Future trends

Strategies to produce low-GI foods could include incorporating non-digesting carbohydrates (dietary fiber, RS) into foods starches with slow digesting properties that extend glucose release creating proper food forms viscosity-increasing polysaccharides that delay gastric emptying or decrease digestive enzyme access organic acids and their salts or anti-nutritional agents that inhibit digestion of starch and other glycemic carbohydrates. Additionally, as more research is conducted to understand...

Increasing the resistant starch content of foods 841 Commercial ingredients

The first commercially available RS ingredient was a high-amylose corn RS2 released in Australia in 1993, called Hi-maizeTM starch, with a dietary fiber content of 30 . Since then, the number and type of RS ingredients has increased. Today, commercial sources of RS1, RS2, RS3 and RS4 are available. Each RS ingredient will have a unique profile of physiological and technological functionality, and so should be considered accordingly. For example using AOAC total dietary fiber methods, RS...

Physiological factors influencing food intake

The regulation of food intake is a complex interaction between numerous signals acting both peripherally and centrally, each varying over time. Consuming a meal may be divided into three phases a pre-prandial, a prandial and a postprandial (pre-absorptive and post-absorptive) phase. In addition, food intake is usually divided into two phases satiation (meal termination) and satiety (absence of satiety leads to meal initiation). Roughly speaking, factors important during the prandial phase are...

Carbohydrate type glycaemic response and weight control

It has been debated whether excess dietary carbohydrate can increase adipose stores. Although test animals are able to convert significant amounts of ingested carbohydrate into body fat, in humans, de novo lipogenesis from carbohydrate appears to be limited (Strawford et al., 2004). Despite this, excess dietary carbohydrate may indirectly increase body fat stores. Dietary carbohydrate, in the form of starch or sucrose, increases blood insulin levels, which in turn increase activity of the...

Lipid complexation with starch

It has been recognized that the complexation of amylose with the free fatty acids and monoglycerides in foods occurs at various stages of food preparation, storage, and even during the digestion process. Such a complex not only results in significant changes in the physicochemical and functional properties of starch - e.g. a change in the starch x-ray diffraction pattern to 'V' type, reduced solubility, increase in gelatinization temperature, retarded retrogradation during storage (Eliasson et...

Dietary protein and amino acids

High-protein diets for weight management have being revisited in recent years (reviewed in references 46 and 129). Proteins are more thermogenic (see Section 4.2.3) and satiating (see Chapter 2) than fats and carbohydrates. There is convincing evidence from human intervention studies that a higher protein intake (25 or more of the total energy as protein) increases ther-mogenesis and satiety, and reduces subsequent energy intake in the short-term compared with diets having the usually...

Using ergogenic aids for weight control

A comprehensive definition of the use of nutritional ergogenic aids is 'dietary manipulation to improve physical and sports performance'. Nutritional ergogenic aids are a growing market and are increasing in popularity and variety. There are a large number of products marketed as nutrititional ergogenic aids that also claim to assist in weight management, by virtue of a purported capability to affect some aspects of energy metabolism or, more often, body composition, increasing lean body...

BGlucans and weight control

P-Glucans could play a role in body weight regulation through different mechanisms it increases satiation, decreases the absorption efficiency of the small intestine, regulates glucose and insulin responses, and has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Various epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between fibre intake and body weight, BMI and body fat.75 In the CARDIA study, a population-based cohort study of the change in cardiovascular risk factors over 10 years, it was...

Sources of resistant starch

RS is a natural part of our diet but the quantity of RS consumed in foods can vary depending on the amount and type of starch present, how the food was processed, how it was stored before consumption and how it was ingested. RS can constitute as much as 18 of the dry mass of a food (Englyst et al., 1992). However although some foods are relatively high in RS, these foods are not typically consumed on a large scale, hence the need for RS-enriched foods. RS levels present in some common foods...

Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on glucose and lipid metabolism a phenomenon linked to a decrease in food

7.4.1 Non-digestible oligosaccharides and lipid glucose metabolism in animal studies Most data published to date relate to experimental studies performed in animals. NDOs are able to modulate hepatic lipid metabolism in rats or hamsters, with consequences on either triglyceride accumulation in the liver, and or serum lipids. In non-obese rats and or hamsters fed a high- carbohydrate diet, a decrease in hepatic and serum triglycerides is observed when inulin-type FOS are added to the diet at...

