Traditional Chinese Medicine

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Dry needling acupuncture is not the acupuncture of traditional chinese medicine tcm

Confusion about traditional acupuncture can be avoided if we understand more of the history of its development. The distinguished scholar Professor Chen Fang-zheng, senior researcher of the Chinese Academy of Science and former director of the Institute of Chinese Culture at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, wrote in his recent book Heritage and Betrayal A Treatise on the Emergence of Modern Science in Western Civilization (San Lian Shu Dian Press, Beijing, April 2009) that modern science could not evolve in Chinese culture as it did in the West because the ancient Chinese did not develop a method of logical enquiry into the objective world but focused only on practical aspects of their life. The same holds true in the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Professor Chen Xiao-ye of the Academy of Chinese Medicine in Beijing also stated in a personal communication that TCM accumulated a great corpus of clinical experience, but did not develop consistent theories, so that...

Select the points corresponding to one or more syndromes described by TCM

This selection may be of particular interest to therapists who treat mental disorders and visceral dysfunctions according to TCM. As ESRT seems to have a higher rate than PPT in identifying this kind of problem, the practitioner may rely more often on this diagnosis in combination with auricular inspection. The patient in Figure 10.7A, for example, suffered from chronic migraine the secondary symptoms were eczema, which worsened especially in spring and autumn, blepharitis and constipation. From the point of view of TCM, migraine was defined as the expression of excessive yang and heat in the Liver. Among the points identified with ESRT, four points were selected first were the temple area (former location of taiyang EX2 point) and the liver point. It is noteworthy that the antitragus presented a tiny dyschromia very close to the identified point. The other two points were selected for their internal-external relation with each other (Lung-Large Intestine). In particular, constipation...

Nonwestern Medical Systems Traditional Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has existed for thousands of years, long before Western medicine. Rather than following the disease model of Western medicine, TCM focuses on a symptom approach such that a person with PD who has mostly tremor would be evaluated and treated differently than another person whose symptoms were mostly gait and balance difficulty with no tremor. The specific symptoms of the individual signal a deficiency in the body fluids blood that is unable to properly nourish the energy flow or chi or Qi of the entire organism. There are three main symptom approaches under TCM (5). The first is Qi and blood deficiency, which is believed to arise from anger, emotional stress, frustration, and resentment. The second is phlegm-fire-agitating wind (yang), which is the result of poor diet, in particular eating greasy, fried, sweet, sugary foods and alcohol. The third is kidney and liver (yin) deficiency, which results from a lack of rest and overwork as well as part of...

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine United Kingdom

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine was set up in 1987 to regulate the practice of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the United Kingdom and to work with other organizations on issues relating to the practice and teaching of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. This site has a collection of useful online articles, including such topics as the dispensing and prescribing of Chinese herbal medicines. It also provides information on the use of Western herbs in Chinese herbal medicine, a selection of formulas for herbal preparations, and abstracts of research articles from China.

The Journal of Chinese Medicine

The Journal ofChinese Medicine is an English-language journal providing professional information on the entire field of Chinese medicine, including Chinese herbal medicine. Though the full text of the journal is not yet online, this site does provide tables of contents for the current issue and some back issues. Of particular note though are the sample full-text articles with useful information on Chinese herbal formulas used in the treatment of a variety of conditions. In addition, the online bookstore is a valuable guide to current texts on Chinese medicine.

The Way Forward for TCM

Nevertheless it cannot be denied that this ancient Chinese materia medica harbors many potentially lifesaving bioactive compounds. The isolation of the important antimalarial drug artemesinin from the Chinese herb Qing hao su (Artemesia annua) is a case in point. The modernization of the TCM industry and its acceptance into mainstream medical practice will depend on how the industry addresses the problems of

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine As A Model Of Antioxidantbasedcompounds Formula

In this sense, traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) is interesting because herbs have been used to treat many complex disorders such as diabete mellitus, cancer, and others for which Western medicine may not have an appropriate diagnostic name. TCM is usually prescribed with several herbal constituents having different functions and the synergistic action exhibited by the multicomponent formula is effective for the management of many complicated diseases (8). Moreover, their therapeutic strategy is modulation of the inherent potential to recover the distorted balance of the physical condition (disease condition) by either suppressing or stimulating physiological reactions with a multifunctional-compound formula comprising several herbal components. It is also known that free-radical or reactive oxygen species (ROS) are exclusively involved in the pathogenesis of such disorders for which the Chinese herbal medicines are effectively applied. Therefore, antioxidant TCM is an...

Understanding Chinese Herbal Medicine

While herbal utilization as means of cure in communities in Europe and the United States might involve single herbs, Chinese herbal medicine uses a combination of different herbs. Although exceptional situations do occur when only one or two herbs are used, the majority of ancient effective formulae consist of multiple herbs. The major philosophy of treatment in Chinese herbal medicine is to maintain an overall balance. The yin-yang theory is that every human being is under three different axes of balance. Balance between heat and cold, between the ''surface'' and ''depth,'' between ''emptiness'' and ''fullness.'' Perhaps heat and cold could be experienced and expressed by different individuals, not ''surface'' and ''depth,'' or ''emptiness'' and ''fullness.'' Master healers in Chinese medicine did attempt to provide a solid description of the opposing poles of the axes of harmony. However, the definitions remained subjective and obscure to modern man. When a treatment plan has to...

The History of Chinese Medicine Web Page

This site is the creation of Yi-Li Wu, Department of History, Albion College, Albion, Michigan, and Christopher Cullen, Senior Lecturer in History of Chinese Science and Medicine, Department of History, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. It is intended as a clearinghouse for scholars interested in the history of Chinese medicine. It contains useful links for scholars, including the full text of some classic Chinese medical texts and bibliographies of Western-language sources on the Chinese materia medica.

Regulated TCM Microarray

Species-specific probes derived from the intragenic spacer domain of the 5S rRNA, 12S rRNA, chloroplast t-RNA genes were designed for 24 species listed in the HKSAR Ordinance 47, 1999. The oligonucleotide probes were immobilized via disulfide bond to the silicon oxide surface of the chip in arrays of 5 x 25. These arrays were printed in the following order (1) positive immobilization control (2) Bufo melanostictus (3) B. gargarizans (4) Strychnos nux-vomica (5) Hyoscyamus niger (6) Typhonium diverticatum (7) T. giganteum (8) Pinellia pedatisecta (9) P. cordata (10) P. ternate (11) Arisaema amurense (12) Dysosma pleiantha (13) D. versipellis (14) Euphorbia kansui (15) Allocasia macrorrhiza (16) Stellera chamaejasme (17) Aconitum carmicaelli (18) A. carmicaelli (19) A. kusnezoffii (20) A. pendulum (21) Croton tiglium (22) Rhododendron molle (23) Datura innoxia (24) D. tatula (25) D. metel. Each of the species-specific probes had five replicas in each array. There were 25 arrays in total...

Chinese Medicine

Chinese medicine, or traditional Chinese medicine, is thousands of years old and one of the most traditional healing systems on earth. Central to Chinese medicine is the principle of qi, or energy, which travels along invisible meridians, on the surface of the body, and through internal organs. A balance of this energy is crucial for maintaining good health. To a physician of Chinese medicine, The polarities of yin and yang are an important aspect of Chinese medicine, describing the interdependence and relationship of opposites. Yin refers to the tissue of an organ and yang to its activity. A yin deficiency means the organ does not have enough raw materials to function in a yang deficiency, the organ does not react adequately when needed. The organs of the body work synergistically, each one either nourishes or inhibits the proper functioning of another. In China, methods for conducting clinical studies differ from the West in that they consider giving a placebo to a sick person...

