Treating Tooth Pain

Dentists Be Damned

This eBook teaches you all the remedies and tricks that you need to know to Never visit the dentist again, and still have the most perfect mouth full of the teeth that you know of. This book contains a toothache remedy that will treat the root of the problem, how to restore your gums to full health, a supplement that makes plaque fall off your teeth in no time, and a solution that can stop cavities Forever. This book doesn't just teach you how to get rid of some pain, it teaches you how to Eliminate the source of pain once and for all. After taking to heart the information in this book, trips to the dentist will become a thing of the past. Alice Barnes has taken her 15 years of tooth research and compiled it all in this eBook for you. And when you order, you get two free eBooks! You will also receive How to Prevent and Cure Canker Sores, and How to Get Rid of Bad Breath. All of these resources will keep you OUT of dentists' offices as long as you live! Read more here...

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Inhibition Ofdental Caries

Cocoa contains substances that protect against dental caries (Palenik et al 1977, s'Gravenmade et al 1977) and in vitro experiments have shown that monomeric polyphenols and tannins from cocoa may interfere with glucosyltransferase activity of Streptococcus mutans and reduce plaque formation (Kashket etal 1985). Similar results were reported in hamsters, with a marked caries-inhibitive effect found with a water-extract of cocoa (Stralfors 1966). Cocoa bean husk, while not used in cocoa or chocolate, demonstrates antibacterial properties attributed to its unsaturated fatty acids and antiglucosyltransferase activities attributed to epicatechin polymers, as well as being shown both in vitro and in vivo to possess significant antiplaque activity (Matsumoto et al 2004).

Probiotics and oral health

Several authors have suggested that probiotic bacteria could also be beneficial to oral health. Species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria may exert beneficial effects in the oral cavity by inhibiting cariogenic Streptococci and Candida spp (Bhardwaj, 2010). Table 3. Possible mechanisms of a probiotic in oral health 4.4 Probiotics and dental caries To have a beneficial effect in limiting or preventing dental caries, a probiotic must be able to adhere to dental surfaces and integrate into the bacterial communities making up the dental biofilm. Such a biofilm holds pathogens off oral tissues by filling a space which in future, could have served as a niche for pathogens, and it should also compete with and antagonize the cariogenic bacteria and thus prevent their proliferation (Caglar et al., 2005 Sheikh et al., 2011). According to our researches, it is cleared that the presence of Lactobacillus Sp. Such as L. acidophilus DSM 20079, L. fermentum ATCC 9338 and L.rhamnosus ATCC 7469 can...

Trends in dental caries

Caries epidemiology continues to be an important issue in both oral health surveillance and research into refined methods for caries diagnosis (Marthaler, 2004). The changing on caries disease patterns throughout the world are closely linked to number of public health measures, including effective use of fluorides, together with changing living conditions, lifestyles and improved self- care practices (Petersen, et al., 2005). In Europe and specifically in Western Europe the decline in caries prevalence has been very substantial. It has not received much attention until recently but is now often taken for granted. However, caries prevalence is still very different when looking at various parts of Europe, and may undergo unexpected changes due to various factors. Increasing immigration has been identified as a new factor, leading to increases of the overall dental caries prevalence in Switzerland (20 non-Swiss residents), the Netherlands and Germany (Marthaler, 2004). Furthermore, there...

Public health aspects of dental caries

Despite improvements in the oral health of children in recent decades, early childhood caries (ECC) remains a serious threat to child welfare. ECC is manifested by severe decay of primary teeth. This can be a debilitating condition that can not only affect the children but also their families and the communities in which they live. Toothache leads to school absence, which is a ready indicator of children's health. In the USA, where caries is lower than elsewhere, visits or dental problems accounted for 117 000 hours of school lost per 100 000 children (Gift et al, 1992). Because most school dental services work mainly during school hours, loss of schooling among the poor, who have higher caries rates, is high. Other manifestations of ECC include pain, infection, abscesses, chewing difficulty, malnutrition, Although the type of sugar consumed is an important factor in the development of caries, the frequency of sugar consumption is of greater significance. Several studies support this...

Anti Dental Caries Introduction

Dental caries and periodontal disease are major public health problems that bother all countries in the world. Dental carie is an infectious, communicable disease that acid-forming bacteria of dental plaque can destroy tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The mineral content of teeth is sensitive to increases in acidity from the production of lactic acid. So, the infection results in loss of tooth minerals from the outer surface of the tooth and can progress through the dentin to the pulp, finally compromising the tooth vitality. Industrialized nations have controlled the problem with fluoride enriched water and personal hygiene products since early in the 1960s, but cariogenicity remains a crisis that economically burdens the health care system. Dental disease remains a silent epidemic in the world that threatens children and adults. The oral streptococci especially mutans Streptococci are related with the development of...

Future prospects of functional foods for the prevention of dental caries

In Japan, various types of functional foods have been developed and widely consumed for health promortion. Some of them have been advanced for prevention of dental caries. GTase inhibitors and sugar substitutes that are not the direct cause of dental caries are actively developed and utilized as preventive foods for dental caries. Recently, functional materials which enhance the defence system of host on dental caries are further added to those foods. For example, there are functional materials that promote re-mineralization of tooth and stimulate saliva excretion to block oral pH decline. The probiotics which improves oral bacterial flora may also be expected to be one of these functions. If functional materials that have different types of preventive effect for dental caries are combined in a functional food, the potential of functional foods may expand the food market for health promotion. It is important that intraoral pH does not decline for prevention of dental caries among...

Conclusion For Dental Caries

It seems that the efforts to diminish dental caries through the evaluated preventive and educational program have do not had the expected impact though these children are under salt fluoridation program. It is necessary to reconsider the implementation of additional measures according to caries risk group as has been reported previously, as well as to evaluate the cost and the effectiveness of mouthwashes.

Management Of Dental Caries

A seminal study showed that for individuals who have compromised salivary function, excellent oral hygiene alone is insufficient to prevent rapidly progressive dental decay.12 The use of topical fluoride and diet counseling was critical for caries prevention. There are some very limited clinical data showing that individuals who have salivary dysfunction are not be able to raise intraoral pH back into the neutral range after an acidic challenge as quickly as those individuals who can produce saliva.2,3 A critical pH has been defined at 4.5 to 5.5 for the enamel tooth surface and at 6.2 to 6.4 for the exposed root surface. Below this critical pH, oral conditions favor demineralization or promotion of the caries process on the tooth surface. Progression of dental decay may be faster on the root surface in an oral environment that tends toward acidity. Saliva is the oral buffering agent, so the inability to produce saliva under resting basal conditions or the inability to increase...

Distribution of dental caries in Yayoi people

The distribution and site characteristics of dental caries previously identified in a Yayoi population using the aforementioned procedure. We examined 5010 teeth, 941 teeth were classified as antemortem teeth, and 998 teeth were classified as postmortal loss (Otani et al., 2009) (Table 1). The number of teeth in each individual ranged from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 32, with an average of 19.5. The total number of carious teeth was 883, for a cares ratio of 17.6 . The percent of individuals with caries was 79.1 , and the percent of individuals with root caries was 65.8 The location of dental caries in the people of the Yayoi period differs from that seen in modern Japanese people. In the skeletal remains of the Yayoi, most carious lesions were located in the root area, while in modern populations, most of these lesions are in the crown. This difference is considered to be associated with dietary variation, particularly the consumption of cariogenic foodstuffs. During the digestion...

Dental Caries

Sugars play a significant role in the development of dental caries (Walker and Cleaton-Jones, 1992), but much less information is known about the role of starch in the development of dental caries (Lingstrom et al., 2000). Early childhood dental caries, also known as baby-bottle tooth decay or nursing caries, affects about 3 to 6 percent of children (Fitzsimons et al., 1998). This is associated with frequent, prolonged use of baby bottles containing fermentable sugars (e.g., cow's milk, infant formula, fruitjuice, soft drinks, and other sweetened drinks), at-will breast-feeding, and continual use of a sweetened pacifier (Fitzsimons et al., 1998). Increased consumption of sugar-containing foods has been associated with a deterioration of dental health in 5-year-old children (Holbrook et al., 1995). Children 5 or 8 years of age who consumed sweet snacks between meals more than five times a day had significantly higher mean decayed and missing teeth and filled scores than children with a...

Toothaches

Often an indication of tooth decay, a toothache may also be a symptom of infection such as gum disease, an abscess (a pus-filled sac surrounding the root of a tooth), or sinusitis (seepage 226). The pain may be sharp and shooting or dull and throbbing it may be continuous, come in waves, or occur only when a decayed tooth comes into contact with sweet foods, or very hot or very cold foods. CAUTION If a toothache is accompanied by fever and swelling of the gums or face, or if a tooth feels loose, see a dentist within 12 hours. If a tooth is sensitive to hot or cold, and to sweet foods and drinks, or if there is pain on biting, see a dentist within 48 hours. Toothache with severe, shooting pain Toothache with unbearable pain Toothache with throbbing pain

Statistical models for mouthlevel caries data

One major restriction of the Poisson regression model is that its mean is equal to its variance. For dental caries data, however, it is not uncommon for the variance to be much greater than the mean. For such data, a negative binomial regression model has been advocated as an alternative to Poisson regression models. It is typically used when the variability in the data cannot be properly captured by Poisson regression models. The negative binomial model is a conjugate mixture distribution for count data (Agresti, 2002). It is entirely specified by two parameters, its mean and the overdispersion parameter. Similarly to the Poisson regression model, the mean is related to potential explanatory variables using a log link function. However, the probability mass function of Y is given by where the success probability is related to covariates as nx a+xp, with a and p being the intercept and the regression parameter vector associated with X. One should note however that Poisson and negative...

