxidation are to a large extent under the control of the SNS, approaches that mimic or interfere with the SNS and its neurotransmitter noradrenaline offer a rational approach for obesity management. Current interest in the nutrititional nutraceutical arenas has focused on plant ingredients capable of enhancing the release of noradrena- line from presynaptic neurons (ephedrine), prolonging the half-life of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft (catechin polyphenols),...

Starch digestion and absorption

Most of the starch present in the diet is cooked and gelatinized. As such, most dietary starch is easily digested, accounting for approximately 95 of that consumed (Cassidy et al., 1994). Various diet, food processing and physiological factors are known to affect starch digestion, and these are listed in Table 8.3. Starch is digested hydrolyzed enzymically and sequentially within the upper gastrointestinal tract (Gray, 1992, 2003 Levin, 1994). In the mouth some starch is digested to maltose via...

References

Aston l m (2006), 'Glycaemic index and metabolic disease risk', Proc Nutr Soc, 65, 125-134. axelsen m and smith u (2001), 'Treatment for diabetes', US Patent 6,316,427. berry c s (1986), 'Resistant starch formation and measurement of starch that survives exhaustive digestion with amylolytic enzymes during the determination of dietary fiber', J Cereal Sci, 4, 301-314. biliaderis c g and galloway g (1989), 'Crystallization behavior of amylose-V complexes structure-property relationships',...

Related titles

Food, diet and obesity (ISBN 978-1-85573-958-1) Obesity is a global epidemic, with large proportions of adults and children overweight or obese in many developed and developing countries. As a result, there is an unprecedented level of interest and research on the complex interactions between our genetic susceptibility, diet and lifestyle in determining individual risk of obesity. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, this collection sums up the key themes in...

Sites and mechanisms of adaptive thermogenesis

In rodents, a major site of adaptive thermogenesis is brown adipose tissue (BAT). The main mechanism behind BAT thermogenesis relies on the activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is uniquely and abundantly expressed in brown adipocytes, which are mitochondria-rich cells (reviewed in references 3-5). When active, UCP1 leaks protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane, allowing dissipation of the proton electrochemical gradient generated by the...

Safety issues 1241 In animals

The first adverse effects of feeding CLA, and especially the 10t,12c-18 2 isomers, were reported for animals and described for mice by Tsuboyama-Kasaoka et al. (2000). In C57BL 6J mice, supplementation with a 1 equi-molar mixture of the 9c,11t and 10t,12c isomers reduced fat mass but the liver was massively enlarged. Histological analysis revealed a macrovesicu-lar steatosis. Further studies (Clement et al., 2002) showed that mice fed with 10t,12c-enriched CLA developed lipoatrophy,...

Sources of further information and advice

The reader is referred to other chapters in this book for more detailed information on lipogenesis and other processes of lipid metabolism (Chapter 1) satiety and its modulation by specific nutrients (Chapter 2) dietary calcium and body weight control (Chapter 11) conjugated linoleic acid (Chapter 12) polyunsaturated fatty acids (Chapter 13) medium-chain triacylglycerols (Chapter 14). http www.efsa.eu.int , home page of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) US Food and Drug Administration...

The glycaemic index of foods and its effect on insulin response and glycaemia

The glycaemic response to a food, which in turn affects the insulin response, depends on the rate of gastric emptying, as well as on the rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates from the small intestine (Jenkins et al., 1987). Traditionally, carbohydrates were classified as 'simple' and 'complex' based on their degree of polymerization. Sugars (which are mono- and disaccharides) were therefore classified as simple, whereas starches (poly-saccharides) were classified as complex....

Using calcium in functional food products

Generally, functional foods are neither dietetic products nor food supplements, but processed foods with distinctive added-value features such as health and well-being. In order to be able to differentiate themselves from the established products, food companies use specific health claims, among which the link between calcium and bone health is one of the most widely used and accepted claims worldwide. According to Leatherhead Food International (2005), the functional foods market in the five...

