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Kindle Money Mastery

If you have ever wanted to be able to be an author for a living or as a side hobby, this is the online course for you! This course gives you access to all kinds of ebook and materials on how to make the most of the Amazon Kindle Store to make a huge amount of money! You don't need to be a creative genius, spend Hours on end writing, or even know how to use Kindle! All that you have to do is follow the instructions in this course by Stefan Pylarinos. Stefan built this course based on what he does for a living Every Single DAY. This is REAL information that has been perfected in a real business Why would this NOT work for you? This is how Stefan makes his money Why not you? Just think You can make living money writing Kindle books. And you can learn all about how to get started making money with K Money Mastery! Continue reading...

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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

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General Approach To Evidence Review

Established templates for reviewing scientific evidence set out approaches for gathering evidence and assessing its sufficiency to infer causality of association. With regard to obtaining evidence for review, the approach needs to involve clearly specified search criteria that facilitate collection of all potentially relevant studies for evaluation. For some purposes, there may also be an attempt to capture relevant reports in the gray literature (non-peer-reviewed or unpublished findings) to obtain the full set of relevant data and to ensure that publication bias does not skew the evidence evaluated, as may occur when datasets are gathered exclusively

Box 1 The systemic organizational and interactional determinants of successful interprofessional collaboration

A recent systematic review of postdischarge, nurse-led management for complex patients in general health care identified 10 acceptable studies (Latour and colleagues, unpublished data). The investigators concluded that there was moderate evidence that case management has a positive effect on patient satisfaction, but it was not possible to draw firm conclusions about its impact on other outcome measures.

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

No adverse effects or toxicity have been reported for bambangan kernel in humans or animals. In addition, no cytotoxic activity was observed in normal human (MRC-5) and rat fibroblast (3T3) cell lines after incubation with bambangan kernel extract at concentrations of up to 100 mg ml (unpublished data). The kernel of bambangan can be regarded as safe, since it is eaten with the flesh as a pickle by the local community. However, possible toxic effects of bambangan kernel extracts at high doses and or with long-term exposure should be considered.

Bacterial Elements Involved in Catecholamine Mediated Growth Induction

For E. coli, the enterobactin synthesis gene entA (Freestone et al. 2000, 2003 Burton et al. 2002) was found to be essential for catecholamine growth induction. Later, work from our laboratory demonstrated that the product of the entF gene was also required, as were also proteins involved in synthesising amino acid precursors for enterobactin, such as AroK and AroD (Freestone, unpublished data). The presence of a functional uptake system for enterobactin was also found to be necessary, as an E.coli tonB mutant failed to grow in the presence of the catecholamine nor-epinephrine (Freestone et al. 2003) or to dopamine, or a variety of dietary catechol compounds (Freestone et al. 2007c). The response of the E.coli siderophore mutants to growth in serum-based medium in the presence of the catecholamine noreipephrine is shown in Fig. 3.4a. In the case of Salmonella, initial unpublished work from our laboratory (Fig. 3.4b) that was later extended by Williams et al. (2006) and Bearson et al....

Neurovirulence of murine oncornaviruses

The polytropic viruses, like the ecotropic viruses, gain access to the central nervous system by infecting microvascular endothelial cells (Robertson et al., 1997), though the amplification step at this site is of a far lower magnitude (Robertson and Portis, unpublished). Microglial cells comprise the predominant parenchymal cell that is infected by these viruses (Robertson et al., 1997), but, unlike the ecotropic viruses, infection of neurons has not been observed (Portis et al., 1995). The kinetics and the severity of the ataxia induced by these viruses have been found to be functions of the frequency of infected microglia (Robertson et al., 1997) and thus, microglial cell infection would appear to be an important determinant of the neurovirulence of these viruses as well. However, the implantation studies carried out in the ecotropic model have not been done with the polytropic viruses. The results of this C17.2 implant study, however, appear at odds with results of transgenic...

Iron Delivery May Not Be the Whole Story of Catecholamine Mediated Growth Induction

We also have also recently found that E. coli elements proposed to be involved in catecholamine responsiveness (the Qse and luxS gene products) (Sperandio et al. 2003 Clarke et al. 2006) are not required for catecholamine growth induction (our unpublished data). This suggests that for E. coli in the growth context at least, intra-kingdom signalling (quorum sensing) and inter-kingdom signalling (microbial endocrinology) do not overlap.

The Association of Chronic Inflammation and Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors GEPNETs

According to our unpublished data chromogranin A (CgA) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), currently used as standard biochemical markers of neuroendocrine tumors were only positive in 76.84 and 20.79 of GEP-NET cases respectively. Tumor markers were analyzed in 101 patients (61.2 with localized and 38.8 with metastatic disease) diagnosed with GEP-NETs. According to same investigation, CgA levels were much higher when tumors were part of MEN1 syndrome, while 5-HIAA levels were higher in case of metastatic disease, especially when hepatic metastases were present. When 5-HIAA values were compared among patients with different tumor localizations, the highest values were detected in patients with functional midgut tumors. This is consistent with data of other authors on biochemical diagnostics of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.4

Cadherin Ectodomain Shedding

Immunoadsorption, induction of invasion and inhibition of aggregation did no longer occur, showing that extracellular cadherin fragments induce loss ofcell-cell adhesion and lead to tumor cell invasion (293, our unpublished results). The cadherin inhibiting activity of soluble cadherin fragments is mimicked by synthetic cadherin peptides containing the HAV sequence (Figure 7). The functions of the E-cadherin catenin complex were inhibited by HAV-containing E-cadherin peptides in a specific way as evidenced by inhibition of aggregation, disturbance of epithelial morphology and induction of invasion into collagen type I and into precultured embryonic chick heart fragments (293). We found that only N-cadherin- and ECSODB (extracellular superoxide dismutase B)-specific HAV-containing decapeptides inhibit N-cadherin mediated aggregation and that only P-cadherin-specific HAV peptides could block the aggregation of cells expressing P-cadherin (294). An N-cadherin-specific HAV-containing...

The Distribution Of Hand Preference The Right Minus Left Grasp Reflex

For females, 42 (26.3 ) were right handed (significantly stronger right hand), 15 (9.4 ) were left handed (significantly stronger left hand), and 103 (64.4 ) were mixed handed (no significant difference between hands). For males, 42 (25.1 ) were right handed, 12 (7.2 ) were left handed, and 113 (67.7 ) were mixed handed. These results were recently reported by Tan & Tan (1999) elsewhere. Sex was not a significant factor for these distributions, x (2) 0.70, - .l0. Our further unpublished observations showed that the number of the mixed-handed males (N 113) significantly exceeded the number of the mixed-handed females (N 103). The number One of the results of my unpublished observations (see above) was that the mean R-L grasp-reflex strength was significantly greater than zero the number of participants with R-L 0 (right dominant 65.1 ) significantly exceeded the number of participants with R-L 0 (left dominant 34.9 ). This indicates that the R-L grasp-reflex strength exhibited a right...

HGF in tumourstromal interactions

Although a wide variety of carcinoma cells express the Met receptor and HGF exhibits biological activities in these cells, most carcinoma cell lines do not secrete HGF. In over 70 distinct carcinoma cells, only a few types of tumour cell lines secrete HGF (our unpublished data). However, Seslar et al (224) first noted that human breast carcinoma cells secreted a stimulatory factor(s) that enhances HGF production in fibroblasts and a similar observation was noted by Rosen et al. (225). Subsequently HGF-inducers derived from many types of tumour cells were identified (49, 50, 60, 96, 223) a variety of tumour cells secrete a variety of HGF-inducers and these include interleukin-la (IL-la), IL-ip, bFGF, PDGF, TGF-a, and prostaglandin E2. These molecules transcriptionally activate expression of the HGF gene. Among these inducing factors for stromal fibroblast production of HGF, and are

The Model Host System for Studying Pathogenesis

This chapter focuses on the elucidation of the genomic basis for differences in pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa isolates, utilizing genomic tools developed for the virulent strain, PA14, in the context of a high-throughput C. elegans infection system. Although our initial emphasis has been on the use of bacterial tools, this type of analysis could also be extended by the addition of reagents to dissect the C. elegans response to pathogen attack, such as genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) libraries and microarray transcriptional profiling (N. Liberati, R. Feinbaum, and F. M. Ausubel, unpublished observations Gravato-Nobre et al., 2005 O'Rourke et al., 2006 Troemel et al., 2006). In general, the multi-host infection system combined with the use of genomic tools can be applied to the study of interactions between various host organisms and microbial pathogens.

Aging And The Corpus Callosum

Magnetic resonance imaging techniques have also been employed in studies of morphological changes with age in the corpus callosum. Bleier, Houston, and Byne (1986) refer to unpublished findings from their laboratory of an age-associated decrease in anterior posterior distance but no details are provided. It seems likely that the data were incorporated in the subsequent paper by Byne, Bleier, and Houston (1988) in which it is reported that there was a significant effect for age in anterior-posterior distance in which age was defined as above and below 40 years. There was also an interaction with gender, there being no difference between males and females in the younger group but a smaller callosal length in the anterior 4 5ths in men over 40 compared with women. Holloway and de Lacoste (1986) found no correlation between overall callosal area and age. On the other hand, Allen, Richey, Chai, and Gorski (1991) reported a significant decrease in total callosal area with advancing age and...

