How to Reverse Testicular Atrophy
After undergoing testicular biopsy If you have very severe male factor infertility, sperm or small pieces of testicle can be removed surgically from your testicles and with the ICSI procedure your partner's eggs can be fertilised with your sperm (see Chapter 5). Any sperm or testicular tissue left over after ICSI can be frozen in case you need ICSI again.
For this reason, doctors use the lowest possible doses of radiation and give this treatment only to children who cannot be treated successfully with chemotherapy alone. Radiation to the testicles is likely to affect both fertility and hormone production, and most boys who have this form of treatment are not able to have children later on. Some may need to take hormones.
Traditional Medicinal Uses In Malaysia, various parts of the plants are considered panacea for illnesses ranging from headache to tuberculosis. 10 In China, the plant has been used for the treatment of cancer. 11 A poultice of the leaves is used to treat rheumatism, contusions, swollen testicles and as a dis-cutient in sprains. In Indonesia, leaves have been used in medicinal baths, as
This very rare condition is characterized by downward slanting eyelids, cleft palate, recessed lower jaw, small cup-shaped ears, and a broad nasal ridge. There are also shortened bowed forearms, incompletely developed bones in the arms, missing or webbed fingers and toes, and abnormal growth of the bones in the lower legs. Occasional problems include heart defects, lung disease, extra nipples, stomach or kidney reflux, undescended testicles, or dislocated hips.
The sexual organs of the male consist of the penis, scrotum, and testicles (on the outside), and the epididymis, the vas deferens, the prostate, and the urethra (on the inside) (see Figures 1.1 and 1.2). The scrotum is the pouch of skin that hangs behind the penis and holds the testicles. It is sensitive to sexual stimulation and to changes in the temperature outside the body. The scrotum's function is to keep the testicles at the right temperature for producing sperm. It sometimes tightens up to hold the testicles snug against the body to keep them warm. At other times it becomes very loose, so the testicles can cool off. The two testicles, or testes, are composed of delicate, tiny, tightly coiled tubes that are lined with cells designed to manufacture either sperm or hormones. In the fetus, the testicles are formed in the abdomen and by the time of birth have descended into the scrotum. If the testes fail to descend or do not develop completely, this sometimes reduces sperm...
The term vasectomy means cutting the two vasa deferentia, the sperm ducts, that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis. A small portion of each duct is usually removed and the cut ends are closed off. This procedure effectively prevents sperm from getting into the semen that is ejaculated during sex. Although it is possible to reverse a vasectomy, a reversal procedure requires difficult microsurgery. Under the best conditions, the reversal succeeds only about 50 percent of the time (a pregnancy is viewed as success), and it is very expensive. Vasectomy is a permanent form of birth control for men. The tubes that carry the sperm from the testicles to the penis are cut and the cut ends are closed off. This prevents sperm from getting into the semen that is ejaculated during sex. A local anesthetic is injected near the sperm tubes in the testicles. A tiny incision is made. Each tube is pulled through the incision, cut, and tied off. The whole operation takes about 20 minutes. The...
Remedies for the specific symptoms of an enlarged prostate include Sabal, if urination is difficult or if there are spasms of the bladder or urethra Baryta carb., when there is a frequent urge to urinate, a slow stream of urine, and impotence Iodum, when there are shrunken testicles, impotence, and the prostate feels hard and Argentum nit., for prostate problems associated with erectile dysfunction. For symptoms of prostatitis, Sabal is given if the prostate is enlarged and the area around the gland feels cold Chimaphila, if prostatic fluid is leaking from the penis and there is urine retention Selenium, when urine dribbles from the penis and there is impotence and Capsicum for burning pains in the prostate.
Fetal resorption Testicular atrophy Necrotizing myopathy white In male animals, deficiency results in testicular atrophy, with degeneration of the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. This lesion responds to vitamin E or selenium, but not to synthetic antioxidants.