Western Medicine

A great deal has changed now that we are immersed in the twenty-first century. Today, the greatest benefit to most people who are ill is the health remedies prescribed by physicians trained in Western medicine also called traditional or conventional medicine. This is not to say that there aren't benefits to be found in complementary and alternative medicine (often called CAM for short) or that there aren't plenty of treatments currently espoused by nontraditional healers which will someday be proven to be effective. It is also not to say that some currently used Western treatments won't eventually fall out of favor. Rather, what I mean is that by far your best chance of healing comes from what we have learned in the past century from scientists who have studied diseases and treatments in a manner that has allowed us to as

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Ginkgo has long been cultivated in China. The medicinal uses of ginkgo can be traced back to the Chinese herbal database known as the Materia Medica, which was written about 2800 BC. The ginkgo leaves were used for brain disorders, circulatory disorders, and respiratory diseases as traditional Chinese medicine. Fallen leaves of ginkgo were used as insecticides and fertilizer. Ginkgo nuts were traditionally used for getting rid of coughs, sputum and fever, for stopping diarrhea and toothaches, for healing skin diseases and gonorrhea, and for reducing frequency of micturition (Hori & Hori, 1997). In Japan, ginkgo nuts have been eaten as a side dish since the Edo Period (1600 1867).

Summary of Research and Conclusions

Relatively few in-vitro and no rodent or human studies have been conducted on Arctium seed or its lignan arctigenin. Six in-vitro studies reported that arctigenin induced differentiation in or inhibited the proliferation of various cancer cell lines.65-69 In addition, cytotoxic effects against two cancer cell lines have been observed by our research group.70 Since few studies have been done, the discussions on Arctium seed are necessarily brief this does not mean it should be discounted, however. For one thing, results from in-vitro studies have been promising. In some studies, arctigenin was active at relatively low concentrations and was more potent than many other lignans tested. For another, lignans in general appear promising for cancer treatment. One advantage arctigenin has over other lignans is that its pharmacokinetic characteristics are relatively favorable, which should make it effective at oral doses lower than those needed for other lignans. In addition, arctigenin occurs...

Piper nigrum L Piperaceae Pepper Lada

Piper Nigrum

Traditional Medicinal Uses The plant is used in many Asian countries as a stimulant, for the treatment of colic, rheumatism, headache, diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, menstrual pains, removing excessive gas and increasing the flow of urine. 11 It is also used in folk medicine for stomach disorders and digestive problems, neuralgia and scabies. In Ayurveda, it is used for arthritis, asthma, fever, cough, catarrh, dysentery, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, urethral discharge and skin damage. In Chinese medicine, it is used for

The Representation Of The Eye On The

Intending by this perhaps a defect in sight simulating myopia. The points were included in the standardization process and renamed as anterior and posterior intertragic points with the respective Pinyin of pingjianqian and pingjianhou. Their main indication was changed to 'ametropia' but further disorders were added too such as glaucoma and conjunctivitis. A further indication for glaucoma was proposed for the liver area (CO12 gan) in accordance with the importance given to the Liver meridian by TCM.

The Chinese Contribution To The Inspection Of The Outer

As noted in Chapter 1, the application of the principles of TCM to ear acupuncture by Chinese therapists favored an original development of this discipline. If we consider the four different diagnostic methods proposed by TCM, besides pulse and tongue diagnosis, we find examination of the patient at the top, followed by the interview, auscultation and smelling and palpation of the body. It is not by chance that palpation has been ranked last an aphorism written by the famous physician Pien Chueh in his book Nan Jing (Difficult Classic) was There is no part of the body which was not the object of observation by TCM. It is plausible, therefore, that the outer ear was included in this thorough examination during past centuries. Table 4.1 Some explanations of abnormal color of the helix according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (after Maciocia3) Energetic explanation according to TCM The auricular inspection proposed by Chinese acupuncturists after 1958 goes beyond a simple...

Morinda citrifolia L Rubiaceae Mengkudu Indian Mulberry Noni

Pairs Rambutans

Traditional Medicinal Uses The whole plant is used to treat aching bones and arthritis. In Malaysia, the heated leaves are applied to the chest and abdomen to treat coughs, nausea, colic and enlarged spleen. In Japanese and Chinese medicine, M. citrifolia is used to treat fever and as a tonic whereas in Indochina, the fruit is prescribed for lumbago, asthma and dysentery. 1 A decoction of the leaves taken orally is effective for the treatment of fever,

Allergic Conditions On The Auricle

Auricular Acupuncture

As regards the specific areas representing the end organs of an allergic reaction, it may be noticed that patients with seasonal rhinoconjuncti-vitis due to grass pollen, besides the Shen men area, show two further areas tender to pressure (Fig. 5.30A). The first is an area presumably representing the liver we know about the importance given by TCM to the Liver meridian for treating eye dysfunctions. Another sensitized area is that around the intertragic notch which in my opinion represents the end organ eye-nose of the allergic reaction. According to the Chinese, the anterior and posterior intertragal notches hold indications related to the eye, for example glaucoma and conjunctivitis, but the representation of the nose below the intertragic notch has never been reported by the main schools (see also below).

Phyllanthus amarus Schum Thonn

Phyllanthus Amarus

Traditional Medicinal Uses The aerial part of the plant is used for various conditions. In Chinese medicine, the plant is made into a tea to cure kidney problems, venereal diseases, stones in the kidneys and bladder. The Malays use it to increase menstrual flow, reduce fever and cure colic. It is used by the Indians as a fish poison. 5 Indians also use the plant as liver tonic to treat liver ailments, ascites, j aundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fever, conditions of the urogenital tract, eye disease, scabies, ulcers and wounds. 12 In Vietnam, it is used to induce sweating, and increase menstrual flow. It is also prescribed for toothache, muscle spasms and gonorrhoea. It is considered a diuretic, colic remedy and abortifacient in Southeast Asia. 5 It is also commonly used in Benin, Africa, as folk medicine against malaria. 13

Asthenia And Familial Hypertension And Diabetes

Ear Acupuncture Hypertension

If we simply compare ESRT and PPT in a group with this symptom we can see that the first diagnostic method shows several groups with significant concentrations of points. The richest cluster of points in proportion to the total (25 ) corresponds to the pituitary-adrenal gland area. Next is the cervical muscle area on the medial side and in third place we have a broad area covering both the Chinese kidney and bladder area (on the left of Fig. 7.8). TCM could also be cited for this area because asthenia with depression and chronic pain, often reported by my middle-aged patients, particularly females, could imply a deficiency of Yin Yang Kidney. Regarding PPT, there is a major sen-sitization of one of the depressive mood areas which nevertheless does not reach a significant difference compared to ESRT (on the right of Fig. 7.8).

Point Zero And The Principle Of Alignment According To Paul Nogier

Herpes Zoster Thoracic

Of the palm of the hand, proposed by Nogier himself, seems unacceptable as its innervation stems from the plexus brachialis (originating from the ventral branches of the last four cervical spinal nerves and most of the ventral branch of the first thoracic spinal nerve). Nevertheless, if we look at the body acupuncture points which are in topographic correspondence to the auricular point TH9 and the palm of the hand, we find respectively point Ganshu (BL18), and point Laogong (PC 8). The former is located 1.5 cun laterally to the border of the spinous process of TH9 the latter is located between the second and third metacarpal bones where the middle finger touches the palm, closing the hand. Beyond the interpretation of these points according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), we can limit ourselves to considering only the different groups of therapeutic indications which are reported in the most important acupuncture textbooks. The reader may well be surprised to notice that the...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Safflower has long been applied for empirically treating cerebral ischemia and depression in traditional Chinese medicine (Zhao et al., 2009). OSS has been mainly used in Korea herbal acupuncture for many years as an analgesic remedy (Popov et al., 2009). However, until recently we did not know which active components are in the oily preparation.

Smoking Habit And Eating Disorders

Acupuncture Points For Eating Disorders

The distribution of points in 25 subjects with obesity and eating disorders is quite different from that in smokers. ESRT shows three groups of sectors with significant differences two are the colon and the pituitary area, the third, on sectors 20 and 21, corresponds to the representation of the Chinese kidney (on the left of Fig. 7.12). It may be questioned whether the activation of the kidney area is concomitant with the low metabolism of these subjects or may depend, according to TCM, on a deficiency of Yin of Kidney which is accompanied by asthenia and psychologically by a loss of will.

