Vegetarian Bodybuilding

V3 Plant-based Fitness

Chris Willitts, creator of V3 has been in the bodybuilding and vegetarian for over 20 years and 10 years respectively. He was inspired to launch his vegetarian bodybuilding platform having seeing the need the vegetarianism is an effective tool to be applied in the bodybuilding industry. He majored in flexibility, strength, and mind-body interrelation. Having switched to the plant-based diet he included meditation. V3 Vegetarian Bodybuilding System is a combination of Chris advice and science on how to eat in line with one's fitness goals, infusing the whole program with mind-body awareness. The system is designed not only for vegetarians, but semi-vegetarians, part-time vegetarians, vegans, or undecided. The V3 Bodybuilding system is a self-guided system the does not include one-on-one coaching. The V3 has been deliberated upon by top plant-based fitness experts in the industry before coming up with something that has an assurance of getting positive results to the general populace. The V3 Bodybuilding System is not an eBook. It is actually a membership-based online resource (which some parts of the worksheet are available for download as PDFs). This product is easy to understand and it is newbie friendly that do not require any level of technical skills. Continue reading...

V3 Plantbased Fitness Summary


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Metcalfe William 17881862 The first public advocate of vegetarianism in the USA

B orn in England, Metcalfe immigrated to America to preach the gospel of temperance, vegetarianism, and health. He was a member of the New Church, which, following the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), advocated abstinence based on his theological views. Likewise, Metcalfe gave up, at once and entirely, fish, flesh and fowl as food, and every kind of intoxicating liquor as drink in 1809 (Metcalfe 1872 12). Nevertheless, Metcalfe did not renounce his vegetarianism, which became central to his preaching in the Bible-Christian Church that he helped to found. Like the New Church, Metcalfe's sect advocated temperance and vegetarianism. The Bible-Christian Church resulted, in part, from Metcalfe's break with the New Church over the question of revelation. He argued that only the Bible was divinely inspired record of the word of God (Metcalfe 1872 16). In 1816, forty-one followers of Metcalfe and the Bible-Christian Church departed Liverpool for Philadelphia. Their numbers...

Fasting and Vegetarian Diets

An alternative approach to alleviating the symptoms associated with chronic inflammation is elimination of various foods or food components, most often by fasting or a vegetarian diet. Some studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in various objective and subjective measures of disease activity, including number of tender and swollen joints, Ritchie articular index, duration of morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), grip strength and score on health assessment questionnaires, among patients with RA 6 weeks to 2 years after initiating a vegetarian diet. Furthermore, these clinical improvements were accompanied by changes in biochemical and immu-nological parameters consistent with a substantial reduction in inflammatory activity. Other studies, however, have demonstrated no clinical improvement among patients with RA following a vegetarian diet. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain the impact of elimination...

Is vegetarian bodybuilder an oxymoron

A pure vegetarian (Vegan) diet is not conducive to building muscle, and a diet that is not conducive to building muscle is also not conducive to getting and staying lean. One thing you will never see is a rock-hard, massive and muscular vegan. Lacto-vegetarians (Those who use dairy products) and ovo-lacto-vegetarians (Those who use eggs and dairy products) can build excellent physiques. Bodybuilding champion Bill Pearl is just one example. Pearl is well known for his lifelong aversion to eating meat, but he does use complete proteins from eggs or dairy products. With this semi-vegetarian approach, Pearl won the Mr. America and Mr. Universe titles and became a legend in the bodybuilding and fitness world. The bodybuilder would be ill-advised to adopt a true vegetarian diet. You can be one of the millions who are eating less meat and more vegetables. You may even want to drop all flesh entirely. But it would be a mistake to try for pure vegetarianism. Only 3.7 of Americans consider...

Vegetarian Eating Patterns

The term vegetarian diet does not fully describe the variety in nutrient intakes and health status of those Table 1 Common types of vegetarian dietary patterns categorized by animal food use Lacto-ovo vegetarians Lacto vegetarians Macrobiotics Numerous restrictions generally including avoidance of all meat, poultry, milk and eggs, but may consume fish in small amounts. Also avoid sugar and other refined sweeteners, foods that are members of the nightshade family (peppers, egg plant, tomatoes, and potatoes) and tropical fruits. Current variations of the diet are less restrictive than the versions of 30years ago, but deficiencies of energy, iron, calcium, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and other nutrients may still arise in weanlings, pregnant women, and young children if diets are nutritionally unplanned Avoidances include all animal products including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Some vegans may also refuse to use any animal products in daily life. Without careful planning,...

Current Vegetarian Eating Patterns and Practices

Until about 40 years ago, in Western countries virtually all of the common vegetarian eating patterns involved avoidance of animal flesh (meat and poultry) categorization of vegetarian patterns was relatively straightforward and consisted simply of differentiating between those who ate no animal foods at all (vegan vegetarians), those who also consumed milk and milk products (lacto vegetarians), and those who ate eggs as well (lacto-ovo vegetarians). This simple categorization scheme broke down in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of greater exposure to the cuisines of other cultures, new Eastern religions and philosophical systems with a vegetarian tradition, and other influences, which led to the emergence of new patterns of vegetarianism. Today, myriad vegetarian eating patterns exist, and they cannot be easily described by focusing on a single dimension, such as animal food intake. Meatless and vegetarian eating patterns and life styles are growing in popularity today. They continue...

Oven Roasted Balsamic Veggies

3 medium plum tomatoes, diced 2 tablespoons olive oil 2 tablespoon balsamic vinegar 1 tablespoon tamari 1 teaspoon dried basil 1 teaspoon dried minced garlic V3 cup hot chicken-flavor vegetarian Enlight ened Oven Roasted Balsamic Veggies Protein 5 g, carbohydrate 48 g, fiber 9 g, fat 5 g, saturated fat 1 g, cholesterol 0 mg, calcium 104 mg, sodium 221 mg Calories 241 from protein 8 , from carbohydrate 74 , from fat 18 Traditional Oven Roasted Balsamic Veggies Protein 5 g, carbohydrate 45 g, fiber 8 g, fat 14 g, saturated fat 4 g, cholesterol 11 mg, calcium 104 mg, sodium 465 mg Calories 298 from protein 6 , from carbohydrate 54 , from fat 40

Vegetarian Diets

The popularity of vegetarian diets has increased in recent years. One reason, aside from religious or social beliefs, is that vegetarian diets have been linked to lower risks for several diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. There are many different types of vegetarian diets. The similarities among them lie in their emphasis on grains, vegetables, fruits, beans, and nuts to obtain the necessary macronutrients. The vegan diet is the strictest of the vegetarian diets since it contains no animal products. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet contains both dairy products and eggs in addition to the above foods. Even within these two types of diets, there is considerable variation based on food choices. The main concern people have when deciding whether they would like to try a vegetarian diet is whether the diets will meet their vitamins, minerals, and proteins needs. Both protein and micronutrient intake is adequate among vegetarians as long as they eat a variety...


The average intake of carnitine by strict vegetarians is only one-tenth of that of people eating a mixed diet but plasma levels are within 'normal' limits. However, dietary carnitine may be required by premature infants and possibly by full-term infants and may be required by adults taking certain drugs. There are very few plant sources of taurine and it is not known to what extent this may be a dietary essential. However, plasma levels in strict vegetarians are close to the 'normal' range.


William Blake (i757-1827) could write in his Auguries of Innocence (1803) to Kill not the Moth nor Butterfly, For the Last Judgement draweth nigh (Stuart 2006 232). Such views were a litmus test for an entire generation of temperance and vegetarian thinkers in England and the U.S.A. In 1845, the International Vegetarian Union was founded in the United Kingdom with the American group quickly following in the 1850. What had been conceived of as theological objection to eating flesh soon became defined in terms of diet and health. Whether or not following a strictly political vegan or vegetarian diet might properly be considered dieting, vegetarianism has played an important role in the history of diets and dieting. Indeed, virtually all of the early vegetarians, such as John Frank Newton (1770-1828), make arguments for vegetarianism as both preventative (a general increase in health ) as well as treatment for illness and a necessity for longevity (Newton...