Immune Modulating Effects of Lentinan

These results suggested that oral administration of lentinan may serve as a means of activating the immune system, provoking the immune responses required for disease prevention. Lentinan, once ingested, may encounter the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which is a well-developed immune network, evolved to protect the host from infecting pathogens. Lentinan may also be absorbed into the systemic circulation, thereafter, involved in inducing immune systems against future pathogenic attack. Quantitative analysis of orally administered lentinan in murine blood carried out using limulus colorimetric test demonstrated that pure lentinan was detected in the murine blood and peaked at 0.2 mg (equivalent to the usual intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation dosage) 30 min after feeding (Yap and Ng, unpublished data).

Use Of Liposomes To Deliver Vectors With Selectable Markers

We are developing a gene therapy model to treat Fabry disease (123) using intravenous injections of a pHa-aGal-IRES-MDR bicistronic vector complexed to cationic liposomes into a-galactosidase A deficient mice (T. Shoshani and M. M. Gottesman, unpublished results). Both human a-Gal and MDR1 were detectable in the lungs of the recipient Fabry mice by Southern blot analysis 7 days after injection. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of total RNA extracted from the kidneys of recipient Fabry mice showed the presence of both human a-Gal and MDR 1 mRNA. The expression in the kidneys was specific to the a-galactosi-dase-A-deficient mice, where renal tubule cells may be dam-agedby an accumulation of glycosphingolipids. In situ hybridization analysis localized the mRNA expression to the renal distal tubule epithelial cells. Higher RNA expression was obtained in Fabry mice that were injected 3 times every third day. The repeated administration is tolerated by the...

Downregulation of estrogen receptors by mitogenactivated protein kinases

Although, as established above, growth factor pathways can enhance ER phosphorylation, transcriptional activity and cell growth in a lig-and-independent manner, paradoxically a decline in ER expression is also a possible outcome when growth factor signaling is extreme or sustained. Evidence for this arises from several stable transfection studies in ER-positive breast cancer cells. Such studies demonstrate that growth factor signaling elements comprising the EGFR HER2 pathway, which share an ability to hyperactivate ERK1 2 MAP kinase, all act to impair ER function and promote ER loss when overexpressed in ER-positive breast cancer cells. In our own laboratory, we have shown that constitutive upregulation of MEK1 in MCF-7 cells leads to a substantial increase in ERK1 2 MAP kinase activation, decreased ER level, and marked loss of expression of the ER-regulated gene progesterone receptor (PR) (RA McClelland, unpublished observations). Similarly, El-Ashry and colleagues39,40 have noted...

Results and Discussion 21 The T3SS of

And three Hrp-associated proteins (HpaA-C), which are non-essential virulence proteins (GUrlebeck et al., 2006). Expression of the T3SS is induced in the plant and in certain minimal media and is controlled by two regulators, HrpG and HrpX, which are encoded outside of the hrp region. HrpG, a member of the OmpR family of transcriptional regulators, is constitutively expressed but needs to be activated via an unknown signal from the plant. Active HrpG then induces the transcription of hrpX, which encodes an AraC-type regulator that in turn controls expression of most genes in the hrp region and genes elsewhere in the genome (for a recent comprehensive review, see Gurlebeck et al., 2006). Most HrpX-regulated promoters contain a conserved sequence element, the PIP (plant-inducible promoter consensus TTCG-N16-TTCG) box, which is specifically bound by HrpX (Koebnik et al., 2006). More than 100 hrpG- and hrpX-induced genes have been identified by cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses (Noel et...

Regulation of Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Cancer Chemopreventive Activity

Depending on its concentration, RSV can both stimulate (as shown with ER+ breast cancer and pituitary cells (Mizutani et al., 1998) and inhibit cell proliferation (Clement et al., 1998a Joe et al., 2002 Pervaiz, 2001). Generally, at the concentrations used in vitro the effect is predominantly antiprolifer-ative, as demonstrated in a variety of cancer cell lines (Bhat and Pezzuto, 2002). The mechanism(s) for this growth inhibitory activity of RSV could be due to its ability to block ribonucleotide reductase, a complex enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides into the corresponding deoxyribo-nucleotides (Fontecave et al., 1998). Inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductases, such as gemcitabine (2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine), have been in clinical use owing to their inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis (Grunewald et al., 1992). A second probable mechanism for the observed antiproliferative activity of RSV could be its ability to inhibit DNA polymerase (Tsan et al., 2002) or...

Amylopectin fine structure

Amylopectin is the major component, by weight, of normal starch granules ( 75 ). The cluster model (Fig. 9.3) is the accepted model to describe its fine structure. The branched chains are classified as A chains (no further branching point), B chains (with one or more branching points), and the C chain - the only chain with a reducing end. The fine structure of amylopectin mainly refers to the chain-length distribution, the branching density, internal chain lengths, and cluster repeating distance. The relationship between amylopectin fine structure and starch functionality has been extensively studied. However, its effect on the nutritional quality of starch is not as well investigated. Recent research in our laboratory (G. Zhang and B. R. Hamaker, unpublished data, 2006) shows that both high amounts of short chains (principally the A chains) and high amounts of long chains (intermediate to long B chains) tend to result in more SDS. Shi and Seib (1995) showed that B1 chains having...

Other physical modifications retrogradation

Extensive research has shown that water content, temperature of storage, and the existence of other ingredients affect starch retrogradation. Most of the RS in food is produced through retrogradation, particularly by amylose retrogradation which occurs very rapidly. Thus, foods produced with high-amylose starch usually have low GI values due to the occurrence of retrogradation. Alternatively, low-GI or controlled glycemic foods can also be made using SDS ingredients. Preliminary data from our laboratory (G. Zhang and B. R. Hamaker, unpublished data, 2005) show that controlled retrogradation can be used to make SDS. Similarly, Shi et al. (2003) and Shin et al. (2004a) showed that less retrogradation with partially debranched starch ingredients makes it possible to produce SDS. Perhaps SDS, in these cases, is due to the formation of imperfect crystallites.

For Pain Provoked By Palpation

Fig. 8.5 Representation of knee and ankle pain according to Dr Caterina Fresi (unpublished data, with permission). 1 and 2 lateral and medial capsule-ligament complex of the knee 3 and 4 capsule-ligament complex respectively of lateral and medial malleolus. Fig. 8.5 Representation of knee and ankle pain according to Dr Caterina Fresi (unpublished data, with permission). 1 and 2 lateral and medial capsule-ligament complex of the knee 3 and 4 capsule-ligament complex respectively of lateral and medial malleolus.

Degradation Of Phytate In The Colon

Inositol phosphates in the feces material were analyzed (Sandberg, Andersson, Cummings, unpublished results) 68 . A mean of 25-35 hydrolysis of InsP6 was found, although individual variation occurred (Table 9.2). There were no significant differences between the dietary periods, and there was no increased degradation after the third period compared with the first period. As the diet did not contain phytase activity, the results suggest that a degradation of phytate occurs in the colon of humans. In the feces samples from a human subject consuming the white bread diet supplemented with high amounts of sodium phytate, constituting the main source of phytate in the diet, almost equal amounts of DL-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 and DL-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 were found 65 . Both cereal phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) during bread making and mi-crobial phytase (EC 3.1.3.8) from the microflora of the colon participate in the degradation of phytate. Moreover, the feces samples contained several different isomers of...

Standard therapeutic approaches

There is now no doubt that adjuvant hormone therapy prolongs survival in some patients with breast cancer (see Chapter 13). It is entirely logical, therefore that adjuvant (or early) androgen deprivation should be investigated in prostate cancer. The results of randomised trials of immediate versus deferred hormone therapy in prostate cancer have been conflicting. One of the largest recent studies was performed by the UK Medical Research Council, and this study did, indeed, suggest that immediate hormone therapy improved survival, in both metastatic and non-metastatic patients (73). However, a meta-analysis of all available randomised trials of immediate versus deferred hormone therapy by the Prostate Cancer Trialists' Group has suggested that, although immediate hormone therapy has a substantial effect on prostate-cancer specific mortality, its effect on overall mortality is very small (unpublished data, presented to the Royal Society of Medicine, London, & O. Dalesio, personal...

Can RXLR Effectors Enter Host Plants in the Absence of the Pathogen

Whether RXLR effectors require pathogen machinery or structures (e.g., haustoria) to enter plant cells is currently unclear. In our laboratory, we have failed so far to trigger R3a hypersensitivity using recombinant AVR3aKI proteins (unpublished data). Shan et al. (2004) reported that infiltration of P. sojae RXLR effector Avr1b-1, produced in Pichia pastoris, into Rps1b soybean leaves resulted in cell death. However, it is unknown (although highly likely) whether Rps1b is a cytoplasmic protein and confirmation of Avr1b-1 activity by in planta expression inside soybean cells has not been reported yet. Clearly, it would be highly informative to test Avr1b-1 recombinant proteins mutated in the RXLR sequence using the infiltration assay of Shan et al. (2004).

Effects Of Acetaldehyde On Platelets

Agonists 39,40 , We have been recently performing studies on acetaldehyde, and find little if any effect of acetaldehyde, added in vitro, on human platelet aggregation at concentrations consistent with levels in humans after ethanol consumption (unpublished data from our laboratory). More work is needed in this area.

