Index

ACAID, See: Anterior-chamber associated immune deviation ACE, See: Angiotensin converting enzyme Acetazolamide, 348 Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 383 'Acid-fast bacilli' (AFB), 170 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

(AIDS), 204, 230-250, 405-406, See also Human immunodeficiency virus

Acral keratoses, 545 ACS, See: Acute chest syndrome Active pulmonary disease, 102 Acute anterior uveitis, 301 Acute bacterial otitis externa, 363 Acute chest syndrome (ACS), 289 Acute invasive fungal sinusitis, 191-193 clinical manifestations, 191 -192 complications and prognosis, 193 diagnosis, 192 epidemiology, 193 pathophysiology, 191 treatment, 192-193 Amphotericin B, 193 antifungal therapy, 192 Aspergillus, 193 Casopofungin, 193 external ethmoidectomy, 193 itraconazole, 193 surgical debridement, 192 systemic antifungal therapy, 193 transnasal endoscopic surgery, 193

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 420

Acute otitis media, 407 Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML), 254

Acute sudden hearing loss, 137 Acute uveitis, 64 Acyclovir, 128, 138, 142 Adalimumab, 71 Adamantiades-Behget's disease, 27-40

clinical manifestations, 29-35

[Adamantiades-Behget's disease clinical manifestations]

head and neck, 29-32: articular manifestations, 30; genital ulcers, 30; neurologic manifestations, 30; ocular manifestations, 30-32; oral ulcers, 30; skin manifestations, 30 complications and prognosis, 38 diagnosis, 35-36 nonspecific tests, 35 criteria for, 35 differential diagnosis, 36 epidemiology, 28 histopathologic evaluation, 29 pathergy in, 33 pathogenesis, 28-29

immune cross-reactivity, 28 skin lesions in, 33 acneiform/pustular lesions, 33 erythema nodosum, 33 pustular lesion, 33 ulcerative lesion, 33 systemic manifestations, 32-34 articular, 32 cutaneous, 32 gastrointestinal, 34 general manifestations, 32 nervous system, 34 pulmonary, 34 treatment, 36-38

anti-TNF-a therapy, 36 antitumor necrosis factor-a (INF-a)

therapy, 36 Azathioprine, 36 chlorambucil, 36 corticosteroids, 36 cyclophosphamide, 36 cyclosporine, 36 cytotoxics, 36 infliximab, 36

Interferon-a (IFN-a) therapy, 36 Thalidomide, 36 vulvar ulcerations in, 34 Adenopathy, 410, 501 AFB, See Acid-fast bacilli

AFS, See Allergic fungal sinusitis AICA, See Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

AIDS, See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIED, See Autoimmune inner ear disease AION, See Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy Alendronate, 310

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS), 181, 183-186 clinical manifestations, 184 complications and prognosis, 186 diagnosis, 184 epidemiology, 183 immunotherapy protocol for, 186 oral corticosteroid protocol for, 185 pathophysiology, 183 treatment, 184-186 antifungal therapy, 185 immunotherapy, 185 oral corticosteroids, 185 surgical treatment, 185 Allergic rhinosinusitis, 317-321 clinical manifestations, 318-319

otic manifestations, 318 complications, 321 nasal polyposis, 321 otitis, 321 sinusitis, 321 definition, 317 diagnosis, 319 epidemiology, 317 pathogenesis, 318 prognosis, 321 treatment, 319-320 allergen avoidance, 320 antihistamines, 319-320 corticosteroids, 320 cromones, 320 immunotherapy, 320 LT receptor antagonists, 320 vasoconstrictors, 320 Alopecia, 6 Alport syndrome, 387 ALS, See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Alveolar hemorrhage, 102 Amaurosis fugax, 47 Amikacin, 391

AML, See Myelogenous leukemia AML, See Promyelocytic leukemia Amphotericin B, 188, 193, 201 Ampicillin treatment, 128 Amyloidosis, 372, 414, 521-522

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 412, 511

c-ANCA and p-ANCA, See Cytoplasmic and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

Anemia iron deficiency anemia, 487-489 pernicious anemia, 486-487 Angioedema, 322-325

clinical manifestations, 324 acute allergic angioedema, 324 angioedema, 324 dyspnea, 324 stridor, 324 swelling, 324 complications and prognosis, 325 definition, 322

diagnosis and differential diagnosis, 324 epidemiology, 322-323 facial angioedema, 322 pathogenesis, 323

C1 inhibitor deficiency, 324 swelling of angioedema, 323 treatment, 324-325 Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), 69

Angular cheilitis, 234-236, 473 Angular stomatitis, 301 Animal models for AIED, 56 Ankylosing spondylitis, 85 Ann Arbor staging classification, 263 Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), 397

Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), 48

Anterior tonsillar pillar, 492 Anterior-chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID), 66 Antibacterial therapy, 150 Antihistamines, 319-320 Antimalarials, 37 Anti-TNF-a therapy, 36 Antiviral drugs, 142 Aphthae, 467-468

major aphthae, 467-468 minor aphthae, 467 Aphthous stomatitis, 507 Aphthous ulcers, 301 Arcanobacîenwm haemolyficwm, 498-499 Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation, 433, 436 Arteriovenous malformations, 553-554 Arthralgias, 412 Artificial tears, 22 Arytenoid adduction, 355

ASA, See Acetylsalicylic acid Aspergillosis, 193, 238 Aspirin (NSAID) hypersensitivity, 325-328 clinical manifestations, 326-327 definition, 326 diagnosis, 327 epidemiology, 326 pathogenesis, 326 treatment, 327

continued systemic steroids, 327 oral glucocorticoids, 327 Ataxia, 335, 388

Atypical mycobacteria, 175-177, 234 clinical manifestations, 176 cervical lymphadenitis, 176 cutaneous disease, 176 otitis media and mastoiditis, 176 definition, 175 diagnosis, 176-177

nontuberculous mycobacterial head and neck pathogens, 175 treatment, 177 Audiometric testing, 58 Auricular chondritis, 87 Autoimmune diseases, 391

treatment, 12 Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED), 53-62 animal models for, 56 classification, 59

immune-mediated Ménière's disease, 59

organ (ear) specific, 59 rapidly progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss: with associated inflammatory disease, 59; with systemic autoimmune disease, 59 clinical manifestations, 56-57

tinnitus, 57 common systemic autoimmune diseases associated with, 57 complications/prognosis, 60-61 definition, 54 diagnosis, 57-58

audiometric testing, 58 electronystagmonography, 58 laboratory testing, 58 epidemiology, 54 pathogenesis, 54-56

basic inner ear immunology, 54-56 primary AIED, 54 secondary AIED, 54 treatment, 58-60

[Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) treatment]

Cyclophosphamide, 60 Etanercept, 60 Humira (Adalimumab), 60 Methotrexate, 60 oral prednisone, 58 Plasmapheresis, 60 Remicade (Infliximab), 60 Rituxan (Rituximab), 60 Azathioprine (AZA), 36-37, 71, 76,

104, 502 Azithromycin, 155, 161

Bacillary Angiomatosis-Bartonellosis, 233

Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), 174

Bacterial infections, 232

BAEPs, See Brain stem auditory-evoked potentials Band keratopathy, 65 Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba (BRR)

syndrome, 545 Bartonella henselae, 406 Bartonella serology, 154 Basilar migraine, 335

common symptoms, 339 BCG, See Bacille CalmetteGuerin Behcet's disease, 57, 75, 366, 506

and MAGIC syndrome, 85 Bell's palsy, 133-137, 139, 403-404 Benign lymphoreticulitis, See Cat-scratch disease

Benzathine penicillin G, 225 Benzodiazepines, 375 ß blockers, 431

BHSP, See Bovine heat shock protein

ß-interferon, 411

Bill's bar, 396

'Birbeck granules', 410

Bisphosphonates, 310

Bitemporal visual loss, 48

Blastomycosis, 239

Bordetella pertussis, 499

Borrelia burgdorferi, 390, 399, 533

Bovine heat shock protein (bHSP), 302

Bradycardia, 417

Brain stem auditory-evoked potentials

(BAEPs), 74 Branchio-Oto-Renal (BOR) syndrome, 387

BRR, See Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba Budd-Chiari syndrome, 260 'Bull-neck' diphtheria, 148-149

Bullous pemphigoid, 505 'Butterfly rash', 6-7

Calcitonin, 310

Caldwell-Luc antrostomy, 452 Candidal stomatitis, 471-475 Candidosis, 234, 503 Carbapenem, 166 Casopofungin, 193