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Some studies have looked specifically at the anti-angiogenic properties of genistein. Genistein (at 13 pM) is an effective inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation (vascular cells are endothelial cells).28 Also, genistein was identified as the most potent compound in the an-giogenesis-inhibiting urine of healthy humans who consumed a plant-based diet.29,30 At least three animal studies have reported that genistein can inhibit angio-genesis and tumor growth in vivo.31,32,33 One, an oral study, also reported that genistein reduced the number of tumor-associated macrophages.32 It is likely this effect played a role in reducing angiogenesis, since this would reduce the source of many angiogenic factors. In another in-vivo study, a combination of genistein (at 100 mg kg intraperitoneal) and an antiangiogenic drug (TNP-470), along with a variety of cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy, was more effective at inhibiting tumor growth in mice with implanted lung tumors than either...

Income and urbanization levels affect the mix of foods consumed in different countries

Regmi and Pompelli found that in low-income level countries, such as Cambodia, Haiti, and Nicaragua, consumer food demand tends to be focused on low-value staple food products to meet basic calorie requirements. Updated data in Table 3.1 support this finding and show that low-income level countries have a higher per capita consumption of cereal products and roots and tubers (e.g. sweet potatoes, cassava) than countries with higher income levels. In general, consumers in lower-income countries tend to spend a higher proportion of their budget on food than other countries (Regmi et al., 2001, Seale et al., 2003). They are also more responsive to changes in general food prices and income and therefore, make larger adjustments to their diets when food prices and incomes change (Seale et al., 2003). This is particularly true for higher-value food items, such as meat and dairy, while household budget allocations for staple foods tend to undergo smaller changes (Regmi, 2001). Populations...

Dietary Intake Of Phytate

Estimates of phytate daily intake in different parts of the world are presented in Table 3.8. These estimates are compiled from various nutritional studies based on different methods of data collection and analysis. Harland and Peterson 199 suggested that the average American (weighing 75 kg) consumes about 750 mg phytate per day. However, several studies 200-203 conducted in the United States indicate a wide variation in daily intake of phytate (Table 3.8). These variations could be due to differences in data collection methods and consumption of foods rich in phytates. Harland et al. 202 conducted a nutrition assessment of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian Trappist monk community in 1977 and 1987 and found a significant decrease in intake of phytate from 4569 mg day in 1977 to 972 mg day in 1987. They attributed this variation to decreased intake of phytate-containing foods such as cereals and increased consumption of milk, milk products, and others. In general, vegetarians consume a higher...

Highfat highprotein diets are unbalanced and cause deficiency diseases

It is startling when we learn that large groups of active hunters in many parts of the world subsist on nothing but a small sub-division of Group 5. It is not quite as startling when we consider that the vegetarians live comfortably on all the groups except this very part of No. 5. The strictest vegetarians exclude also Group 4 and butter in Group 7.

Method Used to Set the AI

Human milk contains a-linolenic acid (18 3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20 5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 6) (Table 8-4), but the amounts present are highly variable and depend on the amounts present in the mother's diet. Concentrations of about 0.7 to 1.4 percent DHA have been reported for women who eat large amounts of fish and other marine foods (Innis and Kuhnlein, 1988 Kneebone et al., 1985). Blood concentrations of DHA appear to show little metabolic regulation and increase with increasing DHA intake in breast-fed infants (Gibson et al., 1997 Innis and King, 1999 Sanders and Reddy, 1992) or formula-fed infants (Auestad et al., 1997 Carlson et al., 1996a Innis et al., 1996 Makrides et al., 1995), as they do in adults. Numerous studies have shown that infants fed formulas with no DHA have lower plasma and red blood cell DHA concentrations than infants fed human milk or formulas with DHA (Auestad et al., 1997 Carlson et al., 1986, 1996a Innis et al., 1996 Makrides et al.,...

Benefits of a Plant Based Diet

American Cancer Society guidelines say, Research studies have found that people who routinely eat large amounts of fruits and vegetables are half as likely to develop cancer as people who don't. The foods within a plant-based diet, mostly fruits and vegetables, contain a variety of nutrients and phytochemicals fiber and plant chemicals that protect against cancer and other diseases.

Kale White Beans and

Diced vegetarian bacon, Great Northern beans, and tofu-based tomato soup taste wonderful in this delicious kale dish. 2 teaspoons olive oil 1 tablespoon dried minced garlic 12 cup chopped scallions 12 cup chopped red bell pepper 4 slices veggie Canadian bacon, diced 1 large bunch kale, torn into bite-size pieces Heat oil and garlic over medium-high heat for 1 minute in a 14-inch stir-fry pan or wok. Add scallions, bell pepper, and veggie bacon. Cook for 5 minutes, then add the kale. Cook for 3 minutes, stirring frequently, then add the beans, sherry, and soup. Reduce heat to medium low and cook for 3 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the nutritional yeast, basil, and lemon pepper. Reduce heat to low and simmer for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally.

Food Availability and Diet Quality

Low income is associated with a low intake of the more expensive animal source foods (meat, fish, dairy, and eggs). The mainly vegetarian diets eaten by children in poor families are frequently associated with growth retardation. Children in developed countries who for cultural reasons eat a diet that lacks any animal products have growth patterns similar to those observed in developing countries.

Influences on Food Choices

A cultural group provides guidelines regarding acceptable foods, food combinations, eating patterns, and eating behaviors. Compliance with these guidelines creates a sense of identity and belonging for the individual. Within large cultural groups, subgroups exist that may practice variations of the group's eating behaviors, though they are still considered part of the larger group. For example, a hamburger, French fries, and a soda are considered a typical American meal. Vegetarians in the United States, however, eat veggie-burgers made from mashed beans, pureed vegetables, or soy, and people on diets may eat a burger made from lean turkey. In the United States these are appropriate cultural substitutions, but a burger made from horsemeat would be unacceptable.

Development of Alternative Pyramids

Pyramids targeting specific ethnic groups have been developed by a variety of organizations. They include Latin American, Puerto Rican, Asian, Vietnamese, soul food, and vegetarian pyramids, among others. As information emerged about the nutritional needs of older people, the need for a food guide targeted to this growing population became clear. In 1999, nutritionists at Tufts University developed a prototype of a pyramid targeted to persons seventy years of age and older. Several other pyramids for older adults have been developed at other universities since that time. To meet the needs of children, the USDA released the Food Pyramid Guide for Young Children in 1999.

Primary Deficiency

People at risk are those living in India, Central and South America, and selected areas in Africa (Stabler & Allen 2004), strict vegetarians and vegans, breastfed infants of vegetarian mothers with low B12 stores, elderly patients with 'tea and toast diets' and chronic alcoholics. As vitamin B12 is stored to a considerable extent, even after complete depletion of food-ingested cobalamin, clinically relevant deficiencies will usually only develop after 5-10 years (Schenk et al 1999). This time frame increases to an average of approximately 18 years in strict vegetarians when intrinsic factor secretion is intact (Babior 1996). In this case, some enterohepatic recycling of cobalamin should occur in the distal ileum (Howden 2000).

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Soybean is a very important source of dietary vegetable oil, and an excellent nutritional and inexpensive source of protein for use as either human food or animal feed. Today, soybeans are used in an increasing number of products. Common forms of soy include soy meal, flour, milk, tofu, textured vegetable protein (which is made into a wide variety of vegetarian foods, some of them intended to imitate meat), soy lecithin, and oils. Other products, such as oils, varnishes, etc., are used in industry. Soybean is the primary source of biodiesel in the USA (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009).

The Possible Essentiality of Carnitine

Meat and fish contain relatively large amounts of carnitine, and average dietary intakes by omnivores are 100 to 300 mg (2 to 12 mol) per day, compared with endogenous synthesis of about 1.2 pmol per day. There are few plant sources, and strict vegetarians have lower plasma concentrations of carnitine and are reliant on endogenous synthesis. Even in strict vegetarians, tissue carnitine depletionis only seen togetherwithgeneralprotein-energy malnutrition (and hence deficiency of methionine and lysine).

