Vaccines Have Serious Side Effects

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

Comprehensive, authoritative information about vaccine exemptions you can trust, from Alan Phillips, J.D., a leading vaccine rights attorney with years of experience helping clients throughout the U.S. legally avoid vaccines in a wide variety of vaccine-refusal settings. Critical details for parents, students, immigrants, healthcare employees, military personnel and contractors, agencies, attorneys and clientsvirtually anyone concerned with legally avoiding vaccines in the United States. This Guide provides and explains: Important background information about the legal system; How state and federal statutes, regulations, constitutions and legal precedent interact to define the boundaries of your legal exemption rights; How to deal with local authorities and to avoid mistakes that cost others their exemption; Where legal technicalities and practical reality differand what to do about it; Continue reading...

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions Summary

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Biological and other realities of influenza and impact on public health and vaccine production

Public health and other Impact on vaccine Some regulatory agencies require small clinical trials before approval to market after a strain has changed in the influenza vaccine Annual revaccination needed shortly before influenza season. Vaccine required in NH before Nov December and in SH before April May Vaccine must be produced with currently circulating or emerging dominant virus to maintain high vaccine efficacy Clinical trials are to be executed during the narrow window between availability of first vaccine doses and annual immunization campaigns Vaccine production must start in Ian and Sep to ensure supply ahead of the NH and SH outbreaks, respectively High-growth reassortants derived from the dominating wild viruses are to be available 1 month before production begins (to allow for seed virus preparation) Standardizing reagents (serum) must always be updated when strains change. Reagents are needed early after beginning of production to measure strain yield and to calibrate...

National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986

A vaccine safety and compensation system established by Congress in 1986 to create a no-fault compensation alternative to suing vaccine manufacturers and providers for citizens injured or killed by vaccines. The act also created safety provisions to help educate the public about vaccine benefits and risks, and to require doctors to report adverse events after vaccination as well as keep records on vaccines administered and health problems which occur following vaccination. Finally, the act also created incentives for the production of safer vaccines. For any injuries or deaths before October 1, 1988 (no matter how long ago the injury occurred), a citizen may choose to pursue a lawsuit. For injuries or deaths occurring after that date, a citizen is required to apply for federal compensation before pursuing a lawsuit. The government will offer to pay up to 250,000 for a vaccine-associated death, or will offer to pay for all past and future unreimbursed medical expenses, custodial and...

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

The NATIONAL CHILDHOOD VACCINE INJURY ACT of 1986 (PL 99-660). The program is designed to ensure an adequate supply of vaccines, stabilize vaccine costs, and maintain an efficient way to help children injured by childhood vaccines. The program, which went into effect October 1, 1988, is a no-fault alternative to the traditional tort system for resolving vaccine injury claims. Since its inception, the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) has helped stabilize the U.S. vaccine market by providing liability protection to both vaccine companies and health-care providers, by encouraging research and development of new and safer vaccines, and by allowing a quicker and less adversarial alternative to lawsuits. The VICP covers all vaccines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for routine administration to children In the early 1980s reports of harmful side effects after the DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) vaccine posed major liability concerns for vaccine...

The Dream of a Vaccine

Despite all the research that has gone into developing treatments for HIV and AIDS, many experts believe that prevention of HIV infection in the first place remains the best hope for halting the epidemic. To that end, experts believe that an HIV vaccine is required since, historically, only vaccines have been able to eradicate a given disease. As Sam Avrett, the associate scientific director of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), explained Vaccine research is critical because a vaccine is one of the best foreseeable ways to control the AIDS epidemic, both in the U.S. and around the world. Anyone who has worked in HIV prevention knows that, while behavioral change and condoms and clean needles go a long way toward preventing HIV, staying uninfected is hard. . . . Although behavior change can do a lot, it is just not realistic to expect individual behavior change, by itself, to control this epidemic.39 Some experts hope that not only might HIV vaccines prevent infection,...

Consequences of Malaria Vaccination

The data so far indicate that in malaria the common factor underlying the V-T-P relationships is asexual parasite density. We reasoned, therefore, that any control measures that brought about a reduction in asexual parasite densities, such as an asexual stage, anti-replication vaccine, would bring about evolution for increased intrinsic virulence because of its consequences to transmissibility, persistence and host mortality (Gandon et al., 2001). If this evolution were to happen, the unprotected (e.g. unvaccinated) people in the population would then be exposed to a more virulent parasite and their risk of death would be higher than before. On the other hand, it might be argued, the vaccine, if used widely, would protect many more people from disease so that the population-wide reduction in mortality may well outweigh the increased mortality among the unvaccinated few. Thus, as is often the case in vaccination programmes, even without evolution, the benefits to the majority of the...

What is the vaccine for MS

There seems to be a great deal of confusion in the minds of many MS patients and their families about a vaccine for MS. Some seem to think of any injectable drug as a vaccine, but this is not a correct concept. All of the medications currently approved by the FDA for chronic (long-term) use in MS are drugs but are not considered to be vaccines, although their use is to prevent periods of ill health. Interferon-beta-lb (Betaseron) and interferon-beta-la (Avonex and Rebif) and glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) are injectable drugs but are not vaccines. In contrast, a vaccine, which is generally injected, stimulates the immune system, resulting in antibody formation or a direct effect of lymphocytes against proteins or cells that have specific proteins on their surface. Several vaccines against cells in the immune system have been used in research trials.

Criteria to be fulfilled by influenza vaccine candidate viruses

Sucrose Gradient Virus

Differ from the vaccine virus strains as characterized by the HI test supported by clinical and epidemiological information and (a) genetic characterization and (b) serological tests with sera from subjects immunized with current seasonal influenza vaccine Suitable for vaccine preparation To comply with regulatory requirements, vaccine companies require virus isolates that (a) are antigenically and genetically similar to those identified by WHO as becoming dominant (b) have a known passage history isolated on approved egg substrates (With more influenza vaccine producers switching over to cell-culture production, standards are also developed by regulatory agencies for viruses isolated in cell culture.) (c) have acceptable growth characteristics (grow well in hens eggs) 1. Antigenically (ignificantly different from the current vaccine virus strains 3. Suitable for vaccine strain preparation To this end, the viruses from the National Influenza Centers are tested for how well their...

Vaccine Injury Compensation Program A

Special program, passed by Congress in 1986, that provides compensation for children who have adverse results after receiving vaccines. All claims are reviewed by medical staff, and awards are decided by a group of attorneys of the U.S. claims court. The program is paid for by a surtax on all vaccines, and it applies to DPT, MMR, OPV, and Td, vaccines. To report an adverse event after a vaccine, call the doctor where your child received the shot to report any reactions. Give complete information about what happened and when it occurred. Your doctor should report any unusual or serious reactions to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System at (800) 822-7967. In Canada, the province of Quebec is the only one with a vaccine injury plan. vaccinia A viral cattle disease ( cowpox ) inoculated in humans to produce an antibody against SMALLPOX. Vaccinia is the source of the word vaccine.

Vaccines against pancreatic tumour antigens

To develop the ideal vaccine for pancreatic cancer, the following wish list would probably need to be fulfilled. First, specific cell-surface proteins must be identified that are that are crucial in the cancer growth or progression pathway and are unique to pancreatic cancer tumours. Second, these tumour-exclusive proteins should be shown to elicit a vigorous tumour-protein-specific immune response. Third, the best carrier to deliver the appropriate immunogenic tumour proteins should be identified. Fourth, molecules that are immune stimulatory as well as molecules that can abrogate the natural immune-inhibition signalling that is seen in pancreatic cancer should be identified to enhance the immune response. Fifth, additional synergistic immune help should be identified (for example, antibodies or ex vivo tumour-reactive T cells). Several proteins, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), mutated KRAS, mucin-1 (MUC1) and gastrin, have in fact been identified to be specifically...

Vaccine Driven Virulence Evolution in Other Diseases

Are there any examples where vaccines have driven the pathogen towards higher virulence Vaccines against smallpox, measles and polio have been remarkably successful. Among these, only polio virulence has been shown to increase in response to vaccination pressure (Kew et al., 2002) in this case it was the attenuated vaccine strain that reverted to virulence and transmissibility rather than the wild-type strain changing in response to vaccination. In the case of measles and smallpox, the vaccine induces near-sterilizing immunity, and so it is therefore not surprising that evolution seems not to have occurred. On the other hand, for diseases where vaccines are more imperfect (i.e. less effective), changes in pathogen virulence following vaccination have been documented, but not always in the direction we predict here, e.g. diphtheria, pneumo-coccal disease and whooping cough (pertussis). Such cases highlight an important distinction between the type of virulence evolution we have been...

