Skills

Create a checklist of tasks to be done. Keep a worry pad (if ideas popping into your head are distracting you). (Learning Toolbox, 2003) Note Some of the JMUfaculty (Esther Minskoff, David Allsopp, Jerry Minskoff, and Margaret Kyger) along with other faculty, staff, and students, were instrumental in the development of the Learning Toolbox. Chamot & O'Malley (1994) recommend that learning and study strategies be taught explicitly by Modeling how you use the strategy with a specific academic...

What Is Currently Known About ADHD

There are degrees of ADHD ranging from mild to severe types of ADHD with a variety of characteristics and no one has all of the symptoms or displays the disorder in the exact same way. Symptoms vary in every child, and even within each child with ADHD the symptoms may look different from day to day. ADHD is not new. It has been around, recognized by clinical science, and documented in the literature since 1902 (having been renamed several times). Some of the previous names for the disorder were...

Structuring to Achieve Positive Interdependence

Help students realize that they achieve their goals only if all members of the group also attain their goals. This can be achieved by using any of the following structures and techniques from Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec (1998) Structure positive goal interdependence. For example You are responsible for learning the assigned material and making sure that all other members of your group learn the assigned material. Require one answer from the group. Randomly select or collect only one product...

PARDs History

PARD originated in 1989 as a result of a three-day conference on ADHD held in San Diego, California. This conference brought to the surface the frustration and concern of school personnel, parents, and community professionals regarding children with attention-related problems accessing appropriate care and intervention. At that time, there was no system-wide approach to identification or intervention when a child displayed symptoms of what could be ADHD. Most school personnel did not have the...

Innovative Collaborative Programs for Helping Children with ADHD

Some unique projects and programs are being implemented with success in the nation that involve collaborative efforts in the community (between clinicians, schools, and parents) to best address the needs of children with ADHD. This section turns the spotlight on three such innovative programs 1. The Utah Model Intermountain Health Care's (IHC's) Care Management System for ADHD (Salt Lake 2. The Project for Attention Related Disorders (PARD) of San Diego, California 3. OU Pediatrics Kendall...

Content of the PARD Packet

The PARD packet for data gathering was developed to obtain pertinent information from teachers and parents to support the diagnostic process. Teachers provide student work samples, complete a behavioral checklist, and supply information regarding The problems the child is experiencing A description of the class situation (for example, number of students) The accommodations modifications that the child has been receiving A summary of the child's academic progress in all areas The help support...

Some Ways to Help

Here are some ways to assist students to control their own behavior during unstructured time Avoid catching students off-guard. Prepare for changes in routine (assemblies, substitute teachers, field trips) through discussion and modeling expectations. Talk about what will take place and teach the necessary behavior. Role play is helpful, especially for young students, in preparing for upcoming changes. Maintain a visual schedule that is reviewed and referred to frequently. When changes are to...

Addressing Student Misbehavior

In addition to positive reinforcement to increase and maintain desirable, appropriate student behavior, teachers must also enforce rules behavioral expectations with clear, fair, and reasonable corrective consequences (Rief, 2003). The following are recommendations for doing so Enforce with predictability in a calm, non-emotional manner. Try to handle inappropriate behavior as simply and promptly as possible. Use a hierarchy of negative consequences or mild punishments. Address only the child's...

Stress Reduction Relaxation Strategies Leisure Activities and Exercise

Students with ADHD are often in a state of stress from trying to cope with the challenges and daily struggles in their lives. When one is hyperactive, emotionally over-reactive, and or anxious, it helps to learn relaxation and stress-reduction strategies, as well as find positive outlets to channel one's energy. It is therapeutic to teach children ways to calm their minds and bodies and release inner tension, which can also empower them with a feeling of self-control. The ideas discussed here...

Yoga and Slow Movement Exercises

Yoga has many health and psychological benefits among which are stress reduction and heightening one's focus and awareness. There are a number of yoga postures and slow movement games and exercises that are fun and appropriate for children. The following examples are from a wonderful book (apparently no longer in print at this time), that was written by Holly Young Huth, a relaxation consultant and teacher specializing in early childhood education. This book, Centerplay Focusing Your Child's...

