Urban Survival Secrets for Terrorist Attacks

Urban Survival Guide

Discover How You Can Easily Have A Survival Plan Staying Right Where You Currently Live That's Better Than Having. A Fully Stocked Rural Retreat That You Can't Get To! Finally Revealed: Urban Survival Secrets For Surviving Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters And Pandemics! In The Real World, Most People Don't Have A Fully Stocked Retreat They Can Escape To. Even If You've Planned Ahead And You Do, There's No Guarantee That You'll Leave In Time Or That You'll Be Able To Make It There. Your First Plan Must Be To Survive In Place. Read more here...

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Bioterrorism

With the advent of vaccines and antibiotics, many people in developed countries had become complacent about infectious diseases. However, the increase in acts of worldwide terrorism has caused food security to become a major concern for the food industry and for public health officials. Deliberate biological or chemical contamination of food or water remains the easiest method for widespread terrorism, according to the CDC, and since everyone eats, all are open to an attack. Bioterrorism and the emergence of strains of diseases that have become resistant to antibiotic therapy (such as Current systems that detect food-borne illness outbreaks and link them to their source need to be enhanced for defense against food bioterrorism. However, the potential for an undetected contamination in industrialized countries is relatively low. Once food has been processed and readied for distribution, quick identification of any contamination and isolation from distribution is required. Imported food...

James A Inciardi Revised by Frederick K Grittner

Border control in the United States was described in the review as an extremely complex problem involving vast distances, many modes of transportation, millions of arrivals and departures, and millions of tons of cargo. Laws to be enforced involved illegal drugs and other contraband, terrorists, public-health threats, agricultural pests and diseases, endangered species, entry visas, duties, and so forth. Nine federal agencies shared border-control responsibilities, contributing to overlap, duplication of effort, and duplicated management systems.

Drugreduction Efforts

Colombia's national police, the military, and the security forces successfully broke up the Medellin and Cali cartels. In 1989, with the assistance of U.S. technical and material support, they attacked and killed several mid-level Medellin traffickers, including Rodrigo Gacha. Colombia has also used the extradition to incarcerate or immobilize major traffickers. In late 1990, President Cesar Gaviria's offer of amnesty for major traffickers resulted in a decrease in violence and the surrender and imprisonment of five traffickers and one terrorist including Pablo Escobar and the three Ochoa brothers (Jorge Luis, Juan David, and Fabio). The Medellin cartel lost its leader when Pablo Escobar was killed in a shoot-out in December 1993 after having escaped from prison. The Cali cartel met its demise in the mid-1990s.

The Frame Or Boundary

Disaster trauma groups are unique in that these groups are rarely held in traditional settings and usually are led at or near the site of the disaster, be the disaster a natural occurance such as a hurricane or tornado, or an act of terrorism. The author was privileged to lead therapy groups for people impacted by the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the devastating hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Rita. The intervention to be discussed in this chapter took place in one of the trauma groups led in New York City after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center.

An International Approach

(SEE ALSO Crop-Control Policies Drug Interdiction Drug Laws Financial Analysis in Enforcement Golden Triangle as Drug Source International Drug Supply Systems Opioids and Opioid Control History Terrorism and Drugs U.S. Government Agencies) Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narco-terrorism. New York Basic.

Variable Number Tandem RepeatVNTR and Multilocus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis MLVA

Lindstedt, Heir, Gjernes, Vardund, and Kappered (2003) used MLVA to fingerprint E. coli O157 strains and found that the method was able to discriminate among strains. The method was considered relatively robust and fast. Among the 73 strains analyzed, 47 distinct profiles were found. When the method was compared with PFGE, high rates of co-clustering of MLVA and PFGE results occurred. In a recent review, Van Belkum (2007) discussed the use of MLVA for tracing isolates of a bacterial species, such as S. aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli, C. difficile, and S. enterica, and they reported that the method could be used for assessing other systems such as viruses, fungi, and parasites. However, to the authors' knowledge, this method has not been tested for these types of organisms. MLVA has been used in subtyping a range of organisms including S. aureus and M. tuberculosis bioterrorism agents and enteric pathogens such as E. coli O157 H7 (Hoffmaster,...

Health Insurance Options

In the spring of 2003, a Kaiser Health Poll reported that more than twice as many people were concerned about healthcare costs than were worried about not being able to pay their rent or mortgage, losing money in the stock market, being a victim of a terrorist attack, or losing their job. Approximately 36 percent of Americans worried that the amount they paid for healthcare services or health insurance coverage would increase.