Substances reducing the rate of de novo lipogenesis and their possible therapeutic potential for the control of obesity
Finally, so far it is unclear whether long-term HCA treatment may have adverse effects. Most animal studies indicate that HCA is a safe, natural supplement that does not cause any changes in major organs or in hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathology (Ohia et al. 2002 Shara et al. 2004 Soni et al. 2004 Oikawa et al. 2005). However, in one study a high dose of HCA caused potent testicular atrophy and toxicity (Saito et al. 2005), and we recently observed that long-term application of HCA increased liver lipid content and plasma cholesterol levels in rats (Brandt et al. 2006). One explanation for the unexpected effects of HCA on lipid metabolism might be that HCA stimulates the enzyme ACC (Hackenschmidt et al. 1972). Thus, HCA acts as an inhibitor of DNL only if cytoplasmatic acetyl-CoA is produced by the citrate cleavage enzyme reaction, whereas HCA will not affect (Zambell et al. 2003) or even activate fatty acid synthesis whenever an alternative source of cytoplasmatic...
Vomiting, abdominal pain, photophobia, palpitations, muscle twitching, convulsions, miosis, and unconsciousness were described in several reports of nonfatal caffeine poisonings in children who ingested 80mgkg-1 caffeine. In several fatal accidental caffeine poisonings, cold chills, stomach cramps, tetanic spasms, and cyanosis were reported. The likely lethal dose in adult humans has been estimated to be approximately 10 g, which corresponds roughly to 150-200 mg kg-1. With daily doses of 110mgkg-1 given via intragastric cannula to female rats over 100 days, hypertrophy of organs such as the salivary gland, liver, heart, and kidneys was reported. Caffeine also induced thymic and testicular atrophy. Developmental and reproductive toxicity was associated with high, single daily doses of caffeine. The no-effect level for teratogenicity is 40 mg kg-1 caffeine per day in the rat, although delayed sternebral ossification can be observed at lower doses. This effect has been shown to be...
For a long time, it was considered that, unlike the other vitamins, vitamin E had no specific functions rather it was the major lipid-soluble, radical-trapping antioxidant in membranes. Many of its functions can be met by synthetic antioxidants however, some of the effects of vitamin E deficiency in experimental animals, including testicular atrophy and necrotizing myopathy, do not respond to synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant roles of vitamin E and the trace element selenium are closely related and, to a great extent, either can compensate for a deficiency of the other. The sulfur amino acids (methionine and cysteine) also have a vitamin E-sparing effect.
Testosterone is principal male androgen, sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It is found not only in humans, but also in many other vertebrates. In males, testosterone is secreted by Leydig cells in testicles, in females by theca cells in ovaries. Small amount is produced also in zona reticularis of adrenal cortex in both genders and in placenta. Chemically (figure 1), it is white powder, soluble in methanol, name is17beta-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-on or 4-An-drosten-17beta-ol-3-on, Chemical Abstracts Service number 58-22-0, ATC code G03BA03. It is a controlled substance, in US by Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). It's inactive epimer - difference in configuration of OH at C17 - is called epitestosterone. Testosterone's biosynthesis starts from cholesterol. Metabolism up to one tenth of testosterone is converted by 5-alpha reductase to dihydrotestosterone, less than 0.5 by aromatase to estradiol. Most of testosterone is deactivated and excreted as glucoronides.
Symptoms Sharp, burning pain on urinating, perhaps with a yellow, pus-filled discharge or blood in the urine (indicative of nonspecific urethritis), or with a frequent urge to urinate, if cystitis is the cause. In severe cases, kidney infections such as renal colic may follow In men, if accompanied by pain in the abdomen, lower back, rectum, or testicles, fever, and a urinal discharge, symptoms may be due to prostatitis (see right).
If you have no sperm in the ejaculate (refer to Chapter 1), the sperm are retrieved via a surgical procedure under local or general anaesthesia. Depending on what type of infertility you have, the doctor retrieves either fluid or microscopic pieces of tissue from the testicles. I explain these procedures in the section 'Coming to Grips with All the IVF Acronyms and What They Mean' earlier in this chapter. Depending on the clinic and the type of procedure you're having, you may be asked not to eat or drink anything starting the night before your surgery.