The role of glucagonlike peptide1 in the improvement of food intake fat development and diabetic state by nondigestible

7.6.1 Non-digestible oligosaccharides and glucose insulin homeostasis lessons from animal models GLP-1, besides its effect on food intake, is considered a key peptide in the control of glucose tolerance, and glucose-dependent insulin release by pancreatic P-cells (Meier & Nauck 2005). Moreover, it is also responsible for increased P-cell neogenesis in streptozotocin-treated newborn rats - a model of diabetes - thus allowing a partial recuperation of pancreatic function with age (Tourrel et...

Using food and food components to control lipogenesis and thermogenesis

In this section, foods and food components that have the potential to assist weight loss maintenance due to effects on lipogenesis, thermogenesis and or body composition are presented. Dietary fat is related to the etiology of obesity because of its high energy density, high hedonic value, delayed satiating capacity thus promoting passive overconsumption, low associated thermic effect and efficient storage capacity. This has fueled the market for low-fat and fat-free foods for weight...

Role of resistant starch in weight management 831 Weight management direct evidence

RS is by its very nature indigestible and so does not contribute directly to plasma blood glucose levels. Therefore, replacing digestible starch with RS is a natural fit for low-glycemic foods and diets. In a 2003 report, the World Health Organization (WHO) reviewed the strength of evidence on various factors that might promote or protect against weight gain and obesity. They assessed the totality of evidence, including randomized controlled trials (highest ranking), associated evidence and...

Conclusions and future trends

Since the first studies with the model of the agouti mouse and the re-analysis of older epidemiological studies brought forward the hypothesis of an anti-obesity effect of calcium, numerous further animal experiments, epidemiological studies and intervention trials on humans have been published. Nevertheless, an anti-obesity effect of calcium can no longer be taken as given, as in the last few years a similar number of investigations have been published that did not find such an effect of...

Determining the role of omega3 fatty acids and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in weight control

The positive effects of omega-3 PUFAs were observed early on among Greenland Inuits, who, despite high fat intake, displayed low mortality from coronary heart disease (Dyerberg et al., 1975). Other epidemiological studies have reported lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in populations consuming large amounts of omega-3 PUFAs from fatty fish (Mouratoff et al., 1969 Kromann and Green, 1980). Subsequent studies have demonstrated that dietary supplementation of...

Introduction role of dietary and supplementary calcium in weight control

The recommended daily intake of calcium (1000 mg day for most adults, 1200 mg day for pregnant women) has been set to meet the requirements of bone-health and the prevention of osteoporosis. Beyond this, calcium plays an essential role in numerous other vital functions regulation of cell membrane fluidity and permeability, nerve conduction, muscle contraction and blood clotting. Calcium has anti-hypertensive properties and the consumption of calcium in sufficient amounts may reduce the risk of...

Relevance of resistant starch to weight management

RS appears to play two roles with respect to weight management. Firstly there is a reduction in the digestible energy available from the RS compared with a readily digestible starch. The presence of RS in foods reduces their caloric density. Recently, research has demonstrated a second role for RS in energy metabolism and metabolic control. The lower glucose and insulin impact of RS causes changes in lipid metabolism that favor lower levels of lipid production and storage. In addition, RS is...

Dietary versus supplementary calcium and weight control

Many of the above-cited papers, which compare dairy calcium with calcium supplements or calcium-fortified non-dairy food, show a somewhat greater effect of the former. This suggests that other milk components may modulate the weight-loss effect of calcium or have an effect of their own. These dairy components are possibly whey proteins and peptides, which may work synergistically with calcium to alter lipid metabolism and or to affect postprandial satiety. On the other hand, these studies also...

Alternative sweeteners nonnutritive sweeteners

The hedonic value of sugars due to their sweetness can be provided in foods and beverages by artificial sweeteners (non-caloric sweeteners) or polyols (low-caloric sweeteners), alternatively called sugar substitutes, sugar replac-ers or alternative sweeteners. High-intensity sweeteners provide sweeteness with negligible calories, although the sensation of their sweetness is often different from that of sugar. Saccharine, the oldest artificial sweetener is 300 times as sweet as sucrose....