Cat-scratch disease (CSD), 152-155, 406, 531-533

clinical manifestations, 153-154, 531 atypical manifestations, 153 encephalopathy, 153 influenza-like syndrome, 153 optic neuritis, 153 osteomyelitis, 153

Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, 153

unilateral lymphadenopathy,

complications and prognosis, 533 definition, 531

diagnosis, 152, 154, 531-532 Bartonella serology, 154 biopsy, 154 criteria, 154 epidemiology, 152-153, 531 pathogenesis, 531 pathophysiology, 152-153 prognosis, 152, 155 symptomatology, 152 treatment, 152, 155, 533 typical and atypical features of,

Cavernous sinus thrombosis, 260 CD, See Crohn's disease Cefixime, 161

Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), 344, 362, 366, 389, 399

Cerebral vascular accidents (CVA), 289 Cerebrovascular disease, 510 Cervical adenitis, 507, 527-541 inflammatory disorders, 528-541

infectious diseases, 528-539, See also

Infectious diseases noninfectious disorders, 539-541, See also Noninfectious disorders non-inflammatory disorders, 541

Cervical lymphadenitis, 176, 414 Cervical spondylitis, 68 Chagas' disease, 515 Charles Bonnet syndrome, 47

Cheilitis granulomatosa, 302 Chlamydia infection, 75 Chlorambucil, 36-37, 71 Chlorhexidine, 23 Chloromas, 420 Cholesteatoma, 372, 407 Cholesterol granuloma, 372 Choline transporter-like protein-2 (CTL-2), 56

Chordae tympani, 396 Christmas disease, 446 Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis, 194-195 clinical manifestations, 194 complications and prognosis, 195 diagnosis, 194

endoscopic evaluation, 194 radiologic examination, 194 epidemiology, 194 pathophysiology, 194 treatment, 194 Chronic otitis media, 407 Chronic uveitis, 64 Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), 85, 107-111, 366 clinical manifestations, 108-110 ENT features, 109 eye, 109 GI, 109

glomerulonephritis, 109 lung, 109

myocardial involvement, 109 pericardial effusion, 109 sinusitis, 109

skin involvement, 108-109 complications and prognosis, 111 definition, 107 diagnosis, 110 ANCA, 110 epidemiology, 108 pathology and pathogenesis, 108 treatment, 110 Cicatricial pemphigoid (CP), 505 Ciprofloxacin, 155, 161 Clonazepam, 375

Clostridial myonecrosis—gas gangrene,

164-165 Clostridium tetani, 406 Clotrimazole, 188, 364 CME, See Cystoid macular edema CMV, See Cytomegalovirus CNS lymphoma, 75

Coccidioidomycosis ('San Joaquin Valley

Fever'), 238 Cochlear Meniere's disease, 137

clinical manifestations, 73-74 anterior uveitis, 73 conjunctivitis, 73 episcleritis, 73 retinal vasculitis, 73 scleritis, 73 complications and prognosis, 76-77 diagnosis, 74

brain stem auditory-evoked potentials

(BAEPs), 74 electronystagmography (ENG), 74 fluorescein angiography, 74 magnetic resonance angiography

(MRA), 74 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 74 differential diagnosis of, 75 epidemiology, 65 immunosuppressive therapy in, 71 pathogenesis, 72-73 treatment, 74-76 azathioprine, 76 corticosteroid therapy, 76 cyclophosphamide, 76 cyclosporine, 76 methotrexate, 76 prednisone, 76 tacrolimus, 76 CSD, See Cat-scratch disease Colchicine, 414 Collet-Sicard syndrome, 349 Congenital syphilis, 75, 222 Conjunctivitis, 158, 414 Copaxone, 411 Cortical strokes, 510 Corticosteroids, 12, 36, 76, 304, 320, 348

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 147, 499 Costen's syndrome, 133 Cowden syndrome, 545-548 clinical manifestations, 545-546 complications and prognosis, 548 definition, 545 diagnosis, 546-547 epidemiology, 545 international Cowden syndrome consortium operational criteria, 547

pathogenesis, 545 treatment, 547-548 Coxsackie virus, 464, 476, 502 CP, See Cicatricial pemphigoid Cranial nerves

[Cranial nerves]

anatomical and functional description of, 352

Cranial neuropathy, 399 Cranial polyganglionitis, 139 C-reactive protein (CRP), 58 Cricoarytenoid arthritis, 6, 11-12 Cricopharyngeal myotomy, 512 Crohn's disease (CD), 57, 75, 297-305, 471, 506, 514 aural manifestations, 302-303 clinical manifestations, 299-304 extraintestinal manifestations, pathophysiology of, 299 definition, 298

dermatologic manifestations, 303 erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum, 303 metastatic Crohn's disease, 303 Sweet's syndrome, 304 epidemiology, 298 laryngeal manifestations, 303 medical treatment, complications of, 304-305 head and neck complications, 304 nasal manifestations, 303 ocular manifestations, 299-301 episcleritis, 300 scleritis, 301 uveitis, 300 oral manifestations, 301-302 acute anterior uveitis, 301 angular stomatitis, 301 aphthous ulcers, 301 Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, 302

orofacial granulomatosis, 301 pyostomatitis vegetans, 301 pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, 298-299 treatment, 304 Cromones, 320 CRP, See C-reactive protein Cryptococcosis, 237 CS, See Cogan's syndrome CSF, See Cerebral spinal fluid CSS, See Churg-Strauss syndrome CTL-2, See Choline transporter-like protein-2 Cushing's disease, 415 Cutaneous bullous disease, 176, 515 Cutaneous mucormycosis, 200 CVA, See Cerebral vascular accidents CYC, See Cyclophosphamide

Cyclophosphamide (CYC), 12, 36-37, 60,

71, 76, 104, 393 Cyclosporine, 22, 36-37, 71, 76, 304 Cystoid macular edema (CME), 65, 69 Cytologic testing, 208 Cytomegalovirus (CMV), 128, 236, 241,

388, 405, 502 Cytoplasmic and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA and p-ANCA), 58 Cytotoxics, 36

Dacryocystorhinostomy, 105 Darkfield microscopy, 500 Debridement, 165

Dermatomyositis (DM), 3-14, 57, 511 clinical manifestations, 10-11 diffuse erythematous rash, 11 dysphagia, 11 inflammatory myositis, 10 definition, 4 epidemiology, 5 pathogenesis, 6 Desquamative gingivitis, 480 Diabetes mellitus, 417, 514 DIF, See Direct immunofluorescence Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), 253

Dihydrostreptomycin, 391 Diphtheria, 147-151

clinical manifestations, 149-150 diagnosis, 148, 150 Diphtheria toxin (DT), 149 epidemiology, 147 molecular pathogenesis, 149 pathology/pathophysiology, 147-148 prognosis, 151

symptomatology (by location of infection), 148

cutaneous, 148 larynx, 148

malignant or 'bull-neck' diphtheria,

148 nasal, 148 pharynx, 148 treatment, 148, 150-151 antibacterial therapy, 150 erythromycin, 150 penicillin, 150 Diplopia, 47

Direct immunofluorescence (DIF), 504 Discoid lesions, 6 Disequilibrium, 370-376

clinical manifestations, 373-374

[Disequilibrium] definition, 370 diagnosis, 375 epidemiology, 371 pathogenesis, 371 treatment and prognosis, 375-376 Disseminated mucormycosis, 201 Dizziness, 370-376

disequilibrium, 370-376, See also

Disequilibrium lightheadedness, 370-376, See also

Lightheadedness vertigo, 335, 370-376, See also Vertigo DLBCLs, See Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas DM, See Dermatomyositis DMD, See Duchenne muscular dystrophy Dopamine, 350 Doppler echocardiography, 90 Doxycycline, 161 Dry eyes, causes of, 16, 20 Dry mouth, causes of, 16, 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 511

Dysarthria, 45, 335 Dysphagia, 11, 45, 351, 509-515 esophageal dysphagia, See also

Esophageal dysphagia oropharyngeal dysphagia, See also Oropharyngeal dysphagia Dysphonia, 351

Ear and temporal bone, 246 EB, See Epidermolysis bullosa EBV, See Epstein-Barr virus Eczema herpeticum, 139 EERD, See Extraesophageal reflux disease Electromyography (EMG), 403 Electroneurography (ENoG), 397 Electronystagmonography (ENG), 58, 74, 347

Electroretinography, 392

ELISA, See Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay Embolization for epistaxis, 419 EMG, See Electromyography En coup de sabre lesion, 9 Encephalopathy, 153-155 Endobronchial ultrasound, 90 Endocrine system, 382 Endolymphatic hydrops, 337 ENG, See Electronystagmonography EnoG, See Electroneurography