White Ellen G[ould 18271915 Founder of the Seventh Day Adventist Church

And White nursed him back to health using vegetarian principles. In i866, they founded the Western Health Reform Institute at Battle Creek, Michigan, which became the center for late nineteenth-century diet reform. White simply reversed the claims about original sin and the eating of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden White also preached against medical intervention in case of ill health and recommended a regimen of fresh air, sunshine, exercise, vegetarian food, and plenty of water as a cure for any ailment. She constantly linked religious conviction with notions of hygiene, writing in 1866

The Possible Essentiality of Taurine

There are very few plant sources of taurine, and strict vegetarians have a very low intake of preformed taurine. Nevertheless, the plasma concentration of taurine in strict vegetarians is generally between 40 to 50 mol per L, compared with concentrations between 55 to 70 pmol per L in omnivores.

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Dietary

No plant material can synthesize vitamin B12. Apart from reports that some algae can synthesize vitamin Bi2 its origin in the food chain seems to be exclusively due to its biosynthesis by microorganisims. Thus, most vitamin B12 enters the human food chain from biosynthesis by microorganisms in herbivorous animals. Meat and products such as milk, cheese, or eggs introduce vitamin Bi2 into the human food chain. Chickens ingest food contaminated with microbes and introduce the vitamin via their meat and eggs. Vegetarians who have milk or eggs (lacto ovo vegetarians) as part of their diet and thus a source of some, albeit reduced, dietary vitamin B12 still have reduced vitamin B12 status. Yet other communities who for religious or other reasons are strict vegetarians (vegans) have no source of vitamin B12 and are at high risk of deficiency. This risk can be reduced in some of these communities where fermented food is eaten, in which bacteria have introduced vitamin B12 also, it has been...

Post Charles William 18541914 Health food provider and cereal tycoon

By 1895, Post abandoned his foray into mental healing and planned to create an alternative to coffee and tea, as well as to develop a ready-made breakfast cereal that would be enjoyable and affordable. His model here was clearly Kellogg and the Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarian diet, but, unlike them, he rejected a theological rationale for the power of his food to heal. This was the triumph of science in the warfare between theology and science (the title of a major book of 1896 by the historian and President of Cornell, Andrew Dickson White). His food was seen as modern, as it incorporated arguments about science and evolution in its claims for cure. Post developed and produced his first product, Postum Cereal Beverage, and a caffeine-free coffee substitute. If Coffee Don't Agree, try Postum, stated the ads. They also pictured the coffee fiend saved at the last gasp by changing to Postum (Paxson 1993 193).

Hauser Bengamin Gayelord 18951984 Popular advocate of diet and nutrition

Hauser's diets sought to cure both physical and psychological ailments, change body weight, and promote longevity. He argued very early that health is nature, and disease is unnatural and no disease can exist in a chemicalized blood stream (Hauser 1930 33). Self-cure with foodstuffs, he claimed, especially acidic ones will eliminate sickness and old age (Hauser 1930 38). Hauser's proof of this is the prison and orphanage studies undertaken by Dr. Joseph Goldberger in i9i4, which determined that pellagra was a disease of poor diet rather than an infectious disease. Able to draw on the real science of vitamin deficiency diseases by the 1930s, Hauser cloaked his vegetarian diets in the model of the Goldberger study (Hauser 1934 6-7).

Lindlahr Henry 18621924

L indlahr first achieved success in politics and was appointed Mayor of Kalispell, Montana in 1893. At the height of his political success, he began to suffer from diabetes, which he believed was due to his excessive weight. Because insulin was yet to be discovered, his condition was thought to be incurable. Leaving the U.S.A. to search for a cure, Lindlahr sought out Father Sebastian Kneipp's hydrotherapy center at Woerishoffen, Bavaria. There he underwent water therapy and began a new vegetarian diet. His weight quickly dropped, and he regained his health. In addition, Lindlahr wrote and self-published widely on his theory. His works include Acute Diseases Their Uniform Treatment by Natural Methods Mental, Emotional and Psychic Disorders (1918) The Lindlahr Vegetarian Cook Book and ABC of Natural Dietetics (with his wife Anna in 1918) Iridiagnosis and other Diagnostic Methods (1919) and Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics (1918). Kneipp Milk Trall Vegetarianism

Folate and Other Pterins and Vitamin B12

By contrast, dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 is rare, except among strict vegetarians, despite the fact that the vitamin is found only in animal foods and some bacteria rather, pernicious anemia caused by vitamin B12 lack is normally the result of a defect in the mechanism for intestinal absorption of the vitamin.

Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand 18691948

Gandhi recognized that he was lying constantly to his parents about his new eating habit. He acknowledged that though it is essential to eat meat, and also essential to take up food reform in the country, yet deceiving and lying to one's father and mother is worse than not eating meat (Jack i956 i3). In their lifetime, therefore, meat-eating was beyond the pale. He stated that he decided to pursue vegetarianism at least until his parents passed away. But part of the reason he gives as an adult is the image of the meat-eater, not as the ruling Englishman in Rudyard Kipling's image but rather as the crude and hypocritical Indian avatar, the convert to Christianity as the meat-eating parvenu While in England attending law school, Gandhi reaffirmed his commitment to vegetarianism and rather than abstaining from meat for the sake of his parents, he did so as a personal choice (Jack 1956 18). In England, he actively searched for vegetarian restaurants and would often trot i0 or i2 miles...

Historical Background

The goals of the 1995 revision were (1) to group carbohydrate food sources into one section to provide more flexibility in food choices (2) to update the lists of foods and the database, primarily to add fat-modified foods, vegetarian food items, and fast foods and (3) to allow for more accurate calculation of exchanges from nutrient information on labels, recipes, and prepared foods. The most significant revision in the 1995 revision was in the order and grouping of the lists. The Carbohydrate Group was listed

High carbohydrate very low fat

In the 80s and 90s, most diet programs called for very low fat, low protein and extremely high carbohydrate. The Pritkin diet, which recommended 70 carbohydrate, 20 protein and 10 fat, is one example. Other programs falling into this category are the Dean Ornish's Eat More Weigh Less program, Robert Hass's Eat to Win and vegetarianism.

Are Planning and Assessing Intakes of Indispensable Amino Acids Necessary

As alluded to above, the need to plan and assess intakes of lysine is likely of greatest importance for individuals whose diets emphasize plant foods and are relatively low in total protein. For example, consider a woman who weighs 57 kg and follows a plant-based diet that provides the RDA for total protein (in her case, 57 X 0.8 g kg 45 g day). She would be unlikely to meet her RDA for lysine (2.2 g day) unless 50 percent or more of her dietary protein was provided from beans or tofu (rich sources of lysine). To be specific, 23 g of protein from beans and tofu would provide about 1.5 g of lysine, and 22 grams of protein from other sources, such as wheat, rice and nuts, would provide about 0.7 g of lysine. However, if her total protein intake was higher, (e.g., about 63 g day, close to the median protein intake of women reported in the CSFII survey Appendix Table E-16 ), she could meet her RDA for lysine with much smaller amounts of beans and tofu.

Toxins and Contaminants Phytic Acid

The significance of dietary phytate intake to overall mineral nutriture is still uncertain. It is likely that in a mixed diet of animal and plant foods, dietary phytate may be of less significance than among people consuming diets where plant foods are the sole source of nutrition (vegans). Available data suggest that the trace element status of most adult vegetarians is adequate, but because of increased requirements for growth, vegetarian children may be more vulnerable to the reduced bioavailability of minerals and trace elements, notably zinc, which could be a consequence of the ingestion of large amounts of phytate-containing plant foods.

Toxoplasmosis a foodborne disease without outbreaks

Contaminate, such as garden soil or unwashed fruits and vegetables and 2) ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked infected meat. About one-half of toxoplasmosis cases may be acquired through food. A case-control study involving pregnant women from six large European studies found that 30-63 of toxoplasmosis infections in pregnant women could be attributed to undercooked or cured meat products (Cook et al., 2000). A case-control study comparing seropositivity among vegetarians to rates among omnivores revealed that 24 of vegetarians had Toxoplasma titers compared with 50 of controls (Roghmann et al., 1999). Measures to prevent toxoplasmosis include cooking meat thoroughly, peeling or washing fruits and vegetables, hand washing, and cleaning cutting boards, surfaces, and utensils after they have been in contact with raw meat. Other interventions include prenatal and newborn screening for toxoplasmosis, with treatment of infected individuals. Screening and treatment programs have been...