Safety and regulatory status

The safety of HCA has been investigated in several studies, reviewed by Soni et al. (2004). No adverse effects have been observed either in animal toxicity tests or in human studies. Teratogenicity studies and long-term feeding studies still need to be completed. As noted above, G. cambogia extract HCA has been a component of dietary supplements in the USA for some years. In 2003 InterHealth announced that a panel of scientific experts had affirmed Super CitriMax as GRAS (generally recognized...

Sugars

The increased prevalence of obesity over the past 35 years has occurred concurrently with an increased availability of added sugars in the food supply (Elliott et al., 2002). Food disappearance data, as an indicator of trends in food consumption, have shown a 30 increase in the availability of sugars in the United States from 1971 to 1997 (Elliott et al., 2002). Thus, it has been suggested that increased consumption of sugars (Ludwig et al., 2001) and the increased availability of HFCS (Bray et...

Determining the role of calcium in weight control

Recently, an anti-obesity effect of dietary calcium has been postulated (for reviews see Teegarden (2003), Zemel (2002) and Zemel and Miller (2004a)). Although first observations in rats and men showing an inverse relation between calcium intake, adipocyte intracellular calcium and obesity had already been published at the end of the 1980s (Draznin et al., 1988), this idea has never been more popular in the scientific community since the publication of the papers of Zemel and colleagues (Xue et...

Nondigestible oligosaccharides food intake and weight control a key role for gastrointestinal peptides

7.5.1 Involvement in the regulation of food intake from theory to experimental data Endocrine L-cells are distributed all along the intestinal tract, but are mostly present in the caeco-colon, where fermentation of NDO occurs (Orskov et al. 1989). Endocrine cells present in the intestinal mucosa secrete peptides involved in the regulation of food intake, and or pancreatic functions, the latter being called incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) . Among...

Omega3 and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in functional food products

Functional foods are food products that have beneficial effects on physiology and or have the ability to reduce the risk of a disease. Functional foods may be conventional food or foods that have been enriched with functional components to provide greater health benefits, but they do not include purified substances provided in pills or capsules. Since omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to have beneficial effects in several health conditions they are considered to be a functional food. The positive...

Types and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

The therapeutic significance of omega-3 PUFAs has been clearly indicated in clinical trials and epidemiological studies (Bucher et al., 2002 Hu et al., 2002). Fatty fish or fish oils are the richest sources of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, but as already discussed, the dietary intake of fish has decreased. However, fish stocks are also declining and there have been reports indicating the accumulation of heavy metals and pollutants in some fish (Hites et al., 2004). There is thus an urgent need for...

Functional requirements for successful trans fatty acid elimination

Every approach to substitute another fat for trans-containing partially hydrogenated fats in product applications is doomed to fail if one tries only to match the properties of the fat. With such a substitution only a limited set of the physical properties can be matched. Consequently the substitution process has to be based on a deep understanding of the application at hand. Consideration should also be given to how far it is acceptable that the change in fat composition is accompanied by a...

Sources of Pglucans

Six types of P-glucans have been identified in the cell walls of green plants and fungi. Cellulose is a (1 4)-P-glucan, a long linear glucose polymer, with low flexibility and solubility. It is a ubiquitous component of the fibril-lar phase of cell walls while it is also found as an extracellular secretion in certain bacteria.2 In cereals, cellulose microfibrils appear to be embedded in a matrix of mixed-linkage (1 3, 1 4)-P-glucan in the walls of aleurone and starchy endosperm cells. Oat...

Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition

A large part of the studies so far developed has been carried out using animal models and only a few intervention studies on humans have been reported. Earlier studies on animals and on humans were done using a Table 12.4 Content of CLA ( of total fatty acids) and 10t,12c-18 2 isomer ( of CLA) in supplements sampled in 2002 (adapted from Saebo, 2003) Table 12.4 Content of CLA ( of total fatty acids) and 10t,12c-18 2 isomer ( of CLA) in supplements sampled in 2002 (adapted from Saebo, 2003) *...