Development and scientific substantiation

Whole-Hoodia powder contains variable amounts of fibre, organic material, antioxidants and biologically active substances including steroidal glycosides. One substance in particular is common to at least five species of Hoodia. This is the steroidal trisaccharide called 3-0- beta-D-thevetopyranosyl-(1 4)-beta-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 It has been termed 'P57' because it was the 57th plant-derived compound investigated for commercial development by the British pharmaceutical company Phytopharm. An excellent review of the history of the development of Hoodia appears on the Internet (BioMolecular Sciences, Inc). P57 has been patented by Phytopharm and developed in collaboration with the CSIR (South African Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). The P57 originating from H. gordonii, as supplied by Phytopharm, is named P57AS3. It is this compound that is said to be responsible for the anorectic quality of the plant. Of three scientific reports on animal studies involving P57, only one...

Estimated Therapeutic and Loael Doses of Vitamin E

VES is more effective than alpha-tocopherol in vitro, and if it is not fully metabolized to alpha-tocopherol, it may also be more effective in vivo. Although study results conflict, it appears, unfortunately, that it is heavily metabolized. The majority of orally administered VES is converted to alpha-tocopherol in the gastrointestinal tract before absorption.187 Indeed, VES apparently is equipotent to alpha-tocopherol in increasing alpha-tocopherol plasma concentrations.188 Nonetheless, one paper proposed that oral administration still adequately increases VES plasma concentrations. This paper, which referred to unpublished human data, stated that oral administration of 800 I.U. of VES per day produced a VES plasma concentration of about 11 pM and an alpha-tocopherol concentration of about 140 pM.139 This concentration of VES would be sufficient to inhibit many cancer cell lines. In contrast, a rat study reported that VES was not detected in the plasma after oral administration of...

Ustilago maydis Does Not Use Aggressive Infection Strategies

Apoplast at later stages of the infection the hyphae are often branched, sometimes with extensions reaching into plant cells. The plant cells appear enlarged and are often separated from their neighboring cells while their plasma membranes are still intact (Snetselaar and Mims, 1994). During these stages the fungal hyphae are imbedded in a mucilaginous material of unknown composition. We consider it likely that this material acts as a shield against antimicrobial defenses by the host. In future, it will be interesting to elucidate which of the secreted plant cell wall degrading enzymes are actually needed during penetration and which are required at the stage of tumor formation. In this regard it is of interest that it has recently been accomplished to induce appressorium formation on artificial surfaces (Mendoza-Mendoza and Kahmann, unpublished). Transcription profiles of this stage in comparison to the tumor stage is likely to provide important insights into which plant cell wall...

Ustilago maydis Regulates its Interaction with the Host via a Set of Novel Secreted Protein Effectors

That the number of clusters where the deletion causes an infection related phenotype will go up when double mutants have been generated. This set of experiments has demonstrated that the interaction of U. maydis with its host is largely governed by a set of secreted protein effectors of yet unknown function. The identification of these genes by virtue of their clustering and co-regulation has demonstrated the power of functional genomics. As the chosen definition of gene clusters is completely arbitrary, we are now extending our analysis to all unknown genes that are up-regulated in tumor tissue and whose products are predicted to be secreted. Preliminary analyses already indicate that many more genes with a specific function during pathogenesis can be uncovered by this approach (Brefort, Dohlemann and Kahmann, unpublished).

The Future Of Bootcamp Prisons

New York State Department of Correctional Services and the New York Division of Parole. (1993). The fifth annual shock legislative report. Albany, NY Unpublished report by the Division of Program Planning, Research and Evaluation and the Office of Policy Analysis and Information.

Human and nonhuman primate studies

A second study with the same strain of mice, but utilizing a modified AIN '76 liquid diet with 36 alcohol-derived calories, showed that alcohol had no effect on apolipoprotein A-I levels 23 , This AIN '76 diet differed from the Lieber-DeCarli diet in that it lacks essential fatty acids and has approximately 2 of the vitamin A content. Since retinoic acid regulates apolipoprotein A-I expression 24 , it is conceivable that the vitamin A content may modify the ethanol response, however this has not been examined. Genetics may also play a role in the ethanol effect. LDL receptor knockout mice fed the modified AIN '76 diet for 6 weeks did demonstrate an approximate 50 decrease in apolipoprotein A-I levels 23 , However, inclusion of alcohol (36 of calories) raised apolipoprotein A-I levels to control levels. This effect does not appear to be secondary to an increase in hepatic apolipoprotein A-I synthesis (unpublished observation). However, alcohol does not increase apolipoprotein A-I...

National and International QMRAs

Implemented into the QMRA due to uncertainties attributed to the lack of important data and validation alternatives. Published and unpublished data were analyzed and used to generate a unified dose-response model for the probability of infection by Campylobacter spp. This data however carry a degree of uncertainty since it only included a limited number of strains, used a milk matrix, and considered only healthy volunteers in the feeding trial. Although no risk estimates or evaluation of risk mitigation strategies were provided at this stage of development of the QMRA, a comprehensive analysis of each step of the QMRA was provided, as well as detailed identification of data gaps. jointly by FDA and FSIS (2001). This QMRA was initiated as an evaluation tool to support the Healthy People 2010 government initiative aimed at reducing the incidence of foodborne listeriosis by 50 by the end of 2005. RTE foods with a documented history of contamination with L. monocytogenes were considered...

Conclusions and future prospects

Significant advances in the diagnosis of AD CMRD and in the understanding of lipoprotein secretion have occurred over the last decade. However, many questions remain to be answered. SAR1b is a ubiquitous protein, essential for the trafficking of proteins between the ER and the Golgi. Why do the mutations in SAR1B, that have been reported to date, apparently affect only the intestine and the transport of chylomicrons in the enterocyte Although an increase of SAR1A mRNA was measured in enterocytes containing mutated SAR1B 27 , the AD CMRD phenotype was still manifested by a lack of chylomicron secretion. Under what conditions, if any, could SAR1a replace SAR1b Is SAR1a the veritable GTPase for COPII vesicles Do some mutations or polymorphisms in other regulator genes explain the lack of correlation between genotype and phenotype in AD CMRD There are some CMRD patients without mutations of SAR1B, SAR1A, VAMP7, MTTP genes (unpublished data). What gene mutations could explain the AD CMRD...

Of Magnaporthe oryzae

Over the last several years, my laboratory has been engaged in the development of a genetic map and molecular karyotype for M. orzyae (Farman and Leong, 1995 Nitta et al., 1997 Skinner et al., 1993), the identification and genetic mapping of a cultivar specificity gene AVR1-CO39 to rice cultivar CO39 (Smith and Leong, 1994), and the map-based cloning of AVR1-CO39 and the phylogenetic distribution and structure of its alleles (Farman et al., 2002 Tosa et al., 2005). Our published and unpublished work in these areas are presented in the following sections.

Structure of AVR1CO39 in Nonrice Infecting Isolates of M orzyae

However, the function of these alleles in non-rice isolates is unknown. They may function in host resistance to rice but few rice lines carry the corresponding PiCO39 (t) (Tosa et al., 2005 S. Leong, unpublished findings). Recent work has suggested evidence for race-specific resistance in barley to the blast fungus indicating that AVR1-CO39 might function in race-specific resistance in other cereals (Chen et al., 2003). It will be interesting to learn if homologs of Pi-CO39 (t) in barley exist and if they are involved in blast resistance.

Antioxidant Properties

Source Reprinted from our unpublished data. Source Reprinted from our unpublished data. Source Reprinted from our unpublished data. Source Reprinted from our unpublished data. Source Reprinted from our unpublished data. Source Reprinted from our unpublished data. Source Reprinted from our unpublished data. Source Reprinted from our unpublished data.

Reporter Transgene Design

Fig. 1. (A,B) Dynamic progression of myogenin gene expression during the development of the skeletal musculature. The embryos shown, stained with X-gal for P-galactosidase activity, are from a transgenic line carrying a nuclear localized lacZ reporter under the control of 1.1 kb of myogenin 5'-flanking sequence (Ashby and P. W. J. R., unpublished data see ref. 6). At 11.5 dpc (A) intense bars of staining can be seen within the myotomal component of the somitic mesoderm. By 13.5 dpc (B), specific muscle blocks are clearly distinct. (C) Use of dual reporter transgenes within the same embryo. A coronal section through the hindbrain of a 9.5-dpc embryo is shown (anterior is uppermost). Blue staining resulting from P-galactosidase activity is derived from expression of the lacZ gene under the control of a Hoxb-2 enhancer, which is active in rhombomeres 3 and 5. A second construct harbors the alkaline phosphatase gene under the control of an enhancer from Hoxb-2, which directs expression in...

A HSV Gene Transfer for Neuropathy and Pain

Gastrocnemius Muscle Transfer

Mice rendered diabetic by the injection of streptozotocin develop a pure sensory neuropathy, manifest by reduction in the evoked sensory amplitude. Injection of either vector SHN or vector SLN 2 weeks after the onset of diabetes protected the animals from the development of neuropathy, measured by the foot sensory amplitude at 6 weeks of diabetes (163). This protective effect persists through 6 months of diabetes (Goss and Fink, unpublished data, 2002). In addition, expression of neuropeptide (calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P) genes in the in the DRG was preserved in the vector-inoculated animals, demonstrating protection of the neuro- We then extended these results to an immunocompetent tumor model that may more closely mimic the human disease by carrying out survival studies comparing the efficiency of HSV-TK, TNF, and Cx43 in combination with GCV, with and without radiosurgery using the 9L gliosarcoma model in immunocompetent Fisher 344 rats (Niranjan and Glorioso,...

