Step By Step Guide To Turning Down Tinnitus

Tinnitus Reduction Program

Andrew Parr, a Tinnitus Cure Researcher and practicing therapist, has been successfully treating Tinnitus patients for many years and hes happy to share with you how he does it. He has revealed exactly what he does with a step by step guide so you can begin to eliminate Tinnitus from your life, starting Today. Its entirely natural and safe, and you already have all the tools necessary to make this work, allowing you to turn down that sound at last! The No 1 Mind-Training Programme That Will, Reduce, Relieve And (In Many Cases) Even Cure Your Tinnitus, Ringing Ears and Ear Noise Symptoms, Starting Today Discover the powerful Trp techniques that will immediately help focus your attention from the sound. Find out how 73% of people were able to make their tinnitus disappear completely during clinical trials and how you can do the same. Switch to a new way of thinking that will retain your brain to turn down the sound permanently and finally allow you to get back on with your life again, starting Today.

Tinnitus Reduction Program Summary


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Author: Andrew Parr

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I started using this ebook straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

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Tinnitus Cure

With Tinnitus Cure youll learn: Exactly what tinnitus is are you suffering from it or something else? Whether or not you have tinnitus and whether or not you should visit your doctor for this frustrating condition. What causes tinnitus do you know that there are many, many things that can cause the symptom tinnitus? Here, youll learn what causes this symptom so you can determine what most likely caused yours. Self-Help what you can do to reduce your tinnitus symptoms and live a more normal life. Natural cures for tinnitus are there really natural remedies that can help cure your tinnitus? There are and youre going to learn exactly what they are in this package.

Tinnitus Cure Summary

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Price: $37.00

The Representation Of Tinnitus On The Auricle

Tinnitus can have many different causes, but is most commonly associated with hearing loss due to exposure to noise, Meniere's disease, ototoxic medication, etc. Many people experience chronic tinnitus (at least 10 in the Western world) and it is therefore possible that they might seek remedy through acupuncture when conventional treatment has proven ineffective. Systematic reviews of the literature,58 however, based on evidence derived from rigorous randomized controlled trials, converge on the equal ineffi-cacy of acupuncture for this complaint. It is therefore important for the practitioner to be cautious about treating a patient with acupuncture alone, and outside a cognitive-behavioral program, even in those cases presenting one or more auricular tender points. I tried, for example, to treat the tender points located in 10 patients with chronic tinnitus (5 males and 5 females, average age 61.8 years) (on the right of Fig. 5.32). Despite the number of tender points identified (on...

Epidemiology Of Tinnitus

It has been found through epidemiologic studies that although chronic tinnitus is quite common and is found in both men and women, young and old, it is typically the elderly male who has spent a lifetime working in an industrial job who is most commonly diagnosed with tinnitus (1), pp. 16-41 . Interestingly, across multiple epidemiologic studies from different countries, the prevalence of tinnitus shows a strong correlation with level of hearing loss. The more severe the hearing loss, the stronger is the perception of tinnitus. Although there is also a direct correlation with increasing age, male sex, lower income, lower education, and poor overall health status (1), pp. 16-41 , surveys of the available literature suggest that once hearing level is accounted for, the above correlations are no longer as strong.


In 1987, a report was published suggesting a link between reduced zinc status and Intermittent head noises in people suffering with tinnitus (Gersdorff et al 1987). This has been further investigated in several studies however, the poorly defined patient groups and use of serum zinc as the means of measuring zinc status makes interpretation of results difficult to assess. In 1991 Paaske et al reported the results of a randomised, double-blind study of 48 patients with tinnitus that had failed to find a significant effect on symptoms with sustained-release zinc sulfate tablets. Of note, only one subject had low zinc serum levels. More recently, a study of 111 subjects aged 20-59 years found individuals with tinnitus who had normal hearing had significantly lower serum zinc levels than controls, whereas zinc levels were normal for those with accompanying hearing loss (Ochi et al 2003). In addition, a significant correlation between average hearing sensitivity and serum zinc level was...