How to Start Caring for Your Gums at Home

If you massage the skin on your face and create more circulation, then you are more likely to get a healthier and tighter appearance to your skin. The gum tissue is similar to the skin on your face in that both need proper products and massage. In Chinese medicine, natural blood-building tonics such as dong quai improve circulation. This can bring a healthy blood flow and stimulation to the gum tissue, and balance the female hormonal chemistry, which has a direct correlation to the health of our gum tissue.

The Representation Of The Ear On The

Barbiturate Overdose Rash

In following order we can find the sensitization of the whole tragus in 16.8 and a concentration of tender points in the superior concha on sectors 18-20 in 10.5 (on the left of Fig. 5.32, numbers 3 and 4). These two minor areas seem to correspond partially to Nogier's internal ear and to Chinese kidney and pancreas-gallbladder areas. The relationship between kidney and ear is well known by practitioners introduced to TCM, but it must be stressed that both areas, according to the Chinese standardization, hold a double indication for hypacusis and tinnitus.

Trigeminal Neuralgia On The

Trigeminal Nerve Posterior Auricular

Neuralgia of the second branch and in 9 with a neuralgia of the third branch tended to cluster on some areas which were already recognized to be of help in trigeminal pain. The cluster on the lower part of the ear lobe (Fig. 5.28, number 1) tends to overlap with Nogier's trigeminal area, whereas it tends to overlap with the Chinese cheek mianjia, eye (LO5 yan) and tonsil (LO8 and 9 biantaoti) of these points only the cheek point area holds tri-geminal neuralgia as a therapeutic option. The cluster on the antitragus (Fig. 5.28, number 2) can be easily correlated with facial and cephalic pain, and moreover it is aligned with the former on sectors 5-6. What is surprising is the evident sensitiza-tion of the auricles on stomach and hand areas (in the same figure, respectively numbers 3 and 4). According to Brizio, who is an experienced acupuncturist in TCM, the sensitization of the stomach area is very common in trigeminal neuralgia as a number of patients suffer commonly with dyspepsia...

Irans Rich Foods In Vegetables

What a person ingests can have a dramatic impact upon the person's health for better or for worse. Ayurvedics, TCM, and naturopaths believe that diet is critical to disease prevention and health promotion. Most holistic practitioners would prescribe a specific diet based upon the individual's particular body type and imbalance and their specific training. A review of the many Eastern diet approaches is well beyond the scope of this chapter. It is therefore recommended that persons with PD seek out a licensed nutritionist either Western or Eastern trained to help develop a proper diet. Though there is no specific diet proven to prevent or slow the progression of PD, some general guidelines (5,11) to consider are as follows

Ginseng Panax Species

Ginseng is thought of by many as a virtual panacea. Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been used for centuries as a general tonic, stimulant, and stress reliever. In Chinese medicine, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) has been used, but is thought to possess less stimulant activity. Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) has also gained recent popularity but belongs to a different plant species, which is often the caue of confusion. Most studies to date concentrate on the use of Panax ginseng. The mechanism of action for ginseng is unknown but thought to revolve around the concentration of ginsenosides that are thought to be responsible for a number of its pharmacological properities, including stimulation of the central nervous system, stimulation of the immune system, anxiolytic effects, antioxidant effects, and vasodilatory effects (81). Additionally, ginseng may accelerate hepatic lipo-genesis and increase glycogen storage (82).

Traditional Chinese Tibetan And Ayurvedic Medicine

China and the Indian subcontinent have developed what are probably the two most widely known systems of traditional health care traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine. TCM refers to an ancient healing system that is thought to predate current Western medicine by over 2,000 years.4 It encompasses a range of seemingly disparate techniques and materials, including widely popular areas such as acupuncture, massage, and herbal preparations, as well as the more esoteric areas of moxibustion and qi gong. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is probably the most famous medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, and the one best know to Westerners. Many other herbs, such as ma huang and gingko biloba, have been used in Chinese medicine for over 3,000 years but are only now enjoying great popularity in Western industrialized countries.

Amomum Fruit Amomum xanthioides

Gastrointestinal kinetics rather than propulsion, and is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal dyspepsia, which includes hyper-chlorhydria, stomach ache, abdominal distention, anorexia, etc. (13). Oral administration of either water or methanol extracts to rabbits caused a significant decrease in gastric secretion (14). Very little information about its composition and functionality have been reported. Flavor components of the seed were determined, including a-pinene, a-phellandrene, linalool, a-terpin-eol, and nerolidol (15). Aqueous extracts of the related A. villosum were shown to have anti-gram-positive bacterium activities (16).

The History Of Herbal Medicine A Capsule Summary

Figure Chinese Traditional Medicine

Penelope Ody, in her book, The Complete Medicinal Herbal,1 has compiled a very nice summary on the origins of western herbalism, starting with ancient civilizations of Egypt, the Greeks, and Romans. She continues with Islamic influences from the Arab world, Ayurvedic medicine from ancient India (ajur meaning life and veda meaning knowledge, refers to knowledge of how to live and places emphasis on good health being the responsibility of the individual), and Tibetian herbalism. The legacy of Chinese herbal medicine and its basic principles of five elements (wood, water, metal, earth, and fire) is cited in great detail together with beautiful illustrations in color of Chinese herbs. She has a marvelous treatise on herbs and herbal medicine that came out in magnificently illustrated herbals during the dark ages in Europe. She ends her

Ivclinical Indications

The use of the ginkgo tree in traditional Chinese medicine is very ancient. The seeds have been used since at least the thirteenth century and the leaves since at least the sixteenth century. Modern Chinese pharmacopoeias mention the use of the leaves in the treatment of cardiac and pulmonary diseases but also against dysentery and filariasis (2,7). Modern Western usage of Ginkgo biloba

Estimated Therapeutic and Loael Doses of Arctigenin and Arctium Seed

The commonly prescribed dose of Arctium seed for noncancerous conditions in Chinese herbal medicine is about 9 grams per day, which provides about 500 milligrams of arctigenin. The LOAEL dose for arctigenin is uncertain, but based on predictions for the LD50, we will estimate it at 650 milligrams, or 12 grams of Arctium seed (see Appendix J) this is the tentative dose recommendation listed in Table 20.6.

Herbal Immunostimulant Compounds

The (probable) active ingredients of the herbal compounds in Table 12.1 tend to fall into a limited number of chemical families one of these is high-molecular-weight polysaccharides, which are large sugar molecules. Natural compounds containing them include Astragalus, Ganoderma, Eleutherococcus, and PSK. A second family of immunostimulating compounds is the saponins. Natural compounds with these are Eleuthero-coccus and ginseng. It is tempting to speculate that the most effective combinations of herbal immune stimulants will contain compounds from both families, and in fact, most multiherb, immunostimulating formulas used in Chinese herbal medicine do have both. Some herbs

AMED Allied and Complementary Medicine Database

Even though this is not a free online database, information about the AMED database is included because it is one of the most important resources for CAM information. The database, produced by the Health Care Information Service of the British Library, contains bibliographic citations with abstracts, covering subjects such as acupuncture, osteopathy, Chinese medicine, homeopathy, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, hypnosis, herbalism, physiotherapy, chiropractic,

Heavy Metal Contamination

Heavy metals have been used over the centuries for their medicinal effects although they have largely been replaced in allopathic medicine by less toxic pharmaceuticals. In the theory of TCM heavy metals may be used as active A proprietary medicine,''Niuhuang Jiedu Pian,'' was incriminated in a fatal case in Macau (52). The patient, a 13-year-old girl had taken a high dosage of this proprietary medicine and developed an illness involving multiorgan failure, which was considered to be compatible with arsenic toxicity. When the tablets were analyzed they were found to contain excessive amounts of arsenic and this product and other similar ones were withdrawn from the market in Macau until they were proven to free of arsenic contamination. A number of cases of acute or chronic arsenic poisoning were reported from Singapore in children and adults taking ''Sin Lak Pill'', ''Lu Shen Wan,'' and other ''antiasthma'' preparations (53). These proprietary medicines, which were manufactured in...

