A

Oscillograph trace of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal from ethyl alcohol. The peaks from left to right represent the OH, CH2, and CH3 groups of alcohol. (From Arnold et al., 1951, with permission.) when Arnold and colleagues reported that samples of ethanol gave rise to a spectrum with three separate resonance lines (Fig. 4). These lines arose from protons within the methyl ( CH3), methylene ( CH2), and hydroxyl ( OH) groups of ethanol. In early experiments, RF signals were...

Acute Administration

M. and Itil, T. M., EEG profiles of fenfluramine, amobarbital and dextroamphetamine in normal volunteers. Psychopharmacologia 22 369-383, 1971. Hamilton, M. J., Smith, P. R. and Peck, A. W., Effects of bupropion, nomifensine and dexamphetamine on performance, subjective feelings, autonomic variables and electroencephalogram in healthy volunteers. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 15 367-374, 1983. Lukas, S. E., Mendelson, J. H., Amass, L. and Benedikt, R., Behavioral and EEG studies...

Acute Effects

Solvent abuse is a widespread problem in adolescents, with 15-20 of high school students reporting lifetime exposure. Solvent abuse is pervasive because many easily accessible household products contain the most widely abused solvent, toluene. The acute effects of solvents have been documented with MR imaging followup in three case reports. Bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensities were found in a case of 1,1,1-trichloroethane overdose induced by typewriter correction fluid inhalation (del...

Amphetamine

S. and Koretsky, A. P., Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of flow, lactate, and phosphate metabolites during amphetamine stimulation of the rat brain. NMR Biomed. 3 272-278, 1990. Rodent Lazar, E. B., Russell, E. J., Cohen, B. A., Brody, B. and Levy, R. M., Contrast-enhanced MR of cerebral arteritis intravascular enhancement related to flow stasis within areas of focal arterial ectasia. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 13 271-276, 1992. Case Report Lambrecht, G. L.,...

Applications in Substance Abuse Research

Perhaps the greatest advantage of PET and SPECT lies in their tremendous flexibility for studying a variety of brain functions, an attribute based on the virtually unlimited number of biologically relevant compounds that lend themselves to radiola-beling. To date, studies in substance abuse disorders have taken advantage of these techniques to study the in vivo pharmacology of drugs of abuse as well as the effects of abused drugs and or drug addiction on neuronal activity metabolism and brain...

Analysis of the EEG

Diagrammatic representation of the generation of power spectra from analog EEG waveforms. Fig. 4. Diagrammatic representation of the generation of power spectra from analog EEG waveforms. the posterior-dominant rhythm because they are most pronounced over the occipital region of the scalp. The beta band comprises frequencies over 13 Hz and sometimes as high as 35 Hz. The amplitude of the beta waves is mostly below 30 V, although it can be variable. Both the alpha and beta bands are...

Artifact A voidance

When designing experiments involving the use of electrophysiological measures, a number of precautions need to be taken to avoid artifacts that can seriously compromise the quality of the data. For example, because the EEG is extremely sensitive to movement artifacts, subjects need to be provided with an environment that minimizes movement requirements during the experiment. These include 1. A comfortable chair that allows the subject to remain in a relatively constant position during the...

Basic Limitations of Positron Emission Tomography

And Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography While PET and SPECT offer an unprecedented and, in many instances, unique ability to quantitatively assess physiologic processes in vivo, important limits exist with respect to their quantitative accuracy. Specifically, issues related to radioactive decay, attenuation, scatter, limited spatial resolution partial volume effects, and in vivo modeling all strongly influence PET and SPECT data (Hoffman and Phelps, 1986 Sorenson and Phelps, 1987 Links,...

Brain Imaging in Substance Abuse

Research, Clinical, and Forensic Applications F O R E N S I C S C I E N C E A N D M E D I C I N E Brain Imaging in Substance Abuse Research, Clinical, and Forensic Applications edited by Marc J. Kaufman, 2001 Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology of Herbal Products, edited by Melanie Johns Cupp, 2000 A Physician's Guide to Clinical Forensic Medicine, edited by Margaret M. Stark, 2000 Criminal Poisoning Investigational Guide for Law Enforcement, Toxicologists, Forensic Scientists, and Attorneys,...