Lightemitting devices

Fluorescence is a phenomenon where the light is absorbed in a specific wavelength and then emitted in a higher wavelength. This characteristic has been observed in the dental tissues, since the pattern of light absorption and reemission (spectrum of fluorescence) of the dental tissues varies according to the excitation light wavelength (Benedict, 1928). Thus, light absorption and reemission is different in the enamel, dentin and cementum, as well as in sound and carious tissues. For this reason, fluorescence can be used for the detection and subsequent diagnosis of dental caries.

Hygienicdietary habits

There is little doubt that the change in lifestyle of civilization was resulting in an increase in the prevalence of dental caries, referring mainly to the increase of the diet of soft foods that contain carbohydrates. But also, there are certain foods that can protect against the formation of dental caries by the substances that they contain in their structure, either because they are fibrous, fatty or protein, etc. which reduces their cariogenic potential, and when mixed with sugary foods, reduce the potential of the latter, these are called protective foods, among which we mention the cheese. It has been shown to finish a meal with cheese for dessert, reduces the acidity of the plaque and therefore tooth decay (cariostatic). In recent years, has also increased the use of sweeteners and sugar substitutes investigations have focused mainly on sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol), starch hydrolysates (Lycasin), protein (Monellina) and synthetic chemicals...

The role of antimicrobials in the future

A better understanding of bacterial communities found in biofilms, such as its diversity and interactions among cells, provides opportunities for new methods to control biofilm formation (Wade, 2010). It has been shown that blocking communication mechanisms between cells in biofilms (quorum-sensing) can partially restore their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents (Bjarnsholt et al., 2005). Other benefits may include reduction of pathogenic microorganisms due to reduction in the virulence mechanism in the microorganism of interest. In the particular case of dental caries, blocking or reducing the activity of glycosyltransferase in S. mutans would be interesting, since these enzymes are implicated in the ability of this cariogenic bacterium.

Evaluation of inhibitory effects on glucan production by GTase

Water-insoluble and water-soluble a-linked glucans produced from sucrose due to the action of GTases adhere to the surfaces of teeth and promote the development of dental caries. GTase inhibitors disturb the production of these glucans and prevent the development of dental caries. The inhibitory effect of test substances on GTase has been evaluated by partially purified GTase from mutans streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which are considered to be the primary causative agents of dental caries in humans. Partially purified GTase can be conveniently used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of test substances on glucan production because it is stable and readily administered after preparation. If S. mutans and S. sobrinus are directly used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of test substances on glucan production, the assay is complicated and additional effort is required

Animals and diets to evaluate anticariogenic effects

Fifteen-day-old specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are suitable for caries studies. The first and second molars are coming through at this age. Mutans streptococci are inoculated to animals during this period. If inoculation lags behind, the prevalence of dental caries is reduced (Ooshima et al, 1994). The number of mutans streptococci that must be inoculated to definitely cause dental caries is very important. The breeding period after inoculation with mutans streptococci is about 55 days. Diet 2000 is a popular diet in animal experiments on caries (Keyes and Jordan, 1964) and contains 56 sucrose. If the percentage of sucrose is reduced, the prevalence of dental caries is also reduced. Phytochemicals are commonly added to the diet to evaluate anticariogenic effects. After breeding, the molar is removed and the degree of dental caries is scored. The details of the experimental protocol have been described (Ooshima et al, 1981 Tsunehiro et al, 1997). The typical procedure...

Amount of mutans streptococci

If oral infection by mutans streptococci is not sufficient, dental caries is not induced in the experimental animal despite feeding with a caries-inducing diet. The amount of mutans streptococci adhered on teeth also influences the development of caries. Accordingly, the amount of mutans streptococci in the oral cavity should be measured periodically until the end of the experimental schedule. According to several studies, dental caries is definitely induced if the amount of mutans streptococci is > 105 colony-forming units (CFU) mL (Ooshima et al, 1993 Tsunehiro et al, 1997).

Amount of sucrose intake and texture of diets

Dental caries is positively correlated with the amount of sucrose intake (Sreebny, 1982). Therefore, the amount of diet that the animals ingest needs to be equal among feeding groups. Furthermore, the Vipeholm Dental Caries Study clarified that the texture of food containing sucrose influences the occurrence of dental caries (Gustafsson et al, 1954). In that study, subjects ate several foods (e.g., bread, chocolate, caramel) containing sucrose. The incidence of caries was higher in the group consuming gooey foods between meals than in the control group. Namely, the ingestion of sucrose that causes the adhesion to the teeth surface becomes a high risk of dental caries induction. Therefore, the texture and configuration of test materials containing phytochemicals added to the animal experimental diet are important to get significance. If the texture and taste of test substances are unique and likely to influence intake and adhesion, the method to reduce these factors should be...

Safty aspects of probiotics

Although probiotics can affect most important caries pathogens, lactobacilli may correlate with caries development. Some strains of Lactobacillus spp., together with S. mutans, play a key role in development of dental caries. The production of organic acids from dietary carbohydrates is also a main factor in dental caries progression. If lactobacilli taken orally are able to adhere or temporarily establish themselves in the oral environment, their metabolism and acid production should not support caries induction. Studies addressing sugar fermentation has shown a strain dependent

The use of Ultra Short Pulse Lasers USPLs in dentistry

Concerning the removal of dental caries, literature studies reported that the threshold fluence for carious dentin is lower than that for sound dentin, also suggesting a selective removal of caries (Niemz, 2004). A recent study (Schelle et al., 2011) that used a Nd YAG laser with 8 ps pulse duration confirm that the ablation threshold for carious dentin is lower than that for sound dentin and it was obtained good precision even when removing caries. These findings suggest that the USPLs are promising tools for selective removal of dental caries however, the literature is scarce considering the applications of USPLs for selective removal of dental caries in order to establish suitable equipments and parameters. Also, there are no studies that relate the possibility of selective removal of infected dentin and preserving the affected dentin, for instance.

Compomers Polyacidmodified resin composites

Polyacid-modified composite resins, known trivially as compomers, are a group of aesthetic materials for the restoration of teeth damaged by dental caries. They were introduced to the profession in the early 1990s 40 , and were presented as a new class of dental material designed to combine the aesthetics of traditional composite resins with the fluoride release and adhesion of glass-ionomer cements. The trivial name was devised from the names of these two parent materials, the comp coming from composite, and omer from ionomer 60 . The term polyacid-modified composite resin was originally proposed for these materials in 1994 39 and has been widely adopted both by manufacturers and researchers since that time. However, it has been criticised on the grounds that it . . .may overemphasize a structural characteristic of no or little consequence 60 . This is a somewhat strange criticism, since to formulate these materials, manufacturers have modified them specifically by the introduction...

Dental programs for caries prevention

Oral Health is fundamental to general health and well-being. A healthy mouth enables and individual to speak, eat and socialize without experiencing active disease, discomfort or embarrassments. Children who suffer from poor oral health are 12 times more likely to have restricted-activity days than those who do not. More than 50 million school hours are lost annually because of oral health problems which affect children's performance at school and success in later life (Kawan, et al., 2005). School provide man effective platform for promoting oral health because they reach over 1 billion children worldwide. The health and well-being of school staff, families and community members can also be enhanced by programs based in schools. Oral health messages can be reinforced throughout the school years, which are the most influential stages of children's lives, and during which lifelong beliefs, attitudes and skill are developed (Kwan, et al., 2005). high risk groups compared with...

Early Childhood Caries ECC

Dental caries is a complex, multi-factorial disease and is a significant health and social problem which affects people of all ages and is responsible for a vast amount of pain, misery and economic loss. It is a major problem in young children. Caries of the primary teeth Early Childhood Caries or ECC is one of the most prevalent health problems in infants and toddlers (Mayanagi et al, 1995). It can be considered an epidemic in lower-income families and in under developed parts of the world (Ismail & Sohn 1999). ECC is one of the major causes of hospitalization in young children, who often need to receive general anaesthesia for extraction or tooth restoration (Sheller et al, 1996).

Diet nutrition and dental health

It has been well-documented in animals that early malnutrition affects tooth development and eruption (Mellanby, 1928) and can result in increased dental caries later in life. But in humans, a causal relationship between nutritional status and dental health has not been directly demonstrated (Alvarez & Navia 1989). However two separate cross-sectional studies in Peruvian children have shown that malnutrition is associated with delayed tooth development and increased caries experience (Alvarez et al, 1988, 1990). However it has been shown beyond reasonable doubt that there is a distinct relationship between diet and dental caries (Gustafsson et al, 1954). These effects are accepted, but there are two important aspects to the relationship food choice and nutrient intake, both may affect and be affected by, poor dental health. The role of nutrition in the maintenance of health is well known. Nutritional deficiencies in the growing child, whether due to deprivation, over-indulgence, or...

Quercus infectoria gall

Quercus infectoria (Fabaceae) is a small tree, the galls arise on young branches of this tree as a result of attack by the gall-wasp, Adleria gallae-tinctoria. The plant is known as Mayaphal and Majufal in Hindi. Quercus infectoria gall extract has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. the crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases (Vermani & Navneet 2009).

Frequency and location of diagnosed secondary caries

1999b Forss and Widstrom E, 2004 Mjor, 1997 Mjor and Jokstadt, 1993 . Some published researches showed that compared to amalgam restorations, resin-based composite restorations represented a higher percentage of replacement because of the diagnosed secondary caries Mjor and Jokstadt, 1993 Bernardo et al., 2007 . On the contrary, others reported that the amalgam was replaced because of the secondary caries more often than composite resin Wilson et al., 1997 Burke et al., 1999a . Compared with those studies, which acclaimed that a large proportion of restorations replaced as a result of diagnosis of secondary caries in general dental practice, one controlled clinical trials showed secondary caries represented in less than 1 percent of the restoration failures Letzel et al., 1989 , inversely, another controlled clinical trials by Bernardo et al. reported that secondary caries accounted for 66.7 percent and 87.6 percent of the failures that occurred in amalgam and composite restorations,...

