Very lowdensity lipoprotein VLDL

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lipoprotein particles that initially leave the liver, carrying cholesterol and lipid. VLDLs contain 10 to 15 percent of the total serum cholesterol along with most of the triglycerides in the fasting serum; VLDLs are precursors of LDL, and some forms of VLDL, particularly VLDL remnants, appear to be atherogenic.

Visceral fat: One of the three compartments of abdominal fat. Retroperitoneal and subcutaneous are the other two compartments.

VO2 max: Maximal oxygen uptake is known as VO2 max and is the maximal capacity for oxygen consumption by the body during maximal exertion. It is used as an indicator of cardiorespirato-ry fitness.

Waist circumference: To define the level at which the waist circumference is measured, a bony landmark is first located and marked. The subject stands, and the technician, positioned to the right of the subject, palpates the upper hip bone to locate the right ileum. Just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ileum, a horizontal mark is drawn and then crossed with a vertical mark on the midaxillary line. The measuring tape is then placed around the trunk, at the level of the mark on the right side, making sure that it is on a level horizontal plane on all sides. The tape is then tightened slightly without compressing the skin and underlying subcutaneous tissues. The measure is recorded in centimeters to the nearest millimeter.

Waist-hip-ratio (WHR): The ratio of a person's waist circumference to hip circumference. WHR looks at the relationship between the differences in the measurements of waist and hips. Most people store body fat in two distinct ways, often called the "apple" and "pear" shapes, either the middle (apple) or the hips (pear). For most people, carrying extra weight around their middle increases health risks more than carrying extra weight around their hips or thighs. Overall obe sity, however, is still of greater risk than body fat storage locations or WHR. A WHR > 1.0 is in the danger zone, with risks of heart disease and other ailments connected with being overweight. For men, a ratio of .90 or less is considered safe, and for women .80 or less.

Yohimbine: An alkaloid that possesses adrener-gic-blocking properties and is used in arteriosclerosis and angina pectoris, formerly used as a local anesthetic and mydriatic and for its purported aphrodisiac properties.

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