Positive Parenting Tips for Toddlers

Talking To Toddlers

Talking to Toddlers is a program that offers effective parenting tips to help shape behavior in toddlers. It is a creation of Chris Thompson, a parenting professional and certified NLP practitioner. No doubt he has all it takes to address the issue of parenting. The program helps parents understand problems often experienced by children, include the reasons behind their behaviors. In most cases, parents communicate to children in inappropriate ways without know. This may lead kids to behave contrary to parents expectations. This is among the major problems this program helps to fix. You will be able to learn about the word you often misuse and evoke bad reactions from kids. Kids are often misunderstood and this makes it difficult for them to learn. This guide has helped thousands of parents across the world and it is going to help you too. Buy it today and start learning the best strategies you can use to train your children. More here...

Talking To Toddlers Summary


4.7 stars out of 13 votes

Contents: Audio Course
Author: Chris Thompson
Official Website: talkingtotoddlers.com
Price: $37.00

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Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Reinstatement in Toddlers and Preschool Children

To date, there has been scant investigation of effects of reexposure on toddlers and preschool children. In one study, Howe et al. (1993) investigated reinstatement of preschool children's memories using a hiding task. Children from 2 to 3 years visited a laboratory playroom and were shown the hiding places of 16 toys in the room. Half of the children returned 1 week later and were shown the toys again, but were not shown the hiding locations. Three weeks later, when all children were tested for recall, children who had participated in the reinstatement session recalled more locations than did children who received no reinstatement. This study showed that object information without action information was effective in reinstatement when the original context was also part of the reinstatement environment.

Emotional Self Regulation in Infancy and Toddlerhood

In this chapter, we present a theory of the development of emotional self-regulation, focusing in particular on the toddler and early preschool years. We begin by describing the functionalist approach to emotions which underlies our work. We then tie this view of emotions to the concept of emotion regulation. Next, we describe self-determination theory, the lens through which we view the development of emotional self-regulation. Given the varied use of terminology in the literature, we include a section on key distinctions such as those between emotion control and emotion regulation and emotion management versus emotional integration. Following this, we provide an in-depth discussion of our framework for understanding the development of emotional self-regulation that includes a review of empirical support for our theory. Drawing on our own work and that of others (e.g., Calkins, 1994 Kopp, 1989), we also present a model of factors that contribute to emotional self-regulation,...

Toddler Diarrhea

One troublesome diet-related problem occurring in preschool children is 'toddler diarrhea.' Young children are susceptible to gastrointestinal infections because of immature, inexperienced immune systems and poor hygiene from their habit of 'mouthing' almost everything they handle. Children are also prone to develop loose stools in response to minor nongastrointestinal infections. However, some children suffer frequent episodes of loose watery stools with or without increased stool frequency and without evidence of infection. These episodes of diarrhea may last weeks or months. Since it may be difficult to distinguish this diarrhea from other significant gastrointestinal pathology, affected children may be subjected to a lot of unrewarding clinical investigation. Children with toddler diarrhea usually grow normally, unlike most children with significant gastrointestinal pathology. Typically, they are untroubled by their diarrhea although their parents are understandably very concerned...

Developmental and Social Impact on the Child

Children younger than two years of age are unable to grasp the concept of being diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. As a result, the psychological impact of the diagnosis falls mainly on the child's caregiver ). Parents may feel horrified at the idea of losing their child to a disease that they essentially gave to their children. They may benefit from psychological services that offer support and guidance for coping with these feelings of fear and guilt. Infants and toddlers, on the other hand, are most concerned with immediate events, such as painful procedures and separation from their parents. Psychologists can help parents prepare their child for medical procedures through role-playing, medical play, and coloring books that illustrate the procedure.

Stability of Temperament2

As long as temperament was regarded as primarily biologically-genetically driven, the logical assumption was that individual differences in temperament should be stable over time (Wilson & Ma-theny, 1986). However, with the increasing evidence on the role played by contextual factors on the expression of individual differences in temperament (Wachs & Kohnstamm, (2002), it is now more logical to expect only modest stability of temperament over time.3 Further, given changes in both the expression and measurement of temperament at different ages, it is also likely that what stability there is will take the form of heterotypic continuity, with stability occurring for the underlying structure of temperament even as the behavioral form of temperament changes (Fox et al., 2001). For the most part these predictions appear to have been confirmed. Based on parent report measures moderate stability of individual temperament dimensions appears to be the norm (Guerin et al., 2003 Kerr, Lambert,...

Summary Influence of Context Upon Temperament

A similar role for culture can also be seen in regard to developmental issues like the stability of temperament. Differential stability of temperament may be seen for individuals whose trait characteristics either fit or do not fit cultural beliefs about the value of such characteristics. For example, in cultures where inhibition is valued females who were inhibited as toddlers were far more likely to be inhibited as adolescents, whereas females who were uninhibited as toddlers were far less likely to be uninhibited as adolescents (Kerr et al., 1994).

Child vs Adult Cancers

Child psychologist A mental-health professional with a Ph.D. who conducts scientific research and or provides psychological services to infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Child psychology is focused on understanding, preventing, diagnosing and treating children's psychological, cognitive, emotional, developmental, behavioral, and family problems.

Emerging Programs and Policies

As it has done with many other child health concerns, from whooping cough, polio, and measles to use of toddlers' seats in automobiles, the United States is now addressing the growing problem of childhood obesity. State legislatures, federal agencies, school boards, teachers, youth programs, parents, and others are mobilizing to address the array of interrelated issues associated with the development, and potential prevention, of childhood obesity. Because adult overweight and obesity rates are even higher than

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

This often happens when infants or toddlers fall asleep while sucking on a bottle. Breastfed infants are usually not at risk, unless they feed for extended periods. The carbohydrates in the drink (lactose in milk, or fructose in fruit drinks) mix with the normal bacteria in the mouth. This bacteria is found in the plaque on teeth and gums. When plaque mixes with carbohydrates, acids are formed that dissolve tooth enamel, causing tooth decay and dental caries. To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, a child should not be put in bed with a bottle and the bottle should be taken away as soon as mealtime is over. Further, only formula or water should be put in a bottle juices and sweet drinks should be offered in a cup. see also Infant Nutrition Oral Health.

Reinstatement in Infancy

Ers including a stationary mobile identical to the training mobile and a different moving mobile. They found that functional information (movement) was critical for reinstatement exposure to a different, moving mobile was effective in reinstating recall but exposure to the original, but stationary mobile was not effective. Additionally, for infants under 6 months, only the original training mobile acts as an effective retrieval cue if training and testing are separated by one day. A novel mobile will only cue young infants if training and cueing occur within a 24-hour period. However, for older infants between 9 and 12 months, a novel object can act to cue their memory for a learned task for up to 2 weeks, but not after longer delays (Rovee-Collier, 1999). Thus, with age infants become somewhat more flexible in that reinstatement can occur even when some of the information provided in the reminder session is slightly different from the original experience. Does this trend continue in...