Roller Bottle Culture After Oligo Treatment

Tumblr Dessin Animaux

Our current roller-culture medium is 100 Liebovitz TCM as above, plus 5 (when oligos are in medium) to 20 fetal calf serum. We already have evidence for necrosis, however, particularly in the notochord floorplate region of the cross-section, in advanced embryos following growth in this medium. It is very likely that serum-free media, such as those developed for advanced chick organ culture (e.g., 18), will give even better and more extended development, since these and other authors have evidence for toxicity of serum to chick embryo structures. This offers the exciting possibility that half-life of phosphorothioate oligos in such cultures could be prolonged, since serum frequently contains exonucleases. Since we have not yet done the necessary testing ourselves, we draw attention to this, but do not detail the alternative media. 1. Remove the oligo incubation dish from incubator, and place on a warm bench or in a larger dish with a layer of warm water, thus avoiding cooling shock to...

California Society for Oriental Medicine CSOM

The CSOM is a nonprofit association dedicated to promoting the practice of acupuncture and other forms of Oriental medicine in California. This site provides much useful information on herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including information on Chinese herbal patent medicines that contain Western drugs, news

General Information

The whole herb in Chinese herbal medicine is about 9 grams per day in decoction.78 Since the polysaccharide content of many polysaccharide-rich herbs is roughly 7 percent (commonly 5 to 10 percent), a 32-gram dose of Ganoderma provides about 2.2 grams per day of polysaccharides.79-83

China in the early twentieth century

Yet, the concern with obesity appears in Chinese popular magazines, where it is already seen as a response to the past and contemporary, allopathic medicine view of China as a famine culture (Beahan 1975 Nivard 1986). This is not to say that there has not been a constant and intense concern with the immoderate body in the medical and dietetic literature of traditional Chinese medicine. In the sixteenth century, Li Shizhen (1518-93) wrote in his Bencai gangmu (Systematic Materia Medica) that the consumption of fresh crabs was healthy in small quantities, but gluttons will consume a dozen or more at a sitting together with various kinds of meat and other foods. They eat and drink twice as much as they need . . . then blame their upset stomachs on the crabs. But why blame the crabs (Lo and Barrett 2005 417). The culture of excess in the world of traditional Chinese medicine became a hallmark of the degenerate Chinese body in need of regeneration by the early twentieth century.

Populus Candicans Medicine In South Africa Pharmacy

Medicine (TCM) Chinese Cultural Studies The Chinese Language and Writing, 74 Chinese Medicine (TCM) Chinese writing. See Pin Yin CISCM. See Research Council for German National Library of Medicine, 11 Germany. See also Commission E Monographs European Union (EU) Commission E, 86 pharmaceutical literature, 128, 134 phytomedicines, 48, 86 regulatory issues, 86 Ginger (Zingiber offinale), 92 Gingivitis, 151 Ginkgo (Gingko biloba) analysis, 92 clinical trials, 147 in food, 147 use in U.S., xiv Ginseng (Panax ginseng) analysis, 115 and Chinese medicine, 70 safety, 108 Ginseng, American (Panax quinquefolius), 32 Global Health Calendar Meetings and Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide, 12 Herbs of Commerce, 38 HerbWeb, 75, 102 HISTLINE, 12, 13f History of Chinese Medicine Web Page, 76 Guild, 49 Journal of the American Medicine Association (JAMA). See American Medical Assocation Journal of Chinese Medicine, 76 Pen-Tsao Kang Mu ( The Great Herbal ), 76. See also Traditional Chinese...

Genetic Medicine Blessing or Curse

The theory of genetic diagnosis and treatment turns the practice of Western medicine inside out literally. Instead of starting with disease and searching for its origin, genomics begins with a genetic variation and relies on treatments that manipulate it, often before the gene can express itself in terms of illness. It bespeaks a change in the nature of health care from treating symptoms to predicting health status and taking steps accordingly.

Alternative Medicines and Therapies

Alternatives to conventional medical care are increasingly popular in the United States, and their growing use by consumers represents a major trend in Western medicine. Alternative therapies appear to be used most frequently for medical conditions that are chronic, such as back pain, arthritis, sleep disorders, headache, and digestive problems. Surveys of U.S. consumers have shown that more people visit alternative practitioners each year than visit conventional primary-care physicians. Consumers do not necessarily reject conventional medicine, however. Many simply feel that alternative modalities offer complementary approaches that are more in line with their personal health philosophies.

Ephedra Ephedra SiNiCA

Traditional Chinese medicine has for centuries touted the use of ephedra for the treatment of asthma, congestion, and bronchitis. Also known as ma huang, it predominantly consists of two alkaloids, ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug, structurally similar to amphetamines. Its effects on the body include central nervous system stimulation, cardiac stimulation (ionotropic and chronotropic), bronchodilation, and elevation in blood pressure. Pseudoephedrine is an isomer of ephedrine that has weaker stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and on blood pressure (33). In the United States, ephedra has become a popular ingredient in over-the-counter weight loss preparations. It is frequently combined with herbal forms of caffeine such as guarana or kola nut.

Internationalcultural Perspectives On Quality Of Life

Some perceptions and cultural beliefs find the Chinese population to perceive that cancer is infectious, and related to certain excessive behaviors. In studies related to gynecological cancer, women believed that the cancer will recur if they have sex after treatment or that sex will cause the cancer to progress.32,36 On the other hand,most of time the traditional healers or folk practitioners are able to spend more time with their patients attending to personal and social issues of helping the individual, for example, regain the balance in life, the balance that Chinese healers believe becomes disrupted and seen as producing the tumor (Traditional Chinese medicine does not use the concept of cancer, but it does use the concept of tumor.)37 This time spent with the patient addressing this imbalance may culturally be more of what a cancer survivor may require.38 For example, folk healers are typically closer in social class to the patients they are working with, and the emphasis on...

Recommended Treatment Policies

Acupuncture The art of acupuncture is an ancient and integral part of the armamentarium used in China for the treatment of medical problems. Acupuncture consists of the insertion of very fine needles into the skin at specific points intended, according to traditional Chinese medicine, to influence specific body functions or body parts. In the traditional Chinese view of the body, life energy, (chi), circulates through pathways blockage of the pathways leads to deficiency of chi, or disease. The goal of the traditional acupuncturist is to open up the pathways and stimulate the movement of chi. The specific points for needle insertion are based on traditional anatomy maps that depict which pathways affect which body functions. Frawley, P. J., & Smith, J. W. (1992). One-year follow-up after multimodal inpatient treatment for cocaine and methamphetamine dependencies. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9, 271-286. LEMERE, F., & VOEGTLIN, W. L. (1940). Conditioned reflex therapy of...

Safety of Synergistic Combinations

There is also a precedent for safely using large combinations of natural compounds, including combinations that contain some of the compounds in this book. Both Chinese herbal medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, the ancient healing system of India, have been using large combinations of natural compounds for centuries, if not thousands of years. For example, in Chinese herbal medicine, single herbs are rarely prescribed, but combinations of 4 to 12 herbs are commonly employed. Considering that each herb may contain multiple active compounds, this is a large mix of compounds. The efficacy and safety of many of these formulas have been borne out by modern Chinese investigations.

Clinical Studies With Chinese Herbal Formulas

No discussion on using natural immunostimulant compounds in cancer therapy would be complete without some consideration of the many clinical studies that have been done in China. Studies have been conducted on the combined use of chemotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine, as well as on the anticancer use of Chinese herbal medicine alone. The majority of herbal formulas used in the Chinese studies were composed primarily of immunostimulant herbs such as those in Table 12.1 (for example, most formulas included Astragalus or ginseng or both). In Chinese herbal medicine, most of these herbs are considered tonics for the qi, or vital energy.a (For contents of the herbal formulas mentioned below, see Table H.2 in Appendix H for more information on the theory of using Chinese herbs in cancer treatment, see reference 68). a Herbs that in Chinese herbal medicine terms clear heat, regulate the blood, supplement the blood, supplement the yin, or supplement the yang are represented less frequently.