Transfree fat production

Full hydrogenation offers a simple answer to the search for chemically stable fatty materials, as required for example in frying applications. However, replacing a trans-containing viscous liquid with a solid block of fully hydrogenated fat for frying applications might not be agreeable particularly because fully hydrogenated oils have slip melting points above 65 C and would quickly generate a solid fat layer around fried goods. In the recent past there has been a lot of activity from oil...

Effects of Pglucans on lipid metabolism

Cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction (MI), angina and stroke, are major contributors to the global burden of disease. The diseases are caused by the development of atherosclerosis in the blood vessels and one factor that may influence the atherosclerotic process is the dietary fibre content in the diet. The intake of dietary fibre and risk of coronary heart disease were followed for 10 years among women in the Nurses' Health Study.48 In total, 68 782 women were included in the...

Substances reducing the rate of de novo lipogenesis and their possible therapeutic potential for the control of obesity

C75, an inhibitor of the enzyme FAS, was initially developed for the treatment of certain cancers (Kuhajda et al. 2000) because many common human cancers express high levels of FAS. Subsequent tests revealed that systemic and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of C75 in mice reduced food intake and body weight (Loftus et al. 2000), making FAS also an interesting target in the therapy of obesity. C75 blocks the conversion of malonyl-CoA into fatty acids and, hence, increases tissue...

The effect of food processing on the glycaemic index

Available carbohydrates are those absorbed via the small intestine and used in the metabolism (Livesey, 2005). Indigestible carbohydrates, on the other hand, are considered to be dietary fibre, which include non-starch polysaccharides (mostly of plant and algal origin), resistant starches (RS), oligosac-charides and sugar alcohols (polyols) (Champ et al., 2003). Older methods for measuring dietary fibre did not measure these indigestible carbohydrates completely, leading to an underestimation...

Nutrient partitioning between fat and muscle

Adipose tissue hypertrophy is enhanced when fatty acids and glucose are preferentially channeled to adipose tissue rather than to other tissues, and particularly to muscle, where their main metabolic fate is oxidation. Two important players in nutrient partitioning between fat and muscle are LPL and GLUT4, both of which are highly expressed in the two tissues. Disregulation or imbalances of these two activities in muscle and adipose tissue may contribute to obesity, or may even cause it. Muscle...

The contribution of reduced thermogenesis and fat oxidation to obesity and its metabolic complications

In rodents, there is compelling evidence that obesity may develop as a result of a deficit in energy expenditure and more specifically in adaptive thermogenesis. A feature of most animal models of obesity, whether genetic-or lesion-induced, is a decreased energy expenditure and an abnormally low BAT thermogenic response to cold or feeding 26 in these models, even when food intake is restricted to that of wild-type or control animals (a maneuver termed pair feeding) marked obesity still...

Dietary fibres and food intake

It was proposed, more than 30 years ago, that DFs act as a physiological obstacle to energy intake by different mechanisms including (a) displacement of available calories and nutrients from the diet (b) increasing chewing - which limits intake by promoting saliva and gastric juice resulting in an increased satiety and (c) decreasing the absorption efficiency of the intestine (Heaton 1973). During ad libitum energy intake, a mean loss of weight of about 1.9 kg was found to have occurred after...

Introduction mediumchain triglycerides and weight control

Lct Mct Digestion

Conventional fats and oils are composed of glycerides of 12- to 18-carbon long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). These compounds are known as long-chain triglycerides (LCT) and are the predominant form of lipids in the diet. Lipids are an essential source of energy and essential fatty acids, and a vital component of body cells. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a dietary fat with the added benefit of anti-obesity properties. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have a number of unique...

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on appetite control

MCT may help with appetite control via their satiating properties. The satiating properties of MCT involve multiple pre-absorptive and post-absorptive mechanisms. First, MCT appear as a thin, light-yellow, clear, and odorless oil, with a nearly neutral or slightly bland taste, whereas MCFA are characterized by an odor of goat and strong bitterness (Bach et al., 1996). This repulsive quality is extremely strong, as a concentration of 0.1 makes a meal unfit for human consumption (Bach et al1996)....

De novo lipogenesis

Novo Lipogenesis Humans

In situations where carbohydrates, proteins and fats are ingested in high amounts, excess dietary fat can easily be stored as TAG in adipose tissue. The storage capacity for carbohydrates in the form of glycogen is limited, however, and in humans no protein has been identified whose sole function is to serve as an amino acid reservoir. Therefore, the body must be capable of transforming surplus non-fat energy into fat. This process is called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). In humans, DNL occurs in...