Vaccine delivery and future research

One of the major goals of future research into mucosal immune responses is the development of oral vaccines that are capable of stimulating lasting systemic immunity as well as local mucosal immune responses. Such vaccines must stimulate active immunity rather than immunological tolerance and the immune responses induced must be appropriate for control of the target pathogen. Currently a limited number of oral vaccines are approved for human use these include the oral polio vaccine, a live-attenuated typhoid vaccine and an oral adenovirus vaccine (Brandtzaeg, 2003). A live-attenuated rotavirus vaccine was recently withdrawn, owing to serious adverse reactions to the vaccine. However, new rotavirus vaccines are currently in the later stages of development (Glass et al., 2005). An objective of research into mucosal vaccines is the creation of a multivalent vaccine that can offer protection against a number of food- and waterborne pathogens (Walker, 2005). Organisms such as V. cholerae,...

Importance Of Vaccines

Historical Importance of Vaccines Vaccination is a deliberate introduction of materials in humans to elicit immune protection against diseases (1). For example, some Indian Buddhists drank snake venom to protect themselves from snake bites (1). During the 9th century in China, The Correct Treatment of Small Pox was written by a Buddhist nun. The manuscript recommended a mixture of ground dried smallpox scabs and herb to be blown into the nostrils of children. Even with such a long history, immunization was not widely used until Edward Jenner deliberately injected cowpox virus into humans to protect them from ravages of smallpox. Since that time, wide use of vaccines against pathogenic microorganisms has become the most important advance in the history of medicine. Vaccines have not only provided protection from smallpox, but also from poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, yellow fever, pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and varicella, as well as others. These...

Recommendations for Vaccinations in Children with Rheumatic Disease

All vaccines recommended may be given, but avoid rubella if the child has a positive Most routine vaccinations are okay, but avoid rubella if the child has a positive titer. Do not give any live-virus vaccines (e.g., chicken pox herpes zoster and smallpox), as there is risk of disease and Reye's syndrome. Child with arthritis who is on immunosuppressive medications (corticosteroids, etanercept, infliximab, anakinra, adalimumab) or cytotoxics (methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine) Do not give the child any vaccinations. However, there are data suggesting that pneumococcal vaccine should be given if it hasn't already been. No live-virus vaccinations should be given to siblings or household contacts. Child with active arthritis within the past six months (no matter what the medications) No vaccinations should be given to the child (note that not all doctors agree on this). This has to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis when issues such as college dormitory...

Vaccinesbased immunotherapy

GVAX (CGI940 CG8711 is a cellular vaccine composed of two allogeneic prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3 that is genetically modified to secrete GM-CSF 69 . This vaccine showed clinical benefit with limited toxicity in phase I and II trials 70, 71 . However, the two phase III trials (VITAL-1 and VITAL-2 evaluated GVAX against docetaxel plus pre-dnisone in nai've CRPC and both were closed prematurely 70 . The VITAL-1 study was closed when the unplanned futility analysis revealed a

Is there going to be a vaccine for MS

There is ongoing research into T-cell vaccines for MS. The original experiments in Europe attracted great interest. They involved injecting crude preparations of blood lymphocytes into patients in an attempt to eliminate or reduce the number of activated lymphocytes in MS patients. Ongoing studies involve a more sophisticated selection of cells to be targeted for removal by immune action. They appear to be tolerable and effective to a degree. They do not result in a long-lasting benefit. Other stalled studies attempted to induce immune tolerance without provoking a direct attack on existing cells only preliminary data on their safety have been published. No studies of this third generation type of vaccine are continuing.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV A new

Vaccine approved in 2000 to prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases in infants and toddlers, diseases that can cause brain damage and, in rare cases, death. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is not indicated for use in adults or as a substitute for other approved pneumococcal polysac-charide vaccines approved for high-risk children over age two. The previous pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) was not recommended for use in children under age two, who contract the most serious infections from this bacteria. The new PCV vaccine (Prevnar) protects against the organism Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus), the leading cause of pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, and meningitis. It has been added to the recommended schedule of childhood immunizations. It is given to infants as a series of four inoculations administered at age two, four, six, and 12 to 15 months of age. If a child cannot begin the vaccine at two months, parents should discuss alternative schedules with their...

Dna Vaccines For Infectious Diseases And Cancer

DNA Vaccines Against HIV-1 The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus, which preferentially infects and kills CD4+ T cells and macrophages, ultimately resulting in immune system failure andmultipathogen infections. Recent breakthroughs in combination therapy using 3 or more different antiretroviral agents have generated optimism regarding the ability to control viral replication in vivo (21). However, this therapeutic regimen is costly, and it is too early to tell whether this approach can eradicate established infection (21,22). The costs and the stringent administration regimen requirements of these pharmaceutical agents make it clear that these drugs will only be effectively used in a limited part of the world population. Therefore, to address the worldwide problem of HIV-1 infection, there remains a need for a prophylactic vaccination strategy designed to control the epidemic through mass immunization campaigns (23). One of the major obstacles in the development...

Ad Vaccine Carriers

The strong humoral and cellular immune response to the expressed transgene suggests that adenovirus vectors may be effective as vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer. It is possible that there is an inflammatory response to Ad capsids or to residual Ad gene expression that enhances the immune response over that obtained by expression from a plasmid vector. Alternatively, the ability of Ad to directly infect dendritic cells in vivo (78,149) and express the antigen gene may result in antigen presentation by the class I pathway. Examples of exploiting the cellular antitransgene response include eliciting a cellular immune response to tumor antigens as discussed earlier. This property may also be useful in elimination of virus-infected cells (150-152) or malaria (153). It is clear that antigens expressed by Ad also elicit a strong humoral immunity that can be used to block initial infection by viruses (154,155). In the context that most humans have been infected by wild-type...

Vaccine

Active immunization is provided by a vaccination that stimulates the immune system to make protective antibodies that protect you for life. The chicken pox vaccine Varivax is made from a The development of a vaccine against the disease has been studied and used in clinical trials with children and adults in the United States since the early 1980s it has been used in Japan for some time. It protects 70 to 90 percent of children but does not work well on adults. In March 1995 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed the vaccine for general use the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended the vaccine for all children and teenagers. Children younger than 12 require one dose children 13 and over require two shots four to eight weeks apart. Not all physicians agree on the benefits of the vaccine for healthy children, however. While proponents of the vaccine point out that suffering children and parents' considerable lost work time are good reasons to use the vaccine, some...

Genes and vaccines

To take another example, vaccines against disease are traditionally prepared from killed or disarmed pathogens (disease-causing microbes). They are effective in the vast majority of people, but a small percentage of the population have allergic reactions to vaccines. There is also a very small risk of vaccine organisms reactivating to their former pathogenic state. Genetically engineered vaccines are safer because they contain no living organisms, only the proteins that stimulate the body to develop immunity (Figure 3.3). Engineered vaccine A safe vaccine against viral disease can be produced by engineering the gene for the viruses' protein coat into bacteria. The bacteria manufacture the viral coat protein, which is then injected to stimulate the body to make antibodies against the virus. vaccine vaccine Vaccines are the second-largest category of over 200 drugs now being produced by American pharmaceutical companies using biotechnology. Other products include hormones, interferons,...

Vaccines

The use of vaccines is a preventive measure under extensive study. There are two types of cancer vaccines. One is intended to treat existing cancers, and the other is intended to prevent cancers from developing. As of mid-2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has licensed two vaccines to prevent viruses that can lead to cancer. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes a serious disease that affects the liver. It can cause an acute short-term illness, which in some people may go on to cause a chronic long-term infection. Chronic HBV infection can be very serious indeed, leading to liver cancer and death. The Department of Health and Human Services estimates that 1.25 million people in the United States have chronic HBV infection. The department reports that a vaccine can prevent hepatitis B and the serious consequences of HBV infection, including liver cancer. Since routine hepatitis B vaccination of U.S. children began in 1991, the reported incidence of acute hepatitis...

Polio vaccine

Until recently, the live oral polio vaccine (OPV) had been recommended for most children because while both vaccines provide immunity to polio, OPV was better at keeping the disease from spreading to other people. However, for a few people (about one in 2.4 million), OPV actually causes polio. Since there is now virtually no chance of getting polio in the United States, experts decided that using oral polio vaccine is no longer worth the chance of infecting five to 15 American children each year. The killed virus polio shot (IPV) never causes polio and is not known to cause any side effects other than minor local pain and redness.

Routine Vaccinations

The most important thing to understand about immunizations is that they have saved millions of lives. Routine vaccination against smallpox eliminated a terrible and often fatal disease from the world. Although it may take a full generation, routine immunization against hepatitis B will also save hundreds of thousands of lives. You will find it nearly impossible to locate a young American doctor with experience treating polio, measles, mumps, rubella, or their complications because routine vaccination has made these diseases very rare. At present, every American child is routinely vaccinated against polio, tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis (whooping cough), and hepatitis B. To meet the current recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics, children receive at least fifteen vaccinations during the first three years of life. Pauciarticular-onset juvenile arthritis frequently starts in young children in this age group, so chances are that children develop the disease...