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma

(ETCL), 113 Entomophthorales, 203 Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

(ELISA), 406, 502 Eosinophilia, 90

Eosinophilic fungal sinusitis, 186-190 clinical manifestations, 188 complications and prognosis, 189 diagnosis, 188

endoscopic sinus surgery, 189 epidemiology, 186-190 pathophysiology, 187-188 treatment, 188-189 amphotericin B, 188 clotrimazole, 188 itraconazole, 188 Eosinophilic granuloma, 287, 372 EM, See Erythema multiforme Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), 505 Episcleritis, 300 Epistaxis, 441-457 embolization, 419 etiology, 444-447 local factors, 445 systemic factors, 446-447 management, 447-453

endoscopic management, 452-453 maxillary artery ligation, 452 nasal packing, 448-452: anterior nasal packing, 449-450; posterior nasal packing, 450-452 outpatient setting, control in,

447-448 septal dermatoplasty, 453 sphenopalatine artery, endoscopic ligation of, 453 vascular anatomy, 442-443 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, 111, 127-143, 242, 405, 501-502 clinical manifestations, 127-128

oral hairy leukoplakia, 128 complications and prognosis, 128-129 hepatomegaly, 128 palatal petechiae, 128 splenomegaly, 128 definition, 127

EBV-positive extranodal angiocentric immunoproliferative diseases, 111 epidemiology, 127 pathogenesis, 127 treatment, 128 Acyclovir, 128

[Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection treatment]

ampicillin treatment, 128 aspirin, 128

corticosteroid drugs, 128 piperacillin, 128 tazobactam, 128 Erosive lichen planus, 476-478 Erythema migrans, 474-475 Erythema multiforme (EM), 329, 484-485

Erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum, 303 Erythematous candidiasis, 234-236, 472

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), 42

Erythromelalgia, 260 Erythromycin, 150 Erythroplakia, 475, 483 Esophageal dysphagia, 513-515 Chagas' disease, 515 Crohn's disease, 514 cutaneous bullous diseases, 515 diabetes mellitus, 514 mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD),

513-514 Sjogren's syndrome, 514 systemic sclerosis, 513 Esophagus, 247

ESR, See Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Etanercept, 60, 71

ETCL, See Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma Ethmoid artery ligation, 454-456 embolic agents, 453 selective embolization, 454-456 Etidronate, 310 Etiology jugular foramen syndrome, 350 pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, 344-345

Extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD), 506

Extremity paresthesias, 335

Facial lipoatrophy, 245 Facial nerve anatomy, 396-397

facial nerve segments, 397 Facial nerve dysfunction systemic disease, 399-421 idiopathic diseases, 408-414, See also Idiopathic diseases

[Facial nerve dysfunction systemic disease] infectious diseases, 399-408: AIDS/ human immunodeficiency virus,

405-406; Bell's palsy, 403-404; cat scratch disease, 406; cytomegalovirus, 405; herpes zoster oticus, 402-403; leprosy, 400-401; Lyme disease, 399; mononucleosis, 405; mumps, 401; mycoplasma, 404; otic diseases, See also Otic diseases; polio, 404-405; syphilis, 400; tetanus,

406-407; tuberculosis, 401-402 metabolic disorders, 415-419, See also

Metabolic disorders systemic neoplasms, 420-421, See also Systemic neoplasms Facial nerve paralysis, 395-421

treatment, 397-399 Falciform crest, 396 Famciclovir, 138, 142 FD, See Fibrous dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia (FD), 307-313, 415 clinical manifestations, 311-312 monostotic FD, 311 polyostotic disease, 311 complications and prognosis, 313 definition, 311 diagnosis, 312

ossifying and nonossifying fibroma, 312

tissue diagnosis (biopsy), 312 epidemiology, 311 pathogenesis, 311 treatment, 312 Fine needle aspiration (FNA), 172, 257 FLIPI, See Follicular Lymphoma IPI Fluorescein, 21

Fluorescent test for treponemes

(FTA-ABS), 58 FNA, See Fine needle aspiration Follicular Lymphoma IPI (FLIPI), 266 Fournier's gangrene, 164-165 FTA-ABS, See Fluorescent test for treponemes Fundus photography, 69 Fungal infections, 234

in the immunocompromised host, 204-205 Fungal rhinosinusitis, 179-196

acute invasive fungal sinusitis, 191-193, See also Acute invasive fungal sinusitis

[Fungal rhinosinusitis]

allergic fungal sinusitis, 183-186, See also

Allergic fungal sinusitis chronic invasive fungal sinusitis, 194-195, See also Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis definitions, 181-183 eosinophilic fungal sinusitis, 186-190,

See also Eosinophilic fungal sinusitis fungal-associated diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses, 182 invasive forms, 182 noninvasive forms, 182 fungus ball, 190 saprophytic fungal disease, 190 Fungus ball, 190 Furosemide, 348

Fusobacterium necrophorum, 500

GABHS, See Group A ß-hemolytic streptococcus gamma knifes 355 GCA, See Giant cell arteritis Genetic diseases, 387 Gentamicin, 155 Geotrichosis, 239 Gerlach's tonsils, 494 German measles, 389 GI mucormycosis, 201, 207 Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), 42-52 audiovestibular manifestations, 46-47 airways and lungs, 47 eye, 47-50

partial loss of vision, 47 transient monocular visual loss, 47 neck, 47

thyroid disease, 47 vestibular dysfunction, 46 clinical manifestations, 43-49 head and neck, 43-45 mouth and neck, 45-46 vascular and skin, 45 complications and prognosis, 51 definitions, 42 diagnosis, 49-50

temporal artery biopsy, 49 ultrasonography, 50 vascular imaging techniques, 50 epidemiology, 42 pathogenesis, 42-43 treatment, 51

glucocorticosteroid therapy, 51 Glaucoma, 70

Glomerulonephritis (GN), 99 Glomus jugulare tumor, 350

otoscopic view, 353 Glomus tympanicum tumor, 353 Glossitis, 486-489 herpetic glossitis, 489 differential diagnosis, 489 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 489

iron deficiency anemia, 487-489 differential diagnosis, 488 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 489

pernicious anemia, 486-487 differential diagnosis, 486-487 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 487

vitamin B deficiency, 489 differential diagnosis, 489 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 489

Glossopalatine arch, 494 Glucagonoma syndrome, 561-562 clinical manifestations, 561 complications and prognosis, 562 definition, 561 diagnosis, 562 epidemiology, 561 pathogenesis, 561 treatment, 562 Glucocorticosteroid therapy, 51, 104 GN, See Glomerulonephritis Gonorrhea, 155-162

clinical manifestations, 159 bacterial conjunctivitis, 159 corneal ulceration, 159 dissemination, 159 isolated pharyngeal infection, 159 Neisseria, 159 diagnosis, 159-160 gram stain for, 160 nucleic acid amplification tests

(NAATs), 160 strand displacement amplification

(SDA), 160 transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), 160 epidemiology, 156-157 pathogenesis, 158-159

urethral infections, 158 pathology/pathophysiology, 157-158

conjunctivitis, 158 pharyngeal gonococcal infection, 157 prognosis, 161-162

[Gonorrhea]

treatment, 160-161 azithromycin, 161 cefixime, 161 ciprofloxacin, 161 doxycycline, 161 spectinomycin, 161 Gout, 260

Granulomatous anterior uveitis, 65 Group A b-hemolytic streptococcus

(GABHS), 496-498 GABHS, See Group A b-hemolytic streptococcus Guillain-Barre syndrome, 405, 409 Gummas, 220-221

HAART, See Highly active antiretroviral therapy

Haemophilus influenza, 364, 407 'Halo effect', 120

Hamartoma syndrome, multiple, 545 Hand-Schuller-Christian disease, 287, 410 Hansen's disease, 400, 558-560 clinical manifestations, 558-559 complications and prognosis, 560 definition, 558 diagnosis, 560 epidemiology, 558 pathogenesis, 558 treatment, 560 types, 559

WHO recommendations, 560 Hard palate lymphoma, 259 Headache, 133, 429-437 classification, 430 migraine headache, 133 patient history, 430-431 primary headaches, 431-433, See also

Primary headaches secondary headaches, 433-436 tension headache, 133 Hearing loss types, 302

mild subclinical type, 302 severe type that leads to deafness, 302 Heerfordt's syndrome, 408 Heliotrope rash, 10 Hematogenous dissemination, 171 Hemiplegic migraine, 334, 336, 340 Hemophagocytic syndrome, 113 Hepatomegaly, 128 Hepatosplenomegaly, 410 Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, 553-555

[Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia] clinical manifestations, 554 complications and prognosis, 555 definition, 553 diagnosis, 554-555 epidemiology, 553 pathogenesis, 553-554 treatment, 554-555 Herpangina, 476, 502

Herpes simplex virus (HSV), 127-143, 463, 502-503

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), 127, 129-139, 240 clinical manifestations, 131-137 localized lymphadenopathy, 132 mucocutaneous lesions, 131 recurrent infection, 132-133 replication, 132 systemic symptoms, 131 complications and prognosis, 139 Bell's palsy, 139 cranial polyganglionitis, 139 eczema herpeticum, 139 herpetic whitlow, 139 ocular infection, 139 definition, 130 diagnosis, 137

antibody testing, 137 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, 137 epidemiology, 130 pathogenesis, 130-131 reactivation, signs and symptoms of, 131 signs and symptoms of dysfunction, 134 treatment, 137-139 acyclovir, 138 famciclovir, 138 methylprednisolone, 138 valacyclovir, 138 Herpes zoster infections, 125-143, 389, 402-403 clinical manifestations, 140-141 acute facial paralysis, 140 Herpes zoster cephalicus, 140 Ramsay Hunt syndrome, 140 complications, 142

granulomatous vasculitis, 142 postherpetic neuralgia, 142 diagnosis, 141

immunofluorescence, 141 Tzanck preparation, 141 epidemiology, 140 pathogenesis, 140 treatment, 142

[Herpes zoster infections treatment]

acyclovir, 142 antiviral drugs, 142 famciclovir, 142 oral treatment, 142 prednisone, 142 valacyclovir, 142 Herpetic gingivostomatitis, 465 Herpetic glossitis, 489 Herpetic whitlow, 139 Herpetiform aphthae, 468 Highly active antiretroviral therapy

(HAART), 230 Histamine, 319

Histiocytosis, 285-296, 372, 409-410, See also Langerhans cell histiocytosis Histoplasmosis ('Ohio Valley Fever'), 238 HIV, See Human immunodeficiency virus HL (Hodgkin lymphoma), 252 HLA, See Human leukocyte antigen Hoarseness, 351, 517-524 mechanisms, 518 relapsing polychondritis, 522 rheumatoid arthritis, 519-520 systemic lupus erythematosus, 520-521 viral neuropathy, 523-524 Horner's syndrome, 48 HPV, See Human papilloma virus HSV, See Herpes simplex virus HSV-1 , See Herpes simplex virus type-1 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, 229-250, 389, 405-406, 503, 537-538 CD4 lymphocyte count and clinical categories, 231 clinical manifestations, 537-538 head and neck, 232 systemic, 232 complications and prognosis, 538 definition, 230, 537 diagnosis, 538 epidemiology, 230-232, 537 idiopathic, autoimmune, and other complications of HIV/AIDS, 245-249, See also Idiopathic, autoimmune, and other complications of HIV/AIDS infectious complications of HIV/AIDS,

aspergillosis, 238

bacillary angiomatosis-Bartonellosis,

bacterial infections, 232

[Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS

infectious complications of HIV/AIDS] blastomycosis, 239 candidosis, 234 coccidioidomycosis, 238 cryptococcosis, 237 fungal infections, 234 geotrichosis, 239 histoplasmosis, 238 Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), 233 linear gingival erythema, 232 mycobacterial infections, 233 mycobacterium avium complex and atypical mycobacteria, 234 necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and stomatitis, 232 oral lesions, 234 Penicilliosis, 238 Sporotrichosis, 239 syphilis, 233

Warthin-Starry stain, 233 neoplastic complications of HIV/AIDS, 243-245, See also Neoplastic complications of HIV/AIDS pathogenesis, 232, 538 prognosis and the role of the head and neck surgeon, 248-249 treatment, 538 viral infections, 240 cytomegalovirus, 241 Epstein-Barr virus, 242 herpes simplex virus (HSV) Types 1

and 2, 240 human papilloma virus (HPV), 243 molluscum contagiosum

(Molluscipoxvirus), 243 oral hairy leukoplakia, 242 primary HIV infection, 240 varicella zoster virus, 241 Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), 558 Human papilloma virus (HPV), 243 Humira (adalimumab), 60 Hydroxychloroquine, 12, 71 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid, 353 Hypergammaglobulinemia, 410 Hyperlipidemia, 349 Hypesthesia, 133 Hypothyroidism, 417

IAC, See Internal auditory canal ICAM, See Intracellular adhesion molecule

IDIF, See Indirect immunofluorescence

Idiopathic diseases, 408-414 amyloidosis, 414 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 412 Guillain-Barre syndrome, 409 histiocytosis x, 409-410 Kawasaki disease, 414 Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, 409 mixed connective tissue disease,

412-413 multiple sclerosis, 411 polyarteritis nodosum, 413 pseudotumor cerebri, 413-414 sarcoidosis, 408 Sjögren's syndrome, 410-411 systemic lupus erythematosus, 411-412 Wegener' s granulomatosis, 413 Idiopathic, autoimmune, and other complications of HIV/AIDS, 245-249

benign lymphoepithelial cysts, 245 ear and temporal bone, 246 esophagus, 247

immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), 248 immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 245 larynx and trachea, 247 lipohypertrophy and facial lipoatrophy, 245

meth mouth, 246

multicentric Castleman' s disease, 247 neck lymphadenopathy and masses, 247 oral pigmentation, 245 otitis media (OM), 246 recurrent aphthous ulcers, 245 rhinitis and sinusitis, 246 salivary gland enlargement, 246 xerostomia, 246 IgE-mediated disorders, 315-332 IHS, See International Headache Society Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), 248 Immune system, 382 Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 245 Immune-mediated Ménière's disease, 59 Immunofluorescence, 141 Immunosuppressive medication, 107 Indirect immunofluorescence (IDIF), 504 Infectious diseases, 528-539

cat-scratch disease, See Cat-scratch disease human immunodeficiency virus, See

Human immunodeficiency virus Kawasaki disease, See Kawasaki disease Lyme disease, See Lyme disease mononucleosis, See Mononucleosis

[Infectious diseases]

mycobacterial infection, See

Mycobacterial infection syphilis, See Syphilis tularemia, See Tularemia Infectious otitis media, 364 Infectious uveitis, 67 Inflammatory arthritis, 4 Inflammatory bowel disease, pathogenesis,

298-299 Inflammatory myopathy, 412 Infliximab, 36, 71 Inner ear immunology, 54-56 Interferon-a (IFN-a ) therapy, 36-37 Intermediate uveitis, 65 Internal auditory canal (IAC), 396 International Headache Society (IHS), 334, 430

migraine, classification of, 334 International prognostic index (IPI), 113, 266

Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), 18, 29

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 557 IPI, See International prognostic index Ipsilateral trapezius, 351 IRIS, See Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome Iris nodules, 65 Ischemic optic neuropathy, 48 Isolated CNS mucormycosis, 201 Itraconazole, 188, 193, 236 IVIG, See Intravenous immunoglobulin

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, 226 Jaw claudication, 45 Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, 387

JRA, See Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Jugular foramen syndrome, 349-356 anatomy, 350-351 clinical manifestations, 351 complications and prognosis, 356 definition, 349 diagnosis, 351-354 epidemiology, 350 etiology, 350-351 imaging characteristics, 354 pathogenesis, 350 treatment, 354-356 Juvenile angiofibromas, 456-457 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 85 Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), 11, 67-68

Kanamycin, 391

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), 233, 243 Kawasaki disease (KD), 117-124, 414, 536-537

clinical manifestations, 120-121, 536 complications and prognosis, 122 sensorineural hearing loss, 122 definition, 118 diagnosis, 121, 536 diagnostic criteria for, 119 epidemiology, 118-119, 536 laboratory findings suggestive of, 119 pathogenesis, 119-120, 536 treatment, 121-122, 537 aspirin, 121 KCS, See 'Keratoconjunctivitis sicca' KD, See Kawasaki disease Kearns-Sayre syndrome, 388 Keratoacanthoma, 550 'Keratoconjunctivitis sicca' (KCS), 11, 20

ocular management of, goals, 22 Ketoconazole, 236 KID syndrome (congenital), 75 Kiesselbach's plexus, 443, 447 Koplik's spots, 503 KS, See Kaposi's sarcoma