Macronutrient content

The results of a number of studies suggest that the order of satiating efficiency of macronutrients is protein > carbohydrate > fat > alcohol, although this conclusion was not confirmed in one study (Raben et al., 2003). The weak effect of fat on satiety is well documented. In many studies that covertly manipulated the fat content of foods, subjects did not respond to higher fat levels in preloads with subsequent lower hunger ratings and or lower food and energy intakes. This is a...

Producing oils containing mediumchain triglycerides

The MCT used for commercial purposes are usually derived from lauric fats, which are found primarily in palm kernel oil and coconut oil. In the process of producing MCT, lauric oils are hydrolyzed to MCFFA and glycerol. The glycerol is drawn off from the resultant mixture, and the MCFA are fractionally distilled. The MCFA fraction used commercially mainly consists of caprylic or octanoic acid (65-75 C8) and capric or deca-noic acid (25-35 C10). Smaller amounts of caproic or hexanoic acid (1-2...

Adipose tissuederived proteins

Leptin was first characterized in 1994 (Zhang et al. 1994) and is one of the most important adipose tissue-derived hormones (Stanley et al. 2005). Leptin is the product of the ob gene which is predominantly expressed in adipocytes (Zhang et al. 1994), but also in gastric epithelium (Bado et al. 1998) and placenta (Masuzaki et al. 1997). The name 'leptin' has its roots in the Greek word 'leptos', meaning thin, and leptin was initially viewed as an adipocyte-derived signal that functions...

Sources of further information and advice

Studies of the role of calcium in weight loss or the prevention of overweight and obesity are a rather recent, still developing field of research. It is absolutely necessary to be prepared to question once again findings that in the past were thought to have been verified. Therefore, researchers who are interested in this field and who want to extend their knowledge, need to resort to reviewing articles published in scientific journals and the original literature cited in these articles, as...

Hydroxymethylbutyrate

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that has shown anticatabolic actions through inhibiting ubiquitin-proteosome-mediated protein breakdown216 and that may prevent exercise-induced muscle damage.217 It is primarily used by bodybuilders as a supportive measure to induce changes in body composition, and could be a potential dietary supplement for body weight reduction.182 Randomized clinical trials conducted to assess the potential for HMB as an ergogenic aid reported...

References

Anon. (2004), 'Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases'. Report of the joint WHO FAO expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 916, WHO, Geneva. anon. (2005), 'Ajinomoto to develop capsiate-based foods', Nutraceuticals Int, 10 (10), 26. bell c g, walley a j and froguel p (2005), 'The genetics of human obesity', Nat Rev Genet, 6, 221-234. biomolecular sciences, Inc, accessed November 2005. boucher j l, shafer k j and chaffin j a (2001), 'Weight loss, diets, and...

Production and purification of omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

The long-chain PUFAs arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA (Fig. 13.1) are of nutritional importance and also play important roles in the prevention of various diseases. Fish oil is the conventional source of EPA and DHA. However, fish oils contain a crude mixture of several different fatty acids and the omega-3 PUFAs need to be extracted and purified before they can be used for dietary supplementation in pharmacological applications. It should be noted that fish cannot produce the long-chain omega-3...

Polyunsaturated fatty acids on energy metabolism and other factors connected to weight control

The mechanism behind the benefits of omega-3 PUFAs on energy metabolism is at present not completely understood. There are, however, many possibilities since these fatty acids have many different roles in a cell. For example, apart from being an energy source, fatty acids build up the cellular membranes, regulate gene expression and function as signalling molecules and as precursors for complex biologically active molecules such as, for example, eicosanoids (Simopoulos, 1999, Ruxton et al.,...

Sources and properties of nondigestible oligosaccharides

Following worldwide authorities on chemical nomenclature and terminology i.e. the International Union of Biochemistry IUB and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC , an oligosaccharide is a molecule containing a small number of monosaccharide residues degree of polymerisation, DP from 2 to 10 . NDOs resist hydrolysis and digestion in the human digestive system and are partially or completely fermented by the colonic microbiota in the large intestine. 7.3.2 Chemical...

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on body weight and body fat

Animal and human studies indicate enhanced EE and satiety after MCT consumption these studies were conducted to determine if these characteristics translate into decreases in fat mass. In animals consuming MCT, body weight was lower, fat depots smaller Lavau and Hashim, 1978 Bray et al., 1980 Baba et al., 1982 Geliebter et al., 1983 Crozier et al., 1987 Hill et al., 1993 , and adipose size reduced Baba et al., 1982 Crozier et al., 1987 with MCT compared with LCT. These experiments suggest that...