Objective Tinnitus

Objective tinnitus is a physical sound that emanates from the body, such as pulsing blood flow through the great vessels in the neck or tetanic contractions of the stapedius muscle on the tympanic membrane. With a stethoscope, microphone, or just the unaided ear, an observer can sometimes hear an objective tinnitus. Objective sounds in the head are relatively rare. In objective tinnitus, etiologies can be separated in terms of whether the tinnitus is pulsatile or nonpulsatile. Pulsatile tinnitus has a rhythmic repeating periodicity. Pulsatile tinnitus can have a musculoskeletal, vascular, or respiratory etiology. Most of the cases of objective tinnitus are local in origin, such as musculoskeletal activity from the stapedius muscle, tensor tympani muscle spasms in the middle ear, or myoclonus of the palate (Table 1). Vascular causes such as arteriovenous shunts, glomus tumors, high-riding dehiscent jugular bulbs, aberrant carotid arteries, persistent stapedial arteries, and...

Subjective Tinnitus

In contrast to objective tinnitus, subjective tinnitus appears to be an inappropriate activation of the auditory system. At some point in the multilink pathway of translation of sound pressure waves in the air to neural code in the brain, there is activity that is not normally present. The higher centers in the brain interpret this inappropriate activity as a sound, despite the absence of a true sound stimulus. It appears that there can be triggers for the inappropriate activity anywhere along the chain of structures in the auditory system. Perhaps the most common cause of tinnitus is not a systemic disease, but a local one hearing loss. It is theorized (4) that autoregulatory mechanisms in the auditory system trying to compensate for the hearing loss are overactive resulting in generation of signals that the higher cortical auditory centers interpret as sound. The sound sensations in subjective tinnitus are quite varied but are commonly described as buzzing, ringing, hissing, or...

Clinical Manifestations

Tongue Papillae Swollen

Every sensory system has an inhibitory system, and in the cranial nerves, the inhibitory fibers traverse the ganglion. Decreased function of the ganglion cells cause hypofunction, whereas loss of inhibition creates a hyperactive state such as intolerance to light, sound, and touch. Photophobia results from reduction in the number of inhibitory impulses reaching the optic nerve phonophobia results from reduction in the number of such impulses reaching the auditory nerve. To emphasize the similarity of symptoms associated with loss of inhibition at different nerve sites, this discussion will refer to phonophobia in place of hyperacusis and will refer to somatophobia in place of hyperesthesia (8). The most visible clinical manifestation of herpetic polyganglionitis is Bell's palsy, a condition which commonly affects the trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagal, vestibular-cochlear, and cervical nerves (9). Otherwise-healthy patients affected with this condition present with a one-sided facial...

The Representation Of The Ear On The

Barbiturate Overdose Rash

Fig. 5.32 Clusters of tender points in 47 workers with hearing loss due to exposure to noise (left image) (with permission of Mazzini) distribution of tender points in 10 patients (average age 61.8 years) with chronic tinnitus (right image). numbers 1 and 2). In following order we can find the sensitization of the whole tragus in 16.8 and a concentration of tender points in the superior concha on sectors 18-20 in 10.5 (on the left of Fig. 5.32, numbers 3 and 4). These two minor areas seem to correspond partially to Nogier's internal ear and to Chinese kidney and pancreas-gallbladder areas. The relationship between kidney and ear is well known by practitioners introduced to TCM, but it must be stressed that both areas, according to the Chinese standardization, hold a double indication for hypacusis and tinnitus.

Diagnosing Otosyphillis

The diagnosis of AIED is made by a combination of the clinical presentation, audiometric testing (including test of vestibular function), laboratory evaluation, and response to immunosuppressive therapy. The clinical presentation is by far the most important of these parameters. Some patients note a preceding viral infection, although this is not always apparent. Patients typically present with fluctuating bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, which is progressive over several weeks, with or without vestibular symptoms. In some cases, hearing loss and tinnitus develop unilaterally without contralateral symptoms, thereby confounding the diagnosis. When followed, these patients may develop contralateral symptoms over time, although some do not.