Hoodia gordonii 1041 Background

Hoodia gordonii is one of several species of the genus Hoodia from the botanical family Asclepiadaceae. It is a cactus-like succulent plant that grows in the Kalahari desert in the southern part of Africa, mainly Botswana. The local San Bushmen have sucked on Hoodia as the whole fresh plant or dried whole plant for generations, principally to fight hunger and thirst during long hunting trips and at times of famine. Based on these anecdotal reports H. gordonii has been proposed as an anorectic...

Adipose tissue

White adipose tissue was long seen as a passive reservoir for the storage of fat derived from the diet or from endogenous synthesis. Meanwhile it is clear that white adipose tissue is also an important endocrine organ for review see Kershaw and Flier (2004) . The proteins that are produced and released by adipose tissue are called adipokines. It is important to note that white adipose tissue is not a homogeneous organ. The two best-described adipose tissue depots are subcutaneous and visceral...

Other potential weight loss ingredients 1051 Green tea catechins

Green tea and its polyphenol components have been investigated as possible functional foods for a range of applications. Dulloo et al. (1999) investigated whether a green tea extract, by virtue of its high content of caffeine and catechin polyphenols, could increase 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. This was a placebo-controlled experiment and caffeine at the level in the green tea extract was also studied on its own as a second control. It was concluded that green tea has...

Factors influencing satiety and satiation

Research on the regulation of food intake has been carried out for many years, but the mechanism of the human regulation of food intake has not been elucidated yet. Three main levels of food intake regulation may be distinguished. These include the level of the gastrointestinal tract and the level of the hypothalamus in the brain. These first two levels will provide input to the cortex resulting in behavior after further integration with cognitive processes (third level). The gastrointestinal...

Amyloseamylopectin ratio

The amylose amylopectin ratio is one of the main parameters measured in starch quality evaluation. In a diluted starch solution (< 1 w v) containing both amylose and amylopectin, amylose can be easily digested by a-amylase while amylopectin is slower to be digested due to its branching structure (Park and Rollings, 1994) however, in a concentrated starch system, especially one with a higher ratio of amylose amylopectin, a firm gel will form and the digestibility will be decreased due to the...

Production of transfree fats and their application

The main tools that we find at our disposal for the fabrication of suitable fats for the substitution of partially hydrogenated fats are hydrogenation, preferentially executed to iodine values close to zero chemical or enzymatic interesterification fractionation and the search for new raw materials, possibly executed via modern plant breeding (e.g. Bockisch, 1993). A very low maximum TFA level can only be achieved by either no hydrogenation or by full hydrogenation. Full hydrogenation delivers...

Chapter

Cani, Evelyne Delm e and Audrey M. Neyrinck Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology Universit catholique de Louvain Avenue Mounier 73 PMNT 7369 1200 Brussels Belgium Ian L. Brown University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver Colorado 80262 USA email ian.brown clovercorp.com.au Chapter 9 and Mahesh Venkatachalam Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research Department of Food Science Purdue University West Lafayette Indiana 47907-2009...

Proven weight loss

For many functional foods intermediate biomarkers of efficacy need to be identified because it is impractical to measure the desired endpoint via human intervention studies. An example is the application of prebiotics and or probiotics to reduce colon cancer risk. The incidence of colon cancer in healthy populations is low and the timeframe for its development is long. Hence, it is difficult to envisage conducting a conclusive intervention study on healthy populations. Typically the incidence...

Conclusions

The replacement of partially hydrogenated fats - with their role in aerating, emulsifying, lubricating and providing texture, structure and flavor characteristics to food products - is a challenge for food developers. Due to the versatility and robustness of partially hydrogenated fats their substitution is strongly application specific. An understanding of the specific application of partially hydrogenated fats and the resulting functional specifications of alternative fats is a necessary...

