The fetal warfarin syndrome involves neurological as well as bone abnormalities. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase is expressed in different brain regions at different times during embryological development.
The product of the growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) is a y-carboxy-glutamate containing growth factor that is important in the regulation of growth and development. The y-carboxyglutamate region of Gas6 is required for binding to phosphatidylserine in cell membranes before interacting with a receptor tyrosine kinase, leading to the induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Phosphatidylserine is normally deep in the membrane phospholipid bilayer, but it is exposed at the cell surface in senescent red blood cells and apoptotic cells, suggesting that Gas6 has a role in the recognition of cells that are to undergo phagocytosis, and hence regulation of apoptosis and cell survival (Saxena et al., 2001).
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