Trusting your intuition

Did you ever notice how some people tend to gravitate toward a certain style of eating without anyone telling them to do it Why do some people become vegetarians while others are heavy meat eaters Why do some people avoid wheat and dairy Why do some people crave certain foods The reason is their bodies tell them so, and they listen. While I'm not an advocate of total vegetarianism, if your body tells you not to eat much meat, then I believe you should listen and explore other protein sources. If your body tells you your protein is too high, listen. If you think carbohydrates make you fat, listen. If a certain food disagrees with you, listen. Pay close attention to your results each week and listen to your body.

Pritikin Nathan 191585 Creator of the Pritikin Diet

Had dropped from an average of 312 to 220. Morrison's control remained at their higher level (Morrison 1960). In 1956, Morrison discovered that Pritikin, then forty-one, had a cholesterol count of over 300. As such, Pritikin adopted a form of the Morrison Diet, became a vegetarian, and added intensive exercise in the form of jogging. In four years, his cholesterol was lowered to 120, and his heart function had become normal. As with many cases of dieting self-cure, beginning with William Banting, Pritikin's cure became his cause. Pritikin's self-treatment became known as the Pritikin Diet, which was developed in the 1970s. In his book, Pritikin makes the case that the diet is natural For centuries the hardiest, most long lived peoples in the world have thrived on these foods (Pritikin and McGrady 1979 xvi). The goal of the diet plan was to provide a means for people to battle health conditions similar to those from which Pritikin suffered. It also claimed to enable diabetics to...

Vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP Protein secreted by the

VegemiteTM Australian yeast extract. vegetable See fruit. vegetable protein products General term to include textured soya and other bean products, often made to simulate meat (see textured vegetable protein). The basic material is termed flour when the protein content is not less than 50 concentrate, not less than 65 isolate, not less than 90 protein. vegetable spaghetti See spaghetti squash. vegetarians Those who do not eat meat or fish, either for ethical religious reasons or because they believe that a meat-free diet confers health benefits. Apart from a risk of vitamin b12 deficiency, there are no adverse effects of a wholly meat-free diet, although vegetarian women are more at risk of iron deficiency than those who eat meat. Vitamin B12 is found only in meat and meat products, but supplements prepared by bacterial fermentation (and hence ethically acceptable to the strictest of vegetarians) are available. The strictest vegetarians are vegans, who consume no products...

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Health professionals recommend that dietary fat be reduced to 30 percent or less of total calories. The diet also should have no more than 10 percent of its calories from saturated fats, no more than 300 milligrams (mg) of cholesterol daily, no more than 2,400 mg of sodium, and at least 3,500 mg of potassium. A plant-based diet consisting primarily of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is recommended. Eating at least 25 grams of fiber and five servings of fruits and vegetables daily may reduce the risk for heart disease.

Historical perspective on food processing Roman sausage to canning to space food

While vegetarianism is commonly practiced among Buddhists, Hindus and Seventh Day Adventists, this is more of a cultural discipline than religious doctrine. The exception is the prohibition of beef consumption by the Hindus. Vegetarianism seems to have its roots more in the health of the practitioner and in other ethical and spiritual ideals than in food safety.

The Role of Eggs in the Diet

There are no substantive nutritional differences between white eggs, brown eggs, fertile eggs, and free-range eggs nutritional content is determined by the hen's diet Hens are not given hormones to produce eggs in the absence of a rooster hens lay eggs with or without a rooster there are no harmful hormones in eggs Antibiotics have no effect on egg production and there is no value in using them unless needed for therapeutic reasons Commercial eggs are not fertile (can be included in a lactoovo- or ovo-vegetarian diet) that stringy stuff (chalaza) is an egg protein that anchors the yolk in the centre of the egg No study has ever shown that

Treatment and Prevention

Vitamin D supplements in therapeutic doses is the treatment of choice. Rickets can be prevented by making sure the infant is getting enough vitamin D, which is not difficult in the United States because virtually all cow's milk and all standard infant formulas are manufactured with added vitamin D. In addition, supplements are available for premature babies, vegetarians, and others who may not otherwise get enough vitamin D. Doctors often recommend vitamin D supplements to nursing mothers who are also vegetarians and who have dark skin. Foods that are high in vitamin D include liver, some fish, cod liver oil, egg yolks, butter, and vitamin D-fortified milk, margarine, and cereal.

Edible Plants and Phytochemicals

Because their consumption is known to enhance health, vegetables, fruits, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds are the most widely researched functional foods. The health benefits of a plant-based diet are usually attributed to the content of fiber and of a variety of plant-derived substances (phytonutrients and phytochemicals) with antioxidant, enzyme-inducing, and enzyme-inhibiting effects. Some phyto-chemicals may also exert their health effects by modifying gene expression. Carotenoids, for example, enhance expression of the gene responsible for production of Connexin 43, a protein that regulates intercellular communication. The protective effect of carotenoid consumption against the development of cancer is more strongly related to the ability of individual carotenoids to upregulate Connexin 43 expression than their antioxidant effects or conversion to retinol. Dietary supplementation with beta-

Permanent Weight Control

John McDougall, founder of the highly successful McDougall Plan for Healthy Living, offers a low-fat, plant-based diet that promotes a broad range Dr. Dean Ornish, founder and director of the Preventive Medicine Research Institute, is famous for his 17-year study on reversing heart disease through lifestyle changes alone. One interesting result of the study (which uses a plant-based diet, moderate exercise, and meditation) was that the participants who followed his program also lost an average of 22 pounds in the first year, although the focus of the study was not weight loss. Equally significant, the patients who participated in the program were showing even more improvement after four years.

Nutrition and Exercise

Felke thought that many diseases were caused by eating the wrong foods. The diets he prescribed were meant to help the diseased organism to cleanse itself,383 but he did not generally insist on a vegetarian diet or on abstention from alcohol or tobacco, only with particular illnesses or special treatments.384 Vegetables, fruit and salads ranked first in Felke's dietetics as they had more goodness and energies than meat due to the mineral salts and vitamins they contained.385 Next on the list were potatoes, wholemeal bread and milk products. Meat, fish and eggs came last because of their high protein content. Felke

Aids Cure In Natural

Breastfeeding, 2 8-9, 11 calcium, 1 84-85 formula feeding, 2 9-10 nutrient requirements, 2 8 protein, 2 159 self-feeding, 2 11 South, 2 258, 258 vegetarianism, 2 230 vitamin D, 2 235 vitamin E, 2 237 and space travel, 2 212, 215 sports nutrition, 2 217 supplements, 2 59 toxicity, 2 63 vegetarians, 2 230 women, 2 259 Iron-deficiency anemia, 1 38-40,

Graham Sylvester 17941851 Presbyterian minister social reformer and early advocate of dietary reform in America

Graham was chronically ill as a young man, diagnosed with consumption (tuberculosis), which interrupted his studies at Amherst College. After one of his illnesses, he married his nurse. As a preacher, he was an advocate of the temperance movement. In 1830, while preaching in Pennsylvania against the dangers of drink, he met members of the Vegetarian Bible Christian Church and thereafter became an advocate of vegetarianism. After i839, he withdrew from his public activities to devote himself to developing his system. Like many reformers of his day, Graham associated capitalism with moral decay (Nissenbaum 1980 48). Responding in part to the advent of preprepared foods, Graham wrote his famous Treatise on Bread and Bread-Making (1837), in which he urged readers to make quality bread at home and eat it fresh. His Graham bread was made primarily with wholewheat and molasses, as opposed to white flour, and it contained neither yeast nor eggs. The ideal food came to be bread. It was plain,...

Trail Russell Thacker 181277 Physician writer educator

Thacker was a friend of Sylvester Graham whose Graham flour he advocated, and was a pioneer and advocate of alternative medicine and gymnastics (Nissenbaum 1980). He believed that allopathic drugs made people weaker and that rest, vegetarian diet, and exercise, combined with treatments like massage and hydro-therapy ( water cure ) were the proper means of achieving and maintaining health ( Pioneers of the North American Natural Health Movement ). Diet was at the center of his concern. As with most of the early nineteenth-century reformers in the age of the evangelical movement's millennialist message, he advocated diet reform in order to reform society as well as the individual. Thus, in his Hydropathic Cook-Book (1863), he condemned the diet suggested by Catharine Beecher as the wine and brandy she commends in her cakes, and pies, and pudding sauces are better calculated to make men drunkards, than to render them wise in choosing (Trall i863 ix). His views match those of other health...