Future trends

Future developments with respect to the elimination of TFA will depend to a great extent on non-technical issues. The choice of the legal framework can drive the evolution of technology. The Danish legislation practically bans partially hydrogenated fats from food. In contrast to this, the FDA endorsed the limitation of uptake of TFA per serving, which can in some instances be met with lower fat products still based on partially hydro-genated fats. Finally, consumer preference will decide what...

Influence of other food components

The presence of other major and minor food components, besides starch, has also been shown to influence the glycemic response of carbohydrate foods. Various factors at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of foods can affect such digestion variables as gastric emptying rate, creation of matrix barriers to access starch during digestion, and interactions between digestive enzymes and other food components. Extruded pasta products represent an excellent example of the effect of proteins in...

The meaning of transfree

In industrial practice there is practically no such thing as fat that is completely free of TFA. This is because fat compositions, except for in laboratory conditions, will almost always contain small amounts of TFA. They evolve either from natural processes or are due to configurational changes of the unsaturated bonds in fatty acids on exposure to elevated temperatures. However, these TFA are typically found at low levels, so their nutritional contribution can be neglected. This is not...

Mechanisms calcium and the regulation of energy metabolism

How does calcium work Although the physiological or cell-biology basis for the changes in body weight and body fat has not been fully elucidated, a hypothesis has been developed by Zemel and co-workers (2000), based largely on experiments in the obese agouti mutant mouse (Jones et al., 1996, Shi et al., 2001, Xue et al., 1998, 2001, Zemel et al., 1995). The agouti protein is involved in the development of the wild-type coat colour of agoutis (South-American guinea pig-like rodents), mice and...

Mechanism

It is desirable but not essential to understand the mechanism(s) whereby the ingredient under evaluation mediates its effect. So long as safety and efficacy are clearly documented then there is a case that the ingredient could be marketed without unnecessary risk. The basic mechanisms whereby weight loss ingredients mediate their effect include encouraging the consumption of fewer calories reducing absorption of nutrients from the digestive system, which in turn increases excretion increasing...

Novel food ingredients for weight control

Boca Raton Boston New York Washington, DC Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Published in North America by CRC Press LLC, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA First published 2007, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC 2007, Woodhead Publishing Limited The authors have asserted their moral rights. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission,...

Developing new biomarkers

Biomarkers of satiety and satiation could be defined as physiological measures that relate to subjectively rated appetite and or actual food intake. Markers can be either indicators of appetite, or they can be proven to be causal factors of appetite (Diplock et al., 1999). Biomarkers should be able to give relatively immediate outcomes to enable interventions on a reasonable time scale validated and of high quality clearly linked to the phenomenon rather than accurately measured sensitive and...

Chemical modification

To improve functionality and create value-added starch-based products, native starches are additionally subjected to various chemical modifications to overcome some of the structural and rheological problems that they inherently have during food processing and storage. These include loss in viscosity acid, shear, and or heat stability pasting thickening syneresis and retrogradation. Although most chemical treatments have been intended to improve the functionality of the starches in foods, some...

Requirements for transfree fat compositions

There are two main requirements with respect to trans-free fat compositions on the one hand the functional specification relating to the actual product application on the other hand even though the TFA are eliminated, the formulation should not compromise the overall nutritional value of the composition. Furthermore one has to take into account that, for the successful elimination of TFA, time is also an important parameter. Immediate solutions can not afford to be registered as novel foods or...

Cost and regulation of mediumchain triglycerides in different countries

The marketplace provides a variety of MCT oils and structured lipids. Although there has been success in structured fats, these developments have come with considerable time and cost compared with simple MCT oil mixtures. The development of structured lipids will focus on cost. Regulations regarding MCT oils and structured lipids vary between countries. Japan was the first to regulate and implement programs for functional foods. MCFA were approved as FOSHU (Foods for Specific Health Use) for...