Choosing the Right Treatment for

Suzanne Somers, the actress perhaps best known for her role as the stereotypical dumb blond on the sitcom Three's Company, made tabloid news for weeks when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and opted out of some of the treatments that her doctors recommended. She writes of her decision to continue hormonal therapy against her doctors' advice I'm going to continue to take my hormones, I am not going to take chemotherapy, I am going to have six weeks of radiation, and I am not going to take Tamoxifen. Later she explains, Don't think I disregard traditional Western medicine. I am the first one in line for Western medicine when it is warranted. I would not have wanted to go through my cancer without my wonderful doctors.

Problems Expected In An Integrated Setting A Adverse Effects of Herbal Preparations

With good past experience, the prevalent belief is that Chinese medicinal herbs are safe. On the other hand, more and more reports have appeared on adverse effects and toxicities, and nonusers of herbs tend to exaggerate the reports. To date, standard instructions on clinical trials for Chinese medicine define adverse drug reaction in exactly the same way as modern scientific clinical trials, and explanations for the reactions have been identically identified (25). 1. Reactions to herbs. Reactions are defined as harmful and unexpected effects when the standard dosages are used in certain drug trials. It is especially pointed out that for Chinese medicine, the harmful reactions could be due to the quality of the herb and poor choice of indication. These reactions do not include allergic responses.

Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba

The fruits and seeds of ginkgo have been used in TCM for thousands of years and leaf extracts are one of the most commonly used European herbal extracts (22,106). The active components have been attributed with a number of activities that promote small-vessel blood flow, including that in the cerebral arteries, as well as antiplatelet and other hemorrheological actions, antihy-poxic, neuroprotective, membrane-stabilizing, and capillary-fragility-decreasing effects (21,22,106). Ginkgo has been reported to provide moderate improvements in symptoms of intermittent claudication (107) and a standardized form of the leaf extract (EGb761) has been approved in Germany for the treatment of dementia (21,22).

Vproblem 4 The Product May Have Been Deliberately Adulterated

The deliberate addition of compounds to herbal preparations is an even more worrisome problem. Adulterants include phenylbutazone, indomethacin, dexamethasone, prednisolone, acetaminophen, fenfluramine, and aminopy-rine (11,22,30). Phenylbutazone can cause severe agranulocytosis, which is why its use as a drug is now very limited, but several cases of damage by herbs containing it as an adulterant have been reported (22,31,32). In 2002 in Singapore the Health Sciences Authority identified phenylbutazone in the herbal remedy serbuk jarem (encok), used to treat rheumatism and ''body aches.'' In England, herbal creams prescribed by TCM practitioners to treat facial and other eczema were analyzed and eight were found to be adulterated with dexamethasone, in some cases at a level that should not be used on the face (33). Yet another example is PC-SPES (see below).

Regulatorypolicy Issues

The increasing number of adverse events reported in association with use of ephedra-containing dietary supplements has raised some concerns among health care professionals (68,69) about the accessibility and widespread use of these products by the general population. In addition, highly publicized reports of catastrophic adverse outcomes associated with ephedra use have drawn the attention of concerned lawmakers at the state and national levels. Indeed, several states, including Texas, New York, Hawaii, Florida, and California, have passed laws restricting the use of ephedra, required warning statements on product labels, and mandated an adverse-event reporting system. And, more recently, the FDA has announced a ban on all dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids. Ephedra will remain legal as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

Concluding Remarks

G. lucidum is a well-regarded Asian herbal remedy with a long and impressive range of applications. Global consumption of G. lucidum is high, and an increasingly large series of patented and commercially available products that incorporate G. lucidum as an active ingredient are available as food supplements. These include extracts and isolated constituents in various formulations and these are marketed worldwide in the form of capsules, creams, hair tonics, and syrups (6,182). The various postulated health benefits of G. lucidum are outlined in Figure 5, and a summary of the experimental studies described in this chapter, with our comments, on the putative therapeutic effects of G. lucidum is presented in Table 2.

Traditional Chinese Herbs

The pharmacopoeia of traditional Chinese herbs includes the richest and oldest sources of medicinal plants. Herbal medicines have been used for millennia in China and one of the earliest texts is the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing published in 101 B.C. Each subsequent emperor and dynasty has continued to commission written pharmacopoeia on medicinal herbs. One of the most prominent texts, Ben Cao Gang Mu, first published in the Ming dynasty in the late 1500s, is still a reference source for current TCM practitioners. This text contains 52 volumes and includes 1160 drugs from plants and 11,096 prescription formulae. This detailed pharmacopoeia, written by Li Shih Chen, has botanical drawings of plants drawn by his son. In 1596, it was translated into Latin and later into English, French, German, Russian, and Japanese. Sadly, since then the Chinese materia medica has not been improved for hundreds of years and current TCM practices do not differ much from that of the sixteenth century. Very...

Medical Education

Recent information from Japan indicated that starting very soon, all medical students in Japan would be required to go through 150 hr of undergraduate study in a variety of Kampo medicine (which is Chinese medicine) (20). This appears a genuinely positive commitment to herbal medicine outside China, which is providing 150-400 hr of Chinese medicine study for all modern medicine undergraduates. Curriculum arrangements with substantial components of Chinese medicine would probably produce graduates with more dynamic caliber. However, these graduates are still rigid followers of modern science. An advocate in Hong Kong once put forward the proposal that undergraduates could finish their modern medicine course and then spend an additional 2 years on Chinese medicine. This method of training would produce genuinely integrated medical experts who would be able to lead medicine into a new direction. In fact, the major obstacle would be the concept of forcibly marrying the two different...

Potential Conflicts Arising from Allocation of Resources to Traditional Health Care Services

In China, although traditional health services are covered by health insurance, only about 12 of the population has comprehensive medical insurance that covers the cost of hospitalisation and the proportion of uninsured people may be as high as 50 (Xhu, 1992, cited in Phillips et al., 1994 World Bank, 1997, cited in Lee, 1999). In hospital settings, insured patients are more likely to receive TCM (Phillips et al., 1997). This is due to the fact that one of the primary sources of a hospital ward's profit, under the market model of health care provision that is in place, is the 15-25 markup for prescribed medications, so the changed incentive system has become associated with increased polypharmacy (World Bank, 1992, cited in Phillips et al., 1997). Under the market system, many TCM hospitals in China operate at a deficit, as better-equipped Western hospitals attract more patients. As TCM is largely an outpatient, low-technology specialty, most of the income of traditional hospitals...

Traditional Medicine And Herbal Remedies

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 4 billion people, or 80 percent of the world's population, use herbal remedies for some aspects of their health care.1 WHO uses the term traditional medicine to refer to ways of protecting and restoring health that existed before the arrival of modern medicine (WHO Web site). It encompasses many systems of healing that are not based on the Western scientific approach and are often centered around cultural beliefs and practices handed down from one generation to another. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals, herbal therapy, and other treatments. It can encompass African traditional medicine, Arabic medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. In many developing countries, traditional medicine is still the main source of primary health care, and herbs play a significant role in these healing systems.

Problems Associated With The Use Of Herbal Medicines

Despite the popularity of botanical supplements, many herbal products on the market are of low quality and dubious efficacy. Scientists, clinicians, and consumers are often concerned about safety, effectiveness, and consistency of herbal preparations. Their apprehension about these qualities is due to a plurality of unknowns. These include a variety of poorly controlled factors such as raw herb quality, processing methods used to make the preparations, the complex biochemical heterogeneity of herbs, potential adulteration, unpredictable consequences when herbs are combined, unpredictable consequences when herbal remedies are combined with conventional medications, and an apparent lack of scientific validation (24-27). It is not surprising that TCM, a medical paradigm that relies mainly on anecdotal data and tradition of use, frequently cannot withstand the scrutiny of evidence-based medicine.