Caveats in Interpreting Electrophysiologic Data in Substance Abuse Research

The usefulness of any measure of neurophysiologic activity depends on the reliability, validity, and specificity of the test procedure. The issue of reliability is related to whether the spontaneous changes over time are greater than the observed drug-induced changes. For a method to have clinical value, the variability observed between testing conditions or subjects needs to be smaller than during experimental conditions. Both EEG and ERP measures have good reliability when the testing...

Cerebrovascular Effects

While reports of major cerebrovascular complications accompanying heroin use are rare, several case reports have documented vascular effects of the drug. White matter demyelination was found in two chronic heroin abusers, and was attributed to vascular pathology (Volkow et al., 1988b). A case of anterior choroidal artery infarction was reported in a heroin abuser who sniffed the drug (Bartolomei et al., 1992). Heroin snorting has also been associated with the development of globus pallidus...

Chronic Administration

Ohta, H., Komibuchi, T., Nishino, I., Enomoto, Y. and Miyata, M., Brain perfusion abnormalities in a thinner and amphetamine abuser detected by I-123 IMP scintigraphy. Ann. Nucl. Med. 6 273-275, 1992. Case Report Kao, C. H., Wang, S. J. and Yeh, S. H., Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPECT. Nucl. Med. Commun. 15 94-98, 1994. Melega, W. P., Quintana, J., Raleigh, M. J., Stout, D. B., Yu, D. C., Lin, K. P., Huang, S. C. and Phelps, M. E.,...

Chronic Effects

Long-term solvent abuse has been associated with loss of gray-white matter tissue differentiation, increased periventricular white matter signal intensity, and cerebral atrophy (Rosenberg et al., 1988a). These abnormalities were associated with cognitive deficits and electrophysiologic abnormalities, some of which persisted with prolonged abstinence, implying irreversible structural damage (Rosenberg et al., 1988a). Prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times were noted in six additional subjects...

Conclusion

In a recent paper published in Nature Neuroscience, Dehaene et al. describe a novel attempt to use neuroimaging as a crude cognitive test. With almost perfect accuracy, these investigators were able to predict behavior from brain scans by analyzing fMRI signals to determine whether a subject moved his left or his right thumb in response to a visual cue.57 Somewhat optimistically, Dehaene et al. foresee the eventual use of similar neuroimaging techniques to monitor and assess a wide range of...

Conclusions

PET and SPECT imaging are radiotracer techniques whose high sensitivity and specificity allow for studies of in vivo pharmacology, local neuronal activity, and in vivo neurochemistry in substance abuse disorders. Such methods have particular relevance to the clinical study of addiction insofar as they can be applied to the living human brain. Despite the tremendous view into brain function they afford, the technical complexity of these methods currently limit extensive application within the...

Contributors

Bauer, PhD Professor of Psychiatry, Director, Neural Dynamics Laboratory, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT Blaise deB. Frederick, PhD Instructor in Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Assistant Biophysicist, McLean Hospital, Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA Staci A. Gruber, EdM Clinical Investigator, Cognitive Neuroimaging and Neuropsychology Laboratories, Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, and...

Drug Challenge Receptor Binding Studies

E., Neiman, J., Pauli, S., Farde, L., Hindmarsh, T., Halldin, C. and Sedvall, G., PET analysis of 11C flumazenil binding to benzodiazepine receptors in chronic alcohol-dependent men and healthy controls. Psychiatry Res. 50 1-13, 1993. Volkow, N. D., Wang, G. J., Hitzemann, R., Fowler, J. S., Wolf, A. P., Pappas, N., Biegon, A. and Dewey, S. L., Decreased cerebral response to inhibitory neurotransmission in alcoholics. Am. J. Psychiatry 150 417-422, 1993. Farde, L., Pauli, S., Litton,...

Electroencephalographs Studies of Chronic Substance Abusers

Before the evidence for EEG, EP, or ERP anomalies in patients with histories of alcohol or drug dependence is reviewed, it would be valuable to highlight some of the methodological and interpretive problems that are inherent in studying patients with drug use histories as well as several problems that are created by researchers themselves. These problems are not specific to EEG EP ERP research. Rather, they generalize across all of the neuroimaging modalities. 1. It is a logical fallacy to...

