Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Crocodile Drug Before And After

The most obvious lesions of the head and neck that can be seen in SLE are those involving the skin. The most characteristic dermatologic feature of lupus is the malar rash (Fig. 1). Also known as the butterfly rash, because of its shape across the cheeks and bridge of the nose, the malar rash is an erythematous and edematous eruption that classically spares the nasolabial folds. A similar rash may be seen on the forehead and chin. It may or may not result from exposure to sunlight, but is often...

Dermatomyositis Polymyositis

Myositis Rash Pictures

DM also may include head and neck dermatologic manifestations that can have considerable diagnostic importance. Among these is the virtually pathognomonic heliotrope rash (Fig. 7). This lesion, which leads to edema and discoloration of the eyelids, takes its name from the deep purple flower of the heliotrope plant, although the lesion may vary in color from pink to red to brown. DM may also lead to an erythematous rash on many locations on the body, including the face and neck (Fig. 8). Nasal...

FIGURE 16 Oral hairy leukoplakia associated with EBV Source From

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia

(PCR) for CMV viral load in serum can be used, but the clinical utility of the test is not yet clear. Whether treatment is beneficial for oral ulcers caused by CMV is not clear. Ulcerative esophagitis-causing symptoms can be treated with IV antivirals such as ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir, followed by oral maintenance, usually with oral valganciclovir. Epstein-Barr Virus and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia. OHL has been encountered since the early epidemic and has been strongly linked to...

Jugular foramen syndrome

Glomus Jugulare Angiography

Jugular foramen syndrome (JFS) is an uncommon clinical entity that often presents a diagnostic and management challenge to the otolaryngologist. The purpose of this section is to define this syndrome and elucidate the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, and general treatment options for the syndrome. Various combinations of palsies of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI resulting from lesions in the area of the jugular foramen have been referred to as JFS. Eponyms...

Clinical Manifestations

Tongue Papillae Swollen

The primary episode of HSV-1 infection manifests after the patient is exposed to secretions containing viable HSV-1, which then incubate for three to six days. Mucocutaneous lesions, which can be painful, develop into vesicles that erupt for one to two weeks Fig. 4 . In many cases, areas of gingivostomatitis and surrounding skin lesions are prominent and FIGURE 3 Schematic representation of HSV replication within sensory ganglion cells shows centripetal and centrifugal migration and envelopment...

Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid

Crack Cocaine Effects Teeth

MMP is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease in which autoantibodies directed at structural proteins of the hemidesmosome destroy the epithelial-connective tissue attachment at the level of the basement membrane, producing a subepithelial separation (24,25). The protein targets of the autoantibodies include BP-1, BP-2, and laminin-5 (epiligrin), all components of the epithelial anchoring apparatus. MMP is a generalized term for a group of closely related disease processes (26). The term...

Pathogenesis Infection Bacterial

Catarro Sulle Corde Vocali

At birth, the upper respiratory tract is colonized with multiple organisms and the normal bacterial flora is established. It consists primarily of Gram-positive aerobic organisms and anaerobic organisms. Infectious pharyngitis represents a change in this normal flora. Streptococcus. Streptococcus species are Gram-positive cocci bacteria arranged most commonly in chains. They are ubiquitous inhabitants of the oral and nasal cavities. Members of this bacterial family are classified...

Inflammatory Autoimmune

Pemphigus is a rare disease that affects mucosal membranes. Although the term pemphigus may be erroneously used interchangeably with the condition bullous pemphigoid, it is a separate entity warranting a separate discussion. Pemphigus is characterized by vesicular lesions and bulla. There are multiple subtypes, with pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus being the most common (7). Other subtypes include pemphigus vegetans, pemphigus erythematosus, pemphigus herpetiformis,...