Lactic acidosis, 388

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), 286-288 clinical manifestations, 287 eosinophilic granuloma, 287 Hand-Schuller-Christian disease, 287 Letterer-Siwe disease (systemic LCH), 287

otologic manifestations, 287 diagnosis, 287 epidemiology, 286 pathology, 286 prognosis, 288 treatment, 287-288 Laryngeal disease, 6, 78, 259 Laryngeal paralysis, 517-524 amyloidosis, 520-522 neurofibromatosis, 524 pemphigoid, 522 pemphigus, 522 rheumatoid arthritis, 521-520 sarcoidosis, 523

systemic lupus erythematosus, 520-521 viral neuropathy, 523-524 Wegener's granulomatosis, 518-519 Laryngotracheobronchial involvement, 88 Larynx, 247 Latent syphilis, 219

Latent TB infection (LTBI), 171 LCH, See Langerhans cell histiocytosis LDD, See Lhermitte-Duclos disease Lemierre's syndrome, 164-165 Lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM), 276 Lepromatous, 559 Leprosy, 400-401

LES, See Lower esophageal sphincter Lethal midline granuloma, See nasal natural killer (NK) Letterer-Siwe disease (systemic LCH), 287 Leucocytoclastic, 85 Leukemia, 251-271

clinical manifestations, 261-262 complications, 268 definition, 252 diagnosis and staging, 264 epidemiology, 253 pathogenesis, 254 prognosis for, 266-268 treatment, 266 Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD), 545 Lightheadedness, 370-376 clinical manifestations, 374 definition, 370 diagnosis, 375 epidemiology, 371 pathogenesis, 371 treatment and prognosis, 375-376 Linear gingival erythema, 232 Lipohypertrophy, 245 Lissamine green, 21 Little' s area, 443

LMM, See Lentigo maligna melanoma Loco-regional disease (nodal assessment),

278-280 Lou Gehrig's disease, 412 Lower esophageal sphincter (LES), 512 LTBI, See Latent TB infection LT receptor antagonists, 320 Lung disease, 102

Lyme disease, 375, 390-391, 399, 533-534 clinical manifestations, 534 complications and prognosis, 534 definition, 533 diagnosis, 534 epidemiology, 533 pathogenesis, 533-534 treatment, 534 Lyme disease, 75 Lymphadenitis, 176, 412 Lymphadenopathy, 67, 501 Lymphoma, 68, 244, 246, 251-271 clinical manifestations, 254-260

[Lymphoma clinical manifestations]

hard palate lymphoma, 259 laryngeal lymphoma, 259 lymphoma involving specific head and neck sites, 256 nasal cavity and paranasal sinus lymphoma, 258 orbital lymphoma, 260 salivary gland lymphoma, 258 Waldeyer's ring lymphoma, 257 complications, 268 definition, 252

diagnosis and staging, 262-263

Ann Arbor staging classification, 263 epidemiology, 252-253 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 252 lymphoid neoplasms, WHO classification, 255

non-HL (NHL), 252 pathogenesis, 253-254 prognosis for, 266 thyroid lymphoma, 256 treatment, 264-265 Lymphoscintigraphy, 279

MA (Migraine with aura), 334-336, 340 MAC, See Mycobacterium avium complex 'MAGIC syndrome' (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage), 90 Major histocompatibility complex class I

Malignant hypertension, 417-418 Malignant melanoma, 273-283 as an autosomal-dominant familial syndrome, 274 clinical manifestations, 274-276 lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM), 276

mucosal lentiginous melanoma (MLM), 276

nodular melanoma (NM), 275 primary cutaneous melanoma, 275 primary lesion, 274-276 regional metastasis, 276 superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), 275

systemic disease, 276 complications and prognosis, 281 infection, wound dehiscence, and cosmetic defect, 281

[Malignant melanoma complications and prognosis]

primary tumor thickness, ulceration, and lymph node status, 281 diagnosis, 276-278 AJCC staging for, 277 staging, 277-278 tissue biopsy, 278 epidemiology, 274 mucosal melanomas, 281-283 conjunctival melanomas, 281 diagnostic measures, 282 from the conjunctiva, 282 local recurrences, 283 occurrence, 282 staging of, 281 pathogenesis, 274 sun exposure and, 274 treatment, 278-280

loco-regional disease (nodal assessment), 278-280 systemic disease, 280 Malignant otitis externa, 407-408 MALT, See Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MAS, See McCune-Albright syndrome Mastoidectomy, 106 Mastoiditis, 101, 176 McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), 311, 415

MCD, See Metastatic Crohn's disease MCTD (mixed connective tissue disease),

513-514 MDR-TB, See Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MDT, See Multidrug therapy Measles virus, 389, 503 Medication overuse headache (MOH), 432-433

Melanoma, See also Malignant melanoma Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, 302, 409 Membrane pemphigoid, 479-480 Méniere's syndrome, 57, 337-338

definition, 338 Meningiomas, 350 Meningitis, 389

Meningovascular neurosyphilis, 221 Merlin, 372 Mesalamine, 304 Metabolic disorders, 415-419 diabetes mellitus, 417 embolization for epistaxis, 419 fibrous dysplasia, 415 hypothyroidism, 417

[Metabolic disorders]

malignant hypertension, 417-418 myasthenia gravis, 416-417 osteopetroses, 415-416 Paget's disease, 415 porphyrias, 416 pregnancy, 418 toxicity, 419 vaccinations, 418-419 Metastatic Crohn's disease (MCD), 303 Meth mouth, 246

104, 304 Methylprednisolone, 138 MICA, See Major histocompatibility complex class I Microhemagglutination assay, 223 Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), 85, 99-115 Migraine syndrome, 333-341, 431 clinical manifestations, 336-337 common triggering factors, 339 complications and prognosis, 340 definition, 334-335 diagnosis, 338-339 epidemiology, 335 migraine equivalents, 337-338 migraine with aura (MA), 334-336, 340

definition, 334 migraine without aura (MO), 334

diagnostic criteria, 338 pathogenesis, 335-336 symptoms, 334 treatment, 339-340 Migrainous infarction IHS criteria for, 340 Mitochondrial encephalopathy, 388 Mitochondrial syndromes, 388 Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD),

85, 412-413, 513-514 Mixed cryoglobulinemia, 85 MLM (Mucosal lentiginous melanoma), 276 MMP, See Mucous membrane pemphigoid MO (Migraine without aura), 334 MOH, See Medication overuse headache Modified Dandy criteria, 346 Moh' s micrographic surgery, 279 Molluscum contagiosum (Molluscipoxvirus), 243

Mononucleosis, 128, 405, 538-539 clinical manifestations, 538 complications and prognosis, 539 diagnosis, 538 epidemiology, 538 pathogenesis, 538

[Mononucleosis] treatment, 538 'Monospot test', 128 Moraxella catarrhalis, 407 MOTT, See Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis MPA, See Microscopic polyangiitis MS, See Multiple sclerosis MTX, See Methotrexate Mucormycosis, 197-212 acquisition, 200 in children, 205

clinical manifestations, 205-207 rhinocerebral mucormycosis, 205-206

complications, prognosis, and prevention, 210-211 cutaneous mucormycosis, 200 definition, 201-202 diagnosis, 201, 208-209 abdominal CT, 208 chest CT, 208 cytologic testing, 208 fungal culture, 209 imaging studies, 208 laboratory studies, 209 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 208

tissue specimens, evaluation, 208-209 diseases associated with, 203 disseminated mucormycosis, 201 epidemiology, 202-203 GI mucormycosis, 201, 207 isolated CNS mucormycosis, 201 pathogenesis, 203-205 entomophthorales, 203 fungal infections in the immunocompromised host, 204-205 pathophysiology, 200 primary cutaneous mucormycosis, 207

principal site of disease, 200 pulmonary mucormycosis, 200, 207 rhinocerebral, 200 signs and symptoms, 207 symptomatology, 200 treatment, 201, 209-210 Amphotericin B, 201, 209-210 endoscopic surgery, 201 Mohs micrographic surgery,

209 surgery, 209

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), 19, 253

Mucosal lentiginous melanoma (MLM), 276

Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), 462

Muir-Torre syndrome, 548-551 clinical manifestations, 548-549 complications and prognosis, 550-551 definition, 548 diagnosis, 549-550 diagnostic criteria, 550 epidemiology, 548 pathogenesis, 548 treatment, 550 Multicentric Castleman's disease, 247 Multidrug therapy (MDT), 558 Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

(MDR-TB), 170 Multiple sclerosis (MS), 68, 382, 411 Mumps, 389, 401 Musculoskeletal disease, 102, 382 Myasthenia gravis, 416-417, 512 Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), See Atypical mycobacteria Mycobacterial infection, 233, 528-531 clinical manifestations, 528-529 complications and prognosis, 531 definition, 528 diagnosis, 529 epidemiology, 528 treatment, 529-531 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 175, 234