Facts And Fancies About Obesity

Cecily Williams first described for western medicine a condition due to protein malnutrition which is now known as kwashiorkor (from two African Gold Coast dialect words meaning a red boy). This disease is seen mainly in children, and is characterised by extreme weakness, oedema (swelling), skin eruptions and a curious reddish tinge in the hair when the sufferer is black-skinned. It has been known for years (under different names) all over Africa and Asia.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

O. fragrans flowers (known as Gui Hua or Kwei Hwa) are widely used in Chinese medicine. There are many medicinal products made from sweet osmanthus buds, leaves, and bark. They are said to protect against coughs, used to flavor other medicines, and are added to cosmetics for hair and skin. A decoction of the stem bark is used in the treatment of boils and carbuncles, and a decoction of the lateral roots is used in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea, rheumatism, and bruises. The seeds are often used as an analgesic. An essential oil obtained from the flowers is used as an insect repellent for clothes. Products are also added to herbal medicines in order to disguise obnoxious flavors (Duke & Ayensu, 1984 Manandhar & Manandhar, 2002). The essential oil of O. fragrans is considered to be one of the best natural essences, and is only used in the most expensive perfumes and cosmetics (Jin et al., 2006).

Return To Sanity Please

Price's conclusions and recommendations were shocking for his time. He advocated a return to breast feeding when such a practice was discouraged by Western medicine. He urged parents to give their children cod liver oil every day. He considered fresh butter to be the supreme health food. He warned against pesticides, herbicides, preservatives, colorings, refined sugars, vegetable oils, in short, all the things that modern nutrition and agriculture have embraced and promoted the last few decades. Price believed that margarine was a demonic creation. Let me tell you, with recommendations like these, he was REALLY unpopular But the result of his research speaks for itself.

Understanding Complementary or Alternative Treatments

The terms alternative, complementary, or unconventional therapy cover a broad range of healing philosophies and approaches. Some approaches are consistent with the physiological principles of Western medicine, while others constitute independent healing systems. Some alternative therapies are far outside the realm of accepted medical theory and practice, while others fit within the traditional system.

Replacement of Blastoderms into the Ring Cultures and Completion of Setting Up

The depth of TCM BSS must be increased at this stage to facilitate pipet transfer (while preserving some of the oligo concentration around embryos). This added medium should be prewarmed to near-incubation temperature (see above). By gently oscillating the dish, blowing with a fine medium-filled pipet, or the use of forceps, it should be ensured that each blastoderm is individually prepared for the rapid pipet transfer of the following step by being free-floating, and not stuck to the plastic floor of the dish. This is much easier for those incubated epiblast-up. 2. Lift the ring membrane assembly at one point (with the small curved-toothed forceps) and withdrawing the remaining fluid from beneath it using the special bent, fine smooth-mouthed pipet. Rolling the ring around helps remove more of this underlying saline, and having the overlying space about one-third filled with TCM BSS also helps by pressing saline out more thoroughly from beneath. The optimal pipet is so angled that...

Folk Amadok Garhwal Action Disinfectant

The plant is one of the major ingredients of an ointment used in the treatment of skin tumours in Chinese medicine. In Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Gabon and Tanganyika, different parts of the plant are used for the treatment of intercostal pain, rheumatic pain and fever. The leaf and root decoctions are used to treat pneumonia.

Universityaffiliated Nonprofit And Other Research Institutions

The previous chapter was primarily devoted to those organizations and associations working within what can be regarded as the traditional herbal movement. In the United States, this movement has largely operated on the fringes of mainstream Western medicine. Historically, allopathic physicians in the United States have vigorously fought CAM practices, denouncing them as quackery and attacking them for being unscientific.1 (Throughout this book, I prefer to use the term Complementary and Alternative Medicine, or CAM, to refer to what is generally called alternative medicine. See the glossary for a definition of CAM and allopathy.) However, whatever the views of allopathic physicians, a sizable section of the American public is turning to CAM practitioners. This has forced mainstream health organizations and medicine to reexamine CAM therapies, assessing their effectiveness and trying to determine how best to incorporate them into the routine practice of medicine. A recent article...

University of Arizona Program in Integrative Medicine

Many medical institutions in the United States, including medical schools, are beginning to approach CAM through what is known as integrative medicine. Integrative medicine seeks to combine the best of both traditional Western medicine and nontraditional alternative medicine approaches and techniques to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.

WHO Collaborating Centers

University of Illinois at Chicago, which produces the NAPRALERT database (see the corresponding entry in Chapter 13), and the Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine (IARASM) in Brooklyn, New York, publisher of the American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AJCM).

Viproblem 5 The Products May Produce Harm By Interacting With Each Other Or With Pharmaceuticals Taken Concurrently

TCM prescriptions may contain multiple different products whose ingredients can interact with each other in unexpected ways, or can influence the effects of Western drugs taken concurrently. TCM is often used by subjects with chronic diseases, who are likely to take Western drugs at the same time. For example, PC-SPES is allegedly a combination of eight herbs sometimes used by patients with prostate cancer. It was found to have potent oestrogenic activity (34). Coadministration of PC-SPES with estrogens might thus cause overdose problems, and PC-SPES in high doses may itself produce side effects such as breast tenderness and loss of libido (34). PC-SPES was banned in 2002 in the United States after chemical analysis showed it to be adulterated with diethylstilbestrol (a known carcinogen) indomethacin and warfarin (35). The action of St. John's wort in inhibiting monoamine oxidase can potentiate the effects of serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (3,36). It also induces hepatic enzymes,...

Summary And Potential

Ability of most of the compounds and extracts, and the reported effects in vitro may or may not be at relevant doses (i.e., similar to those found in vivo). Nevertheless, Chinese medicine clearly works in many cases, although the scientific basis of the action and the individual compounds responsible are often not known. In addition, there are a huge range of in vitro tests for anticarcinogenic activity, and it is unlikely that a single one of these tests can predict anticarcinogenicity in vivo, certainly not in humans. It is also possible that separating the active components of CFI may dilute or lose the activity, since synergy and interactions are lost. Another factor is acceptance by the Western medical community and the general public. Clearly CFI are well accepted by many Chinese, and have been used centuries. Perhaps the way forward is to consider how Western and Chinese medicines may complement each other, with conventional drugs for treatment of disease and Chinese medicines...

Eastmeetswest Medicine

According to TCM, the ''five tastes'' of FS bespeak much of its influence on the five visceral organs. In this regard, a renowned Chinese herbalist, Sun Simiao (a.d. 581-682), in the Tang dynasty, had noted that''taking Schisandra berry in May can invigorate the qi of the five viscerae.'' Given the indispensable role of qi in body functioning, this points to the possibility that FS can produce beneficial effect on major organs in the body. Over the past 10 years, our laboratory has attempted to define the biochemical properties of FS in regard to its purported qi invigorating action. A generalized tissue-protective action of FS or its lignan constituents has been demonstrated. In the realm of TCM, qi, literally meaning energy, is regarded as the ''root of life'' body functions are often explained in terms of qi. qi can be broadly defined as the minute substances circulating inside the body and their functional role. Alternatively, qi can be regarded as a manifestation of functional...

Or Become Contaminated

A pharmaceutical product is described as stable if it meets the five elements of stability physical, chemical, microbial, toxicological, and therapeutic. Many natural compounds readily oxidize and degrade, giving products with different properties. For example, the carotenoids h-carotene and lycopene may have antioxidant properties as intact molecules, yet their degradation products can be cytotoxic in cell cultures (23). Flavonoids and other plant polyphenolics are also easily oxidizable (24). Plant materials contain enzymes that affect their constituents for example, the difference between green tea and black tea is the inactivation of an enzyme that oxidizes phenols during the preparation of the former but not the latter (25). Drying of plant material can cause loss of thermolabile constituents and further loss can occur on storage, especially if storage conditions are moist or too hot. However, shelf lives of TCM are rarely given on the packaging.

