Twisted Ankle Ebook
Ankle sprains account for 36 of all injuries in soccer. The mechanism of this type of injury is most often running or tackling, and 80 of firsttime ankle injuries occur during tackling. In cases in which the injury results from running, there is a high incidence of previous ankle injury.29 An ankle sprain in many cases can be worse than a fracture in terms of the completeness of recovery.31 Very often the injured athlete returns to the sport before he or she has regained sufficient strength and proprioception. Inversion sprain is the most common type of ankle sprain. The injury involves the anterior talo-fibular ligament and calcaneofibular ligament. The less common eversion sprain involves the strong
Ankle sprain is a common injury in most sports, as well as in daily life. This injury involves the overstretching and tearing of the ankle ligaments when the foot is rolled medially or laterally, twisted forcefully, or twisted beyond its normal range. This can happen in running, jumping, sprinting, or walking on a surface that is uneven or unpredictable, and it can occur in the movements of basketball, football, and hockey. All the ligaments of the ankle may suffer from this injury, but the lateral ligaments are more susceptible in fact, lateral ankle sprain is the most common type. The injury happens when force is applied to the ankle during plantarflexion and inversion, injuring the anterior talofibular ligament. Medial ankle sprains are less common because the medial ligaments, the deltoid ligament, and the bony structure are very strong.
Also like any other ligament, this part of the disc has a nerve supply and readily registers pain. The outer anulus complains if wrenched or overstretched by trauma (recall the pain of a twisted ankle) and also becomes painful if it adaptively shortens and cannot 'give' with movement. This is what happens when a disc dries and loses height and this part of the back then becomes painful to bend. As you will read in the next chapter, discomfort is invoked as the spinal segments attempt to pull apart and eventually inflammation sets up at that segmental level, which I believe is the nub of simple back pain.
Sensitive points vary in their histologic composition and pathophysiologic phases. Some consist mostly of sensitized nerve fibers, whereas others, in addition to the sensitized nerve receptors, contain knots of contracted muscle. Internal factors such as diseased organs and arthritis lead to the creation of sensitive points all over the body. Their locations are actually highly predictable, partly because of the segmental mechanism or special features of the sensory nerve fibers. In acute injury, sensitized points are formed according to the type of injury and the body anatomy involved. For example, a mild ankle sprain (inversion injury) causes elongation of ligaments on the lateral side of the ankle, whereas a severe ankle injury may tear the ligaments between the fibula and tibia, as well as the lateral ligaments. With a good knowledge of anatomy, clinicians can find the most effective sensitive points for treatment.
In basketball players, 238 in soccer players, 244 in swimmers, 249 in tennis players, 251 in volleyball players, 253 Ankle sprain, 231-232 Anterior compartment syndrome, 231 Antidromic neuronal activity, 57, 57 Arches, of foot, 184-185, 186 Arm, acu-reflex points for evaluation of, 145 . See also Upper limb. of, 181-189, 181 , 182t Lower leg and foot injuries, 229-233 Achilles tendinitis, 230 ankle fracture, 232 ankle sprain, 231-232 anterior compartment syndrome, 231 in basketball players, 238-239 calf strain, 230 in cyclists, 237-238 fibular (peroneal) tendinitis, 232 foot fracture, 232 foot stress fracture, 232-233 in football players, 242-243 heel spur, 233 in hockey players, 247 medial tibial pain syndrome, 230 plantar fasciitis, 233 posterior tibial tendinitis, 231 in runners, 235-236 in soccer players, 244-245 stress fracture, 230-231 in swimmers, 248-249 tibial and fibular fractures, 229-230 in volleyball players, 252-253 Lower limb. See also Lower limb acu-reflex points Lower...
The appraisal model of psychologic stress6 is illustrated in Figure 2-2. When people encounter an environmental stressor such as competition in sports, or illness or injury, they first test the situation for threat Is the stressor a threat or a challenge, or is it irrelevant This evaluation is based on beliefs, past experience, and commitment. Events are appraised as threatening if they violate beliefs, contradict experience, or reduce the ability to carry out a commitment. An ankle sprain is a minor inconvenience to a vacationer and may be ignored, but it can be a severe stressor to an Olympic athlete because of the athlete's commitment to the competition. To reduce or remove the threat, the athlete must adapt with new behavior and evaluate what resources are available to cope with it. An optimistic person interprets such an event as a challenge and will try his or her best to recover from the injury. stressor (see Fig. 2-2). If it is a stressor, they appraise its threat value and...
Among all levels of injury, ankle sprain is the most common, followed by injury to the knee.28,29 Skin lesions, contusions, muscle strains, and fractures constitute most of the remainder of injuries to the lower extremities. Less common injuries include shoulder dislocations, elbow fractures and dislocations, and injuries of the head and face, fingers, and groin and pubis.28