Impact of Lifestyle on Dietary Intakes

Slimming or weight control (whether justified or not) peer group pressure to consume certain foods or brands the development of personal ideology, such as the use of vegetarian diets following a specific diet to enhance sporting prowess or even convenience. Energy and nutrient intakes are influenced by specialized eating patterns, thus it is important to consider life-style choices when interpreting dietary survey data.

Everyday Feeding problems

Nutrient needs that are easily met in healthy children may be more difficult to achieve if children are offered, or accept, only a limited variety of foods or have poor appetites because of illness. Vegetarian diets for young children can provide adequate nutrition but some nutritional knowledge is advisable for those managing children on such diets. Plant proteins do not individually contain all the amino acids so mixing of protein sources is important for the provision of the amino acids needed for optimal nutrition and growth. Provided breast-feeding continues, or children take significant amounts of other milk or formula (cows' milk-based or soy-based infant formulas or, after 1 year, neat cows' milk), amino acid requirements can be met from milk or formula and little other protein is needed from plant or animal sources.

Special Exposure Groups

As a largely vegetarian group, the Seventh-Day Adventists have been used in studies of meat earing and cancer. Studies of these groups, however, are limited in the same ways that other ecological studies are limited. For example, although lower rates of colon cancer have been observed among Seventh-Day Adventists supporting the hypothesis that meat is related to colon cancer there are other lifestyle choices that characterize the group, such as low rates of tobacco use and alcohol intake, which could also modify their rates of colon cancer.

Human Milk and Infant Feeding

Following birth, the amount of red blood cell DHA in premature infants decreases therefore the amount of DHA available to the premature infant assumes critical importance. Preterm infants have a limited ability to convert LNA to DHA (Figure 2) therefore, a number of studies have been carried out on the DHA status of the premature infant. Premature babies have decreased amounts of DHA, but human milk contains enough DHA to support normal growth of the premature baby. The amount of n-3 fatty acids in human milk varies with the mother's diet in particular, DHA is lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. One can increase the amount of DHA in human milk by giving fish oil rich in DHA to the mother.

Diet Nutrition and Quality of Life

It is probably safe to conclude that suffering nutritional deficiency and dying a premature death from infectious illness is more likely to occur among the rural agrarian peasantry than among the urban masses. But for rural individuals who survive accidental and infectious deaths, their plant-based diets and rigorous lifelong physical activity patterns makes the goal of 'dying healthy in old age' a stronger possibility. With extended life expectancy among urban populations, ensuring the quality of life in later life is important as both a humanistic and economic consideration. Cardiovascular and malignant diseases produce lingering debility and dependency, robbing individuals of well-being and placing a burden of healthcare on relatives and governmental resources. Global and sustainable interventions to reduce sedentariness and pathogenic dietary practices in the growing segment of the world's population living in cities are an imperative for social and economic stability going...

Cows Milk Protein Avoidance

Butter, margarine, cream, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt all need to be avoided. Fats that can be used instead include margarines made from pure vegetable fat (e.g., Tomor) and lard. Caution is required with baby foods, as a large number of manufactured products, e.g., rusks, contain milk protein. A common trap is so-called 'vegetarian' cheese, often wrongly believed to be safe for subjects with cows' milk allergy. In fact, it differs from ordinary cheese only in the use of nonanimal rennet and is unsuitable for people with cows' milk allergy. Meat, game, and poultry are all allowed, but sausages and pies should be avoided unless it is known that they are milk free. Intolerance to cows' milk protein is not a reason to avoid beef. Eggs are allowed, but not custard or scrambled egg which may contain milk. Fish is permitted, unless it is cooked in batter (which unless otherwise stated should be assumed to contain milk) or milk. Lemon curd, chocolate spread, chocolate (unless stated to be...

Spurlock Morgan 1970 American screenwriter and independent film director

Became so fatty his doctor warned him it was turning to pate, risking permanent damage. His girlfriend Alex Jamieson, a strict vegan and vegetarian chef, commented that in addition to the weight gain, he started having these uncharacteristic mood swings and, of course, the effect on our sex life was awful (Anon. 2004). She then placed him on a strict vegan detoxification plan which focused on vegetables, fruit, soy products, and vitamin supplements while eliminating all dairy, meat, caffeine, and refined carbohydrates such as white bread, rice, and sugar. After eight weeks on the detox diet, Spurlock lost 20 pounds, and his liver, blood pressure, and cholesterol returned to normal (Burstin 2004 31).

Sinclair Upton 18781968 American social reformist and author

S inclair had been living on fried foods and sweets when he was afflicted with indigestion and headaches. These ailments tended to occur when he was focused on his writing and didn't spend much time exercising. He attempted such treatments as Horace Fletcher's diet and the diets practiced at John Harvey Kellogg's Battle Creek Sanitarium (including vegetarianism). After Sinclair met a woman who used fasting to cure her and her friends' various illnesses, he, too, began fasting and became a staunch supporter. He describes the benefits of such abstention from food in his book The Fasting Cure (1911), where he also repudiated the diet claims he made in his earlier co-authored book Good Health and How We Won It (1909). In The Fasting Cure, Sinclair rejects the classic American emphasis on rich and plentiful food like fried chicken and rich gravies and pastries, fruit cake and candy and ice-cream, seeing it as socially unacceptable and as unhealthy. exposed the unsanitary conditions of the...

Festive Holiday Roast

1 cup chicken-flavor vegetarian 1 cup chicken-flavor vegetarian broth 1 teaspoon Dijon mustard 1 teaspoon granulated garlic 1V2 cups chicken-flavor vegetarian broth, boiling 10 cloves garlic, minced, divided V2 cup thinly sliced scallions 1 12-ounce package vegetarian Heat oil in a medium saucepan over medium-high heat for 1 minute. Add 4 cloves minced garlic and scallions, and saut for 3 minutes. .Add vegetarian beef and cook mixture for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Drain rice and add to the pan. Pulse chopped tomatoes in food processor and add to the pan with the raisins, cinnamon, allspice, parsley, and boiling water. Cook for 10 minutes, or until most of the liquid is absorbed and the rice is softening but not fully cooked. Stir in the toasted pine nuts and set aside to cool.

The Potential Therapeutic Role of Vitamins

Much interest has been expressed in the therapeutic role of vitamins in cancer patients. This has led a number of alternative and complementary practitioners to advocate the use of high-dose vitamins for cancer patients. It has been know for some time that some vitamin-deficiency states may predispose some individuals to develop cancer. In a study of 29 000 vegetarian Chinese with a high frequency of oesophageal cancer, subjects were given supplements of -carotene and vitamin E. Raising their daily intake above the minimum requirement reduced the incidence of deficiencies and reduced the number of oesophageal cancers. This type of study on vitamins and the etiology of cancer has led many practitioners and laypeople to extrapolate he role of vitamins into cancer treatment.

Dietary Fiber and the Etiology of Hormone Dependent Cancers

Cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, and prostate fall into the hormone-dependent classification. An association between hormonal status and cancer risk arose from observations of oestrogen deprivation and breast cancer and testosterone deprivation and prostate cancer. Nutritional influences on breast cancer have been studied extensively and several (but not all) studies show diminished risk with greater intakes of dietary fiber. The situation for other cancers, especially prostate cancer, appears to be rather unclear, but given the commonality of the proposed protective mechanisms, it is reasonable to expect that some linkage may be found. Male vegetarians have been reported to have lower testosterone and oestradiol plasma concentrations compared to omnivores, and inverse correlations of testosterone and oestradiol with fiber intake have been reported. There are many published studies that have produced mixed and inconsistent results on the potential mechanisms involved....