CRF type 2 receptor knockout mice CRF2 receptor KO

While there is compelling evidence that the expression of anxiety-like behavior depends highly on CRFi receptor activation, the existence of CRF2 receptors in regions of the amygdala, BNST, and lateral septum suggests that a role for this receptor subtype should not be excluded. Analyses of anxiety-like behavior in the three lines of CRF2 receptor KO mice have yielded disparities, which render somewhat tenuous conclusions regarding this receptor subtype and anxiety. We have found no evidence for altered anxiety responses in CRF2 receptor KO mice using the elevated plus maze, open field activity (Coste et al, 2000), and the light dark emergence test (unpublished data). Our results differ from those obtained with independently generated CRF2 receptor KO mice wherein increased anxiety-like behavior was observed. Such differences between mouse models highlight the potential caveat of genetic background, which may play a critical role, particularly when behavioral alterations are subtle...

Oligonucleotide Formulations

Liposomes have been studied to transport oligonucleotides into the skin. They can increase the fluidity of skin lipid layers (similar to chemical enhancers) to facilitate transdermal permeation and can also carry encapsulated molecules through appendageal pathway (201,202). Mixture of a phosphorothio-ate oligodeoxynucleotide with a suspension of anionic or neutral lipids resulted in a slight increase in accumulation in epidermis and dermis (R. Mehta, unpublished, 1999). Using a combination of different delivery techniques and formulations, it appears to be feasible to deliver a therapeutically relevant amount of antisense oligonucleotide to the skin. In addition, preliminary results in our laboratory show a dose-dependent pharmacological effect consistent with the antisense mechanism of action of an ICAM-1 antisense oligonu-cleotide, ISIS 2302 (200). Studies are also underway to assess pharmacology and tissue kinetics of ISIS 2302 in human disease models. The physicochemical...

Engineering Mdr Vectors To Improve Efficiency Of Drug Selection

Due to its broad substrate specificity, P-gp not only interacts with chemotherapeutic compounds but also with reversing agents and inhibitors. In combination chemotherapies, reversing agents increase the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in MDR 1-expressing cancers. Two of the most potent reversing agents currently in use or in clinical trials are cyclosporin A and its nonimmunosuppressive analog PSC833. Recently, a number of mutants have been described that affect sensitivity to these agents. Cells expressing a human P-gp containing a deletion at Phe335 or Phe334 are substantially resistant to cyclosporin A and PSC-833 (233), Hrycyna, C.A., Pastan, I., and Gottesman, M.M., unpublished data . A similar phenotype has been observed for a transporter containing 5 mutations in the region including TM 5 and TM6, namely Ile299Met, Thr319Ser, Leu322Ile, Gly324Lys, and Ser351Asn (234). Additionally, in hamster P-gp, the substitution of an alanine at position 339 with proline results in a...

Probioticsderived biosurfactant

The mean of adherence reduction percentage of mutans streptococci in presence of biosurfactants derived from L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus and L.fermentum (Unpublished data). Fig. 7. The mean of adherence reduction percentage of mutans streptococci in presence of biosurfactants derived from L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus and L.fermentum (Unpublished data).

Vector Transgene Expression

We have explored the activity of many viral and cellular promoters in the background of replication-defective viral vectors (47,110-118). These lytic gene promoters display transient activity in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Thus, viral IE promoters are effective for applications that require only transient transgene expression. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE gene promoter produced vigorous transgene expression for up to 21 days post infection in vivo (Ramakrish-nan and Fink, unpublished data, 1991) and in neuronal cell cultures in the background of a vector deleted for ICP4, ICP27, and ICP22 (41). Studies in rabbits and primates have demonstrated transgene expression under control of the HCMV promoter for at least 1 year following infection of rabbit joints (119). Other promoters, such as SV40 and various retroviral LTRs, are also transiently active (113,120) following infection of brain. Cellular promoters such as the muscle-specific muscle creatinine kinase (MCK)...

Comparative DNA Sequence Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Cultivars at the PiCO39 t Locus

The DNA sequence of 6 BAC clones (phrap score 30) at the Pi-CO39 (t) locus was determined in collaboration with Frederick Blattner of the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Comparative sequence analysis of blast resistant (CO39 indica) and susceptible (Nipponbare japonica) rice cultivars at genomic regions co-segregating with Pi-CO39(t) showed that these two haplotypes have diverged with respect to the relative type, number of paralogs, and the orientation and location of resistance gene homologs within each cluster (Fig. 8). Several disease resistance (NBS-LRR)-like genes were identified with similarity to the other rice resistance-associated genes RPR1, Xa1, Pi-ta, and Pib. RPR1 (rice probenazole-responsive) is associated with probenazole-induced resistance to blast in rice (Sakamoto et al., 1999) Xa1 confers resistance to race 1 of bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) (Yoshimura et al., 1998) Pi-ta is a major rice blast resistance gene related to RPM1 of Arabidopsis...

Leonard E Egede MD MSab

Depression is another disease that is highly prevalent in most countries of the world. In the United States, depression affects 9.5 of the adult population or 19 million people in any given year 4 , and women have a twofold higher prevalence of depression compared with men (W.E. Narrow, unpublished data) 5 . A recent study in the United States found that the lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder was 16.2 , whereas the 12-month prevalence was 6.6 6 . A recent study from Europe found that 14 of European adults have a lifetime prevalence of a mood disorder and 4.2 have a 12-month prevalence of a mood disorder 7 . Another study was conducted recently to determine the prevalence of mood disorders in 14 countries in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia 8 . The 12-month prevalence of mood disorders was 0.8 in Nigeria, 3.1 in Japan, 6.6 in Lebanon, 6.8 in Columbia, 6.9 in the Netherlands, 8.5 in France, 9.1 in the Ukraine, and 9.6 in the United States. Major...

Role Of Acetaldehydeprotein Adducts And Free Radicals

The liver is the main site of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde production, an extremely reactive metabolite. Acetaldehyde binds with proteins to form protein-adducts which may induce auto-immunogenic responses (as identified by raised serum antibodies) or render the affected protein functionally inoperative 74-82 , In rats subjected to 6 weeks ethanol feeding, ELISA showed increased amounts of reduced- and unreduced-acetaldehyde protein adducts as well as malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde protein adducts (Worrall S, Richardson PJ, Preedy VR, unpublished). However, there was no evidence of increased malondialdehyde and a-hydroxyethyl-protein adducts in hearts of ethanol fed rats compared to pair-fed controls (Worrall S, Richardson PJ, Preedy VR unpublished). Acetaldehyde may induce myocardial ischaemia and coronary vasospasm 50 , Elevations in circulating cardiac troponin-T occur after 2.5-6 hours in response to acute ethanol dosage in rats, suggestive of a membrane-mediated event 10,95 , We...

Abel 1992 References On Attention

An investigation of image scanning Theoretical claims and empirical evidence. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Western Ontario, Canada. Biederman, I., Ju, G., & Clapper, J. (1985). The perception of partial objects. Unpublished manuscript, State University of New York at Buffalo. Brennan, S.E. (1990). Seeking and providing evidence for mutual understanding. Unpublished PhD thesis. Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Mode of action and development of resistance

Deans and Ritchie (1987), who studied the effect of 50 plant essential oils against 25 genera of bacteria, concluded that Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were equally susceptible to the antimicrobial action of essential oils. However, this conclusion is now under dispute. In general, Gram-positive bacteria are more sensitive than Gramnegative organisms to the antimicrobial compounds in spices (Dabbah et al., 1970 Farag et al., 1989 Shelef, 1983 Tassou and Nychas, 1995b,c, 1999). However, variation in the rate or extent of inhibition is also evident among the Gram-negative bacteria. For example, E. coli was less resistant than Pseudomonas fluorescens or Serratia marcescens to essential oils from sage, rosemary, cumin, caraway, clove and thyme (Farag et al., 1989). Salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium were less sensitive than P. fragi to sage and mastic gum oils (Tassou and Nychas, unpublished) whereas Salmonella typhimurium was more sensitive than P. aeruginosa to the...

Lindlahr Henry 18621924

In addition, Lindlahr wrote and self-published widely on his theory. His works include Acute Diseases Their Uniform Treatment by Natural Methods Mental, Emotional and Psychic Disorders (1918) The Lindlahr Vegetarian Cook Book and ABC of Natural Dietetics (with his wife Anna in 1918) Iridiagnosis and other Diagnostic Methods (1919) and Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics (1918).

Inflammatory Disorders

360 Amol of antioxidant power, respectively (174,175 and our unpublished data). However, we have found that there is a significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity shortly after an oral dose of G. lucidum, indicating that some antioxidants in G. lucidum are bioavailable (Fig. 3) (175). Furthermore, using flow cytometric analysis of site-specific oxidation of membrane lipids in living cells ex vivo, we have found that membrane oxidation is inhibited by preincubation of cells with hot-water extracts of G. lucidum (Fig. 4) (our unpublished results).

Catecholamines Induce Bacterial Growth via Production of Non Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers

Iron delivery from Tf and Lf is not the only mechanism by which catecholamines can enhance bacterial growth, at least for Gram-negative bacteria. Catecholamine-induced growth of enteric bacteria in a serum-based medium leads to the production of a non-LuxS dependent autoinducer (NE-AI) of growth (Lyte et al. 1996 Freestone et al. 1999). This novel AI is heat stable, very highly cross-species acting, and induces increases in the growth of a magnitude similar to that achievable with the catecholamines (Freestone et al. 1999). Interestingly, this activity works independently of Tf or Lf (Freestone et al. 2003). The NE-AI is also able to rapidly stimulate the recovery to active growth of viable but non-culturable E. coli O157 H7 or Salmonella (Reissbrodt et al. 2002) as well as increasing the rate of germination of Bacillus anthrax spores Reissbrodt et al. (2004). Comparison of NE-AI activity production by various bacteria occupying the human body suggests that it is syn-thesised in...