Exploiting The Drug Trade

Narcoterrorism refers, first, to the activities of a number of guerrilla groups worldwide. These groups engage in terrorism and insurgency and also exploit the drug trade for financial gain. In most Lebanon's Hizballah reportedly smuggles drugs as a result of afatwah (an Islamic religious decree). In 1987, the police uncovered narcotics in a Hizballah terrorist arms cache near Paris, France.

Religious Intolerance

Extremists have carried out terrorist attacks over centuries, frequently the result of religious differences. For example, citizens of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Jordan are mostly Sunni, whereas those of Iraq, Lebanon, and Pakistan are mostly Shiites. The schism between Sunnis and Shiite factions dates back to the seventh century B.C. when Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, was chosen as the successor to Mohammed, Islam's founder, rather than his son-in-law Ali. Supporters of Ali sided with Mohammed's son Hussein. Shiites make up only 10 of Islam's 1.5 billion persons throughout the world, and constitute 60 of the population of Iraq. Islamic radicalism in the Arab world is related to a failure of several nations to advance economic growth, or political and cultural freedom. Disaffected youth justify their violent behavior, including murder and suicide of civilians, by quoting the Koran On September 11, 2001, 19 young suicidal terrorists crashed two commercial jets into the World Trade Center...

Current research frontiers

Although many parasitic diseases primarily are of importance in developing nations, the research community and general public in economically developed countries should not overlook their significance. Food- and waterborne parasitic disease is a concern not only for impoverished nations, but for the entire world owing to the expansion of global trade and travel, and the risk of exposure to some parasites in countries regardless of economic status. Also, the new threat of bioterrorism raises concerns about the potential contamination of food or water reservoirs with a variety of organisms including parasites. For example, although C. parvum contaminated water will not kill as many people as other bioterrorism hazards, the economic damage it would cause for a city, state, or nation due to the inability of a population to work could be devastating (Khan et al., 2001). Therefore, it is anticipated that funding and interest in the field of food- and waterborne parasites will continue into...

Elaine Johnson Revised by Theodora Fine

Customs Service (USCS), in the Department of the Treasury, is the principal border-enforcement agency. Customs conducts a wide range of statutory and regulatory activities ranging from interdicting and seizing contraband entering the United States to intercepting illegal export of high-technology items. Customs officers also assist over forty other federal agencies with border-enforcement responsibilities, including public-health threats, terrorists, agricultural pests, and illegal aliens.

The Most Traumatized Are The Victims Of Minor Events

Although the major disasters hit the headlines, the fact remains that most traumatized persons are the victims of minor events, (least in terms of their newsworthiness). Put simply, there are far more armed-robbery victims, assault victims, car crash survivors or people encountering random unexpected, violent, or otherwise traumatic, events than there are victims of tsunamis, war, or terrorism. Most people's everyday experiences of trauma happen on the street corner, in the workplace, in the home, as part of everyday life and usually involve a very small number of participants, often less than three or four, including the perpetrator.

Human Nature Human Nurture

From the perspective of affective neuroscience, the social emotions that motivated the terrorists, as well as those we experience when empathizing with the passengers, represent a uniquely human achievement, and one that is relevant to education the ability to feel emotions and engage in actions about the vicariously experienced beliefs of another person. Social emotions and their associated thoughts and actions are biologically built but culturally shaped they reflect our neuropsychological propensity to internalize the actions of others, but are interpreted in light of our own social, emotional and cognitive experiences. Put another way, human nature is to nurture and be nurtured. We act on our own accord but interpret and understand our choices by comparing them against the norms of our culture, learned through social, emotional and cognitive experiences.

Skull fracture See head injury sleep apnea See apnea

Smallpox A highly infectious, serious viral disease causing a skin rash and flu-like symptoms that has been totally eradicated throughout the world since 1980. The last naturally acquired case of smallpox occurred in Somalia in 1977, and the last cases of smallpox (from lab exposure) occurred in 1978. In May 1980 the World Health Assembly certified that the world was free of naturally occurring smallpox. However, the threat of smallpox has reemerged as a potential terroristic threat since the attack on the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) maintains an emergency supply of vaccine that can be released if necessary, since post-exposure vaccination is also effective in preventing the disease. In 2000 the CDC awarded a contract to a vaccine manufacturer to produce additional doses of smallpox vaccine in case of a bioterrorism attack. In the event of an outbreak, the CDC has clear guidelines to provide vaccine swiftly to...