Mycobacterium leprae, 400, 558 Mycobacterium tuberculae, 401, 528 Mycophenolate mofetil, 71 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 404 Myeloproliferative disorders, 251-271 clinical manifestations, 260-261 Budd-Chiari syndrome, 260 cavernous sinus thrombosis, 260 erythromelalgia, 260 gout, 260

iron deficiency, 260 pruritis, 260

pyoderma gangrenosum, 260 von Willebrand' s disease, 260 complications, 268 definition, 252

diagnosis and staging, 263-264 epidemiology, 253 pathogenesis, 254

[Myeloproliferative disorders] prognosis for, 266-268 treatment, 265-266 Myosis, 45

Myositis, 4, See also Dermatomyositis; polymyositis

NAAT, See Nucleic acid amplification testing

Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus lymphoma, 258

Nasal chondritis, 87 Nasal lining physiology, 443-444 Nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, 111-115 clinical manifestations, 112-113 complications and prognosis, 113-114 definition, 112 diagnosis, 113 epidemiology, 112 pathogenesis, 112 treatment, 113 radiation therapy (RT), 113 Nasal obstruction, 78 Nasal polyposis, 321 Nasal TB, 172

Neck lymphadenopathy and masses, 247 Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), 561 Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), 162-166 clinical manifestations, 164-165 diagnosis, 165 epidemiology, 162-163 molecular pathogenesis, 164 pathology/pathophysiology, 163

obliterative endarteritis and thrombosis of the subcutaneous vessels, 164 treatment, 165-166

antimicrobial therapy, 166 Carbapenem, 166 debridement, 165 fasciotomy incisions, 165 Vancomycin, 166 types, 164

Clostridial myonecrosis—gas gangrene,

164-165 Fournier's gangrene, 164-165 Lemierre's syndrome, 164-165 NF type II—Grp A streptococcal, 164-165

NF type I—polymicrobial, 164-165 NF type II—Grp A streptococcal, 164-165

NF type I—polymicrobial, 164-165

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), 483-484

Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and stomatitis, 232-233 Neisseria conjunctivitis, 159 Neisseria gonorrhea, 157, 499-500 Neoplasm, 507-508 Neoplastic complications of HIV/AIDS, 243-245 aphthous ulcers, 244 cutaneous lesions, 244 Kaposi' s sarcoma, 243 lymphoma, 244 oral cancer, 245 Nervous system disease in WG, 102 Neurofibromatosis, 524

type 2, 388 Neurologic system, 381-382 Neuromuscular disorders, 511-513 Neuro-otologic manifestations of sarcoidosis, 79

NF, See Necrotizing fasciitis NK, See Nasal natural killer NM, See Nodular melanoma NME, See Necrolytic migratory erythema Nodular fasciitis, 540-541 clinical manifestations, 541 diagnosis, 541 epidemiology, 540 pathogenesis, 540 prognosis, 541 treatment, 541 Nodular melanoma (NM), 275 Nongranulomatous uveitis, 88 Non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma, 68 Noninfectious disorders, 539-541

nodular fasciitis, See Nodular fasciitis sarcoidosis, See Sarcoidosis Tangier disease, See Tangier disease Noninvasive fungal otitis externa, 364 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

(NSAID), 315-332, 556, See also Aspirin

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), 174

Norepinephrine, 350 Nose, physiology, 443-444 NSAID hypersensitivity, 325-328, See also Aspirin

NTM, See Nontuberculous mycobacteria Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), 160, 172

NUG, See Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Nystagmus, 375

Objective nonpulsatile tinnitus etiologies, 380-381 Objective pulsatile tinnitus, 380-381 etiologies, 381 Objective tinnitus objective nonpulsatile tinnitus, 380-381 etiologies, 381 objective pulsatile tinnitus, 380-381 etiologies, 381 Ocular lymphoma, 68 Ocular manifestations, in SS, 18-19 Ocular TB, 172

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

(OPMD), 511 OM, See Otitis media OPMD, See Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy Oral cancer, 245 Oral colchicine, 37 Oral dapsone, 37 Oral hairy leukoplakia, 242 Oral lesions, 462-489 Glossitis, See Glossitis Stomatitis, See Stomatitis Oral pigmentation, 245 Oral tetracycline or macrolide agents, 37

Oral treatment, 142 Orbital lymphoma, 260 Orbital pseudotumor, 103 Organ systems in sarcoidosis, 80 Oroesophageal candidiasis, 234 Orofacial granulomatosis, 301 Oropharyngeal dysphagia, 510-513 cerebrovascular disease, 510 iatrogenic causes, 512-513 neuromuscular disorders, 511-512 Osler-Weber-Rendu disease, 453, 553 Osteogenesis imperfecta, 382 Osteopetroses, 415-416 Otic diseases, 407-408 acute otitis media, 407 cholesteatoma, 407 chronic otitis media, 407 malignant otitis externa, 407-408 Otitis media (OM), 176, 246, 321, 390 Otoimmune Diagnostics, 58 Otorrhea, 361-366, 401

complications and prognosis, 366 definition, 362

diagnosis and treatment, 363-366 allergy and dermatitis, 365

[Otorrhea diagnosis and treatment]

infectious etiologies, 363-365: acute bacterial otitis externa, 363; immunocompromised individuals, infections in, 364-365; infectious otitis media, 364; noninvasive fungal otitis externa, 364 other etiologies, 366 epidemiology, 362 pathogenesis, 362-363 Otosyphilis, 57 Ototoxicity, 391-392

Paget's disease of bone (PDB), 307-310, 382, 415 clinical manifestations, 309 complications and prognosis, 310

bowing of weight-bearing bones, 310 definition, 308 diagnosis, 309

CT, 309 epidemiology, 308 pathogenesis, 308-309 Pagetic osteoclasts, 308 thickening and enlargement of skull, 308 treatment, 310 Alendronate, 310 Bisphosphonates, 310 Calcitonin, 310 Etidronate, 310 Pamidronate, 310 Risedronate, 310 Palatal petechiae, 128 Palatopharyngeus, 494 Pamidronate, 310 PAN, See Polyarteritis nodosa Panniculitis, 6 Panuveitis, 64

'Papulosquamous syphilids', 218 Paraganglia, 350 Paraneoplastic syndrome, 382 Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, 153, 155

Parkinson's disease, 512 'Pathergy', 32 Paul-Bunnell test, 128 PCR, See Polymerase chain reaction PDB, See Paget's disease of bone Pemphigus foliaceus, 504 Pemphigus vulgaris, 479-481, 504-505, 522

Pendred syndrome, 387 Penicillin, 150

[Penicillin] penicillin G, 224

penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG), 161 Penicilliosis, 238 Periodic fever, 507 Peripheral neuropathy (PN), 108 Pernicious anemia, 486-487 PET scan, 354

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, 551-553 clinical manifestations, 551-552 complications and prognosis, 553 definition, 551 diagnosis, 552 epidemiology, 551 pathogenesis, 551 treatment, 552-554 PGE, See Polyganglionitis episodica Pharyngeal TB, 172 Pharyngitis/tonsillitis, 493-508 clinical manifestations, 494-495 definition, 494 pathogenesis, 496-508

bacterial infection, 496-501:

arcanobacterium haemolyticum,

498-499; bordetella pertussis, 499; corynebacterium diphtheriae, 499; epidemiology, 496; fusobacterium necrophorum, 500; group A ß-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), 496-498; mycobacterium, 500-501; Neisseria gonorrhea,

499-500; streptococcus, 496; treponema pallidum, 500

fungal infection, 503: candidiasis, 503 inflammatory/autoimmune, 504-508: Behcet's disease, 506; bullous pemphigoid, 505; Crohn's disease, 506; extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD), 506; neoplasm, 507-508; pemphigus, 504-505; sarcoidosis, 505-506; Wegener's granulomatosis, 504 EERD, See extraesophageal reflux disease viral infection, 501-503: adenovirus, 501; Coxsackie virus, 502; cytomegalovirus, 502; Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 501 -502; herpes simplex virus, 502-503; human immunodeficiency virus, 503; measles, 503; upper respiratory viruses, 501

[Pharyngitis/tonsillitis pathogenesis]

EBV, See Epstein-Barr virus Pili, 158 Piperacillin, 128 Plasmapheresis, 60 PM, See Polymyositis

PMR (Polymyalgia rheumatica), 42-52, See also Giant cell arteritis PN, See Peripheral neuropathy Pneumocystis carinii, 365, 406 Pneumonia, 93 Polio, 404-405

