Special Syndromes Associated with Alcoholism

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Hepatic Encephalopathy

Johannesson, G., Berglund, M. and Ingvar, D. H., Reduction of blood flow in cerebral white matter in alcoholics related to hepatic function. Acta Neurol. Scand. 65:190-202, 1982.

Valmier, J., Touchon, J., Zanca, M., Fauchere, V., Bories, P. and Baldy-Moulinier, M., Correlations between cerebral grey matter flow and hepatic histology in alcoholism. Eur. Neurol. 25:428-435, 1986.

Lockwood, A. H., Murphy, B. W., Donnelly, K. Z., Mahl, T. C. and Perini, S., Positron-emission tomographic localization of abnormalities of brain metabolism in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology 18:1061-1068, 1993.

Wernicke & Korsakoff Syndromes


Fazio, F., Perani, D., Gilardi, M. C., Colombo, F., Cappa, S. F., Vallar, G., Bettinardi, V., Paulesu, E., Alberoni, M., Bressi, S., Franceschi, M. and Lenzi, G. L., Metabolic impairment in human amnesia: a PET study of memory networks. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 12:353-358, 1992.

Martin, P. R., Rio, D., Adinoff, B., Johnson, J. L., Bisserbe, J. C., Rawlings, R. R., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Stapleton, J. M. and Eckardt, M. J., Regional cerebral glucose utilization in chronic organic mental disorders associated with alcoholism. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 4:159-167, 1992.

Joyce, E. M., Rio, D. E., Ruttimann, U. E., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Martin, P. R., Rawlings, R. R. and Eckardt, M. J., Decreased cingulate and precuneate glucose utilization in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome. Psychiatry Res. 54:225-239, 1994.

Welch, L. W., Nimmerrichter, A., Kessler, R., King, D., Hoehn, R., Margolin, R. and Martin, P. R., Severe global amnesia presenting as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome but resulting from atypical lesions. Psychol. Med. 26:421-425, 1996.


Berglund, M. and Ingvar, D. H., Cerebral blood flow and its regional distribution in alcoholism and in Korsakoff's psychosis. J. Stud. Alcohol 37:586-597, 1976.

Rogers, R. L., Meyer, J. S., Shaw, T. G. and Mortel, K. F., Reductions in regional cerebral blood flow associated with chronic consumption of alcohol. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 31:540-543, 1983.

Meyer, J. S., Tanahashi, N., Ishikawa, Y., Hata, T., Velez, M., Fann, W. E., Kandula, P., Mortel, K. F. and Rogers, R. L., Cerebral atrophy and hypoperfusion improve during treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5:376-385, 1985.

Sharp, P., Gemmell, H., Cherryman, G., Besson, J., Crawford, J. and Smith, F., Application of iodine-123-labeled isopropylamphetamine imaging to the study of dementia. J. Nucl. Med. 27:761-768, 1986.

Hata, T., Meyer, J. S., Tanahashi, N., Ishikawa, Y., Imai, A., Shinohara, T., Velez, M., Fann, W. E., Kandula, P. and Sakai, F., Three-dimensional mapping of local cerebral perfusion in alcoholic encephalopathy with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 7:35-44, 1987.

Hunter, R., McLuskie, R., Wyper, D., Patterson, J., Christie, J. E., Brooks, D. N., McCulloch, J., Fink, G. and Goodwin, G. M., The pattern of function-related regional cerebral blood flow investigated by single photon emission tomography with 99mTc-HMPAO in patients with presenile Alzheimer's disease and Korsakoff's psychosis. Psychol. Med. 19:847-855, 1989.

Moffoot, A., O'Carroll, R.E., Murray, C., Dougall, N., Ebmeier, K. and Goodwin, G.M., Clonidine infusion increases uptake of 99mTc-Exametazime in anterior cingulate cortex in Korsakoff's psychosis. Psychol. Med. 24:53-61, 1994.

Benson, D. F., Djenderedjian, A., Miller, B. L., Pachana, N. A., Chang, L., Itti, L. and Mena, I., Neural basis of confabulation. Neurology 46:1239-1243, 1996. [Case Report]

Matsuda, K., Yamaji, S., Ishii, K., Sasaki, M., Sakamoto, S., Kitagaki, H., Imamura, T. and Mori, E., Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in a patient with Korsakoff syndrome. Ann. Nucl. Med. 11:33-35, 1997. [Case Report]

Marchiafava-Bignami Syndrome

Namba, Y., Bando, M., Takeda, K., Iwata, M. and Mannen, T., Marchiafava-Bignami disease with symptoms of the motor impersistence and unilateral hemispatial neglect. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 31:632-635, 1991. [Case Report] [Japanese]

Humbert, T., De Guilhermier, P., Maktouf, C., Grasset, G., Lopez, F. M. and Chabrand, P., Marchiafava-Bignami disease. A case studied by structural and functional brain imaging. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 242:69-71, 1992. [Case Report]

Kamaki, M., Kawamura, M., Moriya, H. and Hirayama, K., "Crossed homonymous hemianopia" and "crossed left hemispatial neglect" in a case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 56:1027-1032, 1993. [Case Report]

Pappata, S., Chabriat, H., Levasseur, M., Legault-Demare, F. and Baron, J. C., Marchiafava-Bignami disease with dementia: severe cerebral metabolic depression revealed by PET. J. Neural. Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 8:131-137, 1994. [Case Report]

Logak, M., Feve, A., Samson, Y., Guillard, A., Rancurel, G., Contribution of position emission tomography in a case of Marchiafava Bignami disease: Morel's laminar sclerosis? Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 152:47-50, 1996. [Case Report] [French]

Ferracci, F., Conte, F., Gentile, M., Candeago, R., Foscolo, L., Bendini, M. and Fassetta, G., Marchiafava-Bignami disease: computed tomographic scan, 99mTc HMPAO-SPECT, and FLAIR MRI findings in a patient with subcortical aphasia, alexia, bilateral agraphia, and left-handed deficit of constructional ability. Arch. Neurol. 56:107-110, 1999. [Case Report]

Cerebellar Degeneration

Gilman, S., Adams, K., Koeppe, R. A., Berent, S., Kluin, K. J., Modell, J. G., Kroll, P. and Brunberg, J. A., Cerebellar and frontal hypometabolism in alcoholic cerebellar degeneration studied with positron emission tomography. Ann. Neurol. 28:775-785, 1990.

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