New uses for older antibiotics

The combination of increasing resistance among selected gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens has prompted a re-evaluation of the antibiotic armamentarium, because few antimicrobials are effective against previously or newly highly resistant micro-organisms. Among the tetracyclines, doxycy-cline and minocycline maintain their effectiveness in their traditional areas of use (eg, rickettsial infections, ehrlichiosis, Lyme and other spirochetal infections) and against bacterial zoonoses 1,3 . In addition, doxycycline has been useful in treating community-acquired pneumonia, including PRSP strains as prophylaxis or therapy for chloroquine-resistant P falciparum malaria and for treating natural or bioterrorist anthrax or plague. Minocycline has been an effective antistaphylococcal antibiotic. Minocycline has potent anti-S aureus activity and is clinically effective against both MSSA and MRSA. Aside from linezolid, minocycline is the only oral antibiotic preparation that has been shown...

Stress Inoculation Training

In 2004, Hurricane Ivan left its destructive wake through Florida's panhandle and the coastal regions of Alabama and Mississippi. Furthermore, due to the Global War on Terrorism operations and the storm's destruction of several military treatment facilities, I became the sole military psychologist providing psychosocial interventions for the region at Naval Hospital, Pensacola, Florida. To address the burgeoning and heterogeneous myriad of patients suffering from various anxiety disorders, I formed a closed process- oriented group utilizing Meichenbaum's Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) model (Meichenbaum, 1993, 1996, 2005).

QseBC Two Component System

The chemical structure of AI-3 was not completely elucidated yet. However, the role of epinephrine and norepinephrine has been extensively reported in different strains of E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, among others. A qseC homologue was shown to contribute to virulence in a mouse infection model of the class A bioterrorism threat agent Francisella tularensis (Weiss et al. 2007). A qseC homologue was also demonstrated to be involved in norepinephrine dependent enhancement of motility and colonization of juvenile pigs by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (Bearson and Bearson, 2008) and virulence gene expression in this bacterium (Merighi et al. 2006 Merighi et al. 2009).

Using The Tactics Of Terror

The second aspect covered under the rubric of narcoterrorism has been the drug traffickers' use of the tactics of political terrorism such as the car bomb, kidnapping, and selective assassination to undermine the resolve of various governments at the highest levels to fight the drug trade. Colombia has been hardest hit by the traffickers' use of terrorist tactics. Escobar's Medellin trafficking group was responsible for a string of vicious attacks in the 1980s and early 1990s. Among the victims and targets were a justice minister, an attorney general, Supreme Court justices, the editor of a leading newspaper, several presidential candidates, a commercial airliner, and the headquarters of Colombia's equivalent of the FBI. Escobar's death, however, did not end the relationship between terrorist groups and drug traffickers. During the 1990s, Peru and Bolivia successfully reduced the amount of coca production, but this led to a dramatic rise in production in rural Colombia. Guerrilla and...

The Physics of Radioactivity

Eliminating the threat of nuclear weapons, because the worldwide threat of terrorism involves individual actions rather than governments. Nuclear weapons now make it conceivable that, for the first time in history, the entire planet earth could be destroyed in a matter of days. We cannot ignore the possibility of the destruction of the world, as we know it.

Characteristics of Neighborhoods and Schools that Impact the Mental Health and Risk Behavior of Children and Youth

Positive Affirmations Youth

Into their views of themselves and others and that they adapt to through self-protective behaviors. Such chronic violence is more likely to have pervasive effects on child development than a single event such as a natural or terrorist disaster (Kupersmidt, Shahinfar, & Voegler-Lee, 2002). This has indeed been found relative to the events of September 11th, 2001. In our study of New York City adolescents, exposure to the single-event of the terrorist attacks had relatively few effects on their mental health and behavior problems up to 2 years later relative to their exposure to community violence. Specifically, media exposure to the event was associated with heightened symptoms of post-traumatic stress, direct exposure to the event (e.g., seeing the planes hit, the towers fall, or smelling smoke) was associated with increased social mistrust, and having a family member at, injured in, or killed in the World Trade Center was associated with increased social mistrust (Aber, Gershoff,...