DNA vaccines

DNA vaccines are based on the expression in 'vaccinated' hosts of cDNA encoding protein antigens (viz. viral coat proteins) that have been cloned into plasmid vectors carrying transcription and translation signal sequences utilized by the host's cellular molecular machinery. Specific genetic elements can be engineered into the vector to permit replication in target cells.145,246 Expression of the protein antigens generates both humoral (antibodies) and cell-mediated (cytotoxic T lymphocyte or CTL) responses to the antigen, conferring protection against subsequent infection by the same or related pathogen. The advantage of DNA vaccines over inactivated or live attenuated pathogens is that large quantities of highly purified pathogens are not needed, and that both CTL and antibody responses are induced, which are crucial for establishing protective (i.e. relevant) immunity. The advantage of DNA vaccines over immunization with live attenuated pathogens, which also elicit a CTL response,...

Other Vaccines

It is now recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics that young children receive the pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax) vaccination early in life. It prevents many types of serious pneumonia and other infections caused by the same family of bacteria. Most older children have not gotten it. It should be given to children if you think you are going to put them on immunosuppressive medications, but it must be given before you start the immunosuppressive medication for it to be most effective. There is evidence that it still has some benefit even if the children are on immunosuppressive medicine. This is safe because it is not a live vaccine. Meningococcal vaccine. The meningococcal vaccine, which protects against meningitis, is frequently recommended for college freshman and increasingly for even younger children. Human papillomavirus (HPV). The newly introduced HPV vaccine (Gardasil) is being recommended for girls to reduce the risk of cervical cancer. There...

Many battles won but the war goes onthe evolution of antimicrobial resistance

More than 6 decades following the availability of penicillin, and in the wake of the eradication of naturally occurring smallpox by global vaccination and dramatic decreases in infections like diphtheria, tetanus, and poliomyelitis by their respective vaccines, infectious diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although many new drugs have been discovered, so have many new infectious agents. However, the biggest hurdle in the path to victory has been the development of resistance to antibiotics by most types of bacteria 31 . Given that antibiotics are mediating a war between the human species and thousands of bacterial species, the counterstrike was expected and anticipated at a pace determined by the genetic constitution of various bacteria. What was not a part of the long-range plan was the widespread use, abuse, and misuse of antibiotics prevalent in various forms in different parts of the world.

The Future Of Multiple Sclerosis Treatments

As more is understood about the natural mechanisms for establishing and maintaining this tolerance, new drugs will be designed to treat MS. Our knowledge of immune regulation is built partly on the tremendous strides made in this century in augmenting with vaccines the immune system's ability to fight infectious diseases that once were uniformly fatal or disabling. Strategies for treating MS and other autoimmune diseases, and for tolerating transplanted organs, may include vaccines to train the immune system not to react.

Changes in the food production chain and food industry structure

Not all changes in the food production and marketing chain have resulted from technological advances - some changes are due to other factors such as a balancing of global supply and demand for certain food products. Additionally, some changes in the food production chain may increase some food safety risks or alter the mix of risks. For example, the use of aquaculture is becoming more common as wild fisheries become increasingly over-harvested and less cost-effective for some species and areas. US aquaculture production increased by over 50 between 1990 and 2000 (NMFS, 2002) and the aquaculture share of the world production also has increased (FAO, 2000). Farm-raised fish pose a different set of food safety challenges from those of wild-caught fishery products. Farm-raised fish are subject to contamination from residues by production inputs (e.g. vaccines, feed additives, and antibiotics), whereas wild-caught seafood may be more subject to histamine risks from poor temperature control.

Preventive measures that can reduce the cancer burden

Based on the experience gained so far, it is considered that a substantial proportion of the cancer burden worldwide could be prevented if adequately implemented community-based programs for early cancer detection and treatment, tobacco control, cancer-related vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and health promotion campaigns (American Cancer Society, 2002 Commission of the European Communities, 2009 WHO, 2009) (Table 3).

Animal Models 431 Rat Mouse

Enteric-coated microspheres have long been administered to rats. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP)-coated microspheres administered into the throat of rats resulted in the expected protective benefit of enteric formulation for an acid-labile vaccination of an enterotoxin 64 . More recently, an enteric polymer incorporated into nanospheres was compared to traditional enteric-coated microparticles in the rat. Interestingly, the colon targeting property of the nanospheres was superior to that of the enteric microspheres, resulting in a superior therapeutics efficacy in a rat colitis model 59 .

Safety Considerations

Safety considerations for cancer gene therapy vectors include direct pathogenicity of the virus, toxicity of the therapeutic gene product, genome insertion with risk for malignant transformation and germ line mutations, teratogenesis, and the ability to recombine with endemic virus or spontaneously mutate to form a more virulent pathogen. Because vaccinia is a cyto-plasmic virus, the viral DNA does not transport to the nucleus and therefore integration into the genome is very unlikely. In addition, there is no known latent infection with vaccinia virus and all cells infected by the virus will be killed by the virus. In addition, because poxviruses are not endemic in the population, it is extremely unlikely for recombinations to occur in patients between attenuated strains and wild-type strains, which would result in a more virulent virus with world health implications (90). The stability of the virus has already been proven during vaccination as part of the smallpox eradication...

Clinical Experience

Smallpox Vaccination Extensive clinical experience exists with vaccinia virus as a vaccine for the eradication of smallpox. The most common commercial preparation used in the United States was the Wyeth Dryvax (101). It is the only vaccine available today. The virus was produced by infection of live calves by dermal scarification, followed by physical scraping of the skin. Future vaccines will be produced on cell lines, and ongoing trials are comparing strains for safety and efficacy (56). The vaccine is delivered by scarification of the skin. The lyophilized virus is reconstituted and spread on the skin. A scarification needle is then used to penetrate the dermis through the vaccinia coat in multiple places. Effective vaccination is indicated by the development of pustules 6 to 10 days after vaccination. The pustules represent replicating vaccinia within the dermis. Live virus can be recovered from the pustules from days 3 through 14 after vaccination. There is a direct...

Divorce and children 151

Alternatively, diphtheria toxoid may be combined with tetanus toxoid alone (DT) and given to children, or combined with tetanus toxoid (Td) in an adult vaccine. The Td version only contains about 15 to 20 percent of the diphtheria toxoid found in the DTaP vaccine and is used for older children and adults. The vaccine, which was introduced more than 50 years ago, led to a dramatic reduction of the incidence of diphtheria throughout the world. Primary preventive programs aimed at immunizing all infants and children in the community have almost eliminated the disease. Yet while the reported incidence of diphtheria has been almost the same since the 1960s, it still occurs in isolated epidemics, primarily because some countries have taken a complacent attitude toward vaccination. The disease continues to represent a serious public health problem because it is possible for even fully immunized people to carry the C. diphtheriae bacteria in nose and throat, transmitting it to non-immunized...

Specific immunotherapy

Specific immunotherapy, which seems be more important in cancer treatment research, could be divide into 3 parts monoclonal antibody, adoptive cellular therapy, and vaccine. Infusion of antibody or activated cells is called Passive Immunotherapy, on the other, vaccine can induce active immunotherapy. The simplest model of immune cell-mediated antigen-specific tumor rejection consists of three elements appropriate antigen specific for the tumor, efficient antigen presentation and the generation of potent effector cells.

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Management of Abrus lectin poisoning is symptomatic and supportive. Investigations showed that vaccination with abrin toxoid or administration of ascorbate may offer some protection against a subsequent abrin challenge (Dickers et al., 2003). The sub-lethal doses of lectins showed potent antitumor and immunostumulatory responses, and the therapeutic effect of Abrus lectins can be obtained by masking the undesired toxic effect of lectins. Clinical trials showed that the human minimum lethal dose of ABR by intravenous injection is 0.3 mg kg as an immunotoxin for cancer treatment. The report showed that patients tolerated a dose of 0.3 mg kg without serious adverse effects (Gill, 1982).

Epidemiology of Variant CJD and Other Human TSEs Variant CJD

Early in the vCJD epidemic, three factors predisposing to the disease became evident residence in the United Kingdom, methionine homozygosity at codon 129 of the prion protein gene and the relative young age of the individuals compared with sporadic CJD. In addition to these, a range of hypotheses were generated concerning risk factors relating to possible routes of exposure to the BSE agent, to predisposing factors or to other unrelated possible causes of the disease, such as exposure to organophosphates. Possible routes of exposure to the BSE agent included the most likely, which was through diet, and others such as surgery, medicines, including vaccines, certain occupations having contact with cattle, meat or products manufactured from cattle meat (for example farmers, abattoir workers, butchers and laboratory workers) and contact with animals. Factors that were considered as predisposing factors included social class, ethnicity and urban rural residence.