Etiology of secondary caries 31 Microbiology of secondary caries

Dental caries is determined by the dynamic balance between pathological factors that lead to demineralization and protective factors that lead to remineralization Featherstone, 2004 . As a major pathological factor, oral bacteria, especially acidogenic bacteria, can dissolve the tooth mineral. Those acidogenic bacteria are also aciduric and can live preferentially under acid conditions Loesche, 1986 . significant differences between the microflora in samples from cavity walls involving primary and secondary caries next to the amalgam Kidd et al., 1993 . However, Thomas et al. investigated bacterial composition in relation to primary and secondary caries via an in situ model, and found a phenomenon of higher proportion of caries-associated bacteria on composite surfaces. Then they indicated that the microbiology on the surface of the primary caries differs from that on the surface of lesion around composite, and secondary caries around composite may differ from the primary lesions...

Epidemiological considerations about MIH 41 Diagnose of MIH

Dental Carrie Fracture

Dental diseases have a detrimental effect on quality of life both in childhood and older age. (Moynihan & Petersen, 2004) Several authors have discussed whether developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are a public health problem. (Mathu-Muju & Wright, 2006) For a condition to be considered of public health significance, several criteria need to be reviewed, particularly the prevalence its impact on an individual in terms of symptoms, functioning, psychological and social should be considerate. (Marshman et al., 2009) Besides its clinical implications in the field of public health, MIH have taken on importance as strong predictors of dental caries. This result highlights the importance of establishing priority programs of prevention and early treatment for these groups of children both for aesthetic and functional reasons, as well as to minimize the increased risk of dental caries.

Caries detection methods

Visual examination has been widely used in dental clinics for detecting carious lesions on all surfaces. This method is based on the use of a dental mirror, a sharp probe and a 3-in-1 syringe and requires good lighting and a clean dry tooth surface (Hamilton, 2005). The examination is based primarily on subjective interpretation of surface characteristics, such as integrity, texture, translucency opacity, location and color (Ekstrand et al., 1997 Nyvad et al., 1999). However, tactile examination of dental caries has been criticized because of the possibility of transferring cariogenic microorganisms from one site to another, leading to the fear of further spread of the disease in the same oral cavity. Moreover, use of an explorer can cause irreversible damages to the iatrogenic and demineralized tooth structure (Ekstrand et al., 1987 Stookey, 2005 Loesche et a ., 1979).

Probioticsderived biosurfactant

As it is clear, colonization of the teeth by mutans streptococci has been associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of dental caries in humans. The ability of these organisms, particularly Streptococcus mutans, to synthesize extracellular glucans from sucrose using glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) is a major virulence factor of this bacterium. The Gtfs secreted by S. mutans (particularly GtfB and GtfC) provide specific binding sites for either bacterial colonization of the tooth surface or attachment of bacteria to each other, modulating the formation of tightly adherent biofilms, the precursor of dental caries (Koo et al. 2010 Murata et al. 2010). However, the ability of S. mutans to adhere to the tooth surface is vital for the initiation and progression of dental caries. a-(1-3)- and a-(1-6)-linked glucan polymers are encoded by the genes gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD. In vitro studies have indicated that gtfB and gtfC are essential for the sucrose-dependent attachment of S. mutans cells to...

Recent advances in antiplaque agents Chemoprophylactic agents antimicrobial peptides antiquorum sensing approach and

Control of oral biofilms is essential for maintaining oral health and preventing dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. However, oral biofilms are not easily controlled by mechanical means and represent difficult targets for chemical control (Socransky, 2002). With the exception of chlorhexidine and fluoride, few of the existing oral prophylactic agents have significant effects (Petersen & Scheie, 1998 Wu & Savitt, 2002 Scheie, 2003). A likely explanation for this low efficiency is due to the fact that microorganisms organized in biofilms possess characteristics that differentiate them from planktonic cells, such as higher Replacement therapy has been suggested as a strategy for replacement of pathogenic microorganisms modified to become less virulent. Some requirements for this type of approach are important, such as the replaced organism must not cause disease by itself it must persistently colonize and must possess a high degree of genetic stability. DNA technology has...

Effect of improved dentition on nutrition and growth in children

The reported association between chronic malnutrition, growth, and dental caries suggests that dental decay might contribute to poor weight gain in children (Alvarez et al, 1990). Four cases of children with early childhood caries and subsequent dental rehabilitation were published by Acs in 1998 (Acs et al, 1998). Regardless of the presumptive aetiology of the poor weight gain, all of these children demonstrated an immediate increase in weight, propelling them to higher weight percentile categories with increased adjusted 6-month increments of growth after their carious teeth had been repaired. At the end of the observation, none of these children continued to satisfy the criteria for the designation of faltering growth. These observations were consistent with the phenomenon of catch-up growth that has been observed in faltering growth children (Prader et al, 1963). Whilst nutrition is very important in growth and development, recently it has been suggested that children who do not...

The antiquity of caries Evidences of caries in hominines and early humans

The unquestionable oldest evidence of caries comes from a fossil found in 1921 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) during the exploration of a zinc mine. The specimen denominated Broken Hill 1, a Homo rhodesiensis cranium (African version of the Homo heidelberguensis 650,000-160,000 BP) shows extensive dental caries and coronal destruction. Except for five teeth, all the rest is affected by rampant caries and several crowns are almost completely destroyed. Caries seems to have its origin in the interdental spaces. Besides, Broken Hill man experienced alveolar recession and dental abscesses in many teeth (Fig. 1). Although lesions have been attributed to a diet rich in vegetables and or poisoning by the existing metals in the region (Bartsiokas & Day, 1993), it seems that, given the interdental origin of the caries and the absence of tooth picks evidence, the Broken Hill 1 developed his lesions due to his ignorance in the use of tooth picks, which was known by other earlier...

Key factors related to caries prevalence in human populations Physiological or cultural factors

From an evolutionary perspective, it has been suggested that the increase of fertility that accompanied the sedentary lifestyle and the adoption of agriculture had a significant effect on the increase in caries rates worldwide (Lukacs, 2008). The classic proverb a tooth per child expresses the traditional idea that pregnancy results in a deterioration of oral health along with a weakening in the tooth structure and subsequent caries development and tooth loss (Lukacs, 2011 Lukacs & Largaespada, 2006). However, although there is evidence of increased periodontal inflammation in women during pregnancy, tooth loss due to pregnancy is more controversial (Larsen et al., 1991 Lukacs, 2011).

Dental biofilm Dynamics of biofilm formation

Bacterial species are thought to play important role in the maintenance of oral health and in the etiology of oral diseases in humans (Socransky et al., 2002). Oral biofilms develop naturally and the resident plaque microflora contributes to the host defenses by preventing colonization by exogenous species (Marsh, 2003). Mechanisms contributing to colonization resistance include more effective competition for nutrients and attachment sites, production of inhibitory factors and creation of unfavorable growth conditions by the resident microflora (Marsh, 2004).

Effects of Elm Es Alg53 and oolong on glucan production by GTase from S sobrinus 6715 and S mutans MT8148

Oolong has been used as a functional food to prevent dental caries. Oolong was therefore used to compare the inhibitory effects of other phytochemicals on glucan production by GTase. The inhibitory effect of phytochemicals on water-insoluble glucan synthesis by GTase from S.sobrinus 6715 is illustrated in Fig. 6A. The original ELM solution reduced the production of water-insoluble glucan to 66 of that of the control (ELM-free). ES also significantly reduced the synthesis of water-insoluble glucan. The inhibitory effect of ES was remarkable compared with that of ELM. The inhibitory effect of oolong on the production of water-insoluble glucan by GTase was stronger than that of ELM and of a similar level to that of ES. Fig. 6B shows water-insoluble glucan synthesis by GTase from S. mutans MT8148. ELM significantly inhibited the glucan production by GTase from S. mutans MT8148, and the ratio of inhibition of production of water-insoluble glucan was 64 that of the control (ELM-free). The...

Communication microbial biofilms Quorum sensing mechanisms

The gram-negative bacterium, Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, performs the quorum-sensing by releasing mediator peptides of gene expression. The signaling system involves at least six gene products encoded comCDE, comAB and comX (Cvitkovitch et al., 2003). The OMCC gene encodes a precursor peptide, which when cleaved and exported release a signal peptide, 21 amino acid or stimulating competence peptide (CSP). Through the quorum-sensing, it was found that the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was necessary for proper formation of S. mutans biofilm in addition to its virulence characteristics (Li et al., 2001).

Demineralization protocol

Solutions were refreshed daily during the experimental period of 15 days. On day 15, all teeth were removed from the saliva solution, rinsed under tap water and stored in 100 humidity. To assess demineralization, Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) were used. Both procedures were carried out at the Oral Health Research Institute (IU) in Indianapolis, IN.

Healthy eating habits in preschool children

Good preschool eating patterns are important because they influence both energy and nutrient intake, and dental health. An optimum eating pattern would be regular meals and nutritious, low fat, low sugar snacks. Young children have small appetites but large nutrient needs relative to their body size, therefore regular refueling is required. An eating pattern based on distinct meals is generally beneficial and also promotes dental health. Dental caries is prevalent in preschool children and it is directly related to the amount and frequency of consumption of non-milk extrinsic sugars in the diet (Holt, 1991). Family meal patterns are inevitably affected by family routines, parents working hours and the child's appetite at different times of day. Regular meals allow opportunities for socializing and for parents to set a good example with respect to food choices and eating behavior (Graham, 1972). A suitable snack should provide nutrients other than calories and should be low in non-milk...