Adulteration With Western Drugs

Data from Taiwan have highlighted the widespread use of adulterants in TCM preparations. Examination of 2,609 products found 23.7 were adulterated and of these 52.8 contained two or more adulterants (55). Of the adulterants 34.5 contained caffeine, 27.0 paracetamol, 24.6 indo-methacin, 20.6 hydrochlorothiazide, and 14.8 prednisolone (55). TCM hospitals had the lowest rates of adulteration (9.0 ) with herbalists providing the least authentic preparations, with 34.6 containing adulterants (55). Ginseng preparations in the United States were found to be adulterated with a number of different components including Mandragora officinarum (scopolamine), Rauwolfia serpentia (reserpine), and Cola species.

Problem 2 The Product Is Not What It Is Supposed To Be

The essential basic requirement for any herbal product is that the correct plant(s) are used. Even then there can be differences the chemical composition of plants varies enormously depending on developmental stage, soil composition, amount of water and sunlight, etc. (Table 1). Nevertheless, occasionally the wrong plant is used and sometimes the same name in TCM can encompass several different plants (see above). Two patients consuming a range of herbal products ''to cleanse the body'' presented with digitalis poisoning, due to the use of Digitalis lanata instead of plantain in the formulation. Investigation revealed that approximately 2700 kg of this product had been imported into the United States, and only vigorous action by the Food and Drug Administration in recalling supplies prevented more problems (18). In fact, authentication of the starting plant material is a key problem. Detailed reference standards (e.g., herbarium-authenticated specimens, descriptive illustrated...

Problem 1 The Product Is Toxic

Several problems have arisen with various herbal products that induce hepatotoxicity. Herbal teas from germander (Teucrium chamaedrys) have been widely used throughout antiquity, but several cases of germander-induced hepatitis with periportal inflammation and centrilobular necrosis associated with consumption of capsules containing germander extract led to the banning of all germander products in France (14). Jin bu huan (JBH) has been used in TCM as a sedative, analgesic, and decongestant, but chronic consumption of some products can cause hepatotoxicity (14). One problem is that a variety of herbs are marketed as JBH, although the offending one was labeled as an extract of Polygala chinensis (14). Indeed it is common in TCM for one name to apply to a group of botanically unrelated materials. Other The gallbladders of animals are used in TCM in some countries, but bile constituents can be variably toxic the grass carp bile appears especially so and cases of human hemolysis and renal...

Antioxidant Potential Of Sms Determined In Vitro

Ancient TCM theory states that the physical condition of the human body is controlled by the interaction of five elemental organs, heart, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen, although the nature of these organs is not the same as understood in Western medicine. The brain was not classified in the five elemental organs but its function is considered strictly related to liver, kidney, and heart functions. Therefore, it is worth examining protective effects on cerebral oxidative damage by TCM prescriptions that have been used for treating complex diseases, especially related to heart, lung, or kidney failure. In this sense, it is interesting to study the effect of SMS on cerebral oxidative injury. We first examined the antioxidant property of SMS by five different antioxidant assays in vitro and the antioxidant activity was compared using Trolox as the reference antioxidant in each antioxidant assays. (Table 1). Interestingly, SMS was found to have extremely strong...

Xray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS

The XPS spectrum based on the unique electron binding energies allowed us to analyze the elements present in the surface during cleaning rehydroxylation and self-assembly of the thiol layer used as heterofunctional linker to immobilize the DNA to the Si surface of the TCM chip. The XPS spectrum taken immediately after cleaning indicated a low carbon content of 4.08 on the surface. The amount of carbon recorded on the surface was likely due to the deposition of contaminants present in the ambient air. This indicated that it is preferable to deposit the MPTS layer immediately after cleaning. The XPS spectra of the MPTS layer of the sulfur peak (S 2p) was detected at 163.7 eV, which indicated that all of the sulfur was present as thiol or disulfide (28) and ready for immobilization of the oligonucleotide probes.

Cardioprotective Effects

An early study in our laboratory has shown the myocardial protective effect of Shengmai San (36), a TCM formula used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (37), and the lignans derived from FS were found to contribute to the cardioprotective action (36). Pretreatment with the lignan-enriched FS extract, which has recently been shown to produce Sch B-like in vivo antioxidant activity at an equivalent potency of 30 (w w) (38), at an oral dose of 0.8 g kg day for 3 days, protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats and ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in isolated perfused hearts prepared from the pretreated rats (36). The effects of Sch B treatment on myocardial IR injury in isolated rat hearts were subsequently investigated under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions (39).

Pharmacokinetics of Ligusticum Mixtures

The pharmacokinetics of most herbs and formulae used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are not well understood. Mixing many different herbs together into complex formulations is a common practice in TCM. The effects of mixing different herbs together on the pharmacokinetics of individual compounds are to a large extent unknown. One of the rare efforts in this area was the attempt to investigate herb-herb interactions and the pharma-cokinetics of L. wallichii in rat models with the use of both healthy and diseased rats (21). The results demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of the herb in single use and in combination with other herbs displayed different

Actions on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

SM is commonly prescribed for ischemic cerebral vascular disease in traditional Chinese medicine. In experimental studies, SM was shown to decrease cerebral infarction and attenuate neurological deficits after ischemia and reperfusion (50-52). It was observed that SM was able to ameliorate some ultrastructural abnormalities of ischemic brain, including swollen mitochondria, partial loss of cristae, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi's complex, the presence of dark neurons, swollen capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes, and active pinocytosis in the endothelial cells. SM also improved the impaired memory function after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (53). Mechanistic studies indicate that the following properties of SM may contribute to its beneficial effects.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

The fine line to be negotiated when selecting CAM therapies is protection for finances when recommended therapies include benign but costly ineffective or untested treatments. Alternately, persons who have tried CAM therapies with no relief may feel guilty for not improving. A stellar CAM provider, like a stellar allopathic (standard Western medicine) provider, will reassure patients that if therapies are not effective it is not the patient's fault. Continuing to use and promote an unproven therapy that shows no ongoing health advantage to the patient is always unacceptable in any practice of medicine. Well-tested CAM therapies for FM include acupuncture, chiropractic, electrical therapies, and various vitamins, herbs, and nutraceuticals. Although their mechanisms of action have yet to be fully elucidated, they may be due in some part to stress reduction and their ability to elicit the relaxation response. Patients also might learn to elicit the relaxation response without...

Using Combinations Of Polysaccharides

Combinations of herbs are of course used in Chinese herbal medicine, and most Chinese formulas intended for immune stimulation (or qi stimulation) contain poly-saccharide-rich herbs. For the interested reader, we mention two historic Chinese herbal formulas as examples. These formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang and Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang, contain combinations of both poly-saccharide- and saponin-rich herbs (see Table H.2 in Appendix H for ingredients). Each formula is put to a slightly different use in Chinese herbal medicine, but both produce effects on the immune system.

Conclusion The Way Forward

The data reviewed above show that TCM cannot at present be taken as an acceptable given body of knowledge. Practitioners need to be licensed and subject to quality control checks on their prescriptions to deter adulteration. They should participate in national or international adverse-event-reporting networks. They should be monitored by a disciplinary body. Better monitoring of prescribed and '' over-the-counter TCM products for adulterants and contaminants is needed. Products should be registered and evidence that the manufacturer complies with GMP should be available. The labels should specify the composition of the product, both active and ''inactive'' ingredients, the supplier, and the country of origin. Data on stability should be obtained and used to provide ''sell by'' and ''use by'' dates. Much more work needs to go into genetic and chemical methods to identify and quality-control TCM, and standards need to be established. Finally, the public needs to be educated to be...

Nasopharyngeal Cancer

In a study on 197 patients with stage III and IV nasopharyngeal cancer, approximately half had radiotherapy in combination with Formula 1, and half received radiotherapy alone. After one year, survival was 91 percent in the combined treatment group and 80 percent in the one receiving only radiotherapy. After three years, the survival rates were 67 percent and 33 percent respectively, and after five years, they were 52 percent and 24 percent.71, 72 Although Formula 1 contains Astragalus, most of the others in the formula are ones that, in Chinese herbal medicine terms, reduce blood stagnation.