Ivclinical Indications

Extract is much more recent and results from research inspired not by traditional medicine but linked instead to the development of pharmacology. A first extract was marketed in 1965 in Germany by Dr. Willmar Schwabe Company. EGb 761 was first registered in France in 1974 and sold in 1975 by Institut Ipsen (now Ipsen Pharma) under the trademark Tanakan and in Germany as Rokan by Intersan in 1978 and as Tebonin forte by Dr. Willmar Schwabe Company in 1982. Its first therapeutic indications involved circulatory disturbances. More recently, the therapeutic effects that have been studied most are those affecting the psychobehavioral disorders associated with aging. These include cognitive disturbances, such as age-related memory disorders (grouped together today as mild cognitive impairment, MCI), or dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. Whether these various indications (Alzheimer's disease, in particular), are included in the approved indications varies from country to country. EGb 761...

Neurochemical Mechanisms Of Acupuncture Analgesia

The neurochemical mechanisms of needling provide analgesia (pain relief) promote homeosta-sis and tissue healing improve the immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular system, and endocrine system and promote psychologic adjustment for systemic integration. The integrated nature of these mechanisms explains why problems as different as asthma, tinnitus, irritable bowel, and gastric ulcers are all improved in the course of needling treatment for pain management. Needling therapy restores the body's control system and promotes self-healing through a systemic integration that is suppressed during disease or injury.

Head and Neck Manifestations

Neuro-otologic manifestations of sarcoidosis are rare and occur in less than 1 of patients. Symptoms include sudden, asymmetric, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness, and dizziness. A diagnosis of neuro-otologic sarcoidosis is generally inferred from evidence of sarcoidosis in other tissue (39).

Herpes Zoster Oticus Varicella Zoster Chicken

Incidence of facial nerve involvement. Herpes zoster oticus, also termed Ramsay Hunt syndrome, is a specific subset of varicella-zoster reactivation. Patients with herpes zoster oticus present with the classic triad of otalgia, auricular vesicles, and facial paralysis. Patients may also develop other cranial neuropathies, as well as hyperacusis and sensorineural hearing loss. In fact, facial nerve involvement is so common with varicella-zoster reactivation that it remains second only to Bell's palsy as the most common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis in the United States.

Middle Ear Barotrauma

Acute middle ear infection causes sudden, severe earache, deafness, ringing of the ear (tinnitus), sense of fullness in the ear, and fever. occasionally, the eardrum can burst, which causes a discharge of pus and relief of pain. Parents may notice a baby or young child suffering cold with thick discharge, irritability, pulling or tugging at the ear, crying in the middle of the night, shaking his head, and exhibiting poor appetite. There may be fluid draining from the ear, although this is not always the case. A low fever is common. The worst symptom is ear pain.

Vogt KoyanagiHarada Disease

Other head and neck symptoms may consist of tinnitus, vertigo, scalp sensitivity, and dysacousia. These symptoms, together with meningismus and headache, most frequently characterize the prodromal stage of VKH. Prodromal findings may also include low-grade fever, nausea, and vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis often reveals a lymphocytic pleo-cytosis indicative of meningeal inflammation. Other stages include the acute uveitic stage, the chronic stage when depigmentation occurs, and the chronic recurrent stage, characterized

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Crocodile Drug Before And After

(10,11) has uncommonly been reported to occur in SLE patients, as well as those with antiphospholipid antibodies. Case reports have suggested that inflammatory, autoimmune, or vasculitic mechanisms may play a role, but the precise pathophysiology involved remains obscure (12). Tinnitus may be a common symptom in lupus patients, with or without hearing loss (13). Rarely, nasal and auricular chondritis may be seen in patients with lupus (14). Spontaneous jugular vein thrombosis has very rarely been reported to occur in patients with discoid lupus and antiphospholipid antibodies (15). Central nervous system manifestations in SLE patients will occur from time to time, but a discussion of these events is beyond the scope of this chapter. It is important to note, however, that not all central nervous system events that take place in SLE patients can be due to the SLE itself a diligent search for an infectious agent or hemorrhagic or thrombotic event should always be undertaken when an SLE...