Examples of DRCs and Other Monitoring Devices

Many middle schools use conduct sheets as a management tool. Teachers are asked to rate students, usually on a point scale (0 to 4) under conduct and class work. For students with ADHD, those categories are too broad and must be defined precisely. These conduct sheets can be redesigned easily into DRCs by making the criteria very clear and awarding points objectively based on the specific behaviors listed under each category. Of course, to become a DRC, parents should be notified of the...

Guided Reading

This is an instructional strategy in which students of approximately the same reading level are in reading groups (usually no more than six per group). The teacher selects books for each group to read together that are new to them and will involve working on strategies that students in that group specifically need to practice. Usually leveled books are used for guided reading groups or any selection that is at the students' instructional level. The teacher coaches students to apply strategies...

Seek Professional Help

Parents of children with ADHD benefit from learning behavior management skills and specific methods of addressing challenging behaviors that the average parent doesn't need. Parent training in behavior modification and positive discipline are important components of effective treatment. Hopefully, there is such training available and provided by skilled professionals in the community for interested parents. It is recommended that parents seek counseling to attend to personal problems or family...

Token Economy or Token Programs

Token programs use secondary reinforcers, or tokens, to provide students with immediate reinforcement for appropriate behavior. When the student earns a designated number of tokens, they may be exchanged for a primary reinforcement (such as a treat, small toy, or a highly valued activity). Thus, the tokens provide a reinforcement bridge during the time gap between the occurrence of the appropriate behavior and the provision of the primary reward. In this way, tokens may be used to provide...

School Based Assessment for ADHD

Some school districts are very proactive and involved in helping to identify, diagnose, and provide effective interventions for students with ADHD. These school districts generally have specified procedures and a process for school-based screening evaluation of students for ADHD. The following steps or variations are typical in such school-based ADHD screening assessment (Rief, 2003). Most school-based screening evaluation for ADHD begins with the student support team (SST) process, with...

Psychostimulant Stimulant Medications

Stimulant medications have been used since the 1930s in the treatment of children with behavioral disorders. In fact, they are the most well-researched of all medications for children. Stimulants have been proven to be highly effective for 75 to 90 percent of children with ADHD. (U.S. Public Health Service, 1999). These are, therefore, the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD and are recommended as the first choice for treating chil dren with ADHD. An abundance of data is available...

Positive Traits and Characteristics Common in Many Children Teens and Adults with ADHD

Parents and teachers must recognize, appreciate, and nurture the many talents and positive qualities our children possess. To develop their self-esteem and enable them to become resilient, successful adults, we must help our children to value their areas of competency and strengths. The following are some common positive characteristics and traits that many of those with ADHD possess (Rief, 2003) Knows how to enjoy the present Sensitive to needs of others Willing to take a risk and try new...

Strategies to Help with Planning Organizing Pre Writing

Parents can help their children think of possible writing topics by doing the following (Rief, 1998) Look through family albums together and reminisce about people and events. Talk about happenings in your child's life (humorous incidents, scary moments, milestones) that your son or daughter may not remember. Share family stories and discuss current events. Ask leading questions that encourage your child to open up and share (for example, feelings, fears, dreams, aspirations, likes dislikes)....

Class Group Behavior Management Systems

Teachers use a variety of group positive reinforcement systems as a tool of classroom management. Such systems motivate and reward cooperative, rule-following behavior. There are various kinds of class (group) reinforcement systems teachers may choose to use to implement that may best fit their style of teaching, comfort level, and the interest of their students. The following are examples of some common group reinforcement systems (Rief, 2003) Table Team Points. Points are given for specific...

Metacognitive Strategies

These are the learning strategies that are often weakest in students with ADHD because of their direct relation to the executive functions. They involve Previewing and planning for how to go about learning or studying the material Organizing for the task, getting ready, and setting goals Monitoring one's own attention, production, and comprehension Self-assessment and evaluation of how well goals were met and learning took place (Rief, 2003) What is metacognition It is the explicit awareness in...