Examining The Notion Of Foot Dominance

Other researchers have reported findings that lend support to those described here. In an unpublished doctoral thesis on the subject of footedness by Nonis (1996), the author found that in children 3 to 6 years of age, participants exhibited increasing mixed preference in performing the one-leg balance task (also known as hopping). As expected, participants were mainly right preferent for bilateral tasks such as kicking a stationary and a moving ball, and pick-up tasks. In another study, Katsarkas, Smith, and Galiana (1994) found no apparent biases for the right versus left foot in postural stability (sway) on one foot. Perhaps more interestingly, this was observed in normals and patients standing on the foot ipsilateral and contralateral to a brain lesion. Similar results with 5- to 9-year-olds were reported by Armitage and Larkin (1993) using unilateral hopping and one-leg balance. That is, differences between left- and right foot performance were not significant. Although these...

San Ling SiHoe and David Murphy 1 Introduction

It is unknown how DNA integrates into the host chromosome, but some information can be inferred from a study made on the state and organization of the inserts found in transgenic mice (2). Approximately 70 of the mice carry exogenous DNA in all their somatic and germ cells, implying that integration took place prior to the first round of DNA replication. The remaining 30 of the mice showed some degree of mosaicism, indicating that the DNA must have integrated after this first round of replication. Integration events have been observed on many different autosomes (3), on the X-chromosome (4), and on the Y-chromosome (Murphy, unpublished observations). Transgene copy number varies (one to several hundred), but within a transgenic animal, there is usually only one integration site where if in multiple copies, the transgene is arranged in a head-to-tail tandem array.

Moral concepts Emotions in Moral Cognition

The Rozin et al. study goes some way toward supporting this theory. It shows that people naturally and systematically associate emotions with moral transgressions. Further evidence for the role of emotions in moral conceptualization can be found elsewhere. Haidt et al. (unpublished manuscript) asked subjects to indicate whether they found certain forms of conduct morally objectionable. For example, they asked subjects to imagine a situation in which a brother and sister engage in consensual incest using effective birth control. When subjects report that this is wrong, they ask them to justify that evaluation. It turns out that people have difficulty providing reasons, and when reasons are provided they can easily be short circuited. When subjects reply that incest can lead to birth defects, the experimenters remind them that birth control was used. Eventually subjects give up on reasons and declare that incest is just wrong, or wrong because it is disgusting. Emotions seem to drive...

Asymmetrical distribution of auricular points in case of postural disorders

(unpublished data, with permission of Da Campo). Dots lateral surface circles medial surface. (unpublished data, with permission of Da Campo). Dots lateral surface circles medial surface. Fig. 9.10 Distribution of tender points in the same patients as in Figure 9.9 3 months after surgery (unpublished data, with permission of Da Campo). Dots lateral surface circles medial surface.

The Extraverted Intuitive Type

It is at once clear, both from the standpoint of political economy and on grounds of general culture, that such a type is uncommonly important. If well-intentioned, with an orientation to life riot purely egoistical, he may render exceptional service as the promoter, if not the initiator of every kind of promising enterprise. He is the natural advocate of every minority that holds the seed of future promise. Because of his capacity, when orientated more towards men than things, to make an intuitive diagnosis of their abilities and range of usefulness, he can also ' make' men. His capacity to inspire his fellow-men with courage, or to kindle enthusiasm for something new, is unrivalled, although he may have forsworn it by the morrow. The more powerful and vivid his intuition, the more is his subject fused and blended with the divined possibility. He animates it he presents it in plastic shape and with convincing fire he almost embodies it. It is not a mere histrionic display, but a fate.

Improvements in Vector Design

Bined with strategies to maximize the production of the individual components through the use of the strong CMV promoter and treatment with the transcription enhancer sodium butyrate (13). We have also shown that titers can be further improved by the inclusion of the adenovirus VAI gene to enhance translation (Lin and Cannon, unpublished data). The combination of these various approaches enables the routine production of vector supernatants in the laboratory with titers in excess of 107 cfu mL. Whether such transient production systems will ever be useful for large-scale production is uncertain because of potential difficulties in the scale-up and vector characterization procedures.

Summary and conclusion

In this chapter, a review of general literature, as well as data previously published or unpublished by the author, was presented with the specific aim of fostering an ongoing debate on prostate cancer aetiology. This debate was particularly spurred in the past six years by the controversy arising after isolation of a new retrovirus, highly homologous to endogenous xenotropic and polytropic murine retroviruses, called XMRV 55 1 .

Conclusion And Contraindications

International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 31 367-378. Goodwin, M. &.Weiss, D. (1998). Double trauma A group therapy approach for Vietnam veterans suffering from war and childhood trauma. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 48 39-53. Herman, J.L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York Basic Books. Howard, S. (2000). Measuring Outcomes in a PTSD Day Program for Vietnam Veterans. Unpublished Dissertation, as Section 11 of the examination for Fellowship of The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Australia. Roller, P., Marmar, C.R. & Kanas, N. (1992). Psychodynamic group treatment of post traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 42 225-246. Ostrower, C. (2000). Humor As a Defense Mechanism in the Holocaust. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Parson, E.R. (1993). Posttraumatic narcissism. Healing traumatic alterations in the self through curvilinear group psychotherapy. In...

The Mechanisms of Isothiocyanate Induced Apoptosis in Mammalian Cell

Additional studies have also suggested a role of p53 in the apoptotic cascade induced by PEITC in mouse epidemermal JB6 cells. The increased expression of p53 and the inability of PEITC to induce apoptosis in p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast suggested a significant role of p53 in the induction of apoptosis (171). However, later work by Xu and Thornalley and, more recently, Xiao and Singh has shown apoptosis can occur in p53-deficient cells. Indeed, Xiao and Singh observed a role of the extracellular signaling kinases ERK 1 and 2 in PEITC-induced apoptosis in human prostate PC-3 cells (172). Inhibition of the ERK-signalling cascade prevented PEITC-induced apoptosis. In addition to extracellular signaling, the mitochondrial death pathway has been implicated in ITC-induced apoptosis. Nakamura et al. described the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3 in BITC-induced apoptosis in the hepatic RL60 cell line. Associated with...

Plant Target Genes of AvrBs3

In vitro secretion and in vivo translocation studies demonstrated that AvrBs3 is secreted by the T3SS and localizes to the plant cell nucleus (Szurek et al., 2002). Prior to nuclear localization, AvrBs3 homodimerizes via the repeat region and interacts with importin a via the NLSs in the plant cell cytoplasm (Guirlebeck et al., 2005 Szurek et al., 2001, 2002 D. Guurlebeck und U. Bonas, unpublished data). Based on the fact that the AAD is essential for function we wondered if AvrBs3 modulates plant gene expression. Using cDNA-AFLP and suppression subtractive hybridization we isolated more than 20 upa (up-regulated by AvrBs3) genes expression of which is specifically upregulated in susceptible pepper plants by AvrBs3 (Marois et al., 2002 Kay et al., 2007). Among the identified upa genes 16 genes are also induced in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, i.e., these genes are good candidates for being regulated directly by AvrBs3. Studies of the time...

CRFoverexpressing transgenic mice CRFTg

With such marked increases in basal circulating glucocorticoids, it was of interest to determine whether CRF-Tg mice could further activate the HPA axis in response to acute stress. We find that ACTH is not significantly elevated following restraint stress, in contrast to a tenfold increase in WT littermates (S. Murray and M. Stenzel-Poore, unpublished). Interestingly, CRF-Tg mice also lacked a corticosterone response immediately following restraint stress, however a twofold increase in corticosterone was observed 20min later. Therefore, pituitary-adrenal responses to stress are both protracted and suppressed in CRF-Tg mice. Similarly, following immune stress (i.p. injection of LPS), CRF-Tg mice do not mount a detectable ACTH response, but again show a delayed increase in corticosterone compared with WT mice. These data suggest that chronic HPA activation desensitizes the system to further stimulation by an exogenous stressor. Such reduced pituitary responsiveness in CRF-Tg mice may...

Science Based vs Politically Based Regulations

In October 2002, AMI sent a letter to the Secretary requesting that the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) establish a pilot program for purchasing irradiated ground beef in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) commodity beef-purchasing program managed by AMS, thereby reducing the likelihood of exposure of children to bacterial pathogens associated with raw ground beef. In May 2003, USDA announced purchasing specifications for irradiated ground beef through the NSLP for the 2004 school year. Furthermore, the 2002 Congressional Farm Bill directed USDA not to prohibit the use of approved food safety technologies in the NSLP. However, in November 2003, the consumer activist group, Public Citizen, filed a petition with FDA to ban irradiation of beef products. The petition cited a finding in an unpublished study conducted by Public Citizen that irradiated beef products purchased in the marketplace contained 2-alkylcyclobutanones, which have been reportedly linked to cancer cell...

