Upper Levels of Intake

Even large intakes of phylloquinone have no apparent toxic effects, although they may be dangerous in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy (Section 5.4).

Menadione and its water-soluble derivatives are potentially toxic in excess and have been reported to cause hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, central nervous system toxicity, and methemoglobinemia in the newborn.

Table 5.1 Reference Intakes of Vitamin K (^g/day)

Age

U.S./Canada 2001

FAO 2001

0-6 m

2

5

7-12 m

2.5

10

1-3 y

30

15

4-16 y

55

20

7-8 y

55

25

Males

9-10 y

60

25

11-13 y

60

35-55

14-18 y

75

35-55

>19 y

120

65

Females

9-10 y

60

25

11-13 y

60

35-55

14-18 y

75

35-55

>19 y

90

55

Pregnant

90

55

Lactating

90

55

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; WHO, World Health Organization.

Sources: Institute of Medicine, 2001; FAO/WHO, 2001.

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; WHO, World Health Organization.

Sources: Institute of Medicine, 2001; FAO/WHO, 2001.

Menadione prophylaxis against vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infancy (Section 5.4.1) has been associated with increased incidence of childhoodleukemia and other cancers.

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