Interventions

Children and teens with ADHD who do not have co-existing learning disabilities may be fluent readers, who do not struggle with word recognition, decoding skills, or vocabulary. However, it is very common for those with ADHD to still have difficulty with reading comprehension to some degree, due to lack of attention and focus on the text, and retention of the material read. (See Section 3.7 for more information about common reading difficulties associated with ADHD.) It is vital that students...

In Tulsa Oklahoma

A school and clinical collaborative to establish a comprehensive multimodal program for students with ADHD has been created in Tulsa, Oklahoma. On a much smaller scale than the above two programs, this collaborative involves students, family, and faculty from Kendall-Whittier Elementary School, the OU (University of Oklahoma) Pediatric Clinic, and the direct services provided onsite at the school by a LCSW (licensed clinical social worker). The social worker is not a school employee, but works...

Self Monitoring Attention and Listening Levels Self Regulatory Techniques

It is very helpful for students with ADHD to employ self-monitoring strategies to become more aware of their behaviors. As was mentioned in Section 2.3, one such strategy is having the student(s) do seatwork while playing a cassette tape that has been pre-recorded with intermittent beeps, a ring of a bell, or other auditory signal. Children are trained to record on an index card or monitoring form whether or not they were on-task paying attention whenever they hear the auditory signal. Students...

Strategies for Building Word Recognition Reading Vocabulary and Fluency Rief 1998 2003 Rief Heimburge 1996

Lack of fluency in reading interferes with comprehension. In order to become a fluent reader, the child must first become skilled at decoding the printed word. Students who struggle to figure out unknown words and have poor word recognition (decoding skills) need direct instruction with strategies and interventions as early as possible. As many students with ADHD also have the learning disability dyslexia, they must be identified and provided with specialized instruction designed to build their...

Cognitive Style Preferences

Learning styles also are comprised of cognitive styles, which include analytic-global learners and left-right hemisphere preferences. The terms left-brain or left-hemisphere dominant right-brain or right-hemisphere dominant, analytic global, and inductive deductive have been used in the literature over the past several years to describe individuals' learning styles. In most cases, the left cerebral hemisphere of the brain controls the functions of language, sequential thinking, literal...

Learning Style Interview

Think back over the past few years of school. Whose class did you feel most comfortable in Tell me a little about your favorite classes ones you felt successful in. What did you particularly like about those classes or teachers 2. What are some of the best school projects you remember doing Is there any project you did or activity that you participated in that you are especially proud of 3. Do you prefer working in a classroom that is warmer or cooler in temperature 4. When you are trying to...

Summer Treatment Programs

There are some highly effective summer treatment programs for children with ADHD that utilize a strong behavioral and social skills component, along with parent training and other aspects of a multimodal approach. For information about such programs in the United States and Canada, see the following website ht-tp summertreatmentprogram.com or contact CHADD at www.chadd.org. A number of books and hands-on board games that foster the spirit of cooperation (not competition) are available through...

Teaching Social Skills Through Cooperative Learning

Section 1.7, ADHD and Social Skill Interventions, addressed the social challenges and difficulties with interpersonal relationships that are common among children teens with ADHD. It was explained that some children have social skill deficits in which they have not learned how to perform a specific social skill. However, typically children with ADHD do not have a skill deficit, but a performance deficit. Due to their problems with inhibition and self-control, they know what they are supposed to...

Why Was the Model Developed

There has been growing concern throughout the country regarding the quality of care for children diagnosed with ADHD. The results of the landmark Multimodal Treatment Approach (MTA) Study of ADHD done by the National Institute of Mental Health a few years ago (see Section 1.1) helped to reveal some of the problems regarding the community treatment of ADHD. Soon after, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released clinical practice guidelines for ADHD. Within the Salt Lake City, Utah,...

The Schools Role and Responsibilities in the Diagnosis of ADHD

As described in Section 1.2, the diagnosis of ADHD is dependent on gathering sufficient information to get a clear picture of how ADHD symptoms observed (currently and in previous years) affect the child in key environments. Obviously, the school is a key environment where the child spends much of his or her life. The school's role is to provide the information and data to enable the evaluator to determine past and present school functioning. Besides the presence of symptoms, the evaluator must...

Team Process

As mentioned above, parents of children with ADHD must assume a leadership role in forming and working with a team of various professionals who will be treating and educating their child. This does not come easily for many. It involves a process of gaining knowledge and understanding about ADHD (becoming an ADHD expert), in order to more confidently and competently advocate for the child's needs, and finding the necessary supports in school and the community to facilitate their son's or...

Program

The following is a model program for middle school students with ADHD. This exemplary program not only provides the above, but far more. It is called the ADHD Zero Period Middle School Program at James Rutter Middle School, Elk Grove Unified School District, Sacramento, California. Linda Ramer, a speech therapist in Elk Grove Unified School District (EGUSD), a large and diverse school district, developed this unique model program for serving students with ADHD and their families. Linda Ramer...

Legibility

When one struggles with handwriting and written organization, it interferes with production and being able to show what you know. Paper pencil tasks are a source of great frustration for many children with ADHD. When the physical act of writing is so tedious and the results of one's efforts are messy and illegible, it is no wonder that children with ADHD often hate to write and resist doing so. Children with ADHD may be developmentally delayed in their fine-motor skills (the small muscle...

Recommended Resources

Recommended Reading on ADHD in Adolescence Dendy, Chris Zeigler (2000) Teaching Teens with ADD and ADHD Bethesda, MD Woodbine House Dendy, Chris A Zeigler (1995) Teenagers with ADD A Parent's Guide Bethesda, MD Woodbine House Ellison, Phyllis Anne Teeter (2000) Strategies for Adolescents with AD HD Goal Setting and Increasing Independence The CHADD Information and Resource Guide to AD HD Landover, MD CHADD Flick, Grad L (2000) How to Reach & Teach Teenagers with ADHD Paramus, NJ The Center...

ADHD Look Alikes

Not everyone who displays symptoms of ADHD has an attention-deficit disorder. There are a number of other conditions and factors (medical, psychological, learning, psychiatric, emotional, social, environmental) that can cause inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors. The following can cause some of the symptoms that may look like or mimic ADHD Sensory impairments (hearing, vision, motor problems) Mood disorders (depression, dysthymia) Substance use and abuse (of alcohol and drugs)...

The Advantages of Cooperative Learning for Students with ADHD

The crux of differentiated instruction (see Section 3.1) requires teachers to employ methods and strategies that enable all students, with their diverse learning abilities and differences, to be able to master the curriculum and content performance standards. This is achieved through instruction, assessment, and learning activities that are meaningful and engaging. Cooperative learning is one of the best means of doing so, with decades of research that validates its efficacy. All teachers...

The Components of a Comprehensive Evaluation for ADHD

An evaluation for ADHD will require taking a thorough history (Rief, 1998, 2003). This is a critical part of the diagnostic process. The history is obtained through interviewing the parents, use of questionnaires (generally filled out by parents prior to office visits), and a review of previous medical and school records. By using these techniques and instruments, the evaluator obtains important data regarding the child's medical history (prenatal, birth, illnesses, injuries), developmental...

Common Reading Difficulties in Children and Teens with Attention Deficit Disorders

Because of the inherent difficulties associated with poor executive functioning and sustaining focused attention to task, it is common for individuals with ADHD to have difficulty with recall and comprehension of reading material (Rief, 1998, 2003). Although they may have strong decoding and word recognition skills (if they do not have the co-existing learning disability of dyslexia) and appear to be skilled readers, it is still most common to find that individuals with ADHD are generally not...

The PARD Project Now and in the Past

Although the PARD project was initially directed to a targeted group of children (those with less access to appropriate medical care), the process has ultimately been successful for the entire system in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The forms for data gathering and referral (in the PARD packet) are used in the system for any child, regardless of socioeconomic status. Intervention strategies are also taught system-wide, and are not limited to project participants. The system-wide changes in...

Girls with Attention Deficit Disorders

Many girls with ADHD have gone undiagnosed (or misdiagnosed) for years because they frequently do not have the typical hyperactive symptoms seen in boys that signal a problem and draw attention. In the past few years, much more attention has been given to girls with the disorder. Girls who do have the combined symptoms of ADHD are very recognizable because their behavior is so significantly out of norm for other girls. But on the whole, most girls have the predominantly inattentive type of the...

What May Be the Causes of ADHD

ADHD has been researched extensively in the United States and a number of other countries. There have been hundreds of well-designed and controlled scientific studies trying to determine the causes and most effective treatments for children, teens, and more recently, adults. To date, the causes of ADHD are not fully known or understood. However, based on the enormous amount of research, there is a lot of consensus in the scientific community about most probable causes, which include the...

Skill Deficits Versus Performance Deficits

Social skills problems can result from a skill deficit, in which the child does not know what to do in a social situation and needs to learn the skills to become socially competent. Social challenges can also have nothing to do with a lack of skills. According to a leading authority, Dr. Russell Barkley, children with ADHD typically do not have a skill deficit, but rather a performance deficit. They know what they are supposed to do and the appropriate social skills, but fail to apply or...

Math and Literature Connection

The following are some examples of literature books that involve mathematical concepts and can be integrated into math instruction 26 Letters and 99 Cents, by Tana Hoban. (New York Mulberry Paperback Books, 1995) A Million Fish . . . More or Less, by Patricia C. McKissack. Illustrated by Dena Schutzer. (New York Dragonfly Books, 1992) A Remainder of One, by Elinor J. Pinczes. Illustrated by Bonnie MacKain. (New York Houghton Mifflin, 1995) Annabelle Swift, Kindergartner, by Amy Schwartz....

Treatments

There are a number of alternative and unproven treatments that people claim are effective in treating ADHD. These include restricted diets, allergy treatments, megavitamins, biofeedback, anti-motion sickness medication, antioxidants, chiropractic adjustment and bone realignment, treatment for yeast infection, and so forth. There are also a variety of natural products advertised on the Internet and other places that claim to cure the symptoms of ADHD (CHADD, July 2001). Parents must be cautious...

What Is Known About Effective Intervention for Struggling Readers

Joseph Torgeson, a professor at Florida State University, in his keynote address to the International Dyslexia Association National Conference (Torgeson, 2003), shared the consensus regarding instructional features needed for effective intervention Systematic and explicit instruction on whatever component skills are deficient Significant increase in intensity of instruction Providing ample opportunity for guided practice of new skills in meaningful contexts Appropriate levels of scaffolding...

Preschool and Kindergarten Classroom Strategies for Success

The remainder of this section will focus on classroom strategies to maximize the success of students in preschool and kindergarten. This includes children with ADHD and others who may be struggling in school. Many early childhood teachers are challenged by what seems to be a rising number of children who are more difficult to manage and have a host of special needs. This includes children who Are simply immature, needing a little extra time to develop the social and emotional skills to handle...

Federal Way Public Schools Guiding Questions for Behavioral Issues

To guide teams in efforts to develop a deeper understanding of problem behaviors so they can work together to identify and implement effective intervention strategies I. Identify school staff who work with this student. II. Identify non-school agencies or persons working with this student. Is there a current release of information III. Describe the family home environment Identify all people living in the home. Are there any environmental factors that may be impacting the student's success at...

What Research Tells Us About Learning to Read and Reading Difficulties

Fairly recently, the converging evidence based on thirty years of research into reading has become available. Numerous studies investigated (Rief, 2001, 2003) 2. Why some children struggle in learning how to read 3. What can be done to prevent reading difficulties One of the main sources of the current information is the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health. The high rate of illiteracy and reading difficulties in the United States...

ADHD and the Impact on the Family

It is important to be aware of the challenges that exist in the home when one or more children (or a parent) have ADHD, as this disorder significantly impacts the entire family (Rief, 2003). Unfortunately, teachers are generally unaware or underestimate the struggles that families face. Typically, in homes of children with ADHD there is a much higher degree of stress than the average family has, along with depression or other pathology in one or more family members. Note Remember, it is likely...

Cognitive Learning Strategies

Cognitive strategies help a person process and manipulate information to perform tasks such as taking notes or asking questions. They tend to be useful when learning or performing certain specific tasks (Sousa, 2001). The following are examples of some cognitive strategies (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994) Resourcing using reference materials such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, textbooks Grouping classifying words, terminology, quantities, or concepts according to their attributes Note-taking...

Possible Corrective Consequences

Examples Consequences

The following list is not intended to show a recommended sequence or hierarchy of corrective consequences, just an array of possibilities that teachers may wish to consider in responding to student misbehavior and in developing their own discipline plan Loss of something the student wants for example, time from participating in a preferred activity, a privilege or responsibility, access or use of certain equipment materials for a period of time. Brief delay for example, a minute or two of...

Expository or Informational Text Structure

Students using this technique are taught how to identify the main ideas and supportive details (facts, statistics, examples) in the text. They are explicitly shown that the main ideas are generally found in the chapter titles and headings and that subheadings express the next biggest ideas and points. Learning how to use the glossary, table of contents, index, and tables graphs, as well as the techniques of scanning and skimming to find the answers, are important teaching points for helping...

Visualization and Guided Imagery

The ability to visualize colorful, vivid images with rich imagination and detailed action are natural skills of childhood. These same skills have been found to be useful in empowering people to help overcome obstacles in their lives. Visualization techniques are used to improve memory, enhance learning, facilitate healing, and increase other important skills (for example, study, social, coping, creative expression). As a learning strategy to enhance memory and retention, visualization...

Homework Assignment

In other sections of this book for example, Classroom Management , I discussed the importance for children of establishing a schedule and daily routine in the classroom. Schedules need to be highly visible and referred to frequently. Even kindergarten students should be aware of the schedule, which would be posted in pictures depicting the day's activities in sequence. Walk through the schedule each day and point out any changes in the daily weekly routine that will be taking place. For...

Exercise and Sports

It is known that exercise stimulates the central nervous system, increasing blood flow and oxygen to the brain. Some of the benefits of exercise include a boost in mood, and increase in focus, alertness, learning, and memory. For children who have an abundance of energy, it is a healthy, positive way to expend that energy. It is particularly important, therefore, for children teens with ADHD to exercise regularly. In fact, exercise in the morning for example, a before-school jogging program or...

Math Strategies and Interventions

As described in my earlier works, in spite of the challenges with math computation and problem solving, there are a number of ways that teachers and parents can help. The following are strategies to strengthen and build math skills, as well as appropriate modifications and accommodations to support struggling students. Make the abstract more concrete by Providing many kinds of manipulatives to help visualize and work out math problems cubes, chips, tiles, counters, beans, base-ten blocks,...

No Child Left Behind NCLB

Another important law that affects all school-age children in public schools throughout the United States is NCLB. On January 8, 2002, the No Child Left Behind NCLB Act was signed into law by President Bush, which reauthorized and replaced the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the federal framework for how we provide public education throughout the U.S. The overall aim of NCLB is to have all students performing at proficient levels in the two educational cornerstones, reading and...

Whole Group and Unison Responses

Have students recite poems or share reading of short passages or lines from the text chorally in unison . Singing songs or chants, reviewing for example, irregular sight words or math facts with whole class response to flash cards or other such activities are examples of choral responses. During whole class instruction, make frequent use of choral or unison responses when there is one correct and short answer. While presenting, stop frequently and have all students repeat...

Strategies for Bypassing and Accommodating Writing Difficulties

It will often be necessary to provide various accommodations or modifications to enable struggling writers to work at grade-level standards. The following are possible accommodations and ways to help students bypass some of the obstacles they face in writing Rief, 2003 . Consider the following when writing IEPs and 504 Accommodation Plans to support children and teens who struggle with writing. Stress quality writing not volume. Reduce the need to copy from the board or book. Remember that it...