Evidence for the association between Mfvmfrvs and prostate cancer 41 The Interferon IFN pathway

Img162 Imagetwist Com

In view of the coincidental chromosomal localization of HPC-1 and RNASEL, what are the evidence for RNase-L involvement after MFV MFRV infection The acute phase of infection by these viruses is accompanied by a very high activation of RNase-L 53 . An assay, detecting ribosomal RNA (rRNA) degradation in infected and transforming cells was developed (U. Rovigatti, unpublished), thus confirming the extremely high levels of RNase-L induction, often leading to block of cell proliferation and apoptosis 53 55 . In the past several years, groups in USA, France and Belgium have also documented a strong deregulation of this endoribonuclease in patients affectd by Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Pioneering work by Suhadolnick et al at Temple Univ. initially disclosed that 2-5 A activated RNase-L is upregu-lated in CFS patients 110 111 112 . This finding was followed up by description of a lower molecular weight form (37 kDa) of the same enzyme in CFS patients by the same group 113 . The French-Belgian...

Antioxidant Activity of RSVPotential Cardioprotective Effect

Rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) exposed to ethanol-induced oxidative death were remarkably protected in the presence of RSV (Sun et al., 1997). In similar experiments this death inhibitory activity was attributed to the ability of RSV to block internalization of oxidized lipoproteins. In addition, oxidized lipoprotein-induced cell death was inhibited in neuronal cells in the presence of RSV, indicating neuroprotective activity (Draczynska-Lusiak et al., 1998). The antioxidant activity of RSV has also been shown to inhibit proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (Kawada et al., 1998), a major factor in the development of liver fibrosis, thereby suggesting a hepatopro-tective effect. The antioxidant activity of RSV has been further corroborated by studies demonstrating its inhibitory effect on intracellular ROI production induced by the tumor promoter phorbol ester (Martinez and Moreno, 2000), thereby preventing the development of a pro-oxidant milieu that favors...

Hypocholesterolemic Activity

Hawthorn fruit has hypolipidemic activity. Chen et al. (10) demonstrated that serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and apo-B decreased by 15 , 10 , and 8 , respectively, with HDL cholesterol being unchanged, in 30 hyperlipi-demic humans who consumed hawthorn fruit drinks. In a recent unpublished study, we have also evaluated the clinical efficacy of hawthorn in lowering blood cholesterol using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventy-three mildly hypercholesterolemic patients were asked to take a 250-mL hawthorn or placebo drink three times a day for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, a washout of 4 weeks was implemented before the crossover. Blood samples were taken at baseline and week 4, 9, and 12 for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride for analysis. Toxicity was monitored by blood chemistry. The results of this study are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The hawthorn group had a 7.8 reduction in total blood...

Testosterone And Grasp Reflex

Total sample Table 3 presents the mean testosterone levels for the right-, left-, and mixed-handed participants for the grasp reflex in human neonates (unpublished observations). For the free testosterone levels, the difference between groups did not reach a traditional level of significance, F (2, 55) 2.56, p .10. The left-handers had the lowest mean testosterone level, which was significantly less than that of the right-handers, t (35) 2.23, p .OS, and mixed-handers, t (31) 2.01, p .05. For the total testosterone levels, the difference between groups was also statistically significant, F (2, 55) 3.34, p .05. The right-handers had the highest testosterone level followed by the mixed-handers and the left-handers.

Historical Evidence Suggesting a Role for Microbial Endocrinology in Infectious Diseases of the Acutely

We have used in vitro analyses of bacteria-catecholamine interactions to show that mM concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine are high enough to induce bacterial growth in serum and blood based media. Once within the circulation, dopamine also undergoes enzymatic conversion to norepi-nephrine, and metabolism of both leads to a range of compounds including dihy-droxyphenylacetic acid (which can exist in plasma at 50 times the level of dopamine), dihydroxymandelic acid, and dihydroxyphenylglycol (Goldstein et al. 2003). In analyses of bacterial interactions with inotropic agents, we have found that dihydroxyl-containing intermediates of dopamine and norepinephrine (which include dihydroxymandelic acid, and dihydroxyphenylglycol), though pharmacologically inactive, still retain their ability to induce bacterial growth to a level comparable with the original catecholamine (Neal et al. 2001 Freestone et al. 2002). Catecholamine and metabolite effects can be...

Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on glucose and lipid metabolism a phenomenon linked to a decrease in food

Carbohydrate diet, a decrease in hepatic and serum triglycerides is observed when inulin-type FOS are added to the diet at concentrations from 2.5 to 10 for several weeks (from 2 to 12 weeks) (Delzenne & Williams 2002). In animals, reduced triglyceridaemia is often linked to a decrease in de novo lipogenesis in hepatic, but not in adipose, tissue, cells. A decrease in the expression of key hepatic lipogenic enzymes, reflected by a decrease in fatty acid synthase mRNA, seems to be involved in the lower lipogenic capacity after inulin-type FOG supplementation, as also shown with resistant starch (Delzenne et al. 2002). In rats fed a lipid-rich diet containing 10 FOS, a decrease in triglyceridaemia also occurs without any protective effect on hepatic triglyceride accumulation and lipogenesis, suggesting a possible peripheral mode of action (Kok et al. 1998b). By contrast, in obese Zucker rats, dietary supplementation with FOS lessens hepatic steatosis, with no effect on post-prandial...

Gender Age and a Developmental Perspective in Mania

Project, a community study of patients hospitalized with psychosis (including mania), reported clear age gender differences at hospitalization in mania. Of manics hospitalized under age 20, only 33 were female between ages 20-29, 47 were female and those aged 30 and over were 69 female. The age gender differences were significant (X2 8.317, p 0.016) 6 and unpublished data . Mixed episodes were uncommon in this youth sample rates of externalizing disorder and substance abuse were very common. Perhaps where externalizing comorbidities (and substance abuse) are more common, male gender will predominate. If those comorbidities are excluded, and if the scope of bipolar disorder is broadened to include subtypes in which depression is more prominent, females are better represented.

Neurovirology Herpes Infection Of

Avion Para Pintar

We compared morning (a.m.) glucocorticoid (corticosterone) responses following infection with those observed after treatment with the synthetic viral analog, poly(I C). As previously described (Miller et al., 1997), poly(I C) induced a peak corticosterone response soon after injection, reaching serum levels of 200-400 ng ml about 2 hours after intraperitoneal administration (Fig. 3). Infection with LCMV clone E350 elicits little or no glucocorticoid response. In MCMV-infected mice the kinetics of virus-induced corticosterone occurred later and were more protracted than seen with poly (I C). The MCMV-induced CORT rise was evident on days 2 and 3 after infection. In contrast, studies after intravenous injection with the immunosuppressive LCMV clone 13 demonstrate that clone 13 induces a robust corticosterone response that occurs later in infection, corresponding with a loss of T cell responses and viral persistence. Other studies (data are not shown) indicate that glucocorticoid...

Toxicology Of Oligonucleotides

A dose-related increase in plasma concentrations of Bb, the magnitude of the increases were small in comparison to the known activity of full-phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (162). Whether this diminished potential to activate the complement cascade is related to the reduction of phosphoro-thioate linkages or whether it is due to the complex secondary structure of this particular oligodeoxynucleotide was not established by these experiments. Some insight into this question was obtained in a second series of experiments performed with oligonucleotides that contained 2'-O-methoxyethyl modifications of the ribose sugar in 12 of the 20 nucleotides (149,150). Cynomolgus monkeys were treated by 10-min intravenous infusion with single doses of 1, 5, or 20 mg kg of this 20-mer oligonucleotide that was either fully modified phosphorothioate linkages (ISIS 13650) or had phosphodiester wings and a central region of phosphorothioate linkages (9 linkages, ISIS 12854). The termini of both...

Vector Transgene Capacity

Life Cycle Merino Sheep

The latency region of the virus genome represents approximately 8 kb of sequence that can be removed and the joint region of the virus is composed of 15 kb of redundant sequence that can be eliminated without compromising virus replication (52). In one set of experiments we removed an 11kb section of the US region of the genome (Laquerre and Glorioso, unpublished data, 1998) containing gD, the only essential gene in this region, which can be propagated on a cell line that expresses gD in trans (4). Approximately 44 kb of HSV sequence can potentially be removed and vectors propagated in cells engineered to complement just 3 viral functions (ICP4, ICP27, and gD). Transgene expression cassettes can also be inserted into deleted essential gene loci to avoid transfer of foreign sequences to wild-type virus by recombination that could Recent work inserting bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) elements into large viruses including HSV promises to increase the speed of recombinant...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Ziziphus is a good source of betulinic acid, which, when extracted, shows selective toxicity against human melanoma (Kim et al., 1998). In our own study, betulinic acid was found in the seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana (Mishra & Bhatia, 2010). This is a very valuable phyto-compound, which can be used against melanoma (Patocka, 2003). One of the most astonishing features of this compound is its selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells, unlike most chemotherapy agents. The present authors studied the effect of seed extract on HL-60 cells in vitro, and against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in animal studies. The seed extract induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells, and also helped the animals to recover from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (Mishra & Bhatia, unpublished data). Ziziphus seeds are rich in saponins, known to bind cholesterol. These compounds are widely used for cholesterol control. Kim (2002) reported that the seed extract possessed anti-hyperlipidemic activity in rats. In a...