Summary and conclusion

Good nutrition is essential for good physical health. Nutrition also plays a key role in the development and maintenance of a healthy mouth, especially the teeth and gums. The food we eat affects our teeth both before and after their eruption into the mouth. The relation of dental caries and periodontal diseases to the type and frequency of diet and to intake nutritional elements is well-known. At the same time, the health or lack of health of our teeth and gums can affect what we eat. Missing teeth are a factor in food choices and may affect individuals' ability to consume the necessary nutritional elements. Nutritional deficiencies in growing children, whether due to deprivation or mal-absorption syndromes may have significant impact on their natural development and somatic growth. The potential impact of eating disorders, chronic diseases and infection on overall health via physiologic and hormonal mechanisms has also been well established. - Inadequacy of the host's...

Dental plaque biofilm management

The ability of mutans Streptococci to adhere to teeth surfaces is vital for the progression of the disease. The bacterial adhesion mechanism is mediated by synthesis of both extracellular enzymes, glucosyltransferase (GTF) and fructosyltransferase (FTF). These extracellular enzymes identified in Streptococcus mutans are responsible for the synthesis of extracellular polysacharides such as glucans and fructans. These polymers are fundamental factors in dental biofilm formation. fl-(1-3) - and fl-(1-6)-linked glucan polymers through the concerted action of three secreted GTFs are encoded by the genes gtfB, gtfC and gtfD. In vitro studies have indicated that gtfB and gtfC are essential for the sucrose-dependent attachment of S. mutans cells to hard surfaces but gtfD is dispensable. The glucan polymers are involved in the colonization of cariogenic Streptococci and therefore have become a potential target for protection against dental caries.

Clinical management of MIH

Therefore, a detailed study under magnification of the unerupted molar and incisor crowns on any available radiographs should be done. (William et al., 2006a) During teeth eruption, when MIH is confirmed, it should be made a diet counseling for dietary modifications to avoid dental caries, dental erosion and dental sensitivity It should be recommended a toothpaste with a fluoride or, in cases of dental sensitivity, aiming to produce a non-sensitivity and hypermineralized surface layer which provides a super saturated environment of calcium and phosphate on enamel surface, a desensitizing toothpaste with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) should be indicated. (Baroni & Marchionni, 2011) case, the adjunctive use of nitrous oxide-oxygen analgesia may alleviate anxiety and reduce dental pain. In last case, general anesthesia may be required for restorative treatment. (William et al., 2006a) The maintenance of existing tooth structure and pain relief can be...

Particularities of the orthodontic treatment

Malocclusion is the third place in the oral diseases, the occurrence of occlusal anomalies varies between 11 al 93 the complications that it brings could be psychological derived from the alteration of the dentofacial aesthetics oral function problems, including difficulties in the mobility of the jaw, pain or disorders in the temporomandibular joint and problems to chew, to swallow or to speak and finally, problems of major susceptibility to traumatism, periodontal diseases or dental decay (Proffit, 2008 Sidlauskas & Lopatiene, 2009).

Clinical considerations and management of MIH 51 Dentinopulpal complex considerations and MIH

Dental pain and the severity of hypomineralisation or enamel loss in molar-incisor hypomineralisation are major determinants for the choice of treatment. (William et al., 2006a) The most conservative interventional treatment consists of bonding a tooth colored material to the tooth to protect it from further wear or sensitivity although the nature of the enamel prevents formation of an acceptable bond. (William et al., 2006b) Less conservative treatment options, but frequently necessary include use of stainless steel crowns, permanent cast crowns or extraction of affected teeth in association with the orthodontic appliance or teeth replacement with a bridge or implant.

Prevention and treatment of secondary caries 41 Prevention of secondary caries

As secondary caries is one of the major reasons for restoration replacement, a large number of clinical dentists and scientists have placed great emphasis on preventing or slowing down the procession of secondary caries lesion from many aspects, so as to increase clinical restoration durability. Secondary caries, the same as other types of dental caries, is determined by the dynamic balance between pathological factors that lead to demineralization and protective factors that lead to remineralization. It is also considered that bacteria are an important etiologic factor leading to demineralization for secondary caries. Generally, the rationales of all the modification of restorative material or prevention of secondary caries normally include two fundamental points one is the decrease of demineralization and or increase of remineralization of the hard tooth tissues the other is to interfere the metabolism of caries-related bacteria and or to decrease the amount of bacteria inhibit...

Statistical models for intraoral caries data

Although many dental studies provide detailed tooth-level data on caries activity, most analyses still rely on aggregated scores such as the DMF index. These scores summarize at mouth level caries information for each individual typically recorded at the tooth level or tooth-surface level. They have therefore been instrumental in evaluating and comparing the risks for dental caries among population groups. Despite these advances in the etiology of dental caries, there are still some fundamental questions regarding the spatial distribution of dental caries in the mouth that remain unanswered. The intra-oral spatial distribution of dental caries can help answer questions on whether the disease develops symmetrically in the mouth, and whether different types of teeth (Incisors, Canines and Molars) and tooth surfaces (Facial, Lingual, occlusal, Mesial, Distal, and incisal surfaces) are equally susceptible to dental caries. It is well recognized that the different morphology of the...

The indirect effect of anticariogenic substances on body except for tooth

When a diet containing ELM or ES is added to Diet 2000 and given to rats, most of the rats suffer osmotic diarrhea during the experimental period and growth is slightly suppressed. ELM and ES strongly inhibit sucrase activity. Hence, a lot of sucrose of Diet 2000 is transferred to the lower intestine and may cause osmotic diarrhea. Osmotic diarrhea may reduce the immune response, and disturb anticariogenic effect of phytochemicals in experimental animals. If experimental animals catch illness except for dental caries during the experiment, the risk of dental caries infection may increase. Therefore, the properties and functional effects of test substance apart from anticariogenic effects need to be examined, and the concentration and form of test substance added to diets should be investigated carefully before carrying out animal experiments.

Clinical and histological aspects of caries lesions on occlusal approximal and smooth surfaces

Caries lesion on approximal surfaces in primary teeth presents a rapid rate of progression due to the morphologic characteristics of these teeth, making its detection difficult. Primary teeth have thinner enamel and dentin, lower mineralization rate, large dentinal tubules and larger contact proximal areas, which allow greater biofilm accumulation, and consequently, leading to initiation and progression of dental caries (Mortimer, 1970 Pitts & Rimmer, 1992).

Feeding pattern in children with ECC

The relationship between sugar consumption and dental caries is one of cause and effect. The evidence to support such a relationship is generally considered overwhelming (Burt, 1986). Epidemiological studies have shown that caries prevalence was highest among children who ingested a diet high in sugar (Sheiham, 1991). Surveys have also shown that high consumption of cariogenic drinks and foods at bed time by pre-school children is an important factor in risk of caries (Palmer, 1971). Holt's study in 1991 on a group of preschool children showed that children consume sweets, biscuits and sweet drinks regularly and that mean dmft increases significantly with a higher rate of sugar consumption (Holt, 1991).

Dental programs in Mexico

The preventive educational program developed in preschool and primary school nationwide currently includes various activities, constituted in the basic scheme of oral health prevention that consists of 14 applications of sodium fluoride 0.2 , 4 detections of plaque, 4 brushing technique instructions, 4 flossing instructions (from 8 years old) and 4 educational talks. All the activities are developed in every school year in addition, there is a curative care program that is not always free. Great efforts have been made for the abatement of oral diseases of highest incidence and prevalence and major achievements have been accomplished, but it is necessary to strengthen the activities implemented with the purpose to achieve caries-free communities program so the action 2001-2006 oral health includes in its coverage of 4 to 15 years of age (Secretaria de Salud, 2011).

Methods

Both dental caries and enamel hypoplasia have been recorded because they give different information on enamel susceptibility to develop lesions. International dental charts were used to identify the teeth (such as n 18 to 11 for upper right permanent teeth). 3.1.1 Dental caries Fig. 3. Illustration of the three-stage severity scale for scoring dental caries (photos V. Gonzalez-Garcin) The analyses were performed in three steps. First, in order in order to calculate the frequencies of dental enamel hypoplasia, the total number of available teeth, fully erupted and or isolated, has been used for observation. Tooth germs in both the mandible and maxilla were not taken into account. With the same objective, frequencies of dental caries were calculated using only the teeth in occlusion. The usual calibrations (Erdal & Duyar, 1999 Hillson, 2001 Lukacs, 1995) adjusting the proportions of tooth type and ante mortem tooth loss were applied.

Results

4.1 Prevalence of dental caries As often mentioned, posterior teeth are more affected than anterior teeth, which confirm the differential susceptibility of the molars to be suffering from dental caries (Klein & Palmer, 1941 Oyamada et al., 2008 Saunders et al., 1997). But it is interesting to point out that some individuals are attained by carious lesions on anterior deciduous teeth in both area of Mikulcice. These lesions are often related to higher enamel susceptibility to develop dental caries, even on permanent teeth (Li & Wang, 2002 O'Sullivan & Tinanoff, 1993). In terms of global calibrated prevalence, there is a difference between the Mikulcice areas and Prusanky in the caries frequencies on both deciduous and permanent teeth. The frequency of dental caries in the deciduous and permanent teeth from Prusanky was statistically significantly lower (x2 4.49 p 0.03 for permanent teeth and x2 9.08 p < 0.01 for deciduous teeth) than in those from the two other collections....