Video and Photograph Reinstatement in 18Month Olds

A series of experiments tested whether toddlers could be reminded of a past event by watching a video simulation of their original experience (Sheffield & Hudson, 2004). Although video simulations provide as much information as viewing a live model, they are presented in a representational format and are not live events. Viewing a video simulation would only be effective in reinstating children's event memory if children were able to relate their internal memory representation of the event to the external, video representation of the event.

Photograph Reinstatement in 24 and 30Month Olds

Because our previous investigation of toddlers' abilities to use photographs as reminders was inconclusive with regard to 24-month-olds, we designed a second study to test whether 24- and 30-month-olds could be reminded of an event by viewing unnarrated photographs (Deocampo & Hudson, 2003). Thirty-month-olds were included because that is the age at which DeLoache and Burns (1994) found that children first succeed at the object-retrieval task using photographs, showing evidence of understanding of the symbolic nature of photographs. A deferred imitation paradigm was used to test children's recall of activities learned in the laboratory. Twenty-four- and 30-month-olds watched an experimenter model three novel activities in a laboratory playroom, but children were not allowed to attempt to imitate those activities. After a delay of 2 weeks for 24-month-olds or 4 weeks for 30-month-olds, the children returned to the laboratory. These retention intervals were determined to be sufficiently...

Sliding down a slippery slope

We arrived at the chalet at 7 pm to find the Holmes already settled in. They had stopped off at a supermarket and stocked up on plenty of booze for the adults, and snacks for the children, which evidently Jacob and Matthew had already tucked into with great gusto. Tom's eyes lit up when he saw the stock of goodies, but Joe quietly said, You'll get really fat if you eat all those, and proceeded to his room to unpack his bag. This comment came from a boy who had eaten a yoghurt for breakfast, a ham roll for lunch and nothing else all day. Hardly enough calories for a toddler let alone a growing 12-year-old boy.

Changes in the Nature of Friendship

The quality and nature of friendship vary as a function of age. Children as young as two can have friends, and even twelve- to eighteen-month-olds select and prefer some children to others. Toddlers laugh, smile at, touch, and engage in more positive interactions with some peers more than others. In the preschool years cooperation and coordination in children's interactions with friends increases, and friends are more likely to engage in shared pretend play. Friends also have higher rates of conflict than non-friends, likely due to the greater amount of time they spend together. However, friends are more likely than nonfriends to resolve conflicts in ways that result in equal outcomes rather than one child winning and another losing.

The appearance of rituals

As the days went by, Joe withdrew from his school friends and became increasingly clingy to me. As long as I wasn't trying to get him to eat, he would cuddle up to me and follow me round the house, talking about nothing much, but just wanting my constant attention. At times it was like having an overgrown toddler in the house. At other times it was like having a monster in our midst.

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis See arthritis

Almost 85 percent of cases occur in children under age five years, with the greatest likelihood of occurrence in the toddler age group (one- to two-year-olds). infants often experience atypical symptoms, but infant males have the highest risk of developing severe coronary artery disease. Recent research has also documented a higher incidence of coronary artery aneurysms in children older than age six years. Boys are affected more often than girls.

Feeding problems in preschool children

Toddler behavior is strongly influenced by past experience. Any negative experience with food might result in future food refusal. Transient food refusal may occur after birth of a sibling or other event, in an attempt to redirect attention to themselves (Harrise & Booth, 1992). Refusal to chew due to failure to introduce texture and lumps before 6-7 months of age can result in children rejecting lumpy food later (K & R Minde, 1986).

Early Childhood Caries ECC

Dental caries is a complex, multi-factorial disease and is a significant health and social problem which affects people of all ages and is responsible for a vast amount of pain, misery and economic loss. It is a major problem in young children. Caries of the primary teeth Early Childhood Caries or ECC is one of the most prevalent health problems in infants and toddlers (Mayanagi et al, 1995). It can be considered an epidemic in lower-income families and in under developed parts of the world (Ismail & Sohn 1999). ECC is one of the major causes of hospitalization in young children, who often need to receive general anaesthesia for extraction or tooth restoration (Sheller et al, 1996).

Prevalence of Micronutrient Supplement

1999-2000 (post-DSHEA) indicate that 52 of U.S. adults were taking at least one dietary supplement. Supplement users were more likely to be toddlers and preschool-aged children and middle-aged and older adults. Across all age groups, vitamin mineral combinations and multivitamins were the most common types of supplements used by individuals who took only one supplement. Collection of these type of data is important to monitor use, identify usage trends, and help understand the popularity of micronutrient supplement use.

Research and Good Fathering

Firstborn children are temporarily only children and thus are exposed to one-to-one speech with their parents. When a new child is born, firstborns and their siblings receive less child-directed speech and are privy to multiparty speech. Specifically, mothers appear to provide more linguistic support and more complex grammatical statements to their firstborns even when their firstborns and latterborns are observed at the same age. Concordantly, firstborn toddlers have larger vocabularies, reach language milestones earlier, and demonstrate more sophisticated grammar than their siblings. The early language competence of firstborns may partially explain the proclivity of firstborns to achieve in school. In contrast, later-born children's skill in conversational speech and their expertise in understanding the mental states of others potentially contribute to their renowned social acumen.

Developmental Perspectives of Child Maltreatment

The toddler and preschool years provide new challenges as children are growing and developing new physical skills. These physical skills enable children to run, climb, and openly explore in areas they previously could not, so caregiver supervision becomes increasingly important. A neglectful caregiver will not make the environment safe or provide appropriate boundaries. Verbal skills increase and children vocalize their emerging independence. A parent unprepared for the typical use of the word no may interpret this as defiant behavior and resort to harsh physical punishment that becomes abusive, not recognizing the appropriateness of the child's behavior for this developmental stage. Toilet training during these years is one of the more common parental stressors and precipitant of abuse.

Hand foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease A common viral disease of toddlers that produces blistering of palms, soles, and the inside or the mouth. The condition often sweeps through day-care centers in the summer. There is no connection to the cattle disease known as hoof-and-mouth disease.

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of very young children. There are, however, several pieces of evidence that support the idea that children who form friendships as preverbal children in child care do experience social support, trust, and intimacy within these relationships. The children who were used for the early case studies of friendship (Howes, 1981) are now young adults. Informal conversations with these children suggest that their toddler friend partner, although no longer a best friend remains a person of importance in their lives. And, as previously discussed, toddler friend pairs tend to remain stable friends. This suggests that toddler friendships function to provide affective support, rather than functioning merely as a context for play, when the child's life history allows for...

Emotion Regulation and Later Adaptation

The attainment of a reasonable level of emotional self-regulation can be considered a major developmental task of toddlerhood and early childhood (Kopp, 1989). Consistent with the developmental psychopathology perspective, effective negotiation of this issue should predict competence on develop-mentally salient tasks in later stages. Such continuity can be explained by the need for self-regulatory capacities for other processes such as task engagement, concentration, and maintaining interchanges with others (Shields, Cicchetti, & Ryan, 1994). Thus, emotion regulation may serve as a foundation for maintaining the homeostasis that allows individuals to engage with their environments and with others. Children who do not develop these abilities therefore would be more likely to develop intra-and interpersonal problems (Calkins, 1997b Eisenberg & Fabes, 1992). suppression (decrease in vagal tone from baseline to affect-eliciting episodes) relative to those who engaged in more social active...

EER Summary Ages 0 Through 2 Years

EERs for energy calculated by these equations are slightly lower than those estimated by Prentice and colleagues (1988). Their estimates were 95, 85, 83, and 83 kcal kg d at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. These estimates of total energy expenditures are approximately 80 percent of the 1985 FAO WHO UNU recommendations for energy intake of infants and toddlers (FAO WHO UNU, 1985), which were based upon observed energy intakes of infants compiled by Whitehead and colleagues (1981) from the literature predating 1940 and up to 1980.

Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia

Data from the US NHANES III (1988-1994) survey, which used a variety of indicators of iron status, showed that 9 of US toddlers were iron deficient and 3 had iron deficiency anemia. Eleven percent of adolescent females and women of reproductive age were iron deficient, and 3-5 of these women had iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency in the developed world is more common among low-income minorities.

L Oriana Linares Nicole A Morin

In the preschool years, between the ages of 3-5, young children venture into the public spheres of their neighborhoods by becoming engaged in various social activities outside of their homes. Preschool children may attend a playgroup or a preschool program, play in public playgrounds, stay outdoors for longer periods of time, and visit community areas often accompanied by their mother or an older sibling. As compared to toddlers, increased mobility and higher levels of cognitive competence (Cicchetti, 1989) may afford young children a greater exposure to social events in the neighborhood, and a greater ability to explore the outside world. It is through this normative socialization process

Ampicillin Amcill Omnipen Polycillin Principen

Hyperactivity and a short attention span are probably the most typical behaviors, which affect boys and girls about equally. Infants and toddlers may be continually active, constantly keeping their hands or toys in their mouth, moving from object to object. In extreme cases, the constant movement can cause accidental bruises. Older children may grab, pinch, and bite. A child's attention span can be so short that it interferes with social interaction, since the child cannot pay attention to facial and other social cues.

Balancing Motherhood And Diabetes

Michelle Sorensen believes that her health needs to come first so she can be a healthy mother and someday, a healthy grandmother. She says, However, at times, it is hard in the moment to put my needs first. For example, if I need to check my sugar but I have a crying newborn or whining toddler, it is hard to control my impulse to soothe my child first.

Conclusion and Future Directions

In this chapter, we have presented a model of the development of emotional self-regulation in infancy and toddlerhood that is organized around the construct of autonomy. In our framework, we focus on children's emotional responsiveness as well as the strategies children use to modulate that responsiveness. We argue that movement along a continuum of autonomy toward more active, flexible strategies for regulating affect is a natural phenomenon fueled by children's innate propensities to master their environments and to take on or internalize regulatory structures provided by caregivers. We provide evidence that emotional self-regulation is a developmental phenomenon, with more autonomous strategies evident with increasing age, as well as an individual difference phenomenon, influenced by both temperamental characteristics and caregiver influences. The complex nature of emotional self-regulation is illustrated by the contextual and situational nature of adaptive strategies, specificity...

Family Income and Early Child Care

In the first 3 years of life, most child care occurs in home settings, either with relatives or family child-care providers. Data are now accumulating showing that the quality of these home settings is considerable lower for children from poverty-level families than for children of more affluent families. In a widely publicized Study of Family and Relative Care, infants and toddlers cared for by relatives (primarily grandmothers) and nonrelatives were observed. Children from low-income families received poorer quality care than those from more affluent families (Galinsky, Howes, Kontos, & Shinn, 1994).

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

Memory Reminder Chart

The effectiveness of different kinds of reminders for young children, including the use of symbolic reminders such as videos and photographs indicates that 1- and 2-year-olds' are more flexible in the kinds of experiences that can reinstate past memories as compared to younger infants. If infants are trained on one exemplar, their memories will not be reinstated by partial reminders that do not contain functional information (Greco et al., 1990). In contrast, toddlers do not require action information in order for reinstatement to occur, but their recall is better when both object and action information is provided. These findings suggest that at least by 18 months, children are encoding and storing more complete information about the individual components of events. Toddlers may be able to appreciate that activities are composed of various components (e.g., action and object information), and that some components may be interchangeable under certain circumstances. If children have...

Haemophilus influenzae type b

Hand, foot, and mouth disease A common infectious disease of toddlers that produces blistering of palms, soles, and the inside of the mouth. The condition often sweeps through day care centers in the summer. There is no connection between this condition and the hoof-and-mouth disease found in cattle.

Mcgraw Myrtle Byram 18991988

Myrtle Byrum Mcgraw

McGraw briefly attended Sneed Junior College, a seminary, before transferring to Ohio Wesleyan University where she attained her bachelor's degree in 1923. She continued her graduate education at Columbia University and Teachers College in 1924 and was awarded her master's degree and doctorate in psychology in 1925 and 1931, respectively. McGraw was a recipient of a Laura Spelman Rockefeller Fellowship from 1927 through 1929. During this time, she was a research assistant with the Institute for Child Development and an intern for the Institute for Child Guidance. She was appointed and served from 1930 to 1942 as associate director of the Normal Child Development Study at Babies Hospital, Columbia University. McGraw was appointed professor of psychology at Briarcliff College in 1953, headed an innovative laboratory for the study of infants and toddlers, and served as the head of the department of developmental psychology until 1972. In 1976 the Society for Research in Child Development...

Social Influences in the First Years of Life

The magnitude of associations from early child language to later school performance has incited decades of inquiry into the sources of early individual differences. Research on the social context of language development has underscored the role of more sophisticated language partners, most notably parents, in guiding novice toddlers toward understanding the meanings expressed in shared conversations (Bruner, 1974, 1983 Vygotsky, 1962). A cornerstone of this research has been the careful description of children's language environments in terms of the words and phrases that children hear and the ways that those words are presented to children. This literature has produced irrefutable evidence for the centrality of children's exposure to language for their receptive and productive language growth, literacy, and cognitive development (e.g., Bloom, 1993 Bornstein, 1985 Carpenter, Nagell, & Tomasello, 1998 Hart & Risley, 1995 Huttenlocher, Haight, Bryk, Seltzer, & Lyons, 1991 Landry, Smith,...

HOME and Socio Emotional Development

Scores on HOME are also associated with social development. A major component of social competence is the ability of a child to enter into and sustain social relations. Bakeman and Brown (1980) followed 21 preterm and 22 full-term Black low-income children from 9 months to 3 years of age. The Responsivity scale from the Infant-Toddler HOME predicted both social participation (involvement with others) and social competence (ability to navigate the social world smoothly, gaining both material and emotional goods from others in socially acceptable ways). Other studies also indicated that the quality of the home environment in general, and Responsivity in particular, are related to adaptive social competence during early and middle childhood (Jordan, 1979 Lamb et al., 1988 Tedesco, 1981). A good example is a study of behavior problems in very low-birth weight Dutch children (Weiglas-Kuperus, Koot, Baerts, Fetter, & Sauer, 1993). They found that HOME scores at ages 1 and 3 years were...

Young Childrens Event Recall

Although very young children lack the verbal skills to describe their memory for past events, several paradigms using behavioral measures have yielded a wealth of data on infants' and toddlers' memory (a) response-contingency tasks, (b) deferred imitation tasks, and (c) elicited imitation tasks. The results from these various lines of research provide compelling evidence that from infancy children are capable of retaining information from novel experiences over intervals from a few days (at 2 months of age) to several months (by 16 months of age). Elicited imitation research also takes advantage of toddlers' interest in imitating actions, but in this paradigm children are allowed to imitate multi-step sequences immediately after observing an experimenter's demonstration. As in deferred imitation, children return to the training context after a delay and are encouraged to reproduce the learned action sequences. The advantage of this procedure as compared to the deferred imitation...

Iron Nutrition Iron Deficiency

Iron deficiency is the most common of nutrient deficiencies, affecting as many as two-thirds of all children and women of child-bearing age worldwide. Iron deficiency severe enough to cause anemia affects 20-25 of infants and as many as 40 of women and 25 of men. Iron deficiency occurs in industrially developed as well as developing populations. In the United States, 9-11 of toddlers, adolescent girls, and women of child-bearing age have iron deficiency, and 2-4 have iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of iron deficiency is approximately doubled in US black and Hispanic women.

Talking To Your Children About Diabetes

If your toddler asks a question about your illness, answer openly and honestly. A rule of thumb is never offer more information than the child has requested. Concealing the illness or whispering about what is happening will not help. Children always suffer more from the tension of not knowing than from knowing the truth. Allowing the child to act out fears and frustration through play or art is also an excellent help.

Anthropometric Measurements

The term anthropometric refers to comparative measurements of the body. Anthropometric measurements are used in nutritional assessments. Those that are used to assess growth and development in infants, children, and adolescents include length, height, weight, weight-for-length, and head circumference (length is used in infants and toddlers, rather than height, because they are unable to stand). Individual measurements are usually compared to reference standards on a growth chart.

National Hydrocephalus Foundation

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities A national information center that provides information on disabilities and disability-related issues. Services are offered to families, educators, administrators, journalists, and students, with a special emphasis on children and youth. The center can provide information about specific disabilities, special education, individualized education programs, parent materials, disability organizations, professional associations, education rights, early intervention services for infants and toddlers, and transition to adult life. (For contact information, see Appendix I.)

Stages Of Development

Imagine a playground full of children on a warm summer day. A toddler tentatively makes her way across the sand to retrieve a shovel then, with a smile of triumph, retreats to her mother's side. Nearby a pair of two-year-olds dig in the sand side by side, practically touching yet seemingly unaware of one another. A band of boisterous five-year-olds rush past them, chasing an imagined pirate on a tumultuous sea. A quick survey of these intersecting scenes shows that these groups of children are clearly going about the business of learning and play in very different ways, at increasing levels of sophistication. Over the years, developmental psychologists have confronted the question of how best to characterize these changes in both cognitive and social functioning. Is it a simple matter of children adding to their repertoire of skills and knowledge as they get older (quantitative change), or do higher levels of functioning actually represent a reorganization of the previous level of...

Successful Early Intervention Program Head Start

Tains four basic principles (1) the provision of a high-quality early childhood education (2) the promotion of good health through the treatment of health problems and by providing children with good health care (3) the active participation of parents in the programs in which their children participate and (4) the use by families of social services in the community when needed. Head Start has expanded over the years and at the beginning of the twenty-first century included the Early Start Program, which serves infants and toddlers, and the American Indian Head Start and Migrant Head Start Programs.

Social Emotional Milestones

They are separated from their caregivers. By the preschool years, children are able to identify emotions in others and can seemingly empathize with the feelings of others, as reflected, for instance, by a three-year-old bringing his tearful mother his teddy bear to comfort her. Although toddlers are interested in other children, friends typically do not become important until the early school years, at which time children enter the peer group and establish dominance hierarchies, often based on physical strength, especially among boys. Typically during this time, boys and girls segregate themselves into same-sex play groups. In adolescence, the peer group becomes increasingly important (although the family rarely loses its influence), and, coupled with the onset of puberty, heterosexual interests and behavior commence.

Stages of Cognitive Development

Perhaps the crowning achievement of the sensori-motor period is the development of the idea that things exist independent of the child, even when the object is out of sight. This amazing new ability is called object permanence. According to Piaget, this knowledge (reflected in the toddler's continued search for an object even after it has been hidden) reflects an ability on the part of the child to form a mental representation of the object and thus allows the child to be able to think about the object without having to experience it via the senses or motor activity.

When the Children Cannot Yet Talk About Friendships

We define an affective relationship as one that includes feelings of affection or what would be called love in adult-child relationships. Toddler affective relationships have attributes of friendship common to the 'best friendships' which provide older children with emotional security and closeness (Howes, 1996 Howes, with Unger et al., 1992). These early friendship relationships appear to be formed in a way similar to adult-child attachment relationships (Howes, 1996). In the following section, we will examine supports for these assumptions about early friendship formation. In a similar manner to the research on structural complexity of peer interaction, the friendship studies began with the collection of observational data. Since toddler-age children cannot report on their friendships, we must use behaviors to distinguish friendship relationships from playmate relationships in prelinguistic children. This results in some discontinuity in research about friendships because later...

Friendship As Affective Relationships

Up until this point in this chapter we have been discussing how children construct social skills and peer group social structure. We have been (almost) acting as if all dyadic relationships within the peer group were interchangeable. That is that dyads are created at random and that every possible dyad in the classroom interacts in a similar manner. And this is, of course, not true. Even the earliest of studies of the construction of peer interaction among infants (Lee, 1973) noted that babies seemed to form early preferences. And sociometric inquiry rests on the premise of differential preferences within the peer group. But are early friendships affective relationships or merely preferences Friendships are relationships based on mutual support, affection, and companionship. School age children can articulate these qualities of friendship and tell an adult whether a friendship does or does not have these qualities. Infants and toddlers and even preschoolers do not have the verbal and...

Environmental Factors

In another study, Kochanska found support for Thomas and Chess's goodness-of-fit concept. Two different parent-child relationships when the children were toddlers predicted the development of conscience in children when they were five years old. Fearful children did better with mothers who used gentle discipline, while fearless toddlers did better with mothers who were very responsive. To Thomas and Chess, healthy development occurs when parents are able to work with a child's temperament and influence their child's reactions to the world. Socialization happens and parenting is important, but each parent-child relationship will be unique because each child is unique.

Dietary Interventions

Nutritional strategies beyond the toddler years focus on avoidance of obesity. A number of studies have evaluated the caloric requirements for individuals with PWS. Weight maintenance has been reported with intakes of 8-11 kcal cm day (non-PWS children require 11-14 kcal cm day) weight loss has been documented with intakes of 7 kcal cm day. Proper implementation of caloric restrictions requires

Caregiver Differences

We have been interested in whether and how parents adapt the strategies they use to help their toddlers modulate mild distress. We assume that parents, at least in part, mold the strategies they use with their infants and toddlers in response to changes in children's capacities to modulate distress. During the infant and toddler periods, numerous neurophysiological and cognitive changes occur which most certainly impact children's emotion regulation capacities. Neurophysiological development allows for more modulated reactions to stress (Stansbury & Gunnar, 1994), and increased control over arousal (Fox, 1994). The cognitive advances that, at least in part, stem from these neural maturations (including increased planfulness, voluntary attention, self-awareness, and understanding of causality) certainly contribute to developmental changes in the use of the emotion regulatory strategies described above (Kopp, 1989). Parents are able to capitalize on these changes in their attempts to...

Nonparental Contextual Characteristics

In distinguishing contextual influences on child temperament from influences of child temperament on context, one approach would be to look at aspects of the environment which are potentially less sensitive to the influence of child temperament. One such aspect is the physical environment the stage or setting on which social transactions between child and caregiver take place (Wohlwill & Heft, 1987). The extent to which a child's temperamental characteristics can act to influence dimensions of the physical environment, such as number of wall decorations or rooms to people ratio, is both less likely and less intuitively obvious. Rather, it is more likely that specified dimensions of the physical environment can act to influence child temperament characteristics. One such dimension is environmental chaos, which involves factors such as crowding (e.g., rooms to people ratio), and levels of nonhuman noise in the home. Several studies provide converging evidence of the importance of...

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV A new

Vaccine approved in 2000 to prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases in infants and toddlers, diseases that can cause brain damage and, in rare cases, death. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is not indicated for use in adults or as a substitute for other approved pneumococcal polysac-charide vaccines approved for high-risk children over age two. The previous pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) was not recommended for use in children under age two, who contract the most serious infections from this bacteria.

Overview of Cognitive Development

For example, some researchers are interested in changes during infancy, such as when a baby recognizes her caregivers, remembers simple events, and understands the language spoken around her. Some researchers examine toddlers to learn how young children progress in their use of language and their understanding of the perspectives of the people around them. The early school years are studied to learn how children become more sophisticated in their ability to solve problems and use their memories. Yet others are interested in the possible changes in academic performance of school-age children and adolescents when they transition from grade school to middle school or from middle school to high school.

The Developmental Onset of Memory

Although even very young infants can recognize sights, sounds, and smells they have previously encountered, the ability to recall an object or an experience develops later. Recall differs from recognition in that it requires coming up with a response as well as determining that it is correct. Some simple recall is present in the second half of the first year. As every babysitter knows, very young infants remain calm when their parents go out by around seven months of age, however, separation protest is apparent. By about nine months of age, babies can imitate an action after a twenty-four-hour delay. Note that early recall is heavily dependent on cues and is limited to relatively brief time intervals. Recall continues to develop over the second year of life, corresponding to the development of the prefrontal cortex and other brain structures associated with explicit memory. Between age two and two and a half, toddlers can be expected to remember to stay away from common hazards,...

Milestones Of Development Overview

Milestones of development are major turning points in childhood that help organize or direct other aspects of a child's development. Milestones occur in every area of development physical and motor, social and emotional, and cognitive. Almost everyone experiences these environmental (e.g., nutrition and culture) factors. Not reaching a milestone or an extreme variation in timing may have an influence on the child's later development. One example of a physical milestone is the development of the ability to walk. Walking, rather than crawling, opens up the toddler's physical and perceptual world. A major social-emotional milestone is the development of an attachment to a major caregiver during the infant's first year. Secure attachment has been found to promote the child's later social and cognitive development.

Your Childs Ability to Handle Emotion

One of the primary tasks of childhood is to learn to regulate emotional responses. For many children with AS-HFA, the process of emotional self-regulation is delayed and they are likely to need extra help learning to deal with strong emotions appropriately. For example, while most toddlers and many preschoolers regularly have tantrums when they are frustrated or don't get their way, by the time they enter elementary school most typically developing children have few or no tantrums. Older children and even adolescents with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome, on the other hand, may continue to have tantrums because they have not yet learned how to regulate their emotions. Obviously, this kind of behavior does not help them fit in socially and can be one of the causes of social rejection and isolation.

Few Key Termsand What They Mean

People with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome often appear not to understand other people's feelings or points of view, which makes their social interactions even more difficult. Often these abilities, natural to the rest of us, are delayed or do not develop at all. Empathy usually begins emerging in infancy, when young children start to show an interest in and a concern about the feelings of others. It's not uncommon in daycare centers to see babies break into sympathetic wails when another infant cries or to see toddlers bring a toy or an adult to a crying child in an attempt to comfort their peer. Preschoolers are fascinated by the moods of others and often talk about friends being angry or sad. In their pretend play, young children enact scenes in which characters are sick or upset, grappling with understanding such states and how to respond to them.

Reading disorder developmental See dyslexia

Receptive language disorder A condition in which a child may have trouble understanding certain aspects of speech, such as a toddler who does not respond to his name or the child who cannot follow simple directions. While hearing is normal, these children cannot make sense of certain sounds, words, or sentences. Because using and understanding speech are strongly related, many children with receptive language disorders also have an expressive language disorder. Some misuse of sounds, words, or grammar is a normal part of learning to speak. it is only when these problems persist that there is any cause for concern.

Antisocial Behavior

Antisocial behavior in children is associated with social impairment and psychological dysfunction, such as oppositional defiant disorders, conduct disorders, and antisocial personality disorders. These disorders often involve engaging in delinquent behavior, but they are far from synonymous with criminal activity. In preschoolers, antisocial behavior can include temper tantrums, quarreling with peers, and physical aggression (i.e., hitting, kicking, biting). Parents often report difficulties in handling and controlling the child. Comorbidity (visible problems that may not be the child's only problem) is often found because antisocial behavior is associated with hyperactivity, depression, and reading difficulties. Follow-up studies indicate that antisocial behavior in toddlers often decreases with age, as children learn to control their behavior or benefit from the intervention of professionals in the field. Individual differences dictate the tendency of children to engage in...