Other Cancer Treatments

Vaccines are also used to stimulate the immune system. Interferons, chemical messengers used to fight viruses, inhibit tumor cells from reproducing. Hormonal treatments are also under study. Hormones are substances secreted by certain glands that pass into the blood and stimulate the action of specific organs. It has been shown that certain hormones made by the testes and ovaries can influence the growth of tumors in the breast and prostate. Today, instead of surgically removing the testes or ovaries, drugs are used to block the effects of these hormones.

Applications Of Gene Guns In The Immune System

Essentially in parallel in the 1980s. With the advent of these approaches, it became theoretically possible to use them to deliver antigen genes into the cells of a host to provoke immune responses. Genetic immunization is performed by introducing the gene(s) for protein antigens into the host animal rather than introducing the antigen itself. Once the plasmid is delivered into the host cell, the gene is expressed and produces the antigen intracellularly. The process therefore essentially uses the host animal itself as a bioreactor to generate its own vaccine antigens to drive both antibody and cellular immune responses. The first published demonstration of this novel approach to immunization was by Stephen Johnston's group (26). In this first paper published in 1992, the ''wand'' gene gun (Fig. 3B) was used to deliver plasmids encoding human growth hormone and human a1-antitrypsin into the skin of mice. This in situ gene delivery allowed the host cells to produce these secreted...

Immunizations for health care professionals

Include the HEPATITIS B vaccine (Recombivax or EngerixB) in a three-dose series INFLUENZA vaccine every fall MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine unless there is proof of immunity and Td. See also IMMUNIZATION VACCINE. immunizations for homosexual males heterosexuals with multiple partners Anyone with this sexual history should receive the HEPATITIS B vaccine in a three-dose series, plus routine vaccines recommended for adults. See also IMMUNIZATION VACCINE.

Targeting signalling molecules

Preclinical evidence has also shown that specific inhibitors of these signalling pathways can also increase immune activation. For example, VEGF is a key inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as dendritic-cell maturation, and it can also directly inhibit T-cell development. So antibodies that block signalling by this growth factor can promote antitumour immune responses. Furthermore, downregulation of the ERBB-receptor-family members with drugs such as herceptin promotes tumour-antigen presentation by HLA class I molecules, improving the potential for T-cell recognition and lysis118onoclonal antibodies that target these signalling pathways are now being developed for clinical trials as agents that potentially synergize with other immune-based approaches, including vaccines.

New Weapons Against HIV

On April 23, 1984, Secretary of Health and Human Services Margaret Heckler announced that the virus that caused AIDS had been discovered and that scientists had perfected a process that enabled them to grow large quantities of the virus in order to study and characterize it. She also declared, We . . . believe that the new process will enable us to develop a vaccine to prevent AIDS in the future. We hope to have such a vaccine ready for testing in approximately two years. 21 Her final prediction was that there will be a . . . cure for AIDS before 1990. 22 Unfortunately, for the thousands of AIDS victims, families, and others who dealt with the human tragedy of the disease every day, Heckler's predictions were far too optimistic. Two decades later, Heckler's words still echo as a constant reminder of how much more complicated HIV has proven to be than scientists first estimated. As of 2004, HIV vaccines were still in development, over 22 million people worldwide had died of AIDS, and...

Habits vs Mental Problems

Child in every 20 who gets meningitis dies, and up to 35 percent of those who live develop permanent brain damage. However, widespread use of a vaccine licensed for infants in 1990 has dramatically reduced the incidence of a deadly disease that only 10 years ago killed 800 infants each year in the United States. According to the CDC, the incidence of invasive Hib infection has dropped by almost 98 percent among infants and children since the introduction of the vaccine. Although the disease is not yet completely eradicated, the vaccine has been stunningly effective.

What is the role of the immune system in MS

The occurrence of inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord (acute encephalomyelitis) following infections and immunizations (especially after a killed virus rabies vaccine made from rabbit spinal cord) led to studies of the allergic potential of certain proteins in the nervous system. Most research has been focused on a single protein, myelin basic protein, because it has a high potential for the induction of experimental demyelinating disease in rats, guinea pigs, monkeys, and other animals. Only 10 millionths of a gram (there are 450 grams in a pound) injected into a genetically susceptible rat can result in experimental disease resembling MS. Over 30 years ago we found that MS patients have cells reactive to this protein in their blood. More recently, Swedish scientists have also found cells with similar reactivity in the spinal fluid of MS patients. Importantly, the original research into a treatment now approved for use in MS (Copaxone) arose from this work. Copaxone is...

General Strategies For Suicide Gene Therapy

Two basic strategies exist for cancer gene therapy. The first conceived strategy is ''ex vivo'' gene therapy in which a tumor or fibrous tissue biopsy is taken from a cancer patient whereupon individual tumor cells or fibroblasts are isolated and grown in vitro (Fig. 3). Therapeutic genes are then inserted into these cells typically using retroviral vector infection in tissue culture. The cells are subsequently irradiated and then reimplanted into the original tumor site or distant to the tumor site by autologous transplantation. The level of irradiation is controlled so as not to immediately kill the cells but to prevent growth and allow only a short period of survival after reimplantation. This strategy has been more commonly applied to classic cancer vaccine and cytokine gene therapy strategies. Although this approach is feasible with suicide gene therapy, the predominant tumor response would come from a metabolic cooperation or immune bystander effect subsequent to prodrug

Fat across the Species Barrier

But, of course, no greater magic bullet can be imagined for human obesity than an antiviral agent that would simply cure obesity or even a vaccine that could prevent it. In 10 years, Dhurandhar stated, people may be able to walk into a clinic and be told that their obesity is due to X cause, such as genes, the endocrine system, or pathogens. That may have a more productive outcome than a blanket treatment right now, which is not very successful. And because viruses are hard or impossible to treat, prevention through vaccines will be key. Does the anxiety about barriers to disease not lie at the heart of our desire that obesity, too, can be quickly fixed, once it is recognized as merely an infectious disease, rather than a reflex of national or personal character The quick fix here is not to repair the food chain or end fast food, but to change the world so that such depression is eliminated. No quick fix is promised why not hope for a vaccine against modernity, hopelessness, and fat...

March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation A

The March of Dimes was founded in January 1938, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt, himself a polio victim and alarmed by decades of worsening polio epidemics, established the National Foundation for infantile Paralysis. At the time, comedian Eddie Cantor coined the phrase March of Dimes (playing on the popular newsreel feature The March of Time ), appealing to radio listeners all over the country to send their dimes directly to the White House. The campaign was extremely successful, and over the next 17 years, the National Foundation focused on funding research to develop a vaccine against polio. In 1948, with funding provided by the March of Dimes, Dr. Jonas Salk was able to grow the three known types of polio virus in his lab and eventually to develop an experimental killed-virus vaccine. In the summer of 1952 Dr. Salk tested the vaccine on children who had already recovered from polio. Following vaccination, the level of polio antibodies in their blood increased. The next step...

Materials And Methods

Immunogens and Immunization Procedures. Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins L7 and L12 were extracted (10) from 50S subunits and purified as described (11) by ion-exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl- and DEAE-cellulose. Antibodies were raised in a goat by injecting 250 fig of protein emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant intracutaneously distributed over several sites. Bacillus pertussis vaccine (1.5 ml of Bordet-Gengou vaccine, Schweizerisches Serum- und Impfinstitut, Bern, Switzerland) was given subcutaneously with every antigen injection. Booster injections of the same formulation were given on days 38,79, and 110. The animal was bled on day 117.

Induction Of Immune Responses In Primates

It would be desirable to evaluate in primates DNA vaccine constructs that induced high levels of immune responses in mice. Nonhuman primates represent the most relevant animal challenge model for HIV vaccine studies. Specifically, there are currently 3 different primate models for HIV vaccine studies. They include the HIV challenge model in chimpanzees and the SIV and chimeric SIV HIV-1 (SHIV-1) challenge models in macaques. Chimpanzees can be infected by HIV isolates from humans, although they do not readily develop AIDS-like disease. However, the SIV challenge model uses the macaque SIV, which replicates to high levels and causes an AIDS-like disease in both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. The chimeric SHIV viruses were constructed by replacing SIV envelope genes with specific HIV-1 envelope genes (117). The SHIV viruses replicate in macaques similarly to SIV and represent an infectious challenge model for HIV-1 envelope-based vaccines. Importantly, certain SHIV strains such as SHIV...

Use Of Molecular Adjuvants In Primates

Kine genes could also be achieved in rhesus macaques. DNA vaccines for HIV env rev and SIV gag pol alone were evaluated for their immunogenicity and compared with these vaccines, which also included IL-2, IFN-7 (Th1), or IL-4 (Th2) cytokine cDNA constructs (171). The cytokines dramatically enhanced seroconversion induced by the vaccines and appeared to modulate cellular responses as well, although more modestly. Vaccinated animals were challenged intravenously with SHIVIIIB. Half of the animals in the vaccine or vaccine plus Th1 cytokine groups exhibited protection from infection based on sensitive limiting dilution coculture, demonstrating a dramatic effect on viral replication of the vaccines tested. The protected animals were reboosted with SIV DNA vaccines (SIV and cytokine constructs) and were rechallenged intravenously with pathogenic SIVmac239. All vaccinated animals were negative for viral coculture and antigenemia. In contrast, the control animals exhibited antigenemia by 2...