Metaanalysis

All procedures done to estimate the summary measure of effect, both as standardized mean difference and odds ratio, suggest that 440 to 550 ppm F toothpastes are not as effective in preventing dental caries in the primary and permanent dentition as pastes with 1000 ppm F or more. Fluoride toothpaste and dental caries reduction Fluoride toothpaste and dental caries reduction Fluoride toothpaste and dental caries reduction Fluoride toothpaste and dental caries reduction Dental caries prevalence in children under 14 years old Fig. 4. Odds ratios to dental caries prevalence in children under 14 years old Metaview. Given that the results are in favor of toothpastes with 1000 ppm F or more, in dental caries prevalence reduction in children under 14 years old, the combined odds ratio was estimated again in order to determine the absolute risk reduction, assuming that these are more effective than those with 440 and 550 ppm F in dental caries prevention (see Table 3). Dental caries

Future directions

According to the researches, probiotic bacteria have been characterized for different oral health purposes, including caries, periodontal diseases, and halitosis. naturally colonizing the oral cavity. The modified strain could then be used to replace the original pathogen. They also could be used to increase the properties of a potentially beneficial strain. In field of oral immunology, probiotics are being used as passive local immunization vehicles against dental caries. Bacteriophages, have also been detected in oral pathogens, such as Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Sheikh et al., 2011). The selection of the best probiotic for oral health and investigation the effect of other probiotic's metabolites on virulence genes and other traits of S. mutans are also issues that calls for further studies. It is possible that the administration way of probiotics might positively affect the effects observed as related to mutans streptococci reduction. So, further studies regarding the...

Clinical performance

Laser fluorescence (LF) examination was performed using DIAGNOdent (Kavo, Biberach, Germany). It is a laser-based instrument developed for detection and quantification of dental caries on smooth surfaces and occlusal surfaces. It operates with a diode laser having a wavelength of 655 nm and 1 mW peak power. The light is transmitted through a descendent optic fiber to a handheld probe with a beveled tip with a fiber optic eye, signal is finally processed and presented on the display between 0 and 99. DIAGNOdent consists of two probes, probe A for occlusal caries detection and probe B for smooth surface. In this study, both probe were used, A for the occlusal WSLs and B for the smooth surfaces WSLs. The instrument was calibrated according to manufacturer's instructions. Probe was place perpendicular to the test site and rotated along the WSL to completely scan the area, under cotton roll isolation and after air drying with an air syringe. Three measurements were taken and the mean of...

Discusin

Caries prevention is critical in children, especially in developing countries where younger generations are acquiring more westernized dietary habits, which is expected to contribute to an increase in dental caries. Despite there is a reduction in prevalence of dental caries it is still a problem of great importance. The reduction of caries prevalence has not occurred uniformly for all dental surfaces.

Whitespot lesions

One of the most common negative side effects of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the development of incipient caries lesions around brackets and bands, particularly in cases with poor oral hygiene (Fig. 1). Caries lesions typically form around the bracket interface, usually near the gingival margin (Gorelick et al., 1982). Certain bacterial groups such as mutans streoptococci and lactobacilli ferment sugars to create an acidic environment that over time might lead to the development of dental caries. Since orthodontic appliances make plaque removal more difficult, patients are more susceptible to carious lesions. The irregular surfaces of brackets, bands, wires, and other attachments also limit naturally occurring self-cleaning mechanisms, such as movement of the oral musculature and saliva (Rosenbloom and Tinanoff, 1991).

Fluorides

Fluoride as a caries-preventive agent was discovered as the side effect of fluorosis in teeth in areas with elevated levels of fluoride in the drinking water (Ten Cate, 2004). Research on the oral health effects of fluoride started around 100 years ago. For the first 50 years or so it focused on the link between water borne fluoride - both natural and artificial - and dental caries and fluorosis (Petersen, et al., 2004). It was difficult to determine small (sub-ppm) concentrations of fluoride in drinking water. Nevertheless, the early studies on fluoridation of the drinking water were convincing and initiatives were taken to add various types of fluorides to other oral hygiene products (Ten Cate, 2004). In the second half of the 20thcentury, fluoride research was focused on the development and evaluation of fluoride toothpastes and rinses and, to a lesser extent, alternatives to water fluoridation such as salt and milk fluoridation. Several efforts have been made to summarize these...

Study design

The present study is a 3-year longitudinal analysis of a school-based caries prevention program. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of Autonomous University of the State of Mexico (UAEM from its initials in Spanish). The inclusion criteria were children without orthodontic treatment and all children whose parents signed an informed consent form prior to the examinations. The sample was selected by a convenience non-probability sampling method, and included 145 schoolchildren (66 boys and 79 girls), 6-7 years of age, who attended from the first to the third school year in four public elementary schools at Toluca city, where the School of Dentistry of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico is responsible for the implementation of the program. The program included 20 minute sessions of oral health education for children and teachers (five per school year), and parents (one per school year). The curriculum included information about...

Definition

Developmental defects of enamel were commonly defined as hypoplasia, but according to the FDI Commission on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology (1992), these defects are best classified into two distinct categories a) hypomineralized enamel or enamel opacities (Figures 1A and 1B) and enamel hypoplasia (Figures 1C and 1D). While opacity is defined as a qualitative defect of the enamel, hypoplasia is defined as a quantitative defect of the enamel. (Suckling, 1989) There are others differences between developmental defects of enamel that can be seen in Table 1. In the dental literature a wide variety of terminology or definitions were used for developmental defects of enamel in molars, with or without association with post eruptive breakdown of enamel as non-fluoride enamel opacities, internal enamel hypoplasia, non-endemic mottling of enamel, opaque spots, idiopathic enamel opacities, enamel opacities or cheese molars. (Koch et al., 1987, van Amerongen & Kreulen, 1995) However, to...

Nidus Vespae

Nidus Vespae is widely distributed in China and is typically harvested in the autumn & winter seasons and dried in the open air, after removal of dead wasps, for use in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has been used in the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, digestive and urinary disorders. The well-known pharmacopoeia of traditional Chinese medicine also lists the use of Nidus vespae For toothaches, through tooth brushing. A study showed significant inhabitation of glucosyltransferases activity and biofilm formation by Nidus Vespa extract. The researchers concluded it to be a promising natural product for the prevention of dental caries. Nidus Vespa have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine, given their multiple pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and anesthetic properties (Xiao et al 2007).

Prevalence of MIH

Based on this, we performed a nonsystematic hand-searching screening in the PUBMED data base using the terms EAPD MIH limited to at least 100 subjects and the data of study - after 2003 and the results could be found (Table 3). According to results, it was possible observed that at least one country in each continent already demonstrates concern for the impact of MIH regarding the condition of oral health of the population, which makes it a public health problem. Taking searching results of the more recent studies into account, the prevalence of MIH varies from 3.5 to 40.2 . This could be explained by methodological variability, by different socio-demographic-ethnical characteristics of samples and by the access to health services (favorable x unfavorable). It worthwhile mentions that only one population-based well designed study could be found and it highlights the prevalence of 3.5 for MIH in Southeast Sweden. (Fagrell et al., 2011) These results are also found in China and Bulgaria...

Discussion

Fluoride concentrations used in toothpastes are an important factor concerning toothpaste efficacy in reducing dental caries. Literature reviews such as the one done by Richards et al.(28) conclude that the optimal fluoride concentration in toothpaste is 1000 ppm F. This concentration has shown to provide best benefits in reducing dental caries and fluorosis. Meanwhile with fluoride concentrations less than 1000 ppm the efficacy in the reduction of dental caries is diminished (29). Recently, some meta-analysis has been published to describe the efficacy of different fluoride concentrations used in toothpastes to prevent dental caries in children and teenagers (1,20,21,33). However, none of them obtained conclusions regarding toothpastes with 440 and 550 ppm F. Some clinical studies have shown that with 1000 to 2500 ppm F toothpaste an increase of 6 is obtained in dental caries protection for each 500 ppm (23,35). Combined evidence from the included assay suggest that toothpastes with...

Fluoride varnish

Varnish used for prevention of dental caries. The manufacturer advertises the ease of use, lack of an unesthetic yellow color found in other varnishes, enhanced flow characteristics, and its fluoride delivery of 22,600 ppm. Its name comes from an alleged ability to disappear after application. Data gathered by the manufacturer declare greater fluoride release over a 48-hour period in comparison to other fluoride products. To date, Vanish in particular has not been tested in any of the in-vitro or in-vivo trials in the literature.

DMFS index

The caries experience (past and present) indicates the teeth damages and treatments received before by the count of teeth decays or natural history of the dental caries, which it expresses as decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) or decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS index), both indexes express numerically the caries prevalence. The sum of these three points is the index (S nchez & S enz, 1998 World Health Organization WHO , 1997 WHO, 2011b). To obtain DMFT index in population, WHO recommended the next age groups 5-6, 12, 15, 18, 35-44, 60-74 years. The index at 12 age is used to compare the oral health between countries. World Health Organization clearly established the methodology to obtain the index in the Oral Health Surveys. As increase the lesions number, increases the risk to develop caries, even in filled teeth (WHO, 1997).

Salvadora Persica

Chemical compounds such as sodium chloride, calcium oxalate, silica, fluoride, sulfated compounds, vitamin C and tannic acid have been found in this plant. Moreover, this plant contains saponin, flavonoid, an alkaloid named Salvadorin, Trim ethylamine, an herbal steroid named beta-sit sterol and benzyl isothiocyanate. It is claimed that the vitamin C and sit sterol content of this plant have great roles in strengthening the gum capillaries and preventing gum inflammation. calcium salts and fluoride are quite effective in preventing dental caries. Moreover, the silica and calcium salts in the plant act as grinder and detergent. Trim ethylamine is known to be effective in reducing surface adhesion and also in decreasing plaque accumulation. Tannins, tannic acid, Sulfated compounds and benzyl isothiocyanate, are reported to have antimicrobial effects and help the healing of gum inflammation. Leaves, fruits and seeds of this plant have been used in traditional medicine as appetizer, mild...

Caries

Tooth decay or dental caries is defined as chronic, multifactoral disease characterised by localized destruction of hard tooth tissues. It attacks on the mineralized tissues resulting in demineralization and in some cases destruction of the matrix (Jacobsen, 2008) . By some authors dental caries starts as small subclinical demineralised subsurface, which following a periods of remineralization and demineralization, may progress or arrest (Walmsley et al., 2002). There is an opinion that approximatelly 50 different factors subdivided into a three groups are in correlation with caries etiology The first group is formed of those factors associated with the host such as quality of saliva and bacterial flora (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanquis, Actinomyces and Lactobacillae are the most commonly isolated from the caries lesions. These microorganisms produce lactic acid, also known as the milk acid, responsible for the caries development). The second group includes outside factors...

Caries and lifestyle

In fact, the history of dental caries is associated with the rise of civilization, and more recently with dietary changes that occurred since the Mercantilism and Industrial Revolution. Several archaeological and historical works have confirmed the relationship between high caries frequencies and prevalences and the increase of carbohydrates intake in human populations from the advent of agriculture6 (Larsen, 1997 Saunders et al., 1997 Turner, 1979). Generally hunter-gatherers show low caries frequencies whereas peoples based on mixed economies, gardening, and farming, show increasingly higher caries rates (Hillson, 2001 Lukacs, 1992 Powell, 1985 Turner, 1979). The most antique written reference of oral diseases in this region comes from a tablet of clay with cuneiform inscriptions from the lower valley of the Euphrates dated at 5000 BC. The tablet refers to the existence of a worm responsible for tooth pain and a recipe for spelling it. More than 3000 years later, in Egypt, the...

Indications Indian Gum Arabic Tree

(f KAB WO3) Burn (f SKJ WO3) Cancer (f BIB JLH) Cancer, ear (f JLH) Cancer, eye (f JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Cancer, testes (f JLH) Cataract (f GHA) Catarrh (f GHA HH2) Childbirth (f DEP) Chill (f ZUL) Cholecystosis (f BIB EB22 173) Cholera (f SKJ WO3) Cold (f GHA) Colic (f KAB) Condyloma (f BIB) Congestion (f BIB) Conjunctivosis (f DEP NAD) Cough (f DEP KAB NAD) Cramp (f BOU) Cystosis (f DEP) Dermatosis (f BOU WO3) Diabetes (f1 BOU DEP GHA SUW WO3 ZUL) Diarrhea (f GHA GMH PH2 SUW) Dysentery (f BIB DEP SUW) Dyslactea (1 X15283686) Dyspepsia (f ZUL) Dysuria (f KAB) Edema (1 X8982438) Enterosis (f1 DEP X15476301) Fever (f BIB BOU UPW) Flu (1 FNF) Fracture (f KAB) Fungus (1 WO3) Gastrosis (f DEP) Gingivosis (f BOU DEP PH2) Gonorrhea (f1 DEP KAB ZUL) Hemorrhoid (f BIB KAB PH2) Hepatosis (f1 BIB WO3 PR14 510 X11054840) High Blood Pressure (f1 BOU ZUL) HIV (1 X10189947) Hypersalivation (f DEP) Impotence (f NAD UPW) Induration (f BIB JLH) Infection (1 WO3 ZUL...

Mouth throat conditions

Symptoms Mouth ulcers on the tongue, walls of the mouth, and gums. Sore, raised, cream-colored patches may form in the mouth, usually indicating oral thrush. A sore throat may become ulcerated, and tonsillitis may set in. Abscesses may form in the roots of the teeth, causing painful swelling. Gums may become painfully inflamed and prone to bleeding (gingivitis). The teeth may also ache and loosen. Pain brought on by a toothache or a sore throat may extend to the ears. Other typical symptoms

Using the Mind BodySpirit Connection to Eliminate the Effects of Stress

Stress and its connection to oral health are not addressed in textbooks or scientifically recorded. I have observed that many of my patients, however, when tired and stressed out, seem to have puffy and swollen gum tissue. After changing jobs or returning from vacations, these same patients suddenly have remarkably healthy tissue. Stress-related problems have been studied in dentistry, and the findings in many countries are that when there is less stress, there are fewer problems with teeth and gums.

Indications Horseradish

Abrasion (f HOO) Allergy (f1 LIB PED) Alzheimer's (1 COX X15231456) Anorexia (f APA DEM) Arthrosis (f1 APA BGB CAN COX X15231456) Asthma (f1 BGB DEM FNF) Atony (f FEL) Bacillus (1 X10548758) Bacteria (12 HHB HH2 KOM X17260672 X10548758) Bronchosis (f12 APA PHR PH2 SKY X16618018) Bruise (f HOO) Cancer (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, abdomen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 FNF) Cancer, colon (f1 FNF JLH X15231456) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, nose (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, skin (f1 FNF JLH WO2) Catarrh (1 KOM PHR X17260672) Chilblain (f GMH) Cholecystosis (f PHR PH2) Cold (f1 DEM SKY) Colic (f APA PH2) Congestion (f1 APA) Cough (f12 GMH PHR PH2) Cramp (f1 HHB WIN) Cystosis (1 LIB PHR) Debility (f BOW) Dental Plaque (f FAD) Diabetes (f DEM LIB) Dropsy (f FEL GMH HHB) Dysmenorrhea (f DEM) Dyspepsia (f PHR PH2 SKY) Dysuria (CAN PED fi PHR) Edema (f BGB CAN) Enterosis (1 PH2 WO2) Epistaxis (f HOO) Escherichia (1 HH2 X17260672 X10548758) Fever (f...

Artificial Sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, and control of blood glucose for diabetics. It has also been suggested that low-calorie sweeteners may stimulate the appetite, but the bulk of evidence does not support this hypothesis. Conclusive research demonstrates that artificial sweeteners have no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, short- or long-term blood glucose control, or insulin secretion, and they are thus an excellent sugar alternative for diabetics. There have been a number of health concerns related with these products, though the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for artificial sweeteners involves a comprehensive analysis of scientific data to satisfy safety requirements. All generally recognized as safe (GRAS) sweeteners have undergone extensive safety testing and have been carefully reviewed by the FDA.

Practical Approach to the Prevention of Caries

The success of fluoridated toothpaste in preventing dental caries has resulted in a change in professional approaches to prevention. Instead of focusing simply on attempts to reverse the main causative factors, attention is now centered on exploiting protective influences. The interaction of the three main causative factors is illustrated in Figure 1. Numerous attempts to change the impact of any of these influences on caries have proved ineffective, except, perhaps, under the most extreme situations, such as during war time.

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

This often happens when infants or toddlers fall asleep while sucking on a bottle. Breastfed infants are usually not at risk, unless they feed for extended periods. The carbohydrates in the drink (lactose in milk, or fructose in fruit drinks) mix with the normal bacteria in the mouth. This bacteria is found in the plaque on teeth and gums. When plaque mixes with carbohydrates, acids are formed that dissolve tooth enamel, causing tooth decay and dental caries. To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, a child should not be put in bed with a bottle and the bottle should be taken away as soon as mealtime is over. Further, only formula or water should be put in a bottle juices and sweet drinks should be offered in a cup. see also Infant Nutrition Oral Health. American Dietetic Association (1996). Oral Health and Nutrition Position of the American Dietetic Association. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96 184-189.

Indications Giant Milkweed

Abscess (f HDN) Amenorrhea (f HDN) Anasarca (f DEP KAB PH2) Ancylostomiasis (f HDN) Anorexia (f DEP) Aphtha (f DEP) Apoplexy (f BOU) Arthrosis (f1 DEP HDN HJP) Ascites (f DEP PH2) Asthma (f BOU DEP KAB SUW) Bacillus (1 HDN) Bacteria (1 HDN) Bite (f KAB) Bleeding (f X15922393) Bronchosis (f DEP KAP) Cachexia (f DEP) Cancer (f1 JLH PH2 X15689169) Cancer, abdomen (f1 JLH X15689169) Cancer, liver (f1 JLH PH2 X15689169 X16688796) Cancer, ovary (f1 JLH X15689169) Cancer, skin (1 PH2 X15689169) Cardiopathy (1 FNF HDN) Caries (f HDN) Catarrh (f DEP KAB) Chancre (f HDN) Cold (f SUW) Colic (f HDN) Constipation (f DEP) Convulsion (f1 SEP PH2 X15752643) Cough (f GHA KAB PH2 SUW) Cramp (f1 DEP KAP X15752643) Dermatosis (f DEP JFM SUW) Diabetes (1 X16054794) Diarrhea (f SUW) Dropsy (f DEP HJP KAB) Dysentery (f BOU DEP HJP KAP PH2 SUW) Dysmenorrhea (f HDN) Dyspepsia (f PH2 SUW) Dyspnea (f GHA) Dystocia (f HDN) Earache (f HJP) Edema (f1 HDN X16192673) Elephantiasis (f BOU DEP SUW) Enterosis (f KAB...

Introduction to the Oral Cavity

Over 700 bacterial species have been identified as residents of the oral cavity (Moore and Moore, 1994 Kroes et al. 1999 Socransky and Haffajee 2000 Paster et al. 2001), and the number of clinical isolates recognised continues to increase with improved methods of isolation and identification. Within the estimated 215 cm2 surface area of the oral cavity (Collins and Dawes 1987), there are several ecological niches, namely tongue, buccal mucosa, saliva and teeth where oral organisms may reside. On the tooth surface, bacteria are found within dental plaque, which is the primary aetiological agent responsible for dental caries and periodontal disease, which are the main causes of tooth loss throughout the world. Understanding dental plaque has therefore become a priority for oral microbiologists and those clinicians responsible for managing caries and peri-odontal diseases.

Teeth And Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

As regards the teeth and the TMJ, PPT had a better diagnostic outcome than ESRT, especially in the search for the exact location of tender points for reducing toothache (Table 7.2b). Another frequent application of auricular diagnosis, as will be shown in the next chapter, is for bruxism and TMJ disorders.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Vitamin C and oral health Vitamin C increases salivation, which decreases the activity of microorganisms that cause dental caries. Saliva plays an important role in fighting and preventing caries. Salivation is increased by the use of artificial salivary substitutes such as salivart, which usually consist of salt ions, flavoring agents, and preservatives like paraben, cellulose derivatives, animal mucin, and fluoride. In place of chemical substances as salivary substitutes, nature has provided foods that contain vitamin C. Intake of natural foods rich in vitamin C, like Emblica, shows a significant reduction in the occurrence of scurvy, xerostomia, Sjogren's syndrome, and dental caries.

Return To Sanity Please

It is truly amazing how far some experts will go to defend the processed food industry and shaky nutritional hypotheses Even a cursory look at Price's book will tell any rational person that Price did not superficially examine the people he studied. The detail about native customs, eating habits, and history of the various areas argues against any accusations of superficiality. Additionally, Price was a physician with many years of experience it is ludicrous to claim that he would make a superficial examination and reach simplistic conclusions about people's health. If there were nutritional deficiencies, he would have noted them down, but no such descriptions exist for the simple reason that no such deficiencies existed. We know this to be true for, if we examine the modern descendants of Price's subjects, we find that they enjoy robust health and freedom from both dental caries and more chronic diseases, IF they have not abandoned their native diets. It is true that high infant...

Indications Syrian Christthorn

Dermatosis (f BIB UPW) Diarrhea (f1 UPW X12826300) Dyslactea (f FNF) Fever (f BIB BOU CRC HJP) Fungus (f UPW) Furuncle (f BIB BOU) Gastrosis (f FNF) Gingivosis (f GHA) Headache (f GHA) Heartburn (f FNF) Hemorrhoid (f FNF) Hepatosis (f CRC HJP) High Blood Pressure (f CRC) Infection (f1 UPW X11167035) Inflammation (f BOU) Measles (f BIB BOU) Myalgia (f FNF) Mycosis (f UPW) Nervousness (f FNF) Obesity (f UPW) Ophthalmia (f BIB BOU CRC) Pain (f1 GHA X11395256) Proctosis (f FNF) Pulmonosis (f GHA) Respirosis (f GHA) Rheumatism (f CRC) Ringworm (f UPW) Snakebite (f BIB BOU UPW) Sore (f BIB UPW) Sterility (f UPW) Toothache (f CRC) Tuberculosis (f CRC) Tumor (1 CRC) Venereal Disease (f CRC HJP) Worm (f BOU) Wound (f FNF).

Crinum asiaticum L Amaryllidaceae Crinum Lily Spider Lily Bawang Tanah

Dolichos Leaf With Stipules

Of injury and inflamed joints. 18 The plant has been used for carbuncles and cancer. 7 In Indonesia, the oiled and heated leaves are useful to treat wounds by poisoned arrows, bites and stings. In Malaysia, poultices of the leaves are applied to swellings, swollen joints, lumbago, pains and in cases of headache and fever. The leaves are also an emollient. In Northwest Solomon Islands, the leaves make a topical treatment for inflammation. 19 In Malaysia, the leaves are used as a rheumatic remedy and to relieve local pain. 18 On Karkar Island and in Simbu, Papua New Guinea, the latex from the leaves is applied to cuts. In India, the leaves are applied to skin diseases and inflammation. 20 The crushed leaves are used to wash piles or mixed with honey and applied to wounds and abscesses. 3 Its seeds are considered purgative and emmenag-ogic. 7 In the Trobriands, Papua New Guinea, the stem fibres are used to stop bleeding and in New Ireland, the milky sap from the stem is used for...

Case Studies With Plant Fragrances

The essential oil of lavender is the main product of the plant that is used in herbal medicine. In traditional herbal medicine, the lavender oil is used as an antispasmodic, a carminative, a diuretic, a sedative, a stimulant, a stomachic, and a tonic to treat such ailments as acne, colic, flatulence, giddiness, migraines, nausea, rheumatism, spasms, sprains, toothache, and vomiting.25 Preparations of

Historical Aspects Of The Use Of Nuts And Seeds For Health In Pakistan

Nerve tonic, stimulant, and laxative (Islam etal., 2006) Blood purifier, anti-lice, vermicide, hemorrhoids, skin diseases such as scabies, wounds, leprosy, earache, and liver disorders (Sabeen & Ahmad, 2009) Pimples, eczema, toothache, and bleeding gums (Ahmad et al., 2006) Kabirudin & Khan, 2003), ear ache, cough, toothache, weak eyesight, toothache, and pneumonia (Ahmad Expectorant, analgesic, for burnps, toothache, cough, hemoptysis (Usmanghani etal., 1997), antispasmodic, anticolic, for irritable bladder, and antitumor (Rizvi et al., 2007) Injuries, and backache (Ahmad et al., 2006) Expectorant, diuretic, carminative, cleansing, deobstruent in renal stones, amenorrhoea, respiratory ailments, ulcerative scabies, vitiligo, antiphlegmatic attenuant, anthelmintic, antidyspeptic, local anesthetic, hypotensive, antibacterial, anticancer, aids, and antiparasitic (Rizvi et al., 2007) Bronchitis, rheumatism, pyrexia, urogenital diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, otitis,...

Cauterization Of The

Among the more reliable pieces of information on cauterization of the ear in ancient literature, the quotations from the work of Johannes Scultetus or Schultheiss (1595-1645) reported in Percy's book2 are remarkable. The physician was the pupil of the famous anatomist Adrian van der Spieghel of Brussels (1578-1625), also known as Spigel. The pupil observed the teacher cauterizing the antitragus of patients with toothache on the same side as the pain. This was a technique which he had applied also on himself 'hac nova chirurgia dolor non amplius revertitur .ejusque virtutem in se primum expertus est auctor post modum, me praesente, in non paucis aliis' ('with this new surgery the pain does not relapse so intensely .the value of which the author Another excellent witness, not so many decades later, was the anatomist Antonio Valsalva (16661723), who performed the first rigorous and documented differentiation between outer, middle and inner ear. In his book,6 based, according to his...

Phyllanthus amarus Schum Thonn

Traditional Medicinal Uses The aerial part of the plant is used for various conditions. In Chinese medicine, the plant is made into a tea to cure kidney problems, venereal diseases, stones in the kidneys and bladder. The Malays use it to increase menstrual flow, reduce fever and cure colic. It is used by the Indians as a fish poison. 5 Indians also use the plant as liver tonic to treat liver ailments, ascites, j aundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fever, conditions of the urogenital tract, eye disease, scabies, ulcers and wounds. 12 In Vietnam, it is used to induce sweating, and increase menstrual flow. It is also prescribed for toothache, muscle spasms and gonorrhoea. It is considered a diuretic, colic remedy and abortifacient in Southeast Asia. 5 It is also commonly used in Benin, Africa, as folk medicine against malaria. 13

Promotion Of Remineralization And Reversal Of The Demineralization Process

Sjogren Wound

The goal of this philosophy is to conserve healthy tooth structure and to realize that permanent restorations usually will need replacement in the future and that there is a restoration cycle that can lead to larger and larger restorations, tooth fracture, endodontic treatment, and eventually extraction of the tooth. Theoretically, this restoration cycle can be accelerated for individuals who have salivary dysfunction. The goal of MID is to interrupt and slow this restoration cycle. Consequently, dental caries is treated like an infectious disease, and strategies to prevent the decay process may be initiated. Newly developed dental materials allow the dentist to place smaller, conservative restorations to preserve existing tooth structure and to repair existing restorations with fluoride-releasing materials rather than to replace it with something slightly larger. Subgingival margins are difficult to clean, most susceptible to recurrent decay, and least...

Indications Coriander

DEP PHR PH2) Headache (f1 PH2 X15612768) Gas (f1 APA BGB DEP EGG) Gastrosis (f1 BGB HHB BIB DEP EGG PHR PH2) Hemorrhoid (f APA DEP PH2) Hernia (f BIB) Hiccup (f KAB) Hysteria (f BIB BOU JFM) Impotence (f BIB BOU) Induration (f JLH) Infection (f1 HH2 PH2) Inflammation (f KAB) Intoxication (f BIB DEP) Jaundice (f KAB) Kernel (f JLH) Leprosy (f PHR PH2) Listeria (1 X11929164) Measles (f APA HAD PH2) Mycosis (f1 DEP HH2 X15612768) Nausea (f BIB GHA IHB) Nervousness (f BIB) Neuralgia (f APA BIB EGG NAD) Neurosis (f BOU) Obesity (1 X15462185) Ophthalmia (f BOU DEP GHA) Orchosis (f BOU) Otosis (f BOU) Pain (f KAB PH2) Parasite (f BOU) Pharyngosis (f PHR PH2) Ptomaine (f BIB) Puerperium (f PHR) Rash (f PHR PH2) Rheumatism (f BOU HHB NAD) Salmonella (1 HH2 X15161192) Scabies (f KAB) Sclerosis (f BIB) Scrofula (f PH2) Smallpox (f DEP) Snakebite (f BIB) Sore (f DEP) Soroche (f EGG) Splenosis (f BIB) Stomachache (f BIB EGG EB49 406) Stomatosis (f KAB PHR PH2) Swelling (f DEP GHA) Syphilis (f BIB...

Pharmacological Uses and Toxicity of Vitamin B6 Supplements

Supplements have also been used empirically, with little or no rational basis, and little or no evidence of efficacy, in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including acute alcohol intoxication, atopic dermatitis, autism, carpal tunnel syndrome, dental caries, diabetic neuropathy, Down's syndrome, Huntington's chorea, schizophrenia, and steroid-dependent asthma.

Indications Caper Bush

WO2) Sclerosis (f BIB) Sciatica (f BIB) Scrofula (f BIB BOU) Scurvy (f1 DEP WO2) Snakebite (f BIB) Sore (f DEP) Splenomegaly (f BIB) Splenosis (f BIB BOU WO2) Toothache (f BIB) Tuberculosis (f1 BIB WO2) Tumors (f1 BIB HOS) Ulcer (f BIB) Uterosis (f JLH) Wart (f BIB JLH) Worm (f GHA). Unani consider the root bark aperient, analgesic, emmenagogue, expectorant, and vermifuge, using it in adenopathy, paralysis, rheumatism, splenomegaly, and toothache they use the juice to kill worms (KAB).

Looking Good Feeling Better

And rinse with antibacterial mouthwash. Maintaining good oral hygiene is especially important because of the swallowing problems often associated with PD that can leave food in your mouth that attracts harmful bacteria that not only affects your oral health but can damage your heart as well.

Ruta graveolens L Rutaceae Herb of Grace Common

Induration Insect Bites

Traditional Medicinal Uses It is frequently used to treat worm and parasitic infection. 6 It has been commonly used for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo due to the psoralens and methoxypsoralens present. 7 It is also used to relieve muscle spasms, as carminative, emmenagogue, haemostat, uter-onic, vermifuge, to treat hepatitis, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, bug bite, cancer, cold, fever, snakebite, earache, toothache and as an antidote especially in malarial poisoning. 3,4,8 It is also used as an abortifacient to terminate pregnancy. The plant has been used for pain relief in Mexico. 10

Trigeminal Neuralgia On The

Toothache And Ear Pain

The Chinese report only one point area related to trigeminal neuralgia, the cheek (LO5, 6i mianjia) between the eye and the internal ear area. Other areas related to the trigeminal system are the tooth (LO1 ya), anterior ear lobe (LO4 chuiqian) and jaw (LO3 he), which all have toothache as a therapeutic option interestingly stomach (CO4 wei) also has the same indication. The experienced acupuncturist will not be surprised by this indication as he knows that the Stomach meridian starts from the face and with its first seven points covers the neural territory of the second and third trigeminal branch. A further area for treating pain in general is Shen men, which was used extensively in the past in auricular acupuncture hypalge-sia for surgical purposes (see Ch. 1).

Indications Bitter Apple

Bacteria (1 ZUL) Bleeding (f ZUL) Bloat (f BIB) Bronchosis (f HDN) Bruise (f GHA) Burn (f UPW) Calculus (f BIB) Cancer (f1 JLH HDN X15527763) Cancer, lung (f1 JLH X15527763) Carbuncle (f BIB) Carcinoma (f JLH) Caries (f UPW) Catarrh (f UPW) Colic (f HDN) Constipation (f BIB) Cough (f UPW) Cramp (f1 HDN) Craw-craw (f HDN) Dandruff (f HDN ZUL) Dermatosis (f HDN) Diarrhea (f HDN UPW) Dysmenorrhea (f HDN) Dyspepsia (f GHA HDN UPW) Earache (f GHA HDN UPW) Edema (f1 HDN) Enterosis (f ZUL) Epilepsy (f HDN) Epistaxis (f BIB) Epithelioma (f JLH) Fever (f1 HDN) Fungus (1 HDN) Gas (f GHA) Gastrosis (f UPW) Gonorrhea (f HDN) Headache (f HDN) Hematuria (f UPW) Hemorrhoid (f GHA) Hepatoma (1 X11108802) Hepatosis (f1 BIB HDN ZUL) Herpes (f HDN) High Blood Pressure (1 HDN) Infection (f1 HDN ZUL) Infertility (f BIB) Inflammation (f1 HDN) Itch (f BIB) Laryngosis (f UPW) Melanoma (f JLH) Myalgia (f HDN) Mycosis (1 HDN) Nephrosis (f BIB) Neuralgia (f UPW) Neurosis (f HDN) Ophthalmia (f UPW) Pain (f HDN...

Clinical Manifestations

The majority of individuals ultimately diagnosed with SS initially present with dry eyes and or dry mouth. A few will present with the result of a secretory deficiency such as increased dental decay at incisal edges or exposed root surfaces of the teeth, oral mucosal burning secondary to a fungal infection, and corneal ulceration or corneal scarring. Dryness complaints may be accompanied by involvement of a diverse array of other organ systems Hashimoto's thyroiditis Graves' disease, severe fatigue, increased sedimentation rate, fever of unknown origin, myositis, peripheral neuropathy, leukocytoclastic vasculitis-purpura, renal tubular acidosis, atrophic gastritis, arthritis, and positive test for antinuclear antibodies or RF in asymptomatic patients (2,5,6). Oral manifestations are associated with salivary gland dysfunction (7). The patient may complain of difficulty in eating dry foods (e.g., crackers), oral soreness, hoarseness, lipstick adhering to the front teeth, increased...

Introduction and description

The genus Nigella contains about 20 species of annual herbs, the most popular of which is Nigella sativa L. It is native to the Mediterranean region through West Asia to northern India and has long been domesticated. It can be frequently found growing wild as a weed in cultivated crops. Nigella as black cumin is mentioned in ancient Greek, Roman and Hebrew texts as a condiment and component of herbal medicines and was reportedly introduced to Britain in 1548. It is a minor seed spice cultivated from Morocco to Northern India in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Niger and eastern Africa, especially Ethiopia, where it is also reportedly used as a fish poison (Jansen, 1981) and in Russia, Europe and North America. In South-East Asia, Nigella seeds are mainly used for medicinal purpose. Nigella has been used since antiquity by Asian herbalists and pharmacists and was used for culinary purposes by the Romans. The seeds of nigella were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun in ancient Egypt....

Melaleuca cajuputi Roxb Myrtaceae Gelam Paperbark Tree Kayu Puteh

Melaleuca Cajuputi

Traditional Medicinal Uses In Malaysia, it is used for the treatment of colic and cholera. It is also used externally for thrush, vaginal infection, acne, athlete's foot, verruca, warts, insect bites, cold sore and nits. 5 Cajuput oil is distilled from the leaves and used by the Burmese to treat gout. The Indochinese uses cajeput oil for rheumatism and pain in the joints and as an analgesic. 2 The oil is used externally in Indonesia for burns, colic, cramps, earache, headache, skin diseases, toothache and wounds. When administered internally, it can induce sweating and act as a stimulant and antispasmodic. In the Philippines, the leaves are used to treat asthma. 26 Dosage For treatment of coryza, influenza, cough, asthma, dyspepsia, earache, toothache, rheumatism, osteodynia, neuralgia, wounds, burns, post partum haematometra. The reported dose for the above ailments is 20 to 40 g of fresh leaves or 5 to 10 g of dried leaves in the form of a decoction or

Indications Dandelion

Abscess (f CRC MAD) Acne (f VAD) Adenopathy (f JLH) Ague (f BIB) Alactea (f LMP PH2) Alcoholism (f SKY) Alzheimer's (1 FNF) Anemia (f1 AAH DEM JFM WAM) Anorexia (12 APA KOM PH2 PIP VAD) Arthrosis (f BIB) Backache (f DEM) Bacteria (1 WOI) Biliary Dyskinesia (2 PIP) Biliousness (f BIB) Bladderstones (2 KOM) Boil (f CRC LMP) Bronchosis (f12 APA BIB LAF) Bruise (f BIB CRC) Cachexia (f NAD) Cancer (f CRC) Cancer, bladder (f JLH) Cancer, bowel (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f CRC JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Caries (f CRC LMP) Cardiopathy (f APA BIB) Catarrh (f BIB CRC) Cellulite (1 FT71 S73) Chill (f HJP) Cholecystosis (2 BGB CRC HH3 KOM PH2) Cirrhosis (SKYf ) Cold (1 APA) Colic (1 PH2) Congestion (1 PH2) Conjunctivosis (f AAH AKT) Constipation (f1 FAD SKY FT71 S73) Consumption (f BIB) Cough (f MAD) Cramp (f DEM) Cystosis (1 WAM) Dermatosis (f APA BGB KAP KOM PH2) Diabetes (f1 BIB CRC JFM KOM MAD PH2 X15704495 X14750205) Dropsy (f1 BGB BIB DEM KAP MAD) Dysentery (f AKT)...

Indications Generic

Abscesses (f CAN FAD) Adenopathy (f CRC DEM PH2) Bleeding (f CEB DEM) Blepharosis (f VAD) Boils (f1 APA CRC GMH PNC) Bronchosis (f CRC) Bruise (f FEL) Burn (f1 APA FAD GMH PH2 WAM) Cancer (f CRC FEL JLH) Carcinoma (f CRC) Cardiopathy (f GMH) Caries (f CRC) Catarrh (f CRC DEM GMH) Chilblain (f CEB) Childbirth (f CRC DEM) Cholera (f CEB) Cold (f SKY) Cold Sore (1 APA) Colitis (f1 APA CAN CRC GMH) Conjunc-tivosis (f CRC DEM) Constipation (f CRC) Corneosis (f VAD) Cough (12 APA FAD HHB WAM) Cramp (f CEB CRC) Crohn's Disease (1 SKY) Cuts (f FAD) Cystosis (f1 GMH WAM) Dermatosis (f1 APA PH2 PNC VAD WAM) Diarrhea (f1 APA CAN FAD) Diverticulosis (1 FNF) Duodenosis (f PH2) Dysentery (f CRC FAD) Dyspepsia (f1 FAD) Dysuria (f CRC) Eczema (f CRC) Enterosis (12 APA CEB GMH) Erysipelas (f FEL) Esophagitis (2 APA) Felon (f CRC JLH) Fever (f CRC DAW) Fistula (f FEL) Fracture (f CRC DEM) Gangrene (f CRC) Gastrosis (12 APA GMH PHR PH2 SKY) Gleet (f FEL) Gonorrhea (f DEM) Gout (f CRC HH2 PH2) Heartburn...

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