Animal Navigation

And third, it places relatively minor reliance on beacon navigation, the following of sensory cues from a goal or its immediate surroundings. Animals of widely diverse species locate a goal by the goal's position relative to the general framework provided by the mapped terrain (see Gallistel 1990, chap. 5, for review), not by the sensory characteristics of the goal or its immediate surroundings. Indeed, when the two are placed in conflict, the animal goes to the place having the correct position in the larger framework, not to the place having the correct sensory characteristics. For example, if a chimpanzee sees food hidden in one of two differently colored containers whose positions are then surreptitiously interchanged, the chimpanzee searches for the food in the container at the correct location rather than in the one with the correct color (Tinkelpaugh 1932). In human toddlers, position also takes precedence over the characteristics of the container. When a toddler is misoriented...


It is also possible that this age-related increase in flexibility in use of retrieval cues is accompanied by a similar increase in the range of reminders that are effective for memory reinstatement. Developments in children's ability to use reminders to reinstate event memories may help to explain why memories for events occurring after the age of 3 are more likely to be retained in very long-term autobiographic memory as compared to memories from the infant and toddler years. Results showed clear evidence of reinstatement. As shown in Figure 9.3, recall of unmodeled activities was higher in the train remind condition for both ages than in either of the other two conditions, indicating that a subset reminder effectively reinstated both 14- and 18-month-olds' memory for all of the activities. (As expected, recall of modeled activities was high for both the train reminder and no train remind conditions, indicating that children were capable of deferred imitation.). This indicated that...


In the previous experiment, we showed children video reminders that did not include action information. What would the effects be if we showed them video reminders with different actions This is another way of varying the amount of information presented in a reminder. By including new information, we examined the effects of modifications in event information on reinstatement. This is an important manipulation to investigate because it may be more similar to the types of reminders that are encountered in real-world contexts. In this experiment, we tested whether reminders that contained some new information could successfully reinstate toddlers' event memories and whether new object or new action information would differentially affect children. Results from our experiments using subset reenactment, subset modeling, and partial (object only) information indicated that toddlers' memories could be reinstated by exposure to partial event information. The partial information (objects only)...


Hoffman has proposed a developmental theory of empathy that has at least four stages. In the first stage, emotional contagion, an infant will cry upon hearing the cries of another. At this stage, it is not clear whether the infant can distinguish who is in distress. The next stage emerges in the second year when a toddler, who can differentiate between self and other, will express egocentric empathy. Upon hearing the cry of another, the toddler will provide help that he himself would find comforting, such as offering his own favorite toy. The third stage appears in the third year as the child begins to take the perspective of another and can offer help that the other might need. Finally, in middle childhood, the fourth stage is achieved the child realizes that he and others are independent persons whose emotions may be tied to their unique history of past events.

Lead Toxicity

Rick Nevin believes that lead poisoning accounts for much of the violent crime in the United States (Washington Post, July 8, 2007). Exposure to lead as a child correlates with violent behavior later in life, according to studies of the association between lead poisoning and crime rates in nine different countries. Sixty-five to ninety percent or more of the substantial variation in violent crime in all these countries is explained by lead. Lead in U.S. paint and gasoline fumes has exposed toddlers to lead toxicity because they put their contaminated hands in their mouths. He believes that lead toxicity is not the only factor leading to crime, but is a big factor.


Infant Toddler Early Childhood Infant Toddler Early Childhood HOME is designed to assess the quality and quantity of stimulation and support available to children in the home environment (Caldwell & Bradley, 2003). There are four versions of the inventory The Infant-Toddler version is designed for children from birth to age 3, the Early Childhood version for children age 3 to 6, the Middle Childhood version for children from age 6 to 10, and the Early Adolescent version for children age 10 to 14 (see Bradley, 1994, and Bradley, Corwyn, & Whiteside-Mansell, 1996, for reviews). Table 20.1 includes a list of the subscales from these four inventories. In a series of studies done in the late 1970s and early 1980s, we found that scores on the Infant-Toddler and Early Childhood versions of HOME consistently showed positive correlations with cognitive and language development from infancy through the early school years (Bradley & Caldwell, 1976a, 1976b, 1979b, 1980a, 1982, 1984b Elardo,...

The Very Young Child

For toddlers and preschool-age children, begin with just the essential details. You can use dolls or stuffed animals to help the child understand your illness. This play technique has been found to be effective with young children. You may also use words that they understand, such as boo-boo, rather than more technical terms. ting without too many distractions. You may not be able to explain all that you have in mind in one sitting. That is fine it is best to not go beyond your child's attention span. If you need to stop because your toddler's attention has wandered or your preschooler is squirming, then bring up the subject at another time when you think she or he is ready to hear more. Remember that children in this age group may not fully comprehend or recall even the simplest details, so be prepared to repeat yourself several times. You can also anticipate that whatever you tell your child will probably be repeated to others possibly inaccurately.

Activity Level

Activity level refers to the relative amounts of motor behavior produced by children and includes everything from a toddler's first steps to a middle-school child's skillful soccer playing. Activity level is measured in a number of ways, ranging from parental observations to computer analysis. Regardless of how it is measured, activity level is usually related to other factors, such as gender, age, and individual differences. Boys are usually more active than girls, and rates of movement are generally the highest between the ages of seven and nine. A child's relative periods of activity and inactivity have been viewed as a stable feature of temperament, suggesting that active infants may become active children, and active children may become extroverted adults. If very high levels of activity accompany poor concentration, disorganization, an inability to ''sit still,'' high levels of distracta-bility, impulsiveness, and little sustained attention, then a diagnosis of hyperactivity...

Effects of Day Care

This study examined the prevalence of each quality level. For preschool-aged children, only 24 percent of the day-care center classrooms were of high quality, 66 percent were mediocre quality, and 10 percent were low quality. For infants and toddlers, only 8 percent of the classrooms were of high quality, 52 percent were mediocre quality, and a full 40 percent were low quality. In a separate study of family day cares, only 9 percent provided good quality care, and a full 35 percent provided care that was potentially harmful to children's development. The effects of day care on children's health and safety vary by the quality of the setting and the attention paid to these issues. Because their immune systems are not yet fully functional, infants and toddlers are more susceptible to illnesses than older children. Infectious diseases (mainly upper respiratory and gastrointestinal) are higher among children in family day care and day-care centers than among children cared for in their own...