Evidentiary Tests for the Admissibility of Expert Scientific Testimony

As a preface to a discussion of scientific testimony, it is important to note that evidence law distinguishes between (1) lay witnesses, who are only permitted to testify to facts of which they have first hand knowledge (or, in some cases, to give opinions based upon personal observation) and (2) experts, who, if qualified by virtue of special knowledge, training or experience, may offer opinions based upon any facts or data that other experts in the same field might reasonably consider....

Fetal Alcohol Exposure

The numbers of pregnant women who consume alcohol and who binge drink are increasing (Ebrahim et al., 1998 1999). Accordingly, it is expected that the case report literature of brain abnormalities associated with fetal alcohol exposure will grow steadily. One of the first reports of MR follow up in a case of chronic fetal alcohol exposure noted multifocal T2 hyperintensities and poor gray-white matter differentiation (Gabrielli et al., 1990). Partial agenesis and displacement of the corpus...

Fourier methods

An fMRI data analysis method that assesses frequencies of stimulus switching. Fourier transform (FT) This mathematical operation converts time domain information into the frequency domain, by parsing continuous waveforms into discrete peaks of frequency and amplitude data. In electroencephalography, it is used to produce power spectra. In magnetic resonance, the FT converts relaxation information in the form of free induction decay waveforms into image intensities and chemical spectra.

General Principles

The first report of an experiment designed to exploit the nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) phenomenon was made in 1938 (Rabi et al., 1938) (Fig. 1). In this study, magnetic resonance signals were detected from a molecular beam of lithium chloride. Several years later, techniques designed for the MR assessment of bulk matter were developed and reported by two independent research groups (Bloch et al., 1946 Purcell et al., 1946). These experiments were designed to take advantage of the fact that...

Gadolinium

A highly paramagnetic lanthanide metal used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging administered to humans in a chelated form. Radioactive substances emit gamma (y)-rays or which have energy that is similar to but stronger than x-rays. In magnetic resonance, small magnetic gradients (e.g., B1) can be added to the main magnetic field (e.g., B0) to produce a pattern of magnetic field differences across two or three dimensions. Each point in space will then have a unique magnetic...

Genetic Effects

M., Ozkaragoz, T. Z. and Ritchie, T., Prolonged P300 latency in children with the D2 dopamine receptor A1 allele. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 54 658-668, 1994. Johnson, J. P., Muhleman, D., MacMurray, J., Gade, R., Verde, R., Ask, M., Kelley, J. and Comings, D. E., Association between the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and the P300 event-related potential. Mol. Psychiatry 2 169-171, 1997. Begleiter, H., Porjesz, B., Reich, T., Edenberg, H. J., Goate, A., Blangero, J., Almasy,...

History of the Electroencephalogram

Scientific interest in the ability of organisms to generate electrical activity dates back to the late eighteenth century when an Italian physiologist, Luigi Galvani, discovered that frogs' leg muscles were excitable tissues. It was not until the mid-nineteenth century, however, that scientists realized that the electrical activity of living tissue could be used as a sign of its function, when the German physiologist Du Bois-Reymond demonstrated that an electrical signal occurred concurrently...

Hiv

P., O'Dowd, M. A., Selwyn, P. A., Schoenbaum, E., Drucker, E., Feiner, C., Cox, C. P. and Friedland, G., A prospective longitudinal study of neuropsychological and psychosocial factors in asymptomatic individuals at risk for HTLV-III LAV infection in a methadone program preliminary findings. Int. J. Neurosci. 32 669-676, 1987. Woods, S. W., O'Malley, S. S., Martini, B. L., McDougle, C. J., Price, L. H., Krystal, J. H., Hoffer, P. B. and Kosten, T. R., SPECT...

Introduction

Magnetic resonance methods currently in use for the assessment of human subjects include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MRI provides detailed information regarding brain anatomy, with spatial resolution on the order of 1 mm3, and is widely used to characterize neuropathological conditions in clinical practice. MRS allows the detection of signals from certain drugs and from a limited number of endogenous...