Complications And Prognosis

When syphilis is treated early, the prognosis is excellent. Primary and secondary disease treated appropriately with penicillin G has shown an 89 to 95 cure rate with initial therapy (20). Of those who fail to improve, most will respond to a second treatment. Late syphilis typically can be halted from further progression, although existing neurologic and cardiovascular injury cannot be reversed. Scarring from prior destructive mucocutaneous lesions will also remain, to varying degrees. Due to T. pallidum's ability to access tissues that are less immune-accessible, such as the eye, ear, and CNS, infection may remain in these sites even after adequate treatment. However, this persistent, sequestered infection usually produces no manifestations unless the host is immunocompromised. Data regarding the otologic response to treatment are mixed, but the trend across studies suggests that approximately 15 to 35 will gain at least some improvement with a combination of antibiotic and steroid...

The clinical of VHL disease

VHL patient can also have low-grade adenocarcinomas of the temporal bone, also known as endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST), pancreatic tumor, and epididymal or board ligament cystadenomas (Gruber et al., 1980 Neumann and Wiestler, 1991 Maher et al., 2004 Kaelin et al., 2007). ELST in VHL cases can be detected by MRI or CT imaging in up to 11 of patients (Manski TJ, et al., 1997). Although often asymptomatic, the most frequent clinical presentation is hearing loss (mean age 22 years), but tinnitus and vertigo also occur in many cases. In addition to the inherited risk for developing cancer, VHL patients develop cystic disease in various organs including the kidney, pancreas, and liver (Hough et al., 1994 Lubensky et al., 1998 Maher et al., 1990b Maher, 2004).

Hearing problems genetic 239

Cogan's syndrome This condition involves an inflammation of the cornea that also can damage new bone formation around the round window and destroy the organ of Corti and cochlear nerve cells, leading to vertigo, tinnitus, and severe sen-sorineural hearing loss. Treatment with steroids is often effective in suppressing disease activity in some patients, drugs may be tapered off and stopped, while others require maintenance-level treatment.

Different Mechanisms Of Action Of Bioactive Constituents

Observed effects may be the sum total of different classes of compounds having diverse mechanisms of action. The most widely used herbal medicine in Germany and Western countries is Gingko biloba (see Chapter 7). It is prescribed for ''brain dysfunction and to improve memory and cognition. In randomized placebo-controlled trials, the herb has been shown to improve memory impairment, cognitive performance, dementia, tinnitus, and intermittent claudication (9-11). The bioactive components of gingko are believed to include flavonoids and unique diterpenes called ginkolides. Gingkolides are potent inhibitors of the actions of platelet-activating factors, which are important for platelet activation and clotting (12). In addition, gingko

Downsides White Willow

Salicylates tannins (AHP, 1997). Commission E reports for oral use of bark, contraindications, adverse effects, and interactions on theoretical grounds similar to those of the salicylates (AEH). (All plants contain salicylates.) In view of the lack of toxicological data, excessive use, especially during lactation and pregnancy, should be avoided. Individuals with aspirin hypersen-sitivity, asthma, diabetes, gastrosis, gout, hemophilia, hepatosis, hypothrombinaemia, nephrosis, and peptic ulcers should be cautious with salicylates. Alcohol, barbiturates, and oral sedatives may potentiate salicylate toxicity. Beware of salicylate interaction with oral anticoagulants, methotrex-ate, metoclopramide, phenytoin, pronebecid, spironolactone, and valproate. Salicylates excreted in breast milk reportedly can cause macular rashes in breast-fed babies. Salicylate toxicity may cause dermatosis, gastrosis, hematochezia, nausea, nephrosis, tinnitus, and vomiting (CAN). Excessive use of the...

Effects on the Central Nervous System

The observation that sensitive subjects are more likely to have trembling hands is considered to be a CNS effect and not a direct effect on muscle. Caffeine doses higher than 15mgkg_1 induce headaches, jitteriness, nervousness, restlessness, irritability, tinnitus, muscle twitchings, and palpitations. These symptoms of chronic excessive caffeine intake are part of the criteria used to make the diagnosis of caffeinism. The same symptoms have been reported in adults on abrupt cessation of caffeine use.

Ginkgo Ginkgo Bloba

Ginkgo biloba is the top-selling herb in the United States. It has been used for a variety of medical conditions including asthma, deafness, and male impotence (68). It is predominantly used currently for the treatment of dementia, memory impairment, symptomatic peripheral vascular disease, and tinnitus. It is thought to have a number of biological effects including increasing blood flow, inhibiting platelet-activating factor, altering neuronal metabolism, and working as an antioxidant (69). Owing to its effect on blood flow and fluidity, ginkgo has also been used for the treatment of tinnitus. Current evidence does not support its use for this indication (76). Limited preliminary evidence does exist for the use of ginkgo for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (77) and sudden deafness (78).


The main drawback of ibuprofen is that it can cause serious gastrointestinal distress, including ulcers, gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and so forth. Other possible side effects that may occur include headaches, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and dizziness. These side effects usually don't occur except with high doses over a long period, but some people are more sensitive than others and may develop problems sooner.

Endocrine System

Disorders of the endocrine system can appear with tinnitus, although the mechanism is sometimes unclear. Addison's disease can present with hyperacusis, a condition closely related to tinnitus (8). Hyperacusis is a subjective sensitivity to sound where people find sounds of intensities typical in the world to be uncomfortable. Approximately 50 of people with tinnitus have hyperacusis. Hypothyroidism can present with tinnitus (3), p. 32 . There may be a link between subclinical depression, hypothyroidism, and tinnitus. As described above, the hyperdynamic cardiac state that appears in pregnancy can result in a pulsatile objective tinnitus however, the hormonal changes that occur with pregnancy and premenstrually also appear to have an influence on the auditory system and can trigger the common subjective tinnitus sensations. Paraneoplastic syndrome was first described by Moersch (9). In this syndrome, malignant tumors manifest antibody sites against which immune responses are...

Bells Palsy

Bell's palsy is characterized by a sudden onset of facial paresis or paralysis. Bell's palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis worldwide, with an incidence of up to 30 cases per 100,000 individuals (33). It may be associated with facial numbness, otalgia, hyperacusis, decreased tearing, or taste changes. Other neurologic symptoms should be absent because Bell' s palsy remains a diagnosis of exclusion.

Pseudotumor Cerebri

Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by elevated intracranial pressure without hydrocephalus occurring in the absence of intracranial masses or CSF outflow obstruction. It was first recognized by Quiricke in 1897 (111). Typically, middle-aged women are affected and present with headache, visual disturbances, and pulsatile tinnitus. Cranial nerve palsies are common, with the abducens nerve most often affected, in as many as 60 of cases (111). An association between pseudotumor cerebri and facial nerve paralysis, either unilateral or bilateral, has also been reported in the literature. In a 1996 review, 14 cases of facial palsy in patients with pseudotumor cerebri were identified. Of the 14 cases, three were bilateral and 11 were unilateral. In 13 of the 14 cases, facial paralysis resolved with correction of the elevated intracranial pressure (112). The likely mechanism of facial involvement is traction on the extra axial facial nerve. Treatment is...

Head and Neck

Central Pain Syndrome Mayo Clinic

Ear pain, nystagmus, dizziness, hearing loss, and tinnitus Audiovestibular Manifestations. Ear pain may be due to involvement of the tympanic artery and may be associated with inner ear disease. Patients may develop dizziness with nystagmus and hearing loss, which may be profound. These symptoms are due to involvement of the labyrinth or the central regions of the cochleovestibular nucleus. Tinnitus may appear. Up to two-thirds of patients with GCA may complain of subjective hearing loss at diagnosis, while about 16 have hearing loss after three months of treatment (10,11). This compares with approximately 10 of patients who may develop subjective hearing loss with PMR (based on a small number of patients studied for this outcome, N 10), while patients with PMR do not develop tinnitus, vertigo, dizziness, or disequilibrium (10). On audiometry, parameters of hearing may improve in approximately 30 of patients but further deteriorate at three-month follow-up in approximately 7 of...

Secondary Syphilis

Secondary Syphilis

One of the areas in which head and neck manifestations become apparent is with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, which may occur in up to 40 of secondary syphilis. This most commonly presents with headache and meningismus acute aseptic meningitis will be apparent in 1 to 2 of patients (7). Symptoms of visual disturbance, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and facial weakness may appear with cranial nerve or temporal bone involvement. Nerves II through VIII are affected most frequently. Labyrinthine involvement in secondary syphilis is more likely to produce abrupt, bilateral, rapidly progressive hearing loss, with vestibular symptoms less frequent. CNS involvement may also produce various distal neurologic deficits. The likelihood of progressing to late neurosyphilis is increased with CNS involvement during secondary syphilis approximately 8 to 10 of untreated patients will do so (7). The aspect of neurosyphilis most relevant to the otolaryngologist is the phenomenon of...