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), 57, 75, 85, 391, 413

Polyganglionitis episodica (PGE), 131 Polyganglionitis, 133

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 69, 172, 502

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), 42-52,

See also Giant cell arteritis Polymyositis (PM), 3-14, 511 clinical manifestations, 10-11 inflammatory myositis, 10 definition, 4 epidemiology, 5 pathogenesis, 6 Porphyrias, 416 Pott' s disease, 173 PPIs, See Proton pump inhibitors Prednisone, 58, 76, 142 Pregnancy, 418 Primary complex, 171 Primary cutaneous mucormycosis, 207 Primary headaches, 431-433

analgesic rebound headaches, 432-433

treatment, 433 cluster headaches, 432

treatment, 432 migraine headache, 431 migraine with aura, 431 migraine without aura, 431 treatment, 431 tension-type headaches, 432 treatment, 432 Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, 463-464 Primary HIV infection, 240 Primary melanoma, 274-276

treatment, 280 Primary syphilis, 217-218 Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 512 Progressive systemic sclerosis, 85 Proptosis, 410

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), 506 Pruritis, 260

Pseudomembranous candidiasis,

234, 236 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 364, 407-408

Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, 343-349, 413-414 clinical manifestations, 346 complications, 349 definition, 344 diagnosis, 346

modified Dandy criteria, 346 epidemiology, 344 etiology, 344-345 pathogenesis, 344-345 prognosis, 349 treatment, 348-349 Psoriatic arthritis, 85 PSP, See Progressive supranuclear palsy PT, See Pulsatile tinnitus Psychological disorders, 382 Pulmonary mucormycosis, 200, 207 Pulsatile tinnitus (PT), 345 Pulse oximetry, 451 Pure-tone, 347 Purkinje cells, 372 Pyostomatitis vegetans, 301, 474

QuantiFERON®, 174

RA, See Rheumatoid arthritis Radiation therapy (RT), 113, 506-507 Radionucleotide bone scan, 90 Radioimmunoassay, 55 Ramsay Hunt syndrome, 241, 389, 402 Ranke complex, 171 Rapid plasma reagin (RPR), 500 Rapidly progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with associated inflammatory disease, 59

with systemic autoimmune disease, 59

Raynaud's phenomenon, 8, 412, 513 RCM, See Rhinocerebral mucormycosis Rebamipide, 37

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, 245,

467-469 Recurrent intraoral herpes, 465 Refresh® eyedrops, 22 Regional melanoma, 276, 337 Reiter syndrome, 85, 469 Relapsing polychondritis (RP), 57, 75, 83-95, 522 clinical manifestations, 87-90

[Relapsing polychondritis (RP) clinical manifestations]

head and neck manifestations, 87-89: arthritis, 87; auricular chondritis, 87; cardiovascular, 87; kidney disease, 87; luminal narrowing, 88; ocular inflammation effects, 88; nasal chondritis, 87; neurologic involvement, 87; ocular inflammation, 87; skin involvement, 87; vasculitis, 87 definition, 84 diagnosis, 90-91

Doppler echocardiography, 90 endobronchial ultrasound, 90 magnetic resonance imaging, 90 radio nucleotide bone scan, 90 diseases associated with, 85 epidemiology, 84 pathogenesis, 84-86

associated diseases, 84-85 genetics, 84 pathology, 85 pathophysiology, 85-86 prognosis, 93

systemic manifestations, 89-90 cardiovascular involvement, 89 joint involvement, 89 peripheral arthritis, 80 vasculitis, 89 treatment, 91-93 Azathioprine, 92 chlorambucil, 92 Cyclophosphamide, 92 cyclosporin A, 92 leflunomide, 92 Methotrexate, 92 plasmapheresis, 92 Remicade (Infliximab), 60 Respiratory tract, diphtheria colonization, 150

Retinal arterials, 47 Retinitis pigmentosa, 388 Retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy, 75 Retrobulbar optic neuropathy, 48 Rhabdomyosarcoma, 292-295 clinical manifestations, 293 diagnosis, 293-294 epidemiology, 292 grouping of, 293 pathology, 292-293 prognosis, 295 treatment, 294-295 biopsy, 295

[Rhabdomyosarcoma treatment]

chemotherapy, 295 radiation therapy, 295 tumor, node, and metastasis staging, 294 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3-14, 50, 57, 75, 85, 519-520 cervical spine involvement in, 12 clinical manifestations, 11 -12 cricoarytenoid involvement, 11 keratoconjunctivitis, 11 definition, 4 epidemiology, 5 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, 11 pathogenesis, 6 Rhinitis, 246-247

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (RCM),

204-206 Rifampin, 155 Risedronate, 310 Rituxan (Rituximab), 60 Rizopus oryzae, 191 Rose bengal, 21

RP, See Relapsing polychondritis RPR, See Rapid plasma reagin RT, See Radiation therapy Rubella, 389

Salivary gland biopsy, 21 Salivary gland dysfunction, 19 Salivary gland enlargement, 246 Salivary gland lymphoma, 258 Salpingopharyngeus, 494 Saprophytic fungal disease, 190 Sarcoidosis, 63-82, 372, 408, 505-506, 523, 539-540

clinical manifestations, 78-80, 539 head and neck manifestations, 78-79 laryngeal disease, 78 neuro-otologic manifestations of, 79 ocular involvement, 79 skin disease, 79 tonsillar involvement, 78 uveitis, 79 complications and prognosis, 81 conjunctival nodule related to, 77 definition, 77 diagnosis, 80, 540 epidemiology, 77-78, 539 immunosuppressive therapy in, 71 organ systems in, 80 cardiac, 80 gastrointestinal, 80 hepatic, 80

[Sarcoidosis organ systems in] renal, 80 reproductive, 80 spleen, 80 thyroid, 80 pathogenesis, 78, 539 prognosis, 540 treatment, 80, 540 Satellite lesions, 276 Schirmer strips, 20 Schwann cells, 401 Schwannomas, 350 Scleritis, 301 Scleroderma, 3-14, 57

clinical manifestations, 8-10 characteristic facies, 9 chondrodermatitis nodularis helices, 9

en coup de sabre lesion, 9 esophageal dysmotility, 9 nonobstructive dysphagia, 9 pigmentation, 8 Raynaud's phenomenon, 8 sensorineural hearing loss, 9 swallowing dysfunction, 9 telangiectasias, 8 definition, 4 epidemiology, 5 pathogenesis, 5 SDA, (strand displacement amplification), 160

Seboacanthoma, 549 Secondary headache, 433-436 Secondary syphilis, 218-219 Sedimentation rate (ESR), 58 Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), 246, 302, 385-394 clinical manifestations, 387-392 Alport syndrome, 387 autoimmune diseases, 391 branchio-oto-renal syndrome, 387 genetic diseases, 387 infectious diseases, 388-390:

cytomegalovirus, 388; human immunodeficiency virus, 389; lyme disease, 390-391; meningitis, 389; mumps and measles viruses, 389; otitis media, 390; rubella, 389; syphilis, 390; varicella-zoster vrus, 389

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, 387

mitochondrial syndromes, 388

[Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) clinical manifestations]

neurofibromatosis type 2, 388 ototoxicity, 391-392 Pendred symdrome, 387 definition, 386 diagnosis, 392 pathogenesis, 386-387 treatment, 392-393 medications, 392-393 ototoxicity prophylaxis, 393 prosthetics, 393 Septal dermatoplasty, 453 Septoplasty, 445 Serotonin, 350 SGS, See Subglottic stenosis Shirmer tear test, 135 Sialography, 21 'Sick headache', 336 Sickle-cell anemia, 288-292 clinical manifestations, 289 diagnosis, 290 epidemiology, 288 pathophysiology, 288-289 perioperative management, 291-292 systemic features of, 289 treatment, 290-291

nonpharmacologic treatment, 290 Sinonasal disease, 78 Sinovenous stenosis, 344 Sinus surgery, 105 Sinusitis, 246-247, 321 Sjogren's syndrome (SS), 15-25, 57, 75, 85, 259, 410-411, 514 classification criteria for, 18 autoantibodies, 18 histopathology, 18 ocular signs, 18 ocular symptoms, 18 oral symptoms, 18 salivary gland involvement, 18 clinical manifestations, 19-20

dryness in the eyes and mouth, 20 extraglandular manifestations, 20 filamentary keratitis, 19 ocular dryness, 19 ocular manifestations, 19 salivary gland dysfunction, 19 complications and prognosis, 24 definition, 17 diagnosis, 16, 20-22 fluorescein in, 21 labial salivary gland biopsy, 21 Lissamine green in, 21