Ketamine

V., Shapiro, H. M., Ingvar, M., Ray, K. F., Gagnon, R. L. and Marshall, L. F., Cerebral circulatory and metabolic responses to intravenously administered lorazepam. Anesthesiology 53 215-218, 1980. Nonhuman Primate Dormehl, I., Redelinghuys, F., Hugo, N., Oliver, D. and Pilloy, W., The baboon model under anesthesia for in vivo cerebral blood flow studies using single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) techniques. J. Med. Primatol. 21 270-274, 1992....

Legal Applications of Substance Abuse Imaging Data

The appropriate role for brain imaging evidence in establishing either settled insanity or lack of specific intent is unclear. In a legal context, it is cognitive impairment, not brain damage per se, that is relevant to the determinative issues of mental state, intent, judgment, and capacity for self-control. Although the imaging literature does contain reports of various structural and functional brain abnormalities among populations of substance abusers, by no means are current imaging...

Lsd

Goldberger, L., Cognitive test performance under LSD-25, placebo and isolation. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 142 4-9, 1966. Cohen, S. and Edwards, A. E., LSD and organic brain impairment. Drug Dependence 2 1-4, 1969. Wright, M. and Hogan, T. P., Repeated LSD ingestion and performance on neuropsychological tests. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 154 432-438, 1972. Culver, C. M. and King, F. W., Neuropsychological assessment of undergraduate marihuana and LSD users. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 31 707-711, 1974.

MDMA and MDE

B., Finley, P. A., Dannals, R. F., Ravert, H. T., Szabo, K., Yuan, J. and Ricaurte, G. A., In vivo detection of short- and long-term MDMA neurotoxicity a positron emission tomography study in the living baboon brain. Synapse 29 183-192, 1998. Nonhuman Primate McCann, U. D., Szabo, Z., Scheffel, U., Dannals, R. F. and Ricaurte, G. A., Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic effect of MDMA (Ecstasy) on brain serotonin neurons in human beings. Lancet...

Mescaline

W., Neuropsychological assessment of undergraduate marihuana and LSD users. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 31 707-711, 1974. Oepen, G., Fuenfgeld, M., Harrington, A., Hermle, L. and Botsch, H., Right hemisphere involvement in mescaline-induced psychosis. Psychiatry Res. 29 335-336, 1989. Hermle, L., Funfgeld, M., Oepen, G., Botsch, H., Borchardt, D., Gouzoulis, E., Fehrenbach, R. A. and Spitzer, M., Mescaline-induced psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurometabolic...

Methanol

J., Cohen, H. D., Gerkovich, M. M., Graham, C., Harris, R. K. and Siemann, L. G., Effects of methanol vapor on human neurobehavioral measures. Res. Rep. Health Eff. Inst. 42 1-45, 1991. Mozaz, M. J., Wyke, M. A. and Indakoetxea, B., Parkinsonism and defects of praxis following methanol poisoning. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 54 843-844, 1991. Chuwers, P., Osterloh, J., Kelly, T., D'Alessandro, A., Quinlan, P. and Becker, C., Neurobehavioral effects of low-level...

Methylphenidate

Methylphenidate (MPH) is the active compound in the drug Ritalin, which is prescribed widely to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is increasingly being used illicitly as a drug of abuse. Vaidya and colleagues (1998) used the BOLD fMRI method to evaluate the acute effects of MPH in children performing a stimulus control task. MPH decreased and increased basal ganglia activation in controls and in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively,...

Morphine

C., Human sleep during chronic morphine intoxication. Psychopharmacologia 44 117-124, 1975. Kay, D. C., Pickworth, W. B., Neidert, G. L., Falcone, D., Fishman, P. M. and Othmer, E., Opioid effects on computer-derived sleep and EEG parameters in nondependent human addicts. Sleep 2 175-191, 1979. Matejcek, M., Pokorny, R., Ferber, G. and Klee, H., Effect of morphine on the electroencephalogram and other physiological and behavioral parameters. Neuropsychobiology 19 202-211, 1988. Lukas,...

MR Angiography

In addition to our studies of cocaine's effects on microvasculature, we have also been interested in the drug's effects on large cerebral vessel reactivity, and have used MR Angiography (MRA), which permits detection of blