DCoronary Heart Disease

Observational studies have shown that overweight, obesity, and excess abdominal fat are directly related to cardiovascular risk factors, including high levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, fibrino-gen and insulin, 86 and low levels of HDL-cho-lesterol. 42 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 causing impaired fibrinolytic activity is elevated in persons with abdominal obesity. 763 Overweight, obesity, and abdominal fat are also associated with increased morbidity and mortality from CHD. 1142155-161

Recent studies have shown that the risks of nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death increase with increasing levels of BMI. Risks are lowest in men and women with BMIs of 22 or less and increase with even modest elevations of BMI. In the Nurses' Health Study, which controlled for age, smoking, parental history of CHD, menopausal status, and hormone use, rel

Figure 3. NHANES III Age-Adjusted Prevalence of High Blood Cholesterol* According to Body Mass Index

Figure 3. NHANES III Age-Adjusted Prevalence of High Blood Cholesterol* According to Body Mass Index

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