Fecaloral transmission route

Primary barriers to keep the infectious organisms out of the environment or when the primary barrier works imperfectly. Secondary barriers are those interventions that prevent viruses from infecting another host once the viruses are in the environment. Examples of these secondary barriers may include avoiding unsafe foods (e.g. raw shellfish) or destruction of viruses (e.g. cooking foods, hand-washing). Vaccination may also be a secondary barrier. Effective interventions that inactivate viruses are listed in Table 14.2. In addition, two reviews on the effects of water and sanitation on enteric illness morbidity list several interventions (e.g. good water quality, hand-washing, safe excreta disposal) that could interrupt the fecal-oral transmission route.60'61

Early Disappointments

In 1992, human clinical trials of AIDSVAX, a vaccine developed by a California company called VaxGen, began. Specific for strains of HIV common in North America, AIDSVAX was made of synthetic proteins that are copies of a protein found on the surface of HIV. This surface protein, called gp120, facilitates the binding of HIV to helper T cells. AIDSVAX essentially tricked the immune system into mounting an immune response against the synthetic gp120 proteins, even though there was no accompanying HIV infection. Since only gp120 viral proteins are introduced, patients could not get AIDS from the vaccine. Rather, the hope was that the vaccine recipient would get a head start in developing HIV-specific antibodies, and presumably, real HIV particles would be destroyed in the bloodstream before infection could occur. After it was proven safe in the first two phases of clinical trials, AIDSVAX became the first AIDS vaccine to enter the final phase of testing. Two large-scale trials were put...

The Chemotherapy Of Cancer

9.6.4 Immunotherapy and vaccines 339 9.17.10 Vaccines 9.6.4 Immunotherapy and vaccines The aim of immunotherapy is to stimulate the body's natural response to fighting the cancer. Several neoplasms, including some types of breast cancer, have been found to possess specific tumour antigens, and this has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies specific for some tumour types. Although little success has so far been achieved by treating patients with antibodies alone, research is still ongoing into the development of vaccines that may either prevent tumour formation or modify the growth of established tumours. In the latter case, there has been recent publicity over the use of a vaccine to prolong the life of melanoma patients. Tumour-specific antibodies have also been used for drug targeting by attaching them to either drugs or enzymes (e.g. ADEPT), and these strategies are discussed later.

Building better trees

Pests and diseases have always been a major threat to tree nurseries and reforestation sites, and biotechnology has added tools such as genetic modification and vaccination to the traditional weapons of chemical sprays. Spruce trees genetically engineered to resist spruce bud-worm infestation were first developed in 1993. Another

Mechanisms of virusinduced damage to host cell 1551 Apoptosis as a pathogenic mechanism

Enterocytic-like cell lines and in the mouse central nervous system. ' Apoptosis resulting from activation of the caspase pathway by the perforin granzyme route was reported following vaccination with oral polio vaccine. IFN7 secretion by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was involved' again pointing to apoptosis as a mechanism of tissue damage probably as a result of replication of the vaccine derived virus.324 In contrast' wild-type and most cell culture-adapted HAV strains produce a noncytolytic persistent infection in vitro. A few cytopathic strains of HAV are capable of cell killing in vitro as a result of a slowly developing apoptosis.47'124'126'187 However unlike the enteroviruses' the relationship between apoptosis and pathogenicity in animal models has not been clearly established for HAV.

Respiratory tract infections

Synagis and RespiGam are not vaccinations, but they can help protect high-risk children under age two from the most serious complications. Injections of either of these drugs are typically given once a month during the RSV season (November through May). One injection protects the baby for one month, so an injection is needed every month during the RSV season to be fully protected. No vaccine for RSV currently exists, although some researchers are testing various versions of a live attenuated RSV vaccine. Because RSV spreads in fluids from the nose and throat of an infected person, washing hands and avoiding touching nose or eyes after contact with someone with RSV can help prevent the spread of the disease. Since a baby is most vulnerable during the first three months of life (especially those born during the winter), it is possible to take some steps to protect the baby by

Cocaine Pharmacotherapy

A wide range of pharmacological agents besides antidepressants have been tried as treatments for cocaine abuse and addiction. In general, agents include drugs that affect the production, release, reabsorption, and breakdown of dopamine, serotonin, and other neurotransmitters (Harvard Mental Health Letter, December 1999). Researchers are also evaluating medications that work as a vaccine to prevent the effects of cocaine (Vaccine Weekly, May 4, 1998).

Combining Prevention and Therapy

It's pretty hard to justify or explain how we are on the verge of the worst epidemic in human history, that is preventable, where we have medicine that helps, replete with examples where the epidemic has been turned back. Some of the questions have to be answered by science, with continued progress in treatment therapies and the development of vaccines and cures. But the other questions have to be answered by politics and citizen action.51

Current research frontiers

Will not be easily amenable to control by currently available vaccines. Major efforts will be needed to develop virus isolation and detection protocols capable of detecting such mutated or recombinant viruses in a short period of time.63 As discussed in Section 15.6, vaccine research, specifically DNA vaccines and vaccine cytokine combinations to augment the effectiveness of vaccinations, will remain an important area of investigation. Modulation of cytokine levels (IFN and interleukins) to control viral infections and also nonviral diseases is still in its infancy, and will undoubtedly be an active area of research.2'108'162'248'315

Implications for foodborne disease treatment and prevention

Vaccination strategies are an alternative strategy to prevent parasitic infection. Vaccines for nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and protozoans are slow in development for a variety of reasons, including the lack of appropriate animal models, lack of immune response against certain organisms, and the lack of sufficient interest from commercial industry because of their low profit potential. Also, most humans are able to be infected multiple times by some parasites therefore, there is no lasting protective immunity in hosts, the basic foundation for vaccines (WHO, 1995). Despite these problems, some researchers have been successful in the initial development of some vaccines. For instance, there have been efforts to identify 'hidden' antigens not present on the outer surface of nematodes that produce a protective immune response (Munn, 1997). Furthermore, recombinant oncosphere antigens have been used successfully as vaccines against T. solium and E. granulosus in animal intermediate...

The Future of AIDS

Toxoplasmosis A rare parasitic disease that usually causes no negative symptoms in healthy people but can cause serious health complications in AIDS patients. transfusion The process by which blood from a donor is transferred intravenously to a recipient. vaccine A substance that, when administered into the body, elicits an immune response, usually against a particular disease-causing microorganism.

The Regulatory Process

In the PR HACCP rule, FSIS stated that they were working with industry, academia, and governmental agencies to develop andfoster measures that can be taken on the farm and through distribution and marketing of animals to reduce food safety hazards associated with animals presented for slaughter. Twelve years have yet to deliver the interventions that can be used on the farm and throughout distribution and marketing of animals, although finally in February 2008 USDA granted a conditional license to Bioniche, a Canadian biopharma-ceutical company, for its Escherichia coli O157 H7 cattle vaccine to collect data to move the product to full licensure. FSIS (1998a) stated that the PR HACCP regulations provide enormous flexibility for the industry to develop and implement innovative measures for producing safe foods.'' Despite the creation in 2003 of the Office of New Technology within FSIS, there have been examples of relatively straightforward interventions (e.g., higher levels of organic...

Q What are the safety concerns

In a study involving biologic materials such as this vaccine trial for example, you will need to provide evidence of good laboratory practices e.g., sterility, non-pyrogenicity, prevention of viral transfer etc. The researchers involved in the project must be properly qualified to perform the tasks required of them. While non-physicians can certainly be principal investigators in human research, they can not be allowed to perform procedures or prescribe medications. Most IRB's will accept that once precautions have been minimized as best possible, that an informed adult should be allowed to decide whether or not he or she would like to participate and accept the risks that remain.

Q What are the issues regarding compensation and costs

A IRB's and investigators alike struggle with issues regarding compensation and expenses. A guiding principle is that third party payors should not be expected to bear the cost of research. Subjects should be allowed to make a decision as to whether or not they are willing to bear the costs of experimental treatments. Any costs that are associated with the normal routine care are allowed. The use of medications, treatments or examinations that would not normally be utilized in the care of patients with this medical problem must be accounted for. Sometimes the issues are not entirely clear. For example in a study of a vaccine treatment, is a periodic CT scan routine or part of the study. Clearly the investigators need to know if their treatment is effective. The question that needs to be addressed is whether or not the CT would have normally have been obtained if the patient was not on the study. Many times insurance carriers are willing to cover such costs, but it is not their...