What Are The Addictive Behaviours That Jullo Rehab Centre Treat

660-661, 662, 1054 terrorism in, 1081 Lapses vs. relapse, 954 Lara Bonilla, Rodrigo, 285 Latency of drugs, 846 Lateral hypothalamus, 196 Latin America. See also specific countries, e.g., Mexico ancient, beer use in, 79 as cannabis source, 655-657 as cocaine source, 658, 875 coffee cultivation in, 279, 874-875 foreign policy and, 545 historical alcohol use in, 80-81 as opium source, 655-657, 660-661, opium, 655-657, 660-661, 663-664, 665-666 Operation Intercept and, 794-796 terrorism in, 1081-1082 tobacco use in, 872-874 as transit country, 1112 Miami, Florida, drug court, 431 660-661, 1054 terrorism in, 1081 Myleran. See Busulfan Myristica fragrans. See Nutmeg Myristicin, 587, 791 amphetamines for, 110-111, 385 methylphenidate for, 725 Narcoterrorism. See Terrorism and drugs Narcotherapy, 108, 109 Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act of 1966, 754-756 money laundering and, 546, 740-741 Prohibition and, 935 terrorism and, 1080-1082 OSAP. See Center for Substance Abuse cocaine use in, 264,...

Effects of bleaching agents on enamel surface

Calcium and phosphorus are present in the hydroxyapatite crystals, the main building block of dental hard tissue. Changes in Ca P ratio indicate alterations in the inorganic components of hydroxyapatite. In the previous studies it has been shown that the bleaching agents cause calcium loss in hard dental tissues, change Ca P ratio and surface alterations depending on their concentration. The linear relationship between decrease in enamel hardness and Ca2+ and PO43 loss shows that hardness measurements can be used as an indication of the degree of enamel mineralization which relates to enamel caries. Ingram and Ferjerskov (Ingram & Ferjerskov, 1986) observed that macroscopically the degree of chemical attack roughly correlated with the appearance of discrete white spot lesions where approximately 7 g or more calcium had been removed from the experimental area (1.77 mm2). This means that when approximately 3.95 g of calcium loss is observed in a surface of mm2, the surface cannot be...

Dna Vaccines For Infectious Diseases And Cancer

Finally with the advent of recent bioterrorism scares, much interest has focused on the development of rapid mass stocks of vaccines to immunize the general public (79). In view of this, DNA vaccines' simplicity and ease of mass production effectively overcomes such obstacles. In addition, plasmid immunization against the protective antigen and lethal factor of anthrax effectively induced complete protection in preliminary mice experiments (80,81). Similar results were also achieved against the Ebola virus in both mice and primate experiments (82). These preliminary results highlight the potential efficacy of DNA vaccines for generating mass immunizations against potential bioterroristic weapons.

Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of foodborne viruses

National Institute of Health (NIAID-NIH) as Bioterrorism Category B Priority hepatitis A is self-limiting, can last up to several months, and is rarely fatal (mortality ranges from 0.1 to 0.3 among infected individuals), but adults over 50 years of age or persons with chronic liver diseases have an elevated risk of death from hepatitis.33 Hepatitis A virus is also classified by the CDC and NIAID as a Bioterrorism Category B Priority Pathogen.

Mental Illness

I t is probable that terrorism is the result of innate aggressiveness brought to the surface by cultural and environmental forces. Pent-up anger begets murder and self-destruction. With weapons of mass destruction, terrorist gangs or demented psychopaths could destroy civilization, or even the human race. Today, the world remains plagued by violence. Tens of thousands of young men and some women have died in the process of killing others, while their colleagues applaud their martyrdom. With weapons of mass destruction, even a few people can inflict enormous harm on millions of people. Today, terrorism is a major threat to humanity. With molecular imaging, the minds and behavior of terrorists can become a major focus of study and research. Humiliated terrorists often seek revenge against those they believe hurt them. In her book What Terrorists Want Understanding The Enemy, Containing the Threat (Random House, 2006) Louise Richardson wrote, The point of terrorism is not to defeat the...

Political Ideas

Center-periphery has wide play in international political economy. Center emerges as the key term in this dyad, appearing 37 times compared with periphery's three. Center evokes a very clear circular spatial grid. Indeed, as Sen. Steven Symms (R-Idaho) used center, he conjured up an image of a spider - Saddam Hussein - sitting at the center of a web of domestic power The Iraqi dictator sits at the center of a web of state, party, military, and secret police organizations (CR, S-380). When the web spreads outward beyond the national boundaries of Iraq, it entangles an ever-growing number of participants including the international world of terrorism. However, as in a real web, control always remains at the center. Indeed, as Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) suggested We all know that the world's most vicious terrorists have taken up residence in

Stylistic Control

Few studies have been performed on this aspect of generation lexicons, grammars, and sets of planning rules are still too small to necessitate much stylistic guidance. Furthermore, the complexity of interaction of choices across the stages of generation requires deep attention how does the choice of word freedom fighter terrorist guer-rilla interact with the length of the sentences near it, or with the choice of active or passive mode See Jameson (1987), Hovy (1988), and DiMarco and Hirst (1990) for studies.

Good vs Evil

Followers of the Islamic religion today are peace loving, and reject terrorism. In the April 2007 issue of the Kuwait Times, Muna A-Fuzai wrote, Are we expected to be on the other side of the fence due to differences in our religions Why do we still resort to killings under the guise of these calls for jihad

Figure 172

In this case, availability was based on the effectiveness of retrieval of instances from long-term memory. Availability can also be based on frequency of occurrence. In other words, we tend to recall those things that have been encountered most frequently in the past. This strategy often leads to effective judgements. However, availability can also be affected by the relative salience of instances, i.e., happenings or objects that have been encountered recently or have become salient for some reason can be temporarily more available. If you are a US citizen trying to decide where to go on holiday, and there is a sudden rash of terrorist incidents in Europe against US citizens, it is highly likely that you will be swayed into taking a holiday in the United States (even though the probability of getting killed in, say, Florida may be comparable to Europe or higher). Lichtenstein et al. (1978) have shown how causes of death attracting more publicity (e.g., murder) are judged more likely...

Where Is The Support

While survivors and their supporters are a large and growing group, an important question that influences the relative impact of many of the policy implications of the IOM report is, What is the general public's perception of or appetite for the public health needs of cancer survivors I am sure there have been some polls but my sense as a survivor, scientist, and provider is that this is not as a major concern among the general public especially in relation to other priority public health issues such as terrorism and emerging infectious diseases. Also, a related issue is that if this is not seen as a major public health problem is it really likely that a comprehensive public health approach will be fully pursued and ultimately realized Certainly efforts have been under way for years and that is why there has been so much done for survivors. These efforts have improved the lives of survivors, including me, and we are thankful. However an important question is, can we really expect a...

Fat on Trial

IN THE WINTER OF 2003, as America prepared to go to war with Iraq, U.S. Surgeon General Richard Carmona warned the nation that it faced a far more dangerous threat than Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction. Rather than focusing on the danger posed by nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, Carmona told his audience, Let's look at a threat that is very real, and already here obesity. Carmona went on to recall a recent news conference at which reporters wanted to question him about national preparedness for dealing with terrorist attacks. One of the reporters asked me, 'What is the most pressing issue in health facing the United States today ' Carmona said. She thought I was going to say weapons of mass destruction. But I said obesity. She was stunned. I mean, she couldn't say a word for thirty seconds because she didn't expect to hear 'obesity.' The reporter shouldn't have been surprised. Carmona is merely the latest in a series of Surgeon Generals who have treated America's...

Food Safety

One of the many luxuries Americans enjoy is access to the safest and most abundant food supply in the world. This stems from many advances and improvements in food safety, sanitation, and crop production that reduce the chance of food-safety problems, including food-borne illness, pesticide contamination, or infectious disease. There are many reasons why food safety has become an issue. First, medical advances have made it possible for people to live longer, creating an aging population more susceptible to disease. Second, labor in the food industry is more diverse and less skilled. Learning barriers, personnel turnover, and limited food-preparation skills create challenges in training. Third, the U.S. food supply has expanded globally, and many types of food come from areas where food safety standards are less stringent than those in the United States. Other concerns for food safety stem from terrorist threats, food irradiation, and genetically modified foods.

Implications

The willingness and ability of drug barons in some countries to use the tactics of terrorism adds a dangerous dimension to the threat posed by the drug trade. In Colombia, narcoterrorism has pushed the country to the brink of civil war and threatens to move the conflict into neighboring countries. In other countries, such as Mexico and some of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, there is growing concern about the volatile mix of drugs, violence, and organized crime.

Unsettling Questions

While some strides have been made in understanding the nature of the SARS virus, a great deal is left unanswered. In a world that has recently begun to consider bioterrorism a very possible threat, the SARS virus has demonstrated how vulnerable life is in the face of a new and contagious disease, and how societies, governments, and economies can be rattled by the tiniest of microbes.

Is the World Ready

Hong Kong is not the only place where strategies have been mapped out in the event that SARS returns. In the United States, where only a handful of confirmed cases were verified, health officials have taken inventory in various cities, making certain that there are enough respirators and other tools needed to care for victims. Many experts say that even before the SARS outbreak worldwide, the United States was already fairly organized for a large outbreak of some infectious disease. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, had alerted the nation that its procedures for a bioterrorist attack needed to be shored up.

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