Indications Onion

WHO) Anthrax (1 LIB) Aphonia (f DLZ) Apoplexy (f DEP) Atherosclerosis (2 APA KOM PH2 SHT) Asthma (f1 APA BRU JFM PHR PH2) Atherosclerosis (1 JFM WO2) Bacillus (1 X4064797) Bacteria (1 JFM PH2) Bite (f DEP) Biliousness (f KAB) Bite (f BOU NAD) Bleeding (f KAB) Blister (f1 EGG SKJ) Boil (f1 NAD SKJ) Bronchosis (2 BGB PHR PH2 WHO) Bruise (f EGG PHR WHO) Bugbite (f PHR) Burn (f JLH PHR) Cancer (1 APA JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 FNF JLH JNU) Cancer, colon (f1 JNU) Cancer, esophagus (f1 JNU) Cancer, gland (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, lung (f1 JNU) Cancer, rectum (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 APA BRU FNF JLH JAC7 405) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Candida (f1 X10594976) Carbuncle (f KAB LIB) Cardiopathy (f1 APA JFM JNU) Caries (1 X9354029) Cataract (f BOU) Catarrh (f KAB) Chest Cold (f JFM) Chilblain (f KAP X15664457) Cholecocystosis (f JFM PHR) Cholera (f DEP WHO) Circu-losis (f EGG) Cold (f12 DEM GHA PHR PH2) Colic (f EGG PHR PH2 WHO) Colosis (f KAP) Congestion (f1 APA BGB...

Other Causes

Although infections of the various structures of the ear might well be expected to affect hearing and thus trigger tinnitus, infections of locations remote to the ear can do the same. Meningitides can cause tinnitus, as can Bell's palsy. Syphilis (Chapter 15) can affect the labyrinth as well as the rest of the nervous system. Finally, it is curious that Lyme disease can have a hearing manifestation. As described above under endocrine disorders with Addison's disease, hyperacusis is associated with tinnitus and with Lyme disease. Fallon (11) reports that 48 of their cohort of Lyme disease had hyperacusis. Genetic. There are familial hearing loss disorders that can have associated tinnitus. Williams syndrome, which has manifestations throughout multiple body systems, has a 95 incidence of hyperacusis (12). There has been one report of a familial objective tinnitus that is presumably genetic in nature (1), p. 350 . As described above, tumors on the eighth nerve can present...


Function An enzyme with cobalt (Co) as an essential cofactor is involved in the regulation of translation Co also may be a constituent of an oxygen sensor. Requirements It is not known what intakes arc needed to maintain optimal health. Food sources The Co content (other than cobalamin) of foods is not well documented. Deficiency It is not known whether there are any untoward effects of low intakes or what the consequences of Co deficiency in humans might be. Excessive intake Peri cardiomyopathy occurred with chronic intakes of 6 8mg d in beer. More common consequences of acute intake of 100 nig or more include hypotension. nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, tinnitus, acoustic nerve damage, hypothyreosis and goiter, hyperlipidemia. and xanthomatosis. High tissue levels of divalent Co may be associated with genotoxie and carcinogenic effects.

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune inflammation of the inner ear may occur in isolation as an organ-specific process or may be part of a systemic autoimmune syndrome (20). Evidence is mounting to support the existence of an organ-specific cochlear autoimmune disease. The presence of antibodies to cochlear antigens, such as the 68 kD inner-ear antigen, as well as an impressive response to immunosuppressive medications, implicate autoimmunity as the underlying pathologic process in some patients with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss. These patients with autoimmune inner-ear disease (more accurately termed immune-mediated inner-ear disease, since proof for autoimmunity is still lacking) have a fluctuating progressive sensorineural hearing loss, often associated with vertigo and tinnitus. Generally, hearing loss progresses rapidly, within a period of weeks and months, to an irreversible end-stage disease. While at any given moment, one ear may be more significantly affected, the process eventually affects...