Lindsay Whitton and Robert S Fujinami

Herpesviruses

Two Mouse Models of CNS Virus Infection and Disease V. DNA Vaccines and CNS Viral Infections A. DNA Vaccines against LCMV B. DNA Vaccines against Theiler's Virus C. DNA Vaccines against Other Viruses That Cause CNS Disease D. DNA Vaccines against Autoimmune Diseases of the CNS E. DNA Vaccines against Prion Diseases References Poliovirus, a member of the picornavirus family and Enterovirus genus, was a major scourge in the earlier part of the twentieth century. As the genus name indicates, the virus replicates in the gastrointestinal tract as such, it is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Viremia is common, but the vast majority of infections remain asymptomatic. CNS infection is quite unusual, and is initiated either as a result of the viremia or, more rarely, by neural spread. The virus infects the anterior horn motor neurons of the spinal cord, causing poliomyelitis (from the Greek polios plus myelos inflammation of the gray marrow ), the disease for which the virus is...

National Health and Nutrition Surveys and Small Scale Surveys

Of nutritional supplements, micronutrient deficiencies (Fe, I, vitamin A), complementary feeding practices, fertility and birth interval, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality Anthropometry, use of nutritional supplements, micronutrient deficiencies (Fe, I, vitamin A), complementary feeding practices, morbidity, mortality, sanitation Anthropometry Anthropometry, use of nutritional supplements, use of iodized salt, complementary feeding practices, parental education, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality, sanitation supplements, micronutrient deficiencies (Fe, I, vitamin A), use of iodized salt, complementary feeding practices, fertility and birth interval, parental education, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality Anthropometry, complementary feeding practices, morbidity, mortality Anthropometry, use of nutritional supplements, use of iodized salt, complementary feeding practices, fertility and birth interval, parental education, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality, sanitation...

Shellfish poisoning paralytic 245

Prevention Confirmed Shigella cases must be reported to the health department, which will begin an investigation and control measures in order to prevent large-scale outbreaks. Although several vaccines have been tested, none have yet been licensed for use in preventing the disease. The single most important way to prevent the spread of disease is to carefully wash hands after using the toilet, since Shigella is passed in feces. Smallpox was eradicated through a cooperative international vaccination program. The disease affects only humans, and its victims are easily recognized and only infectious for a short time. As a result of the successful eradication program, smallpox vaccination certificates are no longer required for international travel. Most countries have stopped vaccination because the vaccine itself is now more dangerous than the disease, since the vaccine can cause encephalitis and there is now no chance of contracting smallpox.

Microneutralization Titer Calculate

Hemagglutination Test Picture Story

This chapter describes some commonly used methods of influenza virus titration, antigenic characterization, and serological methods by antibody detection. These methods are essential not only for virus characterization but also for identifying new antigenic variants, vaccine strain selection, and sero-epidemiologic studies of influenza virus transmission and prevalence. Virus titration methods such as the hemagglutination assay, 50 egg or tissue culture infectious dose, and plaque assay are employed to determine the amount of virus particles in a sample. The hemagglutination inhibition assay is a reliable, relatively simple and inexpensive technique to antigenically characterize isolates of influenza viruses. Serological methods such as virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition are the fundamental tools used in sero-epidemiologic studies of influenza virus transmission and prevalence and in the evaluation of vaccine immunogenicity. While serological methods rarely yield an...

A HSV Gene Transfer for Neuropathy and Pain

Gastrocnemius Muscle Transfer

Strategies to treat cancer by gene therapy can be considered in 3 categories (1) tumor cell destruction using conditionally replicating viruses that selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells (175,176) compared with the surrounding normal tissue, (2) tumor cell destruction by expression of transgenes whose products induce cell death, or sensitize the cells to chemo-(177) or radiation therapy (178), and (3) tumor vaccination through expression of transgenes whose products recruit, activate, or costimulate immunity or provide tumor antigens. The latter approach is more likely to be effective in treating meta-static disease. Because these strategies are complementary, it has also been suggested that they can be used in combination. Examples of these various approaches include the use of (1) prodrug-activating genes such as thymidine kinase (TK) or cytosine deaminase (179) (2) cytokines such as TNF-a, 7IFN and various interleukins (180) (3) MHC products such as costimulatory molecules...

Skull fracture See head injury sleep apnea See apnea

In the United States vaccination programs and quarantine regulations meant that by the 1960s the risk for importing smallpox had been reduced. As a result, recommendations for routine smallpox vaccination were rescinded in 1971. In 1976 the recommendation for routine smallpox vaccination of health-care workers was also discontinued. In 1982 the only active licensed producer of vaccinia vaccine in the United States discontinued production for general use, and in 1983 distribution to the civilian population was discontinued. Since January 1982 smallpox vaccination has not been required for international travelers, and International Certificates of Vaccination forms no longer include a space to record smallpox vaccination. In the United States routine vaccination against smallpox ended in 1972. The level of immunity among vaccinated Americans is uncertain, so these people are assumed to be susceptible. Most estimates suggest immunity from the vaccination lasts only three to five years,...

Condylomata acuminata

In the United States, diphtheria is uncommon because of childhood immunizations. The immunity of adults is kept current by the practice of giving diphtheria vaccine whenever a tetanus booster is given. the smallpox vaccination. Vaccinia virus (for which the term vaccine was named) continued to be used as a smallpox vaccine until smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s. See also monkeypox.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Prevention Army scientists developed a vaccine against hantavirus infection in 1995. While it is experimental, it is available to protect military personnel in South Korea and other areas of the world where the infection is common, according to the army's Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Ft. Detrick, Maryland. Such a vaccine does not need the approval of the Food and Drug Administration to be used among military personnel, if they give informed consent. Bacterial meningitis Hearing loss related to this disease can be caused by streptococcus pneumoniae (18 to 30 percent), Neisseria meningitidis (10 percent), and Haemophilus influenzae (6 percent). In pneumococcal meningitis, the incidence and severity of hearing loss is strongly linked to the length of time the disease lasts. Because of vaccination, H. influenzae is no longer a major cause of meningitis in the United States, although it remains a serious problem in other parts of the world. Mumps Hearing loss as a...

Francisella Tularensis

There are no animal vaccines to protect against pasturella, although tetanus antibody shots are often given if the victim hasn't had a recent tetanus shot. The process was developed by French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-95), who founded the germ theory of infection and masterminded the development of several types of vaccines.

Infectious parotitis See mumps

Since World War II, vaccines have helped cut the death rate, which was very low in the 1957 pandemic of Asian flu, and in the 1968 pandemic. In 1976, an outbreak of swine flu in Fort Dix, New Jersey, set off alarms throughout the United States, since it was swine flu that was believed to have caused the mass mortality in 1918, although no one knows for sure. Then-president Gerald Ford signed a law providing 135 million for a vaccine campaign that reached about a quarter of the population. The United States and Canada set up a crash mass vaccination program however, when some people who had been vaccinated developed Guillain-Barre syndrome (a rare type of temporary paralysis) the United States canceled its program. The dreaded pandemic never developed, and the U.S. government eventually paid about 93 million in damages to Guillain-Barre victims. In addition to the vaccine, two oral prescription drugs (amantadine and rimantadine) may prevent or reduce the severity of influenza A but are...

Recent advances in antiplaque agents Chemoprophylactic agents antimicrobial peptides antiquorum sensing approach and

Immunization against oral diseases as dental caries and periodontal disease has been extensively studied in recent decades (Koga et al. 2002 Smith, 2002). The goal would be inhibiting or reducing the virulence of some microbial etiological agents. Several molecules involved in various stages of the pathogenesis of caries and periodontal disease could be susceptible to immune intervention and serve as targets for production of vaccines. Thus, it would be possible to eliminate microorganisms of the oral cavity with antibodies able to block adhesins or receptors involved in adhesion, or metabolically modify important functions or virulence. Efforts are being made for manufacturing active and passive vaccines, especially for tooth decay. In active immunization, an attenuated antigen induces a protective immune response when administered. In passive immunization, the ready antibody is administered (Sheie, 2004). One of the issues that still need to be solved is about which immune system...

Genitourinary tract infection See urinary tract infection

Although rubella was once found throughout the world, it is now much less common in most developed countries because of successful vaccination programs. The United States has tried to eradicate the disease by vaccinating all school-age children in 1969 when the vaccine became available, at least 60,000 Americans had rubella. By 1993, the number dropped to 192. Before the development of the vaccine, rubella was common in spring and winter, and peaked every six to nine years. There were huge rubella epidemics in the United States in 1935,1943, and 1964. Blood tests are available that reveal rubella immunity or an active rubella infection. If a person has been vaccinated, the blood test will show that the person is immune. Pregnant women need a rubella immunity test at the first prenatal visit if not immune, the woman will receive rubella vaccine in the hospital after delivery. Vaccination can provide long-lasting immunity. It is given in the United States to all infants as part of the...