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

Carrie was in for some unpleasant surprises. While no one would have considered a 5-foot 8-inch-tall woman to be obese at 158 pounds, Carrie discovered that she had a body fat percentage of 34.5, which put her into a high-risk classification. She thought she knew a lot about good nutrition, but when we evaluated what she was eating, we saw that she was trying to eat mostly vegetarian meals and not doing a very good job of balancing out the three food groups. Her diet consisted mainly of salads mixed with small amounts of tuna, cheese, breads, too many desserts, and pasta, with an occasional chicken breast or omelet thrown in for good measure. When I explained to her why she should be eating 30 percent acceptable fats, 40 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates, and 30 percent lean protein, it was a revelation. She had been suffering from frequent colds and flu and didn't realize how she was compromising her immune system by eating only small amounts of protein.

Design and Recommendations of The Food Guide Pyramid

USDA nutritionists spent many years designing, testing, and refining the Food Guide Pyramid. The goal was to have an easy-to-use graphic that would help people select a diet that promoted nutritional health and decreased the risk of disease. They designed the Pyramid to be flexible enough to be used by most healthy Americans over the age of two. However, they also recognized that people with substantially different eating habits, such as vegetarians, may need a different food guidance system.

Recommended Dietary Allowances

The intake of Mg has been determined in various populations. Evidence suggests that the occidental diet is relatively deficient in Mg, whereas the vegetarian diet is rich in Mg. For instance, the mean Mg intake of the subjects in the French Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Study was estimated to be 369 mg day in men and 280 mg day in women. Thus, 77 of women and 72 of men had dietary Mg intakes lower than the RDA, and 23 of women and 18 of men consumed less than two-thirds of the RDA.

Impact of Interventions

Regular consumption of pro-vitamin A food sources (dark green leaves and yellow vegetables and fruits) has variable, although generally positive, effects on vitamin A status. Dietary carotenoid intake appears most efficacious in raising serum retinol from deficient concentrations to minimally adequate levels in children and women but often fails to optimize vitamin A status. Variations in food matrix, methods of storage and preparation, amounts of preformed vitamin A and fat in the diet, gut integrity and function, protein energy and VA status of the host, and other factors may affect dietary efficacy. Among these, food matrix factors may be most important in determining bioavailability of pro-vitamin A carotenoid for uptake, conversion, and absorption. The belief has long been held that -carotene, the most ubiquitous pro-vitamin A carotenoid in the diet, can be converted from dietary sources to vitamin A in the body at a ratio of 6 1, but it is now recognized that...

Dietary Fiber Obesity and the Etiology of Diabetes

In 1975, Trowell suggested that the etiology of diabetes might be related to a dietary fiber deficiency. This is supported by several key pieces of evidence. Vegetarians who consume a high-fiber lacto-ovo vegetarian diet appear to have a lower risk of mortality from diabetes-related causes compared to nonvegetarians. Consumption of whole grain cereals is associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Importantly, the same dietary pattern appears to lower the risk of obesity, itself an independent risk factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is emerging as a problem of epidemic proportions in affluent and developing countries. Consumption of whole grain cereal products lowers the risk of diabetes. A report showed that in 91 249 women questioned about dietary habits in 1991, greater cereal fiber intake was significantly related to lowered risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, glycemic index (but not glycemic load) was also a significant risk factor, and this interacted with a...

Facts And Fancies About Obesity

Ever since Cain, the agriculturalist, killed Abel, the hunter, it has seemed that a diet of fat and protein makes for mental and physical stability while vegetarianism, with its high-carbohydrate intake, encourages the opposite. Hitler was a vegetarian and Davy Crockett was a meat eater.

An Ounce of Prevention

The key message of this comprehensive scientific analysis Cancer is a preventable disease, and as many as 375,000 cases of cancer (at current cancer rates) could be prevented each year in the United States alone through healthy dietary choices. The recommendations include adopting a predominantly plant-based diet, rich in a variety of vegetables, fruits, grains, and legumes, maintaining a healthy weight, and performing at least one hour of vigorous exercise each week. According to the National Cancer Institute, 80 percent of cancers are due to factors that have been identified and can potentially be prevented. Lifestyle choices are the most significant contributor, with 30 percent due to tobacco use, and as much as 50 percent due to food choices. High-fat diets can set you up for an increased risk of breast cancer, because fats increase the amount of estrogen in the blood. Estrogen stimulates breast cells in such a way that cancer is more likely to occur and is more aggressive. Plus,...

Battle Creek Sanitarium Early Health

The sanitarium, in its heyday during the 1880s, was the most famous health institution in the country, a reputation it held until World War II. The sanitarium was also instrumental in spawning the health food industry and lent strong support to the concept of vegetarianism. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Battle Creek Sanitarium was an incubator for nutritional health movements, including vegetarianism and temperance. Early sanitarium members developed such dietary innovations as breakfast cereal and graham crackers. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Battle Creek Sanitarium was an incubator for nutritional health movements, including vegetarianism and temperance. Early sanitarium members developed such dietary innovations as breakfast cereal and graham crackers. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. Sabate, Joan (2001). Vegetarian Nutrition. Boca Raton, FL CRC.

Barriers to Meeting Recommended Nutrient Intakes and Healthful Dietary Intake Patterns by Older Persons

The exigencies of consuming a healthful diet for the prevention of chronic diseases, emphasizing a plant-based diet rich in whole grains, fruits and vegetables, limits the nutrient selection that would be obtained from an even wider variety of foods and food-groups. Specific essential fatty acids, and certain minerals (calcium, zinc, selenium) and some vitamins are far less nutrient dense in foods of vegetal origin, setting a dilemma between consuming for nutrient adequacy and prevention of degenerative disease.

Dietary Trends American

Americans have become more aware of what they eat, and how it might affect their health. Concerns about the safety of the food supply are on the rise, and increasing nutritional awareness has led to an increase in vegetarian, organic, and health-food options in supermarkets. Lite food is in, and indulgence is out. But are Americans practicing what they preach A closer look at American dietary trends reveals that parts of the American diet are still lacking in nutritional quality, despite consumer demand for healthier options.

Neapolitan Pasta and Lentils

4 slices veggie Canadian bacon, diced In a 5-quart saucepan, heat oil and crushed pepper over medium-high heat for 1 minute. Add garlic, onion, and veggie bacon and cook for 5 minutes. Add lentils and cook, stirring for 3 minutes. Add sherry and reduce heat to low. Add tomato sauce, stewed tomatoes, and marjoram. Simmer for 15 minutes. Combine with cooked pasta and soy Parmesan cheese.

Recommended Dietary Intakes

Dietary recommendations at other ages reflect the increased needs of active growth periods, such as adolescence. Western dietary recommendations have been based on mixed diets with a relatively high bioavailability of iron and may need to be increased twofold or more for low meat, plant-based diets with greater phytic acid content (see Bioavailability).

Summary of Known Relations between Diet and Cancer

See also Alcohol Disease Risk and Beneficial Effects. Cancer Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers Epidemiology of Lung Cancer Effects on Nutritional Status. Dietary Fiber Potential Role in Etiology of Disease. Dietary Surveys. Vegetarian Diets.

The Relationship between Diet Physical Activity and Cancer

Because of these factors, recommendations of the American Cancer Society to reduce the risk of cancer include consumption of a mostly plant-based diet, including five or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day consumption of whole grains in preference to processed or refined grains and sugar limited consumption of high-fat foods, particularly from animal sources physical activity and limited consumption of alcohol.

Return To Sanity Please

The last claim about dental condition not being related to the body's nutritional state is simply false. Numerous researchers have noted the clear and obvious connection between dental and bodily health. They all assert without hesitation that the health of the body is reflected quite accurately in the health of the teeth (Abrams, Vegetarianism, 72 Diorio, et. al., 856-865 Menaker and Navia, 680687).

Folic Acid and Vitamin B12

The RDA for vitamin B12 increases slightly during pregnancy to 2.6 mg day. Vitamin B12 supplements are definitely required by pregnant women who are strict vegetarians the vitamin is found only in animal products and the usefulness of the form of the vitamin found in algae and bacteria is not clear. An

Flora Nutrient Interactions

There is a complex interaction between food and microflora in a feedback-like system. Different types of diets can lead to changes in fecal flora, and its resultant metabolic activity can be altered. When individuals consuming a vegetarian diet were compared to those on a typical Western diet, the latter had microflora that showed greater hydrolyz-ing ability leading to a more effective metabolism of bile acids and subsequently reduced cholesterol. Similar studies in mice have shown differences with high-fat diets versus low-fat diets.