Screening for Responses to Iron and Autoinducer

While the E. coli autoinducer does cause statistically significant increases in the growth of sub-gingival organisms at 24-48 h of exposure (Roberts et al. 2005), it could be argued that such responses would not be biologically significant in respect of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. However, the results have demonstrated that for sub-gingival organisms grown in serum-SAPI medium, 24-48 h incubation represent very early stages in the growth curve and indicate that over longer time courses (96-120 h), more prolonged responses of a greater magnitude are seen. Further experiments (Roberts, unpublished data) have investigated the longer term effects of E. coli autoinducer, Fe, norepinephrine and epinephrine upon periodontal bacteria to ensure that the magnitude of the responses reported does not underestimate the true longer term effects.

Cutaneous Gene Therapy for Skin and Systemic Disorders

In the ex vivo approach, the skin cells from the host are isolated and harvested after removal by biopsy. The cells are then grown in vitro where therapeutic gene transfer is performed. Finally, the altered cells are grafted back into the host (Fig. 2). This method offers some advantages because primary kera-tinocytes, including human, are receptive to gene modification, readily expanded in tissue culture under selective conditions, and easily grafted back into host (19-22, Buitrago and Roop, unpublished data). However, the ex vivo approach is disadvantageous because of its labor intensity and potential scarring.

Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Of systemic lupus erythematosus patients who have Sjogren's syndrome but not systemic lupus erythematosus. This strong association of autoimmune thyroid disease coincidental with SLE-SS overlap had been described earlier from Southern Sweden.42 In our own primary Sjogren's syndrome cohort, 23 of 108 patients studied in a recent cross-sectional survey had thyroid-related autoantibodies (unpublished observation). Proposed mechanisms for the coincidence of autoimmune thyroid disease and Sjogren's syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosus include genetic factors (HLA antigen class II allele similarity) and crossreactivity of antithy-roid autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells with other tissues, such as common epithelial antigens.40 In summary, the most recent research seems to support a strong association of Sjogren's syndrome with thyroid autoimmunity, frequently in combination with further autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune liver disease or systemic lupus erythematosus.

Inflammatory Muscle Disease

The presence of myositis in primary Sjogren's syndrome was studied by two groups in recent years While Lazarus and Isenberg5 detected only 1.8 of myositis overlap in their British cohort of Sjogren's syndrome patients, Lindvall and colleagues31 found that 14 of their Sjogren's syndrome patients suffer from myositis, when muscle involvement was studied both clinically and histologically. There are no reports from larger myositis cohorts that define the prevalence of Sjogren's syndrome in primary myositis. Some case reports exist on the coexistence of inclusion body myositis and Sjogren's syndrome.32,33 These Sjogren's syndrome-associated inclusion body myositis cases seem to differ from primary inclusion body myositis in demonstrating a better response to immunosuppressive therapy. We have recently observed an association of classical dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjogren's syndrome (unpublished data). Generally, myositis is accepted as a relatively rare...

Commission E Evaluation Methods And Criteria

Unlike the FDA drug reviews in which data are passively submitted for evaluation by the manufacturer, members of Commission E actively collect and review data, both published and unpublished, from various sources, including from Unpublished proprietary data submitted by manufacturers

Sequence Analysis of the AVR1CO39 Locus

The minimum region of the AVR1-CO39-containing cosmid able to confer avir-ulence when transformed into virulent strain Guy11 was 1.05 kb (Farman and Leong, 1998). DNA sequence analysis of this fragment for open reading frames (ORF) of at least 25 amino acids, beginning with a methionine and having a fungal consensus sequence for the start of translation surrounding the ATG (Ballance, 1991) revealed eight ORFs (M. Farman, N. Punekar, D. Lazaro, and S. A. Leong, unpublished findings). No evidence for paired intron splice sites flanking lariat motifs could be found in the sequence. Avr9 from Cladosporium is only 63 amino acids (Van den Ackerveken et al., 1992) and AVR2-YAMO (AVR- Pi-ta) and PWL2 of M. orzyae encode small polypeptides specified by ORFs with multiple exons. Thus, it is not unreasonable for any of these ORFs to encode all or part of AVR1-CO39. Analysis of the full length AVR1-CO39 transcript by 5' and 3' RACE revealed that Orf3 is transcribed only in planta (data not shown,...

Influence of other food components

Extruded pasta products represent an excellent example of the effect of proteins in slowing starch digestion rate. Several studies have demonstrated that digestion of pasta in both healthy and diabetic subjects is characterized by low glycemic and insulinemic responses (Parillo et al., 1985 Wolever et al., 1986 Granfeldt and Bjorck, 1991). In vitro digestion studies on pasta (Colonna et al., 1990 Fardet et al., 1998, 1999) have shown that restricted swelling and the entrapment or encapsulation of starch in structured protein network-associated dense food results in decreased accessibility and, hence, lowered digestion by amylase. Furthermore, pre-incubation of pasta with pepsin (a proteolytic enzyme) enhanced starch digestibility, thereby providing support for the importance of protein components in slowing starch digestion. Even in gelatinized flour pastes in cereals such as sorghum, entrapment of starch in protein web-like structures has been seen to impede starch digestibility...

Practical Aspects Of Training Provision

While comprehensive theoretical knowledge of a field is important for appropriate practice, experiential learning is crucial for consolidating theoretical knowledge and for the development of interviewing, counselling and examination skills. It also allows development of experience in answering questions from patients and or their carers and facilitates reflective learning. A consultation needs to be of adequate length so that it is effective and worthwhile for the patient and also allows the health professional to use all the resources knowledge and experience to benefit the patient and gain further experience. The Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health has recognized that longer consultation times are required for adolescent than for either children's or adult clinics (29). A comparison of pediatric and adult rheumatology clinics found that on average the pediatric clinic consultations were twice as long (30). This difference was maintained when young people older than 12...

Appropriate followup intervals

The best reported follow-up rates (higher than 90 ) on a recurrng basis have come from Newcastle, England (unpublished data), with the use of vans and trained photograph readers, who used standardized reference photos and provided immediate feedback to patients. By directly addressing the issues of convenience, access and feedback, this system might provide a model for a true 'marketing' approach to patient-centred eye disease detection in diabetes.

Hepatocyte Injury Induced By Hcv Infection

Early apoptosis by modulating Bcl-2 family protein expression (I. Shimizu, unpublished data, 2000). Sho-saiko-to has also been reported to modulate in vitro cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, downregulating the synthesis of IL-4 and -5 in favor of IL-10 in patients with chronic hepatitis C. IL-10 production in mononuclear cells of hepatitis C patients was reported to be lower than that of healthy subjects (19). IL-10 would be expected to have an effective activity for inflammatory bowel disease (20), endotoxin shock (21), and experimental liver injury (M. Tanaka, unpublished data, presented at the 37th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology, 1995).

Sources of further information and advice

The data published between 1981 and 2001, as well as unpublished data from their laboratory and from others where the quality of the data could be verified on the basis of the method used. In its 2002 edition, the table contained nearly 1300 entries, representing over 750 different types of foods (Foster-Powell et al., 2002). This database is continuously updated and is available online on the following site http www.glycemicindex.com. On this site, products can be located with the aid of a specific search engine. Furthermore, additional information on GI and GL can be found in several books written by Professor J. Brand-Miller on this subject.

Other rats strains and selection lines

In a recent pilot study we have started to investigate the heart rate in APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats, and found that the baseline heart rate is significantly higher in APO-SUS rats compared to APO-UNSUS rats. This was seen most clearly during the daytime (when rats were resting), though the effect was also present during the active night period (unpublished data). Data with respect to blood pressure or stress responsiveness of either heart rate or blood pressure are not yet available.

Autoimmune Liver Diseases

Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and PBC are autoimmune liver diseases frequently thought to be associated with Sjogren's syndrome. Again, older publications on this association are difficult to interpret because of the inconsistent definition of Sjogren's syndrome. In 1994, we found PBC in 9 and CAH in 4 of our primary Sjogren's syndrome patients.34 However, the definition of Sjogren's syndrome according to the Copenhagen criteria35 does not allow differentiation between sicca syndrome due to PBC or CAH and primary Sjogren's syndrome associated with these disorders. A new survey in 2008 revealed only 2 cases of PBC and 1 case of CAH among 109 consecutive primary Sjogren's syndrome patients, while another 2 patients with PBC had severe sicca syndrome without fulfilling the AECC criteria for primary Sjogren's syndrome (unpublished observation). These data are in concordance with Lazarus and Isenberg's publication of additional autoimmune diseases in primary Sjogren's syndrome,...

Maintenance of ES Cells

Careful maintenance of ES cells is crucial for successful germline transmission of gene trap cell lines. We generally change the medium every day, and do not allow the cells to grow to confluence. Several previously published protocols describe procedures for maintaining ES cells on fibroblast feeder layers (15-18). The conditions outlined below apply to the maintenance of a feeder-independent line of ES cells, CGR8, which rely on an exogenous source of DIA (also known as leukocyte inhibitory factor LIF ). These cells are karyo-typically male and were derived from the 129 Ola strain of mice as described (19). Feeder-independent cell lines are more convenient to work with and contribute as efficiently to the germline of mice as feeder-dependent cell lines. We find that 80 of our gene trap cell lines contribute to the germline at an average rate of 1 germline male 10 C57Bl 6 blastocysts injected (Skarnes, unpublished results).