Sign Languages

Language deficits are the most serious consequence of hearing impairment. The effects of deafness on language development are complex. Hearing loss may vary across the range of frequencies. Children with severe or profound hearing loss generally have greater difficulty learning language. Children ''who are born deaf, or who become deaf in the first year of life, have considerably more difficulty in developing language than do children whose deafness is acquired later in life'' (Harris 1992, p. 96). Their opportunities as infants for turn-taking talk with significant caregivers are limited. Hearing parents use far fewer signs with them than the number of words used by hearing parents of hearing infants. Deaf toddlers of hearing parents cannot carry on extended conversations nor can they ask for clarifications, repetitions, or confirmations to repair frustrating communication breakdowns. The majority of deaf youngsters do not receive infant intervention and early exposure to ASL. When...

Michelle D Leichtman

Current perspectives acknowledge the infant as a creature prepared from birth to begin processing and organizing incoming information in meaningful ways (e.g., Mandler, 1992 Bauer, Wiebe, Carver, Waters, & Nelson, 2003). In stark contrast, early developmental theorists perceived the capacity of infants to make sense of the environment and to meaningfully encode events as quite impoverished (James, 1950 Mandler, 1992). From this standpoint, early experiences would have little chance of enduring in memory for later conscious retrieval. Thus, most early work on infant memory development focused exclusively on short-term processes, with retention intervals under several minutes (Bornstein & Sigman, 1986 McCall, 1979 Werner & Perlmutter, 1979). Modern methodologies created for the study of infants and toddlers have revealed relatively more sophisticated cognition during these early periods, and have inspired researchers to rethink the potential for early long-term memory (e.g.,...

Good Continuation

Although there has been a historical tradition among scholars of cognitive development to consider the ability to form category representations to be an achievement of childhood (Bruner, Olver, & Greenfield, 1966 Vygotsky, 1962), more modern work has focused on the abilities of infants and toddlers to respond categorically to common object types (Cohen & Strauss, 1979 Mandler & McDonough, 1993 Mervis, 1987 Oakes, Madole, & Cohen, 1991 Quinn & Eimas, 1996b Waxman & Markow, 1995 Xu & Carey, 1996 Younger, 1990). The chapter will now consider the evidence on categorization by these younger participants, with emphasis on studies of categorization of realistic photographic exemplars of animals and artifacts conducted with 3- to 4-month-olds in the author's laboratory. Particular issues of current contention include exemplar versus prototype storage of category information in memory, the perceptual versus conceptual basis for early object categories, and the relative roles of learning...


Children seem to be in a precarious position in the contemporary global dieting culture. Threatened with rising rates of obesity and related diseases (Wilfley and Saelens 2002), young people, from toddlers to teens, must wrestle with body image in a culture that worships slender-ness. Much is being done in schools and homes to reduce obesity numbers in children (Goldfield and Epstein 1995 573-7) however, the preoccupation with preventing overweight may distract parents and doctors from the equally important problems of body-image disturbance and dieting behaviors in children and adolescents.

Clinical History

Infants with PWS exhibit decreased fetal movement, weak cry, neonatal hypotonia, genital hypoplasia (cryptorchidism and clitoral hypoplasia), and failure to thrive (due to hypotonia and poor feeding). Toddlers with PWS acquire major motor milestones later than controls (walk at 24 months). Hyperphagia becomes evident between 18 months and 7 years of age. The majority of patients with PWS have growth hormone deficiency with short stature manifest during childhood and lack of a pubertal growth spurt. Individuals with PWS have an elevated pain threshold and vomiting threshold, with reports of delayed diagnoses of fractures, appendicitis, and gastroenteritis with significant morbidity. Obesity-related comorbid-ities, including sleep apnea, diabetes, and cor pulmo-nale, will shorten life expectancy without aggressive interventions. Behavioral problems, including obsessive-compulsive behavior (skin picking and rectal digging), stubbornness, and food foraging (including garbage and frozen...

Telling siblings

A diagnosis of cancer is traumatic for siblings. Family life is disrupted, time with parents decreases, and a large amount of attention is paid to the ill child. Brothers and sisters need as much knowledge as their sick sibling. Information provided should be age appropriate, and all questions should be answered honestly. Siblings should understand that they did not give this disease to their brother or sister and that it is not contagious. Siblings can be extremely cooperative if they understand the changes that will occur in the family and their role in helping the family cope. However, parents may see behavior changes such as jealousy, regression (bed wetting in potty-trained toddlers), guilt (thinking that they caused their siblings illness), school problems, and symptoms of illness to gain attention. Maintaining open communication about feelings helps siblings continue to feel loved and secure. Chapter 16, Siblings, explores sibling issues in detail and contains many suggestions...


The decision to wean should be based on the desires and needs of the mother and child. Weaning should be gradual. Women returning to work can pump and store their milk for later use. Solid foods should be given based on the age and developmental stage of the child. In some countries, many toddlers become malnourished because they are given too many high carbohydrate foods, such as cassava, potatoes, and other root vegetables, too early. These foods are filling, but they are low in protein and other nutrients essential for growth and development.

How to Apply

Parents should look for a sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher, and for an SPF 15 lip balm for face and hands the waxy form stays on and does not sting or taste bad. Toddlers can apply it themselves. Do a patch test by applying a small amount of sunscreen on the inside of a child's wrist the day before it is going to be used all over. If irritation or rash develops, ask a physician to recommend a nonirritating alternative.


Mainstreaming is the original term used for the requirement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that children with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Under IDEA, states must assure that, to the maximum extent appropriate, children ages three to twenty-one who have disabilities have access to the general education curriculum and are educated with children without disabilities (for infants and toddlers, early intervention services must be provided in natural environments where age peers are typically found).

Temper Tantrums

Tantrums consistent with normal toddler development reflect a striving for emotional independence and limited expressive language skills during frustrating events. Other contributing factors include the child's temperament. Intense, persistent children, shy, fearful children, and those with frequent episodes of stranger anxiety are more likely to experience tantrums. A delay in language development, hearing impairment, and disorders of the central nervous system may limit coping strategies and lead to tantrums.


Co-parenting includes the ways parents support or undermine their partner's parenting and how parents manage their relationship in the presence of their children, whether in intact or divorced families. The study of co-parenting addresses the question of how interactions between family members affect children's development. Focus is on the mutual investment and engagement of parents in child rearing. Co-parenting is somewhat, but not completely, influenced by the quality of the parents' relationship with each other. Through methods including observations of family interactions and parental self-report, researchers study different aspects of co-parenting, including hostility-competition warmth between parents, responsiveness, and cooperation communication, conflict, help, and support. Research demonstrates that co-parenting affects children's development during the toddler, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescent years. For example, parents' hostility and competition around child...

