Self Monitoring and Metacognitive Strategies

• Provide direct instruction to help students think about their approach in problem solving.

• Help students self-monitor their level of alertness when working, so they maintain attention to task, stay paced, and work problems with accuracy.

• Model how to first read problems (particularly word problems) and plan a strategy for solving before beginning the work.

• Teach how to work each problem carefully and check for accuracy.

• Teach how to estimate and determine whether an answer given is reasonable or not.

• Encourage students to stop after completing a few problems and check for accuracy (independently, with a partner or teacher).

• Use math portfolios/assessment. Have students keep a journal of their thinking, reasoning, questions, and understanding of math concepts. Also have students write their understanding about mathematical concepts before and after the unit is taught.

• Guide through the steps of a problem, modeling what to ask oneself when solving, for example: "Where do you always start?" (ones column). "Read the ones column" (5 minus 9). "Can you do that? Can you have 5 and take away 9?" (No). "So what do we have to do next?" (Regroup, or borrow from the tens column).

• Model talking out loud while reasoning out/thinking about a mathematical problem. Encourage students to do the same—externalizing their thinking and verbalizing while solving problems. Listen to students as they think out loud, and correct gaps in their comprehension when possible at this point.

• Teach students to think about what they are being asked to figure out in the problem and state it in their own words.

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