[Sjogren's syndrome (SS) diagnosis]

primary SS, 20 Rose bengal in, 21 secondary SS, 20 sialography, 21 diagnostic/classification criteria, 17 dry eyes, causes of, 16 dry mouth, causes of, 16 epidemiology, 17 pathogenesis, 17-19 primary SS, 17 rules for classification, 18 exclusion criteria, 18 primary SS, 18 secondary SS, 18 secondary SS, 17 similar diseases, 17 treatment, 22-24

artificial tears for, 22 Cellufresh®, 22 Celluvics®, 22 chlorhexidine rinses, 23 Cyclosporine, 22 for erythematous candidiasis, 23 goals in, 23

ocular management of KCS, 22 'oral' topical antifungal drugs, 23 Refresh®, 22 systemic therapy, 24 topical fluoride application, 23 SJS, See Stevens-Johnson syndrome SLE, See Systemic lupus erythematosus Slit-lamp examination, 67 SNHL, See Sensorineural hearing loss Snowballs, 64

Somatic sensitivity (somatophobia), 133 Spectinomycin, 161 Speech audiometry, 347 Sphenopalatine artery, 453 Spinal muscular atrophies, 512 Splenomegaly, 128 Spondyloarthropathy, 68 Sporotrichosis, 239 SS, See Sjogren's syndrome SSM, See Superficial spreading melanoma Staphylococcus aureus, 365, 450 Stenting, 92

Sternocleidomastoid muscles, 351 Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), 328-331, 505, 555-558 clinical manifestations, 330, 556-557

[Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) clinical manifestations]

diffuse interstitial pneumonitis and tracheobronchial epithelial involvement, 330 fluid losses, 330 complications and prognosis, 331, 557 definition, 329, 555

diagnosis and differential diagnosis, 330 diagnosis, 557 epidemiology, 329, 556 pathogenesis, 329, 556 treatment, 330, 557

aggressive management by an ophthalmologist, 330 anticoagulation, 330 corticosteroids, 330 cyclosporine, 330

intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 330

Stomatitis, 460-486 acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, 483-484 differential diagnosis, 483-484 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 484

allergic contact stomatitis, 485-486 differential diagnosis, 485-486 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 486

candidal stomatitis, 471-475 differential diagnosis, 471-473 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 473-475 Coxsackie virus stomatitis, 476 differential diagnosis, 476 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 476

desquamative gingivitis, 480 differential diagnosis, 481 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 481

differential diagnosis, 462-463

adjunctive aids, 463 erosive lichen planus, 476-478 differential diagnosis, 477 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 477-478 erythema migrans, 475 differential diagnosis, 475 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 475

erythema multiforme, 484-485 differential diagnosis, 485

[Stomatitis erythema multiforme]

treatment, complications, and prognosis, 485

erythroplakia, 483

differential diagnosis, 483 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 483

herpetic stomatitis, 463-467 differential diagnosis, 464-466 primary herpetic gingivostomatitis,

463-464 recurrent (secondary) herpetic infections, 464 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 466-467 mucous membrane pemphigoid, 479-480 differential diagnosis, 479 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 479-480 pemphigus vulgaris, 481-483 differential diagnosis, 482 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 482-483

recurrent aphthous stomatitis, 467-469 differential diagnosis, 468-469 herpetiform aphthae, 468 major aphthae, 467-468 minor aphthae, 467

treatment, complications, and prognosis, 469

varicella zoster stomatitis, 469-471 differential diagnosis, 470-471 treatment, complications, and prognosis, 471

Strand displacement amplification (SDA), 160

Strangling angel of children, See Diphtheria Strawberry tongue, 414 Streptococcus pneumonia, 364, 389, 407, 496

Stylopharyngeus, 494 Subglottic stenosis (SGS), 101, 103 Subjective tinnitus, 381-383 endocrine system, 382 immune system, 382 musculoskeletal system, 382 neurologic system, 381-382 other causes, 383 genetic, 383 infections, 383 iatrogenic, 383 psychological disorders, 382

Sucralfate, 37 Sulfasalazine, 37 'Sunset glow' fundus, 68 Superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), 275

Sweet's syndrome, 304 'Sympathetic ophthalmia', 66 Syphilis, 213-227, 233, 390, 400, 534-535

clinical manifestations, 217, 534-535 complications and prognosis, 226, 533 congenital syphilis, 222 definition, 215-216 diagnosis, 222-224, 535 CSF examination, 222 darkfield microscopy, 222 fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS), 223 histopathology, 222 microhemagglutination assay, 223 nontreponemal tests for, 222 serology, 222

specific treponemal antibody tests, 222

standard nontreponemal tests, 222 epidemiology, 216, 534 gummas, 220

meningovascular neurosyphilis, 221 neurosyphilis, 223 otosyphilis, 223 pathogenesis, 216-217, 534 acquisition, 216

oropharyngeal mucosa involvement, 217

primary syphilis, 217-218 secondary syphilis, 218-219 tertiary syphilis, 219-221 treatment, 224-226, 535 CDC recommended syphilis treatment regimens, 225 combined antibiotic and steroid therapy, 224

corticosteroid usage, 224 penicillin G, 224

penicillin in combination with steroids, 224

Systemic disease, 276 dermatologic signs of, 543-562 Cowden syndrome, See Cowden syndrome glucagonoma syndrome, See Glucagonoma syndrome Hansen's disease, See Hansen's disease

[Systemic disease dermatologic signs of]

hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, See Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia Muir-Torre syndrome, See Muir-Torre syndrome Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, See Peutz-Jeghers syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome, See Stevens-Johnson syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 3-14, 57, 85, 411-412 clinical manifestations, 6-8 definition, 4 epidemiology, 5 pathogenesis, 5 Systemic neoplasms, 420-421 leukemia, 420 lymphoma, 420 multiple myeloma, 420-421 Systemic sclerosis, 4, 513 Systemic vasculitis, 69

Tabes dorsalis, 220 Tacrolimus, 76 Takayasu's arteritis, 50 Tangier disease, 541

clinical manifestations, 541 diagnosis, 541 epidemiology, 541 pathogenesis, 541 prognosis, 541 treatment, 541 Tazobactam, 128 TB, See Tuberculosis TCAS, See Tricyclic antidepressants Telangiectasias, 8, 10, 554 Temporal arteritis, 57 Temporal artery biopsy, 49 Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction syndrome, 11, 133 TEN, See Toxic epidermal necrolysis Tertiary syphilis, 219-221 Tetanus, 406-407 TGF ß, See Transforming growth factor-beta Thalidomide, 36-37 Thyroid disease, 47 Thyroid lymphoma, 256 Tinnitus, 57, 334, 335, 379-383 epidemiology, 380 objective tinnitus, 380-381, See Objective tinnitus

[Tinnitus] pharmacologic causes, 383 subjective tinnitus, 381-383, See also Subjective tinnitus Tissue biopsy, 278 TMA, See Transcription-mediated amplification TMJ, See Temporomandibular joint TNM, See Tumor, nodes, and metastases Tongue necrosis, 45 Tonsillar herniation, 436 Tonsillitis, 493-508 clinical manifestations, 494-495 definition, 494 etiology, 496 pathogenesis, 496-508 Toothache, 45

Topical amlexanox (paste), 37 Topical anesthetics, 37 Topical or intralesional corticosteroids, 37 Topical tacrolimus, 37 Topical tetracycline solutions, 37 Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), 329, 556 Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), 450 Toxoplasma gondii, 67 Toxoplasmic chorioretinitis, 67 Toxoplasmosis, 65 Trachea, 247 Tracheostomy, 92, 520 Transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), 160

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF ß), 553

Treponema pallidum, 390, 400, 500, 534 Trichilemmomas, 545 Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), 431 Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 155 Tropheryma whippelii, 67 Trypanosoma cruzi, 515 TSS, See Toxic shock syndrome TST, See Tuberculin skin test Tube-free tracheostomy, 107 Tuberculin skin test (TST), 171 Tuberculoid, 559

Tuberculosis (TB), 169-177, 233, 366, 401-402 clinical manifestations, 171-174 fine needle aspiration (FNA), 172 head and neck manifestations, 171-173 nasal TB, 172 ocular TB, 172 oral and esophageal TB, 173 pharyngeal TB, 172 tuberculin skin test (TST), 171

[Tuberculosis (TB) clinical manifestations] tuberculous laryngitis, 172 tuberculous otitis, 172 tuberculous sialadenitis, 172 complications and prognosis, 174-175 definition, 170 diagnosis, 174 blood testing, 174 bronchial testing, 174 gastric secretions testing, 174 gold standard test, 174 morning-vo

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