Adequate Inadequate and Excess Sodium

It is unlikely that adult daily maintenance requirement exceeds 0.6mmolperkg body weight and could well be below this in many mammals. Newborn, growing, pregnant, or lactating animals have increased requirements. The appropriate sodium intake for humans remains controversial with some cultures managing on less than 1 mmol per day, while Western intakes may be in the range 200-300 mmol per day, more where processed foods are heavily consumed. There has been insufficient awareness among physicians and human nutritionists of just how high such intakes are, compared with requirements in other animals. Granted that humans are bipeds with a stressful lifestyle quite different from those of animals, there is no real evidence that human obligatory losses or sodium requirements are significantly greater. Rather, there is an ingrained tradition of regarding sodium intake as a benign pleasure, involving a harmless and healthy dietary constituent. The main warnings against this view come from the...

Kellogg John Harvey MD 18521943

And toxins, Kellogg argued that only correct dieting can prevent disease (Kellogg 1896 19). It is the modern stomach that demands a modern cure for this formidable disease (Kellogg 1896 55). He provides a detailed list of what to do, including slow and regular chewing (Kellogg 1896 58) and the avoidance of substances like vinegar (because it is an alcoholic liquor 1896 112 ), too much sugar (1896 105), uncooked food (1896 96), and abundant use of fat. But, most importantly, Kellogg provides a detailed diet regimen for all people to follow to prevent or to cure dyspepsia. He begins with an aseptic dietry which advocates sterilized food prepared without milk or eggs, whole grains, fresh fruits raw, or cooked without sugar or with grains (Kellogg i896 227ff). Page upon page of proscriptive diets follow, all of which are intended to cure and prevent various forms of disease. In addition, all of Kellogg's diets focus on vegetarian diets, with the preparation or manufacture of the foods...

Alternative Medicine

Such Western appropriations of Eastern medicine, whether from India or China or Japan, ignore the fact that the systematization of such approaches was and is in the light of responding to the dominance of allopathic medicine and the marginalization of traditional forms of treatment. The importation and refashioning of Ayur-vedic medicine from India in the seventeenth century, following Sir Thomas Roe's mission to the Mughal Court, created a powerful association between such alternative forms of dieting and mystical vegetarianism, which linked health and ethics. Ironically, the vegetarianism of Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948), which is one of the most powerful representations of an authentic Indian link between health and morality for alternative medicine has, according to Gandhi, its origins in his reading of Percy Bysshe Shelley's (1792-1822) advocacy of a bloodless regimen in 1812 (Stuart 2006). While virtually all of these traditional systems recognized massive weight loss as a...

Plant Protein

Protein is an important nutrient needed to maintain body tissues and muscle. It is made up of amino acids, the building blocks' of the body, whose main function is building cells and repairing tissue. Amino acids can be synthesized by plants and micro-organisms, but not by animals. With proper nutrition, our bodies can make most of the different amino acids, but there are eight essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by our bodies and must be obtained from dietary sources. It is a common misconception that essential amino acids are only available in animal products. A variety of legumes, grains, and vegetables can also provide all of the essential amino acids. Besides, when we obtain protein from animal sources such as cows, chickens, and pigs, we are getting these essential nutrients second-hand. These animals are naturally vegetarian. In the case of cows, for example, they graze on pasture land nibbling plants and eat grain-based feed. The adequate amounts of protein needed...

High Risk Groups

A vegetarian diet can be a very healthy option. However, adolescents who follow a vegetarian diet, whether for religious or personal reasons, need to carefully plan their intake to get the protein and minerals they need. Strict vegetarians (those who do not eat eggs or dairy products), also known as vegans, may need nutritional supplements to meet their needs for calcium, vitamin B12, and iron.


Vegan (VEE-gan) A person who consumes a plant-based diet, that is, a dietary regimen that avoids animal products of any kind. This lifestyle choice often includes the avoidance of other animal products such as leather and silk. The people who purchase these products are not all vegetarian. Many are health-conscious, mainstream consumers who are very interested in pursuing a healthier lifestyle. When questioned, these shoppers say they are interested in these alternatives and choose to prepare vegetarian meals at least part of the time because of the health benefits. Home cooks who are looking for ways to embrace healthy eating while making traditional-style meals have discovered that they can use these products without losing flavor, texture, or eye appeal. It is the addition of these new consumers to the plant-based foods market that is fueling the tremendous growth in this sector. And, while consumers have been driven to purchase plant-based products by reports of numerous health...

Type Of Utilization

Because it is rich in fiber, protein, minerals, carotenoids, antioxidant compounds, and vitamins, emmer is a complete protein source when combined with legumes, making emmer bread and pasta ideal for vegetarians or for anyone simply wanting a plant-based high-quality protein food source.

Dietary Therapy

The panel reviewed 86 RCT articles to determine the effectiveness of diets on weight loss (including LCDs, very low-calorie diets (VLCDs), vegetarian diets, American Heart Association dietary guidelines, the NCEP's Step I diet with caloric restriction, and other low-fat regimens with varying combinations of macronutrients). Of the 86 articles reviewed, 48 were accepted for inclusion in these guidelines. These RCTs indicate strong and consistent evidence that an average weight loss of 8 percent of initial body weight can be obtained over 3 to 12 months with an LCD and that this weight loss effects a decrease in abdominal fat and, although lower-fat diets without targeted caloric reduction help promote weight loss by producing a reduced caloric intake, lower-fat diets with targeted caloric reduction promote greater

Hoppin John

Tke Enligktened Kitcken gives a healthy twist to a famous dish that's traditionally loaded with smoked meat such as ham and sausage. This updated version uses heart-healthy veggie Canadian bacon, to add the goodness of soy to this delightful dish. 1 6-ounce package veggie Canadian bacon, diced In a medium saucepan, heat oil over medium-high heat and add the chiles, garlic, onion, bell pepper, celery, and carrots. Cook for 3 minutes, then add diced veggie bacon. Cook mixture for 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add black-eyed peas and rice, mixing thoroughly. add tomatoes, bay leaves, and thyme, and reduce heat to low. Simmer for 15 minutes, or until ready to serve, stirring occasionally. Remove bay leaves before serving.

Population Studies

Consumption of unrefined plant foods has been related to lower risk of CHD for some time, but the hypothesis that dietary fiber (i.e., NSP) intake could protect directly against the disease is relatively recent. The suggestion has been supported by a number of epidemiological studies linking higher intakes with lower risk. Vegetarians who consume more plant foods tend to have lower plasma lipids and blood pressure than age- and gender-matched omnivores. However, the strongest evidence derives not from these studies but from a number of very large cohort studies in several countries showing a consistent protective effect of whole grain consumption and CHD risk. Whole grain cereal consumption has been related to substantially lower risk of CHD in both men and women. The evidence for the latter is considered to be sufficiently strong for the US Food and Drug Administration to permit a health claim for consumption of whole grain cereal foods and lowering of the risk of CHD. Similar claims...


Asafoetida is the dried latex (oleogum) obtained from the rootstocks (or taproots) of certain species of Ferula such as F. asafoetida L., F. foetida Regel, F. alliacea Boiss, F. rubricaulis Boiss, Linn. and F. narthex Boiss. Ferula belongs to the family Apiaceae. It is also known as Devil's dung, food of gods, asafetida, etc. Early records state that Alexander the Great carried this 'stink finger' to the West in 4 bc. It is also used as a flavouring agent in the kitchens of ancient Rome. This pungent, resinous gum is used widely in Indian vegetarian cooking (Morris and Mackley, 1999). Asafoetida is mostly used in Indian vegetarian cooking, in which the strong onion-garlic smell enhances the flavour, especially those of the Brahmin and Jain castes where onions and garlic are prohibited. It is much used in Persian cuisine also, in spite of its offensive odour, as a spice and is thought to exercise a stimulant action on the brain. It is a local stimulant to the mucous membrane,...