Growth Rate

Generally, children double their birth weight by five months of age, triple it by twelve months, and quadruple it by twenty-four months. During the toddler years growth stabilizes by around five years, and children grow in height faster than in weight. Steady growth continues from seven to ten years of age. Gains in the thickness of fat tissue are greater in girls during this time because girls tend to reach puberty before boys. Adolescence and the onset of puberty bring another rapid growth spurt. In girls puberty typically occurs between eleven and fourteen years of age. In boys the growth spurt may begin at age twelve or thirteen, peak at fourteen, and end at age eighteen or nineteen. Generally, growth in boys is more rapid and lasts longer, and more muscle mass is gained. Growth potential is strongly influenced by genetics and through maintenance of proper health and nutrition.


Television's introduction was accompanied by excitement and optimism, followed almost immediately by criticisms and concerns about its impact on children's development. Critics linked television to every ill effect from hyperactive toddlers to violent youth, prompting consideration of regulations for children's television. Regulations have varied over the years and have come to focus on requirements for educational programming, limitations on commercial time in children's programming, and implementation of a content rating system. Changes in regulations have been fueled not only by political shifts but also by ongoing research on children's use of television and television's influences on children's development.


According to Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, egocentrism is the tendency of children to cognize their environment only in terms of their own point of view. Piaget theorized that the degree of ego-centrism is directly related to the child's level of cognitive development. In the infant stage (birth to age two) children are just learning to recognize and interact with the environment and are thus completely egocentric. In the toddler and preschool stages (ages two to six) children are able to represent the world to themselves in symbols and images but are unable to distinguish their point of view from that of others. In the middle childhood stage (ages six to twelve) children develop greater cognitive abilities and therefore have declining levels of egocentrism and are able to visualize a situation from another's point of view. In the adolescent stage (ages twelve to nineteen) egocen-trism further declines as individuals develop the ability for fully abstract thought and...


Used to describe the social behavior of infants and young toddlers who have not yet developed certain rudimentary social-cognitive and social-emotional capabilities. In contrast, as children approach adolescence, the failure to balance powerful self-interests (e.g., autonomy, material gain, emotional gratification, social superiority) with the interests of others can increasingly be attributed to weak integrative motives (e.g., lack of concern for others' welfare or norms of social responsibility).


2 Autonomy and shame doubt are the conflicts of toddler-hood. This is where the child begins to develop a sense of will. How the parents handle this is crucial. The ideal is that will is allowed expression but not to the extent that it is wilful. It has to be within socially acceptable limits. Like all other aspects of parenting, this is a delicate balance to achieve.


When an infant or toddler is confronted with strangers, either adults or children, an initial reaction of reticence and withdrawal is generally accepted and understood. Being cautious with strangers, animal or human, served for millions of years as a built-in safety device and was advantageous for survival. But from age three or four onward, most parents in modern societies like to see their children overcome their natural inhibitory tendencies soon after being introduced to other people. Cultures differ in their acceptance of shyness. In the United States, having an outgoing personality is highly valued, and thus parents worry when their child is socially inhibited by temperament, fearful when confronted by strangers, says as little as possible when in the company of unfamiliar people, and prefers playing alone. In other cultures, such as in Sweden, shy, reserved behavior is preferred to bold, attention-getting behavior, and consequently shyness is seen as less of a problem. In both...

Provocation Tests

Problems with capsules Capsules are unsuitable for use in children who cannot swallow large capsules, and this is a major limitation as most cases of suspected food allergy are in infants and toddlers. Furthermore, it is unsatisfactory to allow patients or parents to break open capsules and mix the contents with food or drink, as the color (e.g., tartrazine) or

Subject Index

Narrative skill), 230-231, 230t social interactionist theoretical framework, 215, 216 language development as communication development, 217-219 study (conversing with toddlers about the nonpresent), 222, 222t social support trust intimacy experiences, 147 as a way to engage with children unlike the self, 148 as a way to learn how to engage with peers, 147-148 future directions, 148-149 learning to interact infants and toddlers complementary and reciprocal play, 138 contextual deficiencies in early research, 136-137 current research theory, 137-138 ethological methods, 138 Peer Play Scale, 138 shared meanings construction toddlers and preschoolers, 138-140 complex social pretend play, 139 cooperative social pretend play, 138-139 social structures within peer groups, 140-143 adult influences on, 142-143 as a form of cultural community, 141 friendships as affective relationships, 143-144 natural variations in, 141-142 sociometric nominations rating, 140 Perceptual organization and...

Car seat knowhow

The two types of car seats for infants are infant-only seats and convertible seats, which accommodate both babies and toddlers. Whichever type you use, be sure to install it rear-facing, which is the only safe position for infants in cars. When your child reaches 1 year of age and weighs at least 20 pounds or more, depending on the car seat model, you can switch to a bigger car seat or turn around the convertible seat so that the child faces the front. Until that time, a baby's neck muscles aren't very strong. In a collision, a forward-facing baby is at greater risk of head and neck injuries because the head may be thrown forward.

Risk Factors

Influencing development in children's lives requires a societal commitment to the prevention and rehabilitation of developmental disabilities. In 1997, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) amendments (PL 105-17) re-established the right to a free and appropriate education for all school-age children, regardless of their disability. Additionally, the federal government provides financial assistance to states for the development of early intervention programs for infants and toddlers with known developmental delays or disabilities and their families. At each state's discretion, infants and toddlers considered at risk for developmental disabilities may be enrolled in early intervention programs. Early intervention programs are a system of therapeutic and educational programs that work with an infant or young child, from birth to age three, and their family to prevent or minimize adverse developmental outcomes for that child. An infant-toddler specialist typically...

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is characterized by an intense emotional reaction on the part of a young child to the departure of a person with whom the child has established an emotional attachment. Signs of separation anxiety, such as crying when the caregiver prepares to leave, typically emerge around six to eight months when infants have formed a representation of their caretakers as reliable providers of comfort and security. Distress reactions peak around fourteen to twenty months at which time toddlers may follow or cling to


The work described here is limited in a number of respects and only begins to scratch the surface of children's abilities to tell different kinds of stories. As is true of the vast bulk of spontaneous-language based research, the dyads studied here were primarily from white, English-speaking, middle-class families. Data on parent-child conversations in low-income and racial ethnic minority families are woefully scarce, and for the most part have not been analyzed from a pragmatic perspective we know little about the early language experiences of children in such families and how those experiences may be related to narrative and other discourse skills children bring to kindergarten. Greater depth of information is also needed about the naturally-occurring fantasy talk of children from all backgrounds in interaction with peers and siblings, and in small group as well as dyadic contexts. Mother-child verbal interaction, though indisputably important, is only one of many communicative...

Childhood Obesity

There have always been overweight children. Historically, chubby babies and toddlers were more likely to survive infections and contagious diseases, and overweight children and family members were often signs of affluence and financial security in a community. Thus, in some cultures, overweight was a valued body type.

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