Adhesionblockade effect

The ability of LF to inhibit in vivo colonization of E. coli has been examined (Naidu et al., unpublished). Infection with E. coli strain F18 was established in streptomycin-treated mice by gastric intubation and bacterial excretion was estimated as colony forming units per gram (CFU g) feces. The excretion of strain F18 in feces reached a steady-state (108 CFU g) within 7 days, independent of challenge (dose 8 x 108 or 103 CFU). Oral administration of bLF (20 mg ml in 20 sucrose solution) caused a 1- to 3-log reduction in CFU g feces with high and low dosages of strain F18. The bacterial multiplication in vivo was markedly affected during the early 24 hours of infection, reflecting 3-log lower number of bacteria in the feces (2 x 103 CFU g) than the control group. Oral administration of LF prior to infection reduced fecal excretion of E. coli from mouse intestine. In vitro effects of bLF on the molecular interactions of E. coli with subepithelial matrix proteins were examined. Bovine...

Epidemiologic factors

An exact determination of the infectious dose of viruses in humans is difficult because conducting necessary investigations requires human challenge studies. For hepatitis A, it is believed that 10-100 virus particles are sufficient to infect an individual. For norovirus, 10 RT-PCR detectable units, or approximately two genome copies, are sufficient to infect an individual (Moe C, et al. unpublished). In these studies, volunteers were infected with three different strains of noro-viruses. Challenge with different NoV viruses induced different dose-infectivity curves and dose-illness curves (Moe C, et al. unpublished). These results suggest that individual NoV strains may have different infectivity and severity.

Formation of an oxathiolone derivative

The oxathiolone derivative of rutin can be produced as shown in Figure 13.6. Rutin may be transformed to the quinone form via a rutin radical to react with thiocyanate producing 2-thiocyanaterutin, which can be transformed to the oxathiolone derivative by hydrolysis. Thiocyanic acid might contribute to the formation of 2-thiocyanaterutin. The contribution of thiocyanic acid (pKa 0.8) could be deduced from the observation that the oxathiolone derivative of caffeic acid was detected at pH 2.0 but not pH 3.3, although caffeic acid was oxidized by nitrite at both pH values (unpublished observation).

Prospects For The Future

A second-generation virus, 0nyx411 (33), is selective for tumors defective in the retinoblastoma pathway. This virus has a combination of features that may improve intravenous activity, including greater replication than 0nyx015 in many tumor lines, and an early and very tight block in replication in normal cells. The result is that insertion of genes into this virus under late transcriptional control is even more highly selective for tumor cells than when 0nyx015 is used as a vector (34 Y. Shen, unpublished data, 2003). Although showing a promising safety and efficacy profile in mice, 0nyx411 or its derivatives have not yet been tested in patients.

Inhibition of invasionmetastasis by HGFantagonist

Consistent with its ability to inhibit tumour invasion driven by HGF, the local administration of NK4 into mice inhibited tumour growth, invasion and metastasis of tumours (51) (Fig. 10 and our unpublished data). The growth of gallbladder cancer cells in nude mice was strongly inhibited by the infusion of NK4 (Fig. 10B). Fig. 10C shows tumour tissues of gallbladder cancer cells implanted in nude mice, with or without NK4-administration. In control tissue, tumour cells invaded intramuscularly in host tissues, whereas NK4 inhibited such invasion. In addition, NK4 administration inhibited growth of tumours in nude mice. In tumour tissue exposed to NK4, apoptotic cell death of tumour cells occurred in central regions (Fig. 10C) and the number of apoptotic cells in tumour tissues infused with NK4 was higher than in control tumour tissues (Fig. 10D). This may be due to inhibition of angiogenesis in tumour tissues. Furthermore, in the experimental model for metastasis, using Lewis lung...

In vitro modulation of Bcl2

The idea that Bcl-2 directly regulates survival in SCLC probably came from previous reports either mentioning the development of chemoresistance upon overexpression of Bcl-2 238, 263 or of cytotoxic effects or chemosensitization upon Bcl-2 downregulation by 2009 ODN 264-266 , together with the strong evidence of its anti-apoptotic role in hematological diseases. However, the therapeutic value of BCL2 silencing in SCLC is still ambiguous. We have recently observed that downregulation of Bcl-2 with G3139 ODN or siRNA, has neither resulted in a sequence-specific decrease of viability or inhibition of SCLC cell growth, nor in a chemosensitization to cisplatin treatments (unpublished observations). Intriguingly, the most effective conditions at promoting Bcl-2 downregulation resulted in higher cell viability than the correspondent treatment with nontargeting siRNA, although the effect on cell growth was similar (unpublished observations). Nevertheless, it is not possible to draw definite...

Complementation of Essential Genes and Elimination of Cytotoxicity

Because HSV genes are expressed in a sequential cascade during lytic infection (16), removal of the single essential IE gene ICP4 severely inhibits the expression of later E and L genes (21), resulting in a defective vector incapable of producing virus particles. In addition, the IE gene products, with the exception of ICP47, are individually toxic to most cell types when expressed at high levels by transfection (39). The elimination of multiple IE genes reduces the cytotoxicity of HSV-based vectors for cell lines and primary neuronal cell cultures (40-44) (Figs. 3A and B). Cytotoxicity of a genomic HSV vector deleted for ICP4, ICP22, and ICP27 in cultured Vero cells is reduced compared with a virus-only deficient for ICP4 (44). Such mutants are also less toxic to primary neurons (41) or undifferentiated cells such as umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells (Wechuck and Glorioso, unpublished observation, 2003). Mutants deleted for ICP0, ICP4 andICP27 and defective for ICP22 expression...

Other therapies

Fatigue is a side-effect of all biological response modifiers and is frequently accompanied by a flu-like syndrome, which includes myalgia, chills, fever, headache, and malaise (Dean et al. 1995). Despite recognition that fatigue is often described by patients receiving this group of therapies as overwhelming and intolerable, and, at times, acts as a dose-limiting toxicity, there are only a handful of studies that take fatigue as their explicit focus (Davis 1984 Rieger 1987 Robinson and Posner 1992 Dean et al. 1995). Hence our understanding of the pattern, intensity, duration, correlates, and resolution of biological response modifier-related fatigue is very limited. At the close of the 1980s Piper et al. (1989) synthesized what was currently known about patterns of fatigue with this treatment modality, but this was, in the main, based on clinical observation and unpublished data. That review concluded that the pattern and

Vector Targeting

Cific receptor-binding sequences might achieve at least partial targeting. A double-mutant virus, KgBpK-gC-, was derived from wild-type KOS strain (Figs. 6A and B). In this mutant, the coding sequence for the nonessential gC gene was removed from the viral genome and the wild-type gB sequence replaced by the gB pK mutation (92) (Fig. 6B). The resulting virus demonstrated an 80 reduction in binding to Vero cells compared with wild-type virus (Fig. 6D). By replacing the HS-binding domain of gC with the coding sequence of erythropoietin (EPO) in the background of the KgBpK gC mutant virus (Fig. 6C), we demonstrated that the gC EPO fusion protein was incorporated into the budding virion and that recombinant virus was specifically retained on a soluble EPO-receptor column (95). The gC EPO virus demonstrated a 2fold increase in infection of K562 cells (Fig. 6D) (Laquerre and Glorioso, unpublished data, 1998), which express the EPO receptor. The EPO-expressing particle also stimulated the...

Gene Profiling

Gene profiling has been conducted to identify differentially expressed genes between Lines 6 and 7 after MDV challenge (Liu et al., 2001a), among B (MHC) congenic lines of chicken following inoculation with different MD vaccines (unpublished), and in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with MDV (Morgan et al., 2001). Analyses of these experiments have identified a number of genes and pathways that are consistently associated with either MD resistance or MDV infection. More importantly, the results suggest that chickens with immune systems that are more stimulated by MDV infection are more susceptible. Initially, this seems counterintuitive but upon further reflection, MDV is thought to only infect activated lymphocytes and, thus, chickens with immune systems that are more responsive may present more targets for MDV to infect and later transform.

Nyvacjev

In animals succumbing to viral pathogenicity (unpublished observations, 1999). Bone marrow-derived cells are known not to infect well by vaccinia for unknown reasons. The one place that replicating virus is recovered is ovarian follicles. The developing follicle is much like a tumor with developing, leaky vasculature, high levels of VEGF, and replicating cells (118). Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that the double-deleted vaccinia replicates efficiently throughout developing ovarian follicles, without infection or spread through normal ovarian parenchyma.

Discussion

In presenting this work, we have aimed to provide an example of how genomics has impacted our understanding of disease. The rapid development of genomic tools in both the pathogen and the host has greatly expanded the breadth and depth of experimental questions that can be asked in the laboratory. In particular, we believe that the model host infection system, in which multiple, genetically tractable organisms are substituted for traditional mammalian hosts, provides a powerful opportunity to utilize both pathogen and host genomic tools, either individually or combinatorially. The low cost, relatively small size, and low level of complexity of model hosts allow for high-throughput assays that are ideal for exploiting the power inherent in large reagents such as genome-wide mutant libraries. More recently, a C. elegans-Enterococcus faecalis infection system has been used to screen large chemical libraries for novel compounds acting as antimicrobials and anti-infectives (Moy et al.,...

Applications

Apart from the above traditional usages, there were also reports of other usage, such as antitumor activities (3,4). Chrysanthemum water extract was found to significantly inhibit growth of transplanted tumor in nude mice (Shen et al., unpublished data), suggesting that the water-soluble components of chrysanthemum may have potent chemopreventive effects. Its chemo-preventive properties will be elaborated below.

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