Dengue hemorrhagic fever shock syndrome

The conquest of diphtheria in modern times is one of the greatest vaccination success stories. In 1992, only four people in the United States were reported to have diphtheria, and no U.S. cases were reported in 1993 and 1994. This does not mean that the disease has been eliminated, however. Because so many Russian children did not get vaccines, a serious outbreak began in Moscow in 1990 by 1992, there were 4,000 cases in the Russian federation and 24 deaths in Moscow. The problem has gotten worse since then, spreading throughout Russia with 50,000 recorded cases and 1,100 deaths in 1994. Most of the victims are adults, but the outbreak has spread because many children had not been receiving their vaccines and adults who had been vaccinated were no longer immune. Today, the epidemic is most severe in cities on the Sea of Japan north of North Korea, where an immunization campaign has been going on at airports, hotels, and train stations. Travelers to these areas must have completed a...

Ayurvedic Remedies For Fighting The Flu And Cold Bibliography

Aviron's cold adapted influenza vaccine. Mountain View, Calif. Aviron. Nov. 5,1996, pp. 33-34. Beeler, J., F. Varricchio, and R. Wise. Thrombocytopenia after immunization with measles vaccines review of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (1990 to 1994), Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 15(1996) 88-90. vaccine, Science News 148(Nov. 25, 1995) 357. Clemens, J. D., D. A. Sack, and J. R. Harris. Field trial of oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh Results form three-year fol-lowup, Lancet 335(1990) 270-3. Farrington, P., et al. A new method for active surveillance of adverse events from DTP and MMR vaccines, Lancet 345(1995) 567-69. -. Report on rotavirus vaccine, FDA -. New pertussis vaccine safer for Gale, J. L. et al. Risk of serious acute neurological illness after immunization with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, JAMA 271 (1994) 37-41. Griffin, M. R., et al. Risk of seizures and encephalopathy after immunization with the DTP vaccine, JAMA 263(1990) 1641-45. Haney,...

Drugs That Alter Theophylline Disposition

Influenza vaccine, once suggested to slow theophylline elimination and thus potentially cause toxicity (298), has subsequently been shown to have little (299) or no effect (300-305). Kramer and McClain (306) reported that hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine, a sensitive indirect measurement of N-demethylation, was reduced in 12 afebrile volunteers two to seven days after immunization with trivalent influenza vaccine the effect lasted as long as 21 days in many subjects. They proposed that vaccination stimulated the production of interferon, which decreased cytochrome P450 activity, as the mechanism for this interaction. Trivalent influenza vaccine has been reported to slow theophylline elimination (298,307,308), but in subsequent studies the interaction could not be demonstrated (309-312). The discrepancies in these reports probably relate to the timing of the theophylline clearance measurement and the pre-vaccination clearance value in the subjects. Meredith et al. (301) demonstrated a...

Host Responses And Toxicity

Immune responses to the transgene expressed by an AAV vector vary and may depend on the route of delivery. Both MHC class II-restricted antibody responses and MHC class I cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been reported, but this may vary with the route of administration (199). In some studies, such as intramuscular delivery in mice, there was no immune response to an expressed foreign reporter gene such as bacterial p-galactosidase, and it was suggested that AAV may be a poor adjuvant or may not readily infect professional antigen-presenting cells in muscle (202,203). However, an AAV vector expressing the herpes simplex virus type 2 gB protein was delivered intramuscularly into mice and elicited both MHC class I-restricted CTL responses against the gB protein and anti-gB antibodies (204). Following intramuscular delivery of an AAV human factor IX vector (205,206), there was an antibody response but not a CTL response against the FIX protein. The rules governing immune responses to foreign...

HDAC Inhibitors in Models of Inflammatory Diseases 321 Models of Lupus Erythematosus

Bakker AC, Joosten LA, Arntz OJ, Helsen MM, Bendele AM, van de Loo FA, van den Berg WB (1997) Prevention of murine collagen-induced arthritis in the knee and ipsilateral paw by local expression of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein in the knee. Arthritis Rheum 40 893-900 Bossu P, Neumann D, Del Giudice E, Ciaramella A, Gloaguen I, Fantuzzi G, Dinarello CA, Di Carlo E, Musiani P, Meroni PL, Caselli G, Ruggiero P, Boraschi D (2003) IL-18 cDNA vaccination protects mice from spontaneous lupus-like autoimmune disease. Proc Natl Acad SciU S A 100 14181-14186 Butler LM, Agus DB, Scher HI, Higgins B, Rose A, Cordon-Cardo C, Thaler HT, Rifkind RA, Marks PA, Richon VM (2000) Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 60 5165-1570 Chen L, Fischle W, Verdin E, Greene WC (2001) Duration of nuclear NF-kappaB

Loco Regional Disease Nodal Assessment

Aneurysm Symptoms

Survival, but no overall survival benefit compared to observation (12). Unfortunately, many patients cannot tolerate the toxicity of this treatment. Trials using low-dose interferon-a-2b have shown no difference in relapse-free or overall survival, and other forms of biotherapy and melanoma vaccines are being investigated.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Vaccine Active immunization is provided by a vaccination that stimulates the immune system to make protective antibodies that last for life. The chicken pox vaccine is made from a live weakened virus that works by creating a mild infection similar to natural chicken pox, but without the related problems. The mild infection spurs the body to develop an immune response to the disease. These defenses are then ready when the body encounters the natural virus. The development of a vaccine against the disease has been studied and used in clinical trials with children and adults in the United States since the early 1980s it has been used in Japan for some time. It protects 70 to 90 percent of children, but it doesn't work well on adults. In March 1995, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed the vaccine for gen eral use the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended the vaccine for all children and teenagers. Children younger than 12 require one dose children 13 and over require...

Hypothesis for Pathogen Virulence

Pathogens that kill their host lose their source of ongoing survival and transmission. So why are they virulent This question captured the attention of evolutionary biologists in the early 1980s until then, it was generally accepted that, given enough evolutionary time, all parasites would evolve to be non-harmful to their hosts. However, this is clearly not true many ancient host-parasite associations are still problematic for both host and pathogen. Furthermore, throughout human history, infectious diseases have remained a major cause of mortality. So what is it that maintains the pathogen's virulence in nature If we knew the answer to this question, would this help us design vaccines and other control measures that might drive the pathogen towards lower virulence (Williams and Nesse, 1991 Dieckmann et al., 2002)

Tissue Specific Expression

Since the initial report by Aihara and Miyazaki (51), in vivo electroporation of the skeletal muscle for delivery of therapeutic proteins has become widely used. Table 2 summarizes some of the recent literature reports in which electroporation was used to enhance plasmid delivery to skeletal muscle. Although the devices, conditions, methods, and animal models substantially differ, all studies conclude that plasmid injection followed by electroporation can be successfully used to deliver therapeutic genes. The electrokinetic enhancement of plasmid delivery allows the muscle to be used as a bioreactor for the persistent production and secretion of proteins into the bloodstream. The expression levels are increased by as much as 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over plasmid injection alone, to levels comparable to those of adenoviral-mediated gene delivery and may reach physiological ranges. The applications of intramuscular elec-troporation gene transfer are innovative and intriguing, and span...

Candidate Diseases For Cutaneous Gene Therapy

Gene transfer has become a practical method to induce an immune response. The skin is rich in antigen-presenting cells that are able to initiate and control a specific immune response. It has been demonstrated that injection of naked DNA that encodes antigenic epitopes can induce specific humoral immune responses (173). The advantages of immunomodulation by genetic vaccination are evident for example, there is no need to isolate and purify protein for vaccination, and it circumvents the use of life or attenuated viral vaccines. In addition, cutaneous transfer of plasmid DNA or mRNA allows for the concurrent delivery of genetic material encoding antigenic epitopes and immunomodulators (174,175). All these make cutaneous genetic transfer a desirable method for engineering specific immune responses. This strategy has been used to induce immune responses with different objectives, such as antitumoral immunotherapy, treatment prevention of infections, and treatment of autoimmune diseases...

Encephalitis lethargica

Prevention There is a vaccine for Japanese encephalitis currently available in the United States through most traveler's health clinics. It is about 85 percent effective in anyone over age one. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommends the vaccine only to those Americans who work in or visit at risk rural areas for more than four weeks. The risk is low to most travelers who stay in cities or who travel through the country only for short periods. People over age 55 may be at higher risk and should consider vaccination if they travel to areas of risk. The vaccine is given in three doses, and protection begins about 10 days after the last dose. A booster shot may be required in two years. Serious allergic reactions (hives and dangerous swelling of mouth and throat) have been reported in a few people, which may not appear until several days after vaccination. Patients with multiple allergies (especially to bee stings and drugs) appear to be at higher risk for side effects. Fever and...

