List of Figures

1.1. Derivation of reference intakes of nutrients. 22

1.2. Derivation of requirements or reference intakes for children. 24

1.3. Derivation of reference intake (RDA) and tolerable upper level (UL)

for a nutrient. 25

2.1. Major physiologically active retinoids. 32

2.2. Major dietary carotenoids. 34

2.3. Oxidative cleavage of f-carotene by carotene dioxygenase. 41

2.4. Potential products arising from enzymic or nonenzymic symmetrical or asymmetric oxidative cleavage of f-carotene. 44

2.5. Role of retinol in the visual cycle. 51

2.6. Interactions of all-fra¬ęs- and 9-cis-retinoic acids (and other active retinoids) with retinoid receptors. 56

2.7. Retinoylation of proteins by retinoyl CoA. 59

2.8. Retinoylation of proteins by 4-hydroxyretinoic acid. 60

3.1. Vitamin D vitamers. 78

3.2. Synthesis of calciol from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin. 81

3.3. Metabolism of calciol to yield calcitriol and 24-hydroxycalcidiol. 84

4.1. Vitamin E vitamers. 110

4.2. Stereochemistry of a-tocopherol. 112

4.3. Reaction of tocopherol with lipid peroxides. 114

4.4. Resonance forms of the vitamin E radicals. 117

4.5. Role of vitamin E as a chain-perpetuating prooxidant. 118

4.6. Reactions of a-and y-tocopherol with peroxynitrite. 119

5.1. Vitamin Kvitamers. 132

5.2. Reaction of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. 137

5.3. Intrinsic and extrinsic blood clotting cascades. 140

6.1. Thiamin and thiamin analogs. 149

6.2. Reaction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. 154

6.3. GABA shunt as an alternative to a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in the citric acid cycle. 157

6.4. Role of transketolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. 160

7.1. Riboflavin, the flavin coenzymes and covalently bound flavins in proteins. 173

7.2. Products of riboflavin metabolism. 180

7.3. Biosynthesis of riboflavin in fungi. 182

7.4. One-and two-electron redox reactions of riboflavin. 184

7.5. Reaction of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. 186

7.6. Drugs that are structural analogs of riboflavin and may cause deficiency. 195

8.1. Niacin vitamers, nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, and the nicotinamide nucleotide coenzymes. 202

8.2. Synthesis of NAD from nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, and quinolinic acid. 204

8.3. Metabolites of nicotinamide and nicotinic acid. 207

8.4. Pathways of tryptophan metabolism. 209

8.5. Redox function of the nicotinamide nucleotide coenzymes. 215

8.6. Reactions of ADP-ribosyltransferase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. 216

8.7. Reactions catalyzed by ADP ribose cyclase. 220

9.1. Interconversion of the vitamin B6 vitamers. 233

9.2. Reactions of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes with amino acids. 238

9.3. Transamination of amino acids. 241

9.4. Tryptophan load test for vitamin B6 status. 248

9.5. Methionine load test for vitamin B6 status. 255

9.6. Quinone catalysts. 267

10.1. Folate vitamers. 272

10.2. Biosynthesis of folic acid and tetrahydrobiopterin 277

10.3. One-carbon substituted tetrahydrofolic acid derivatives. 280

10.4. Sources and uses of one-carbon units bound to folate. 281

10.5. Reactions of serine hydroxymethyltransferase and the glycine cleavage system. 281

10.6. Catabolism of histidine-basis of the FIGLU test for folate status. 282

10.7. Reaction of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase. 284

10.8. Synthesis of thymidine monophosphate. 287

10.9. Metabolism of methionine. 290

10.10. Role of tetrahydrobiopterin in aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. 295

10.11. Reaction of nitric oxide synthase. 297

10.12. Vitamin B12. 299

10.13. Reactions of propionyl CoA carboxylase and methylmalonyl CoAmutase. 305

11.1. Metabolism of biotin. 325

11.2. Biotin metabolites. 326

11.3. Biosynthesis of biotin. 328

12.1. Pantothenic acid and related compounds and coenzyme A. 346

12.2. Biosynthesis of coenzyme A. 347

12.3. Biosynthesis of pantothenic acid. 351

13.1. Vitamin C vitamers. 358

13.2. Biosynthesis of ascorbate. 360

13.3. Redox reactions of ascorbate. 363

13.4. Synthesis of the catecholamines. 365

13.5. Reactions of peptidyl glycine hydroxylase and peptidyl hydroxyglycine a-amidating lyase. 366

13.6. Reaction sequence of prolyl hydroxylase. 368

14.1. Reaction of carnitine acyltransferase. 386

14.2. Biosynthesis of carnitine. 387

14.3. Biosynthesis of choline and acetylcholine. 390

14.4. Catabolism of choline. 391

14.5. Synthesis of creatine. 392

14.6. Formation of inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. 395

14.7. Pathways for the synthesis of taurine from cysteine. 397

14.8. Ubiquinone. 400

14.9. Allyl sulfur compounds allicin and alliin. 402

14.10. Major classes of flavonoids. 403

14.11. Glucosinolates. 404

14.12. Estradiol and the major phytoestrogens. 405

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