The need for biomarkers of satiety

At present, there are no validated biomarkers of satiety and satiation. Information on satiation and satiety can only be assessed by means of subjective introspection, such as by measuring the intervals between spontaneous requests for meals (satiety) or by measuring the energy intake from the meal (satiation). There is a need for more objective measures (biomarkers) of satiety and satiation, for example for efficacy testing of bioactive functional food (food with claimed health benefits based...

Capsiate

Capsaicin is the pungent component of chillis. It has long been known to have a thermogenic effect (Matsumoto et al., 2000), This effect is more pronounced in lean subjects than in obese subjects. As a weight loss strategy the prolonged consumption of hot chillis does not seem like a viable proposition. Recently capsiate has been identified as a component of the nonpungent red pepper cultivar CH-19 Sweet. In a 2-week human intervention study, capsiate increased metabolic rate and promoted fat...

Sources of conjugated linoleic acid and estimated daily intake

In food, CLA is found in products from ruminants such as milk and meat, and products made from them such as cheese and cultured dairy products (Parodi, 2003). CLA has been shown to be produced in the rumen as a result of biohydrogenation from linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in the pasture. Rumenic acid or 9c,11t-18 2 is the major CLA isomer produced. Biohydrogenation also produces 11t-18 1 fatty acid or vaccenic acid. CLA has also been shown to be produced in the...

Increasing the resistant starch content of foods 841 Commercial ingredients

The first commercially available RS ingredient was a high-amylose corn RS2 released in Australia in 1993, called Hi-maizeTM starch, with a dietary fiber content of 30 . Since then, the number and type of RS ingredients has increased. Today, commercial sources of RS1, RS2, RS3 and RS4 are available. Each RS ingredient will have a unique profile of physiological and technological functionality, and so should be considered accordingly. For example using AOAC total dietary fiber methods, RS...

Physiological factors influencing food intake

The regulation of food intake is a complex interaction between numerous signals acting both peripherally and centrally, each varying over time. Consuming a meal may be divided into three phases a pre-prandial, a prandial and a postprandial (pre-absorptive and post-absorptive) phase. In addition, food intake is usually divided into two phases satiation (meal termination) and satiety (absence of satiety leads to meal initiation). Roughly speaking, factors important during the prandial phase are...

Carbohydrate type glycaemic response and weight control

It has been debated whether excess dietary carbohydrate can increase adipose stores. Although test animals are able to convert significant amounts of ingested carbohydrate into body fat, in humans, de novo lipogenesis from carbohydrate appears to be limited (Strawford et al., 2004). Despite this, excess dietary carbohydrate may indirectly increase body fat stores. Dietary carbohydrate, in the form of starch or sucrose, increases blood insulin levels, which in turn increase activity of the...

Lipid complexation with starch

It has been recognized that the complexation of amylose with the free fatty acids and monoglycerides in foods occurs at various stages of food preparation, storage, and even during the digestion process. Such a complex not only results in significant changes in the physicochemical and functional properties of starch - e.g. a change in the starch x-ray diffraction pattern to 'V' type, reduced solubility, increase in gelatinization temperature, retarded retrogradation during storage (Eliasson et...

Dietary protein and amino acids

High-protein diets for weight management have being revisited in recent years (reviewed in references 46 and 129). Proteins are more thermogenic (see Section 4.2.3) and satiating (see Chapter 2) than fats and carbohydrates. There is convincing evidence from human intervention studies that a higher protein intake (25 or more of the total energy as protein) increases ther-mogenesis and satiety, and reduces subsequent energy intake in the short-term compared with diets having the usually...

Using ergogenic aids for weight control

A comprehensive definition of the use of nutritional ergogenic aids is 'dietary manipulation to improve physical and sports performance'. Nutritional ergogenic aids are a growing market and are increasing in popularity and variety. There are a large number of products marketed as nutrititional ergogenic aids that also claim to assist in weight management, by virtue of a purported capability to affect some aspects of energy metabolism or, more often, body composition, increasing lean body...