Infections during pregnancy

A vaccine to prevent chickenpox became available in 1995. Now, children are routinely vaccinated against the illness, and the number of current and future cases is expected to decline. Those who had chickenpox or were vaccinated against it are typically immune to the virus. If you're not sure whether you're immune, your health care provider can perform a blood test to find out. The vaccine isn't approved for women who are pregnant. But if you're susceptible to the illness and still haven't conceived, your health care provider may recommend getting vaccinated and putting off pregnancy for a month or more. In childhood, chickenpox is generally a mild disease. However, in adults and especially in pregnant women it can be serious. If not treated, it can lead to complications such as pneumonia. An amniocentesis can test for infection in the fetus if CMV is diagnosed in a pregnant woman. Your health care provider may recommend a series of ultrasounds to see if the fetus develops structural...

Enuresis See bedwetting

Epiglottitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B, an aggressive bacterium that at one time caused many serious infections in children under age five. The vaccine against this bacteria has essentially wiped out all cases of H. influenzae epiglottitis, meningitis, cellulitis, and pneumonia, diseases that used to kill or cripple several thousand chil

Immunological Inflammatory Diarrheal Disorders

Regulator Cell Activation

The neonatal course is completely normal. Onset of intestinal symptoms is within the first months of life and it is rarely isolated, in contrast to congenital early onset enterocyte disorders. Diarrhea is often bloody and most often systemic inflammatory symptoms exist, i.e. fever, elevated inflammatory markers in blood and stools. Changes in the mode of alimentation, such as withdrawal of breastfeeding, the introduction of cow's milk proteins, but sometimes even a simple viral infection or a vaccination, may precede the onset of GI symptoms. A main characteristic of inflammatory or autoimmune

Parasites that remain in the lumen of the intestine

Research has focused on understanding how nematode parasites persist chronically in the intestine evading the immune system as well as why certain individuals have higher worm burdens than others in the same population. Results from these studies may aid the development of vaccination strategies, although the worm's ability to naturally evade expulsion and reinfect most individuals makes the task challenging. In general, intestinal worm infections result in an increase in T helper 2 (TH2) response which includes an increase in infiltrating eosinophils, mast cells, IgA, IgE and mucus secretion into the intestine. Although the mechanisms for induction and the role these cells and molecules play for the host defense to worms are not entirely known, some details are starting to be elucidated. For instance, it has been shown that mast cells are capable of killing larval cells of the nematode Trichuris spiralis (Bradley and Jackson, 2004 Hayes et al., 2004). Also, an observational study of...

Immunizations for kidney disease patients

Anyone undergoing hemodialysis or who has had a kidney transplant should receive the three-dose series of HEPATITIS B, an INFLUENZA vaccine each fall, and the PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE. See also IMMUNIZATION VACCINE. immunizations for patients with impaired immune systems Anyone with an impaired immune system should receive an INFLUENZA vaccine each fall, and a one-time PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE with a booster in six years. Those with HIV infection should also receive these two vaccines, plus the primary series of the HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B conjugate vaccine (Hib). Also indicated are two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and the inactivated poliovirus vaccine if not immune or without previous vaccination. Patients who have had their spleen removed should have both the pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccine. See also IMMUNIZATION VACCINE. immunizations for pregnant women Pregnant women who are not immune to MEASLES, MUMPS, or rubella should receive these live virus VACCINES...

What about [Fill in the Blank Other Possible Causes

You may have read newspaper stories or heard other media accounts linking vaccinations and autism spectrum disorders. In 1998, Dr. Andrew Wakefield, a British doctor specializing in diseases of the gastrointestinal system, created quite a stir when he and his colleagues suggested that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine might contribute to both chronic bowel problems and autism in some children. He described 12 children who had both bowel problems and autism that started in some (but not all) cases shortly after the child received the MMR vaccine. Dr. Wakefield hypothesized that the vaccine caused the bowel problems, which in turn led to decreased absorption of essential vitamins and nutrients, causing brain development anomalies that resulted in autism and other developmental problems. Another possible mechanism through which the vaccine could cause autism is related to the autoimmunity theory, in which a viral infection turns on the immune system, which for some reason...

Buccal Drug Delivery Systems

Table 16.6 lists commercially available products for oral TMD. Most are conventional dosage forms adapted for oral mucosal delivery (e.g., tablets, sprays) but there is an increasing presence of novel systems for delivery of traditional drugs, proteins, peptides, and vaccines. Combinations of unifunctional and multifunctional materials may decrease previous limitations for product design. Indeed, new excipients, including a new polymer specifically designed for melt extrusion, Soluplus ,

Selenium Deficiency Viral Disease and Mutation and Immune Function

In a study in Liverpool, UK, healthy adult subjects with initial plasma selenium concentrations below 1.2 mmol l were given placebo or 50 or 100 mg daily supplements of selenium as selenite for 15 weeks. After 6 weeks, they were given oral live attenuated polivirus vaccine, and after 9 weeks, 74Se stable isotope was given intravenously to measure their body Se pool size. The Se supplements significantly increased the Se pool size, and the supplemented groups cleared the poliovirus more rapidly and their fecal viral RNA products exhibited fewer mutations. Cellular immune response (estimated by interferon-7 and other cytokines) was

Typhus epidemic louseborne 283

Prevention Epidemic typhus may be prevented by vaccination and control of infesta Prevention Anyone who has had contact with the patient must be quarantined for 15 days. Immunization, louse control, and good personal hygiene are effective ways of protecting against typhus. No typhus cases are known to have occurred in an American traveler since 1950, and no typhus vaccine is available in the United States. The risk to a U.S. traveler of contracting typhus is very small. See also TYPHUS, SCRUB TYPHUS, ENDEMIC FLEA-BORNE.

Maximization of basic reproduction rate by optimization of virulence

Of attenuated vaccines by passaging human parasites in an animal host show that after so-called parasite capture (the transmission of a parasite to a new host species) the parasite is usually not able to multiply in the new host quite as efficiently, as a result of which it tends to show lower virulence. The parasite's virulence in the new host grows as it gradually adapts to it, until the pathological manifestations of parasitosis become so severe that they considerably shorten the life of the infected host and thus also the average duration of an infrapopulation. At that point the force of individual selection for the parasite's faster reproduction and hence for increased virulence becomes balanced by the force of kin and group selection operating in the opposite direction. A parasite's virulence is, of course, determined first and foremost by evolutionary constraints, for example, by which of the host's organs it parasitizes and which resources it takes from the host. Yet the...

Treatment Of Lyme Disease

Unfortunately, it is difficult to tell if a child who has had Lyme disease in the past has a new infection. The child's titer will be positive from the previous infection, and it is virtually impossible to culture the spirochete from tissues to prove an infection is present. Currently there is no vaccine against Lyme an earlier vaccine was withdrawn from the market because it had side effects and did not guarantee protection from future infection.

Alzheimers Disease AD

Dale Shenk, Ph.D., at Elan Pharmaceuticals in San Francisco reported that the initial results of vaccination were very promising (Psychiatric News, August 18, 2000). Unfortunately, he stopped the trial because of central nervous system inflammation in some of the subjects. There is still hope that a b-amyloid vaccine might eventually be a safe and effective treatment for AD, and many are pursuing research in this direction. Some pep-tides that bind to amyloid plaques are not toxic to human neurons in tissue culture. Other investigators are developing compounds that inhibit the enzymes involved in the production of b-amyloid, namely, b- and g-secretase.

Principles That Apply To Biologics

Government protection of the public health in the United States dates back to the 18th century. In 1785 the State of Massachusetts passed a law prohibiting the sale of diseased, corrupted, contagious or unwholesome provisions if known to the seller, but not the buyer, with the punishment to be inflicted according to the degree and aggravation of the offence. Punishments included fines, imprisonment or use of the pillory. In 1813 the United States Federal government passed the Vaccine Act which was signed by President James Madison. The law limited imports of certain foods and medicines, but it was one of the first national measures intended to protect consumers. In 1901 in St. Louis, Missouri a five year old girl died in a city hospital of tetanus following administration of tetanus antitoxin. The antitoxin serum was traced to a retired milk horse named Jim, who had been a prolific producer of antiserum, but who had been destroyed because of infection with tetanus. Unfortunately...

Accepting the Enigma Moving Beyond the Cause

Another couple, Ron and Carol, ask me to see their son, Robert, who is now ten years old. I saw him for the first time some six years ago for a diagnostic assessment, but the purpose of this current appointment is to discuss possible causes of his autism. They have two younger children, ages four and five, both of whom are doing very well, and there is no history of autism on either side of the family. Carol and Ron, who are both lawyers, have seen many physicians about their son's autism. I vividly remember the history from the first time I saw the family. Apparently Robert developed very nicely until age eighteen months. He had about fifty words, was always smiling, responsive, and engaging. All this could be seen from the videotape of his first birthday that his parents kindly supplied me. It showed him happy, blowing out the candles, clapping his hands, and laughing at all the goings-on. But a few weeks after his vaccination needle at eighteen months, he became quite ill. One...

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