Aversion Therapy See Treatment

Mixtures containing Banisteriopsis caapi are still in use among the indigenous peoples of the Amazon. A tea brewed from it and the leaves of Psychotria viridis has been used in shamanistic rituals for hundreds of years in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru. In recent years, a number of people seeking alternatives to Western medicine, and for other reasons, have participated in Santo Daime rituals, in which drinking ayahuasca is a central feature. The tea is said to induce ecstatic states, during which the participants claim to experience great insight. In southern Brazil, some psychotherapists and homeopaths have been known to bring clients or patients to participate in such rituals.

Hand Acupuncture Therapy

This book describes in detail the principles of hand acupuncture therapy, the location of the hand acupuncture points, hand observation diagnosis and the clinical application of hand acupuncture therapy for some common diseases. This book, dealing with an important branch of Traditional Chinese Medicine, stresses the practical application of the

Areca Catechu Seed

Areca catechu (LINN.), also named betel palm, is a handsome tree cultivated throughout the warmer parts of Asia for its yellowish-red fruits, which contain conical-shaped seeds with a flattened base. They are brownish in color externally, and internally are mottled like a nutmeg. Areca catechu seeds, also known as betel nuts, have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antiparasitic agent for thousands of years.


Over 1000 naturopaths practicing in America. Naturopathy incorporates many of the modalities of TCM and Ayurveda, such as acupuncture, herbs, nutrition, massage, and homeopathy with the goal of achieving a balance between one's physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual health by allowing the body and mind to heal itself through its own natural mechanisms. Additional information can be found in Ref. (6).


Chiropractic theory is similar to TCM and Ayurveda in that it views the body as having an innate ability to heal itself and naturally adapt to changes in its internal and external environments to maintain a natural state of health. Chiropractic practitioners focus on the nervous system knowing that the brain sends messages through the spinal cord to all the organs, muscles, blood vessels, and cells of the body. The nervous system helps to coordinate and regulate a vast array of chemical reactions that affect how a person thinks, feels, sleeps, digests food, physically moves, etc. Chiropractic theory is based upon the belief that when bones of the spine become misaligned they block normal flow and communication of the nervous system to the entire body and thereby result in impairment of normal body function that leads to a variety of physical symptoms and possibly the development of disease states. Chiropractic literally means to be done by hand and it was founded in 1895 with the...


Acupuncture is based upon TCM and is one of the main therapies used by TCM physicians, but also practiced by naturopaths, osteopaths, and a variety of healthcare professionals. Acupuncture involves the placement of needles at specific points along meridians with the goal of restoring the balance of yin and yang and proper chi or qi flow to promote health. Persons with PD receiving acupuncture report a reduction in pain and sometimes improved sleep and mood and increased energy. Reduction of pain has consistently been reported by persons receiving acupuncture for a variety of conditions. Stimulation of the nerve fibers with the acupuncture needles is thought to activate the nervous, lymphatic, and electromagnetic pathways and result in a release of hormones that reduce pain as well as stimulate the immune system and improve circulation. Treatments often last 40 to 90 minutes while laying on one's back with needles in place and to be effective may need to be done a minimum of one to...


Danshen, the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a herb commonly used in TCM for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It has been reported to have a number of anticoagulatory effects, including inhibition of platelet aggregation, antithrombin Ill-like activity, antagonism of extrinsic blood coagulation, and profibrinolytic properties (91). One study showed some components may have scavenging effects on free radicals (92). When taken in combination with the anticoagulant warfarin, excessive anticoagulation has been reported in a number of cases (93-96). This could represent a pharmacodynamic interaction on different coagulation mechanisms, but as danshen does not usually affect the PT directly the increases seen in prothrombin time suggests a pharmacokinetic effect and danshen has also been reported to increase plasma concentrations of both R- and S-warfarin and decrease clearance in a rat model (97). Much of the activity of danshen has been attributed to...

Other Herbs

Garlic or dasuan, the tuber of Allium sativum L., is used in TCM both orally and topically for various effects including as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, antidote, and tonic. Various preparations of garlic exhibited an inhibitory effect on human CYP-mediated metabolism of marker substrates for 2C9*1,

Horse Chestnut

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is used in Western herbal medicine to treat diseases of the venous system. In Germany, preparations of horse chestnut are approved to treat diseases such as thrombophlebitis, varicose veins, and many types of edema. Aesculus extracts are the second most prescribed herbal monoprepa-ration in Germany, with annual retail sales of 103 million (U.S. dollars).79 In Chinese herbal medicine, the seed of a related plant, A. chinensis, is used to treat malnutrition and other digestive difficulties at a dose of 3 to 9 grams in decoction. Japanese herbal medicine prescribes the seed of A. turbinata, another related plant, to treat digestive difficulties and promote absorption.80

Punica granatum L

An illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Times Edition and Eu Yan Seng Holdings Ltd Singapore. 3. Wee, Y. C. and Hsuan, K. 1990. An illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Times Edition and Eu Yan Seng Holdings Ltd Singapore. 4. Wee, Y. C. and Hsuan, K. 1990. An illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Times Edition and Eu Yan Seng Holdings Ltd Singapore. 11. Wee, Y. C. and Hsuan, K. 1990. An illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Times Edition and Eu Yan Seng Holdings Ltd Singapore. 11. Wee, Y. C. and Hsuan, K. 1990. An illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. 22. Lin, C. C., Hsu, Y. F. and Lin, T. C. 1999. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 27 371-376. 26. Tang, X. H., Gao, L., Gao, J., Fan, Y. M., Xu, L. Z., Zhao, X. N. and Xu, Q. 2004. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 32 509-519. 9. Wee, Y. C. and Hsuan, K. 1990. An illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Times Edition and Eu...

Case Study

Auricular Point Chart

Sensitization in subjects with hypertension and on medication for lowering blood pressure. The set of areas proposed by Chinese authors for treating hypertension represents another puzzle of difficult interpretation (see Fig. A1.8). Beyond the obvious heart area of the medial surface and the nearby groove for lowering blood pressure, we may also find related to hypertension the liver (CO12 gan) the expert in TCM will probably cite on this subject some typical syndromes such as 'Liver raising Yang' or 'Liver fire'.


The commonly prescribed dose of emodin in noncan-cerous conditions is about 20 milligrams per day. This is based on the label of some commercial products of Polygonum cuspidatum standardized for emodin. A similar dose is obtained when making decoctions from the crude herb, as is done in Chinese herbal medicine. The concentration of emodin in Polygonum is approximately 1.1 percent, and the common dose of Polygonum is about 15 grams per day (in decoction).160 Since about 12 percent of the emodin content in plants is extracted

Use teasel for

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, teasel root tonifies the liver and kidneys and works on painful lower backs and knees, weak legs, cartilage and joints. It is also held to promote circulation and reduce inflammation. American herbalists William LeSassier and Matthew Wood have built on these uses and found in practice that the teasel (introduced from Europe) is, in Wood's words, invaluable for joint injury and chronic inflammation of the muscles. It is indicated for fibromyalgia, chronic arthritis, and Lyme disease.

Plantago major L

An illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Times Edition and Eu Yan Seng Holdings Ltd Singapore. 18. Ozaslan, M., Didem Karag z, I., Kalender, M. E., Kilic, I. H., Sari, I. and Karag z, A. 2007. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 35 841-851.

Nidus Vespae

Nidus Vespae is widely distributed in China and is typically harvested in the autumn & winter seasons and dried in the open air, after removal of dead wasps, for use in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has been used in the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, digestive and urinary disorders. The well-known pharmacopoeia of traditional Chinese medicine also lists the use of Nidus vespae For toothaches, through tooth brushing. A study showed significant inhabitation of glucosyltransferases activity and biofilm formation by Nidus Vespa extract. The researchers concluded it to be a promising natural product for the prevention of dental caries. Nidus Vespa have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine, given their multiple pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and anesthetic properties (Xiao et al 2007).

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