BGlucans and weight control

P-Glucans could play a role in body weight regulation through different mechanisms it increases satiation, decreases the absorption efficiency of the small intestine, regulates glucose and insulin responses, and has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Various epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between fibre intake and body weight, BMI and body fat.75 In the CARDIA study, a population-based cohort study of the change in cardiovascular risk factors over 10 years, it was...

Sources of resistant starch

RS is a natural part of our diet but the quantity of RS consumed in foods can vary depending on the amount and type of starch present, how the food was processed, how it was stored before consumption and how it was ingested. RS can constitute as much as 18 of the dry mass of a food (Englyst et al., 1992). However although some foods are relatively high in RS, these foods are not typically consumed on a large scale, hence the need for RS-enriched foods. RS levels present in some common foods...

Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on glucose and lipid metabolism a phenomenon linked to a decrease in food

7.4.1 Non-digestible oligosaccharides and lipid glucose metabolism in animal studies Most data published to date relate to experimental studies performed in animals. NDOs are able to modulate hepatic lipid metabolism in rats or hamsters, with consequences on either triglyceride accumulation in the liver, and or serum lipids. In non-obese rats and or hamsters fed a high- carbohydrate diet, a decrease in hepatic and serum triglycerides is observed when inulin-type FOS are added to the diet at...

Transfree fat production

Full hydrogenation offers a simple answer to the search for chemically stable fatty materials, as required for example in frying applications. However, replacing a trans-containing viscous liquid with a solid block of fully hydrogenated fat for frying applications might not be agreeable particularly because fully hydrogenated oils have slip melting points above 65 C and would quickly generate a solid fat layer around fried goods. In the recent past there has been a lot of activity from oil...

Effects of Pglucans on lipid metabolism

Cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction (MI), angina and stroke, are major contributors to the global burden of disease. The diseases are caused by the development of atherosclerosis in the blood vessels and one factor that may influence the atherosclerotic process is the dietary fibre content in the diet. The intake of dietary fibre and risk of coronary heart disease were followed for 10 years among women in the Nurses' Health Study.48 In total, 68 782 women were included in the...

Weight and energy density

The weight and energy density of foods play a crucial role with respect to the impact of food components on satiety. From a large number of short-term studies it is clear that humans primarily regulate their food intake on the basis of the weight of foods, and not the energy content (Poppitt and Prentice, 1996). For example, when subjects have ad libitum access to foods (e.g. yoghurts) with varying energy densities (e.g. by manipulating the fat content), these subjects will generally ingest...

Substances reducing the rate of de novo lipogenesis and their possible therapeutic potential for the control of obesity

C75, an inhibitor of the enzyme FAS, was initially developed for the treatment of certain cancers (Kuhajda et al. 2000) because many common human cancers express high levels of FAS. Subsequent tests revealed that systemic and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of C75 in mice reduced food intake and body weight (Loftus et al. 2000), making FAS also an interesting target in the therapy of obesity. C75 blocks the conversion of malonyl-CoA into fatty acids and, hence, increases tissue...

The effect of food processing on the glycaemic index

Available carbohydrates are those absorbed via the small intestine and used in the metabolism (Livesey, 2005). Indigestible carbohydrates, on the other hand, are considered to be dietary fibre, which include non-starch polysaccharides (mostly of plant and algal origin), resistant starches (RS), oligosac-charides and sugar alcohols (polyols) (Champ et al., 2003). Older methods for measuring dietary fibre did not measure these indigestible carbohydrates completely, leading to an underestimation...

Nutrient partitioning between fat and muscle

Adipose tissue hypertrophy is enhanced when fatty acids and glucose are preferentially channeled to adipose tissue rather than to other tissues, and particularly to muscle, where their main metabolic fate is oxidation. Two important players in nutrient partitioning between fat and muscle are LPL and GLUT4, both of which are highly expressed in the two tissues. Disregulation or imbalances of these two activities in muscle and adipose tissue may contribute to obesity, or may even cause it. Muscle...

The contribution of reduced thermogenesis and fat oxidation to obesity and its metabolic complications

In rodents, there is compelling evidence that obesity may develop as a result of a deficit in energy expenditure and more specifically in adaptive thermogenesis. A feature of most animal models of obesity, whether genetic-or lesion-induced, is a decreased energy expenditure and an abnormally low BAT thermogenic response to cold or feeding 26 in these models, even when food intake is restricted to that of wild-type or control animals (a maneuver termed pair feeding) marked obesity still...

Dietary fibres and food intake

It was proposed, more than 30 years ago, that DFs act as a physiological obstacle to energy intake by different mechanisms including (a) displacement of available calories and nutrients from the diet (b) increasing chewing - which limits intake by promoting saliva and gastric juice resulting in an increased satiety and (c) decreasing the absorption efficiency of the intestine (Heaton 1973). During ad libitum energy intake, a mean loss of weight of about 1.9 kg was found to have occurred after...

Introduction mediumchain triglycerides and weight control

Lct Mct Digestion

Conventional fats and oils are composed of glycerides of 12- to 18-carbon long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). These compounds are known as long-chain triglycerides (LCT) and are the predominant form of lipids in the diet. Lipids are an essential source of energy and essential fatty acids, and a vital component of body cells. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a dietary fat with the added benefit of anti-obesity properties. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have a number of unique...

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on appetite control

MCT may help with appetite control via their satiating properties. The satiating properties of MCT involve multiple pre-absorptive and post-absorptive mechanisms. First, MCT appear as a thin, light-yellow, clear, and odorless oil, with a nearly neutral or slightly bland taste, whereas MCFA are characterized by an odor of goat and strong bitterness (Bach et al., 1996). This repulsive quality is extremely strong, as a concentration of 0.1 makes a meal unfit for human consumption (Bach et al1996)....

De novo lipogenesis

Novo Lipogenesis Humans

In situations where carbohydrates, proteins and fats are ingested in high amounts, excess dietary fat can easily be stored as TAG in adipose tissue. The storage capacity for carbohydrates in the form of glycogen is limited, however, and in humans no protein has been identified whose sole function is to serve as an amino acid reservoir. Therefore, the body must be capable of transforming surplus non-fat energy into fat. This process is called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). In humans, DNL occurs in...

Macronutrient content

The results of a number of studies suggest that the order of satiating efficiency of macronutrients is protein > carbohydrate > fat > alcohol, although this conclusion was not confirmed in one study (Raben et al., 2003). The weak effect of fat on satiety is well documented. In many studies that covertly manipulated the fat content of foods, subjects did not respond to higher fat levels in preloads with subsequent lower hunger ratings and or lower food and energy intakes. This is a...

Producing oils containing mediumchain triglycerides

The MCT used for commercial purposes are usually derived from lauric fats, which are found primarily in palm kernel oil and coconut oil. In the process of producing MCT, lauric oils are hydrolyzed to MCFFA and glycerol. The glycerol is drawn off from the resultant mixture, and the MCFA are fractionally distilled. The MCFA fraction used commercially mainly consists of caprylic or octanoic acid (65-75 C8) and capric or deca-noic acid (25-35 C10). Smaller amounts of caproic or hexanoic acid (1-2...

Adipose tissuederived proteins

Leptin was first characterized in 1994 (Zhang et al. 1994) and is one of the most important adipose tissue-derived hormones (Stanley et al. 2005). Leptin is the product of the ob gene which is predominantly expressed in adipocytes (Zhang et al. 1994), but also in gastric epithelium (Bado et al. 1998) and placenta (Masuzaki et al. 1997). The name 'leptin' has its roots in the Greek word 'leptos', meaning thin, and leptin was initially viewed as an adipocyte-derived signal that functions...

Hydroxymethylbutyrate

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that has shown anticatabolic actions through inhibiting ubiquitin-proteosome-mediated protein breakdown216 and that may prevent exercise-induced muscle damage.217 It is primarily used by bodybuilders as a supportive measure to induce changes in body composition, and could be a potential dietary supplement for body weight reduction.182 Randomized clinical trials conducted to assess the potential for HMB as an ergogenic aid reported...