2 teaspoons olive oil 5 cloves garlic, minced 1 large shallot, minced 1 medium red onion, chopped 1 6-ounce package veggie Canadian bacon, diced In a medium saucepan, heat oil for 1 minute over medium-high heat. Add garlic, shallot, and onion. Saut for 2 minutes, then add veggie bacon. Cook 3 minutes, then add Gimme Lean, stirring often and breaking apart with a spoon. Continue cooking for 3 minutes. Stir in carrots, zucchini, and beans. Reduce heat to low and add the wine, liquid aminos, thyme, and bay leaf. Transfer the mixture to a 2-quart baking dish and set aside. 2 slices veggie Canadian bacon, cut In a wok or electric frying pan, heat oil, crushed red pepper, garlic, and gingerroot over medium-high heat for 2 minutes. Add onion and veggie bacon and saut for 2 minutes. Remove tofu, discarding marinade, and add tofu to the pan with the mushrooms. Cook for 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add the snow peas and cook mixture just until peas are heated through, about 1 minute. Serve...

Fast Food

In the wake of bad PR, McDonald's and the rest of the fast-food industry have begun to clean up their image. Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, and Frito-Lay are among the big names that have in recent years sponsored campaigns to get kids more active and promote healthy lifestyles. In addition, fast-food chains have introduced or vamped up the marketing of a variety of healthier alternatives. Most places are offering more salads and veggie burgers and are devoting more airtime to promoting them. McDonald's has been promoting its new white-meat chicken nuggets, while Wendy's has started including orange slices in its children's meals. Denny's and other fast-food diners have added vegetable and heart-smart sides to compete with their classic French fries.

Fogle Jared 1978

Wiches from the 6 grams of fat or less menu. More specifically, his diet consisted of coffee for breakfast, a 6-inch turkey sub, Baked Lays potato chips, and diet soft drink for lunch followed by a foot-long veggie sub for dinner. As he started losing weight, he began exercising by walking to classes instead of riding the bus. A year later, he had lost 245 pounds, and now his diet has more calories but is still low in fat. He credits a friend who was a pre-med student with helping him realize that his morbid obesity was endangering his health by telling him that he had sleep apnea and that his edema (swelling) was linked to diabetes. At his father's recommendation, he visited an endocrinologist whom he was afraid to see for fear of stepping on the scale. However, the endocrin-ologist's advice did not help Fogle lose weight, so he tried

Health Effects

See also Antioxidants Observational Studies Intervention Studies. Bioavailability. Dietary Fiber Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption. Food Safety Pesticides. Legumes. Nutrition Policies In Developing and Developed Countries. Nutritional Surveillance Developing Countries. Nuts and Seeds. Phytochemicals Epidemiological Factors. Vegetarian Diets.

Protein Metabolites

During grain-fill in cereals, proteins albumin (water-soluble), prolamin (alcohol-soluble) globulin (salt-soluble), and glutelin (alkali-soluble) are stored in the outermost layer of the starch-storing endosperm tissue.17 This is called the aleurone layer it is located just inside the seed-coat or pericarp. Such proteins are stored in protein body organelles in the cells of this layer. In cereal grains such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vul-gare), oats (Avena sativa), and rye (Secale cereale), the percent dry weight of the grain that is made up of protein varies between 6 and 12 . If one eats white rice, one gets little or no protein except for a very small amount in the embryos (or germs). Why is this so It is because white rice, during milling, has been polished to remove the brown aleurone layer that contains the bulk of the protein in the grain. If white rice is eaten, and one is a vegetarian, other protein sources must be found, such as whole...

Edamame Succotash

1 6-ounce package veggie Canadian In an electric frying pan or Dutch oven, heat oil over medium-high heat and add garlic, onion, bell pepper, and diced veggie bacon. Cook for 3 minutes, then add squash. Cook mixture, stirring frequently, until crisp-tender, about 5 minutes. Add edamame, corn, and tomatoes. Reduce heat to medium low and cook for 5 minutes. Add nutritional yeast, sherry, lemon juice, aminos, and thyme. Simmer for 5 minutes.

Daily Challenges

What kind of intrusions am I talking about People who travel a good sal, especially on business, are at a high risk for diet failure. Travel is dis-xption, especially of your normal eating routines. That's dangerous. It's es- cially so nowadays when in-flight food service has become a thing of the ist. Once, you could plan ahead and order the special vegetarian or kosher eal and you'd get something fresh and healthy and made to order. You


Despite the considerable differences in dietary iron bioavailability observed with absorption measurements, dietary changes are slow to influence biochemical indices of iron status. However, people following vegetarian diets for years have lower iron stores than their omnivorous counterparts, and consumption of red meat is often a predictor of iron status in epidemiological studies.

Mexicali Kale

Olive oil cooking spray 8 ounces Soyrizo vegetarian chorizo 4 cloves garlic, minced 1 red onion, chopped 3 cups peeled and cubed potatoes Spray a Dutch oven or electric frying pan with olive oil and warm over medium-high heat. Squeeze the veggie chorizo from its casing into pan and cook for 8 minutes, or until crisp and brown, stirring frequently. Remove chorizo from pan and set aside. ny traditional recipes cook greens with bacon or fatty meats. A bealtbier approach livens up greens with an authentic vegetarian chorizo alternative. This recipe uses half a 16 -ounce package of Soyrizo. Save the rest for another use.

LaLanne Jack 1914

Also known as Francois Henri LaLanne, the Godfather of fitness. His career in the field spans more than seventy years. At the time of writing ninety-two, LaLanne claims to have begun exercising and eating a healthy diet at the age of fifteen, at which time he considered himself to be a weak, sugarholic junk-food junkie. Suffering from bulimia and headaches, LaLanne decided to get healthy after his father's early death, which was caused in part by poor nutrition (Gentle 2000). LaLanne claims that he was inspired by Paul Bragg, a pioneer nutritionist, who promised him that if he exercised and ate a proper diet, he could regain his health. Highly impressed by Bragg's advice and theories, he cut out sweets and began to exercise. This strict regime helped make him, as he claims, into one of the world's healthiest and finest built men. His muscular development at 5 foot 7 inches, 175 pounds was symmetrical, making him look good from any angle, with especially well-developed abdominals....

Risk Factors

Professions, activities, and dietary regimens that emphasize food or thinness may also encourage eating disorders. For example, athletes, ballet dancers, models, actors, diabetics, vegetarians, and food industry and nutrition professionals may have higher rates of disordered eating than the general population. In addition to environmental and social influences, biological and psychological factors may also increase risk for eating disorders in some people. Low levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in appetite regulation and satiety, may be indicative of a predisposition to pathological eating behaviors. Similarly, as many as 50 to 75 percent of those who are diagnosed with eating disorders suffer from depression, a mental illness also associated with abnormalities in serotonin balance. Other psychiatric disturbances, such as bipolar depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder,

By Time magazine

B orn Bernard Macfadden, he was a weak and sickly child. Orphaned at a young age, Macfadden seldom had time for exercise. At age sixteen, disgusted by his physical form, which he referred to as a complete wreck and mistrusting of the medical profession, Macfadden bought a pair of dumbbells and created a daily exercise schedule for himself. He was inspired after reading William Blaik-ie's How to Get Strong and How to Stay So (1879), which was also a weight-loss system. Blaikie advocated exercise and diet for those with considerable superfluous flesh (Blaikie 1879 155). Macfadden quickly added long walks outside, cold baths, minimal clothing, and mostly vegetarian eating habits to this regimen. In 1887, he opened his first studio in St. Louis under the name Bernard Macfadden Kinestherapist Teacher of Higher Physical Culture. Having coined the new scientific label of kinestherapist, he also created the slogan that he would use all his life Weakness is a crime don't be a criminal viduals,...

Dietary Protein

High quality protein is typically consumed via animal products, and therefore vegetarians may consume less high quality protein than omnivores. Because animal foods are the primary sources of certain nutrients, such as calcium, vitamin B- , and bioavailable iron and zinc, low protein intakes may result in inadequate intakes of these micronutrients. As an example, Janelle and Barr (1995) reported significantly lower intakes of riboflavin, vitamin B- , and calcium by vegans who also consumed lower amounts of protein (10 versus 15 percent of energy) compared with nonvegetarians.

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