Ginseng extract has been shown to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of testicular damage induced by environmental pollutants. Dioxin is one of the most potent toxic environmental pollutants. Exposure to dioxin either in adulthood or during late fetal and early postnatal development causes a variety of adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The chemical decreases spermatogenesis and the ability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to full term. Pretreatment with 100 or 200 mg kg ginseng aqueous extract intraperitoneally for 28 days prevented toxic effects of dioxin in guinea pigs. There was no loss in body weight, testicular weight or damage to spermatogenesis (Kim et al 1999). In guinea pigs P. ginseng also improves the survival and quality of sperm exposed dioxin (Hwang et al 2004).
Most children and teens with high-risk or relapsed leukemia receive 1,800 or 2,400 cGy to the whole brain and sometimes radiation to the spinal cord. Boys or teens with a testicular relapse get radiation to the testicles, and some children get total body radiation prior to bone marrow transplant. Specific disabilities depend on the age of the child, the dose of radiation, and the location of the radiation.
Note that the RSV says cedar, the KJV says ash. Perhaps this is not so amazing there are many supra-specific and suprageneric terms in the United States, such as scrub oaks and conifer, respectively. The latter embraces more kinds of gymnosperms than Zohary's berosh. The cypress was an important biblical timber tree, used by the Egyptians for coffins in olden times, and in Greece more recently. The doors of St. Peter's in Rome and the gates of Constantinople, made of cypress, both survived more than 1000 years. Its timbers were used for house building, ship building (even the ark), and musical instruments. David and all the house of Israel played on musical instruments made of cypress (BIB). Oil of cypress is a valuable perfume ingredient, providing ambergris- and ladanum-like odors. The trees are often planted as ornamentals in cemeteries, gardens, and parks. The Island of Cyprus, where the tree was once worshipped, derives its name from the cypress. Regarded as antiseptic,...
The macules can be present at birth or arise early in life. The cutaneous lesions can fade with time, but the mucosal hyperpigmentation remains. The hyperpigmented macules in PJS can be distinguished from freckles by their mucosal involvement and the fact that they are commonly present at birth. The mucocutaneous lesions in PJS precede the gastrointestinal manifestations. The median time to presentation with polyps is 11 years of age, but the age of onset varies greatly. There are reported cases of patients presenting with polyposis at birth, but this is very rare. Extraintestinal polyposis may develop and can involve the nares, pelvis, bladder, and lungs. Although the rate of neoplastic potential of the intestinal lesions is low, 48 of patients with PJS have been reported to develop intestinal and extraintestinal malignancies that include neoplasms of the colon, esophagus, rectum, stomach, small intestine, breast, pancreas, ovaries, cervix, testicles, and...
The polyps in PJS are benign hamartomas and have a low rate of malignant transformation, but because the polyps progress with age, they can lead to recurrent abdominal pain, bleeding, anemia, intussusception, and obstruction. Patients with PJS are susceptible to a multitude of internal malignancies, including tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, testicles, ovaries, cervix, and uterus aggressive screening protocols as mentioned above are recommended to decrease morbidity and mortality.
Women's reproductive function increases alcohol- and drug-related health risks to themselves and to their unborn children. Alcohol and drug abuse are associated with numerous disorders of the female reproductive system, including breast cancer, amenorrhea, failure to ovulate, atrophy of the ovaries, miscarriage, and early menopause. Men also experience reproductive and sexual difficulties as a result of alcohol and drug abuse, including impotence, low testosterone levels, testicular atrophy, breast enlargement, and diminished sexual interest.
The vertues of the wild Mints are more especially to dissolve winde in the stomack, to helpe the chollick and those that are short-winded, and are an especiall remedy for those that have venerous dreames and pollutions in the night, used both inwardly, and the juyce being applyed outwardly to the testicles or cods.
For males older than 14 years, a short course (3-6 months) of low-dose testosterone or androgens will often be enough to induce puberty, initiating changes of the external genitalia (penis and scrotum). Any increase in testicular size during treatment indicates the onset of normal puberty. Occasionally a second course may be required if puberty does not commence following the first course and a period of observation. The common regimes include
For boys or teens with leukemic cells in the testes, radiation is included in the treatment plan. At the present time, most protocols require 2400 cGy to both testicles, given in 200 cGy doses, once a day for twelve days. Radiation treatment is usually only given Monday to Friday, with weekends off. Treatment plans vary among protocols and institutions. Prior to your sons radiation to the testes, the technologist or child life specialist will give a tour of the facility, describe the machines, and explain exactly how the radiation sessions will be done. Usually, only older boys require radiation to the testes, so anesthesia is rarely needed. The boy or teen will lie on the table, the technologist will support the testicles on a small piece of lead, and the penis will be taped up to keep it out of the radiation field. Each treatment will last less than five minutes, during which time the boy must hold perfectly still. As with cranial radiation, the technologist will be watching your...
Little as 6 Gy will induce ovarian failure in women between 40 and 50 years.41 Male testicles are even more sensitive to radiation. Spermatogenesis will be affected with doses as low as 0.2 Gy, and may be permanent above 1.2 Gy.42 Gonadal shielding can be somewhat effective but cannot be relied upon to preserve fertility.
Your baby's reproductive system is continuing to develop this week. If your baby is a boy, his testicles are moving from their location near the kidneys through the groin on their way into the scrotum. If your baby is a girl, her clitoris is now relatively prominent. However, her labia are still small and don't yet cover it.
If you have a male factor infertility problem, you'll probably have the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure rather than IVF. Sperm preparation techniques for ICSI vary depending on what kind of problem you have and whether sperm are in the ejaculate or surgically retrieved from the testicles. (I explain the different ways of retrieving sperm from the testicles in Chapter 5.)
The control of gene expression in multicelled organisms is much more complex and not yet fully understood. The cluster of undifferentiated cells that make up an embryo soon after fertilization must quickly begin expressing different genes to produce different body tissues and organs. The cells in a particular tissue or organ may also switch genes on or off at different times during growth. For example, the cells in testicles or ovaries don't switch on the genes that result in sex hormone production until the organism reaches puberty.
Fragile X syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion of DNA on the X chromosome. This expansion results in the absence or severe deficiency of the FMR1 protein (FMRP), which is known to be essential for normal brain function. FMRP appears to have an RNA-binding activity and may play an important role in synaptic maturation. Approximately 1 per 4,000 males and 1 per 6,000 females are affected. Males with Fragile X syndrome typically have moderate to severe mental retardation, which may be accompanied by hyperarousal or autisticlike behavior. Physical features include large ears, large testicles, and loose connective tissue. Females are more mildly affected about one-third develop normally, one-third exhibit mild learning disabilities, and one-third have mild mental retardation. Carriers, approximately 1 per 260 women, are typically unaffected, and the risk of expansion to the full disorder increases with successive generations. Identification using DNA...
Depending on the nature of your infertility problem, your doctor may perform either a needle biopsy using local anaesthesia to get small pieces of tissue from your testicles or an open biopsy using a general anaesthetic to surgically remove pieces of tissue from your testicles (see Chapter 5) in both cases so that the embryologist can retrieve sperm from this tissue for ICSI (see Chapter 7). About five to ten out of every 1,000 sperm retrieval procedures result in a complication from either bleeding or infection. The risk of complications is lower for needle biopsy than for open biopsy. In addition, having a general anaesthetic poses a very small health risk.
Puberty, precocious The onset of puberty before age seven in girls and age nine in boys. The signs of the condition include the development of breasts and pubic hair or the beginning of menstruation in girls, and pubic or facial hair, a deepening voice, or enlarged penis or testicles in boys. Acne also can occur with these other changes. Although sexual maturity does not occur at the exact same age for every person, there is a limit to how soon the signs should begin to appear. Girls are five to seven times more likely than boys to develop the condition.
Clinical features include small testes, tall stature, breast development, reduced hormonal levels, and sterility. Mosaics, or individuals with mixed cell lines, may be fertile. Behavioral features include depressed verbal intelligence, reduced activity, increased stress, and feelings of reduced masculinity. Families may be advised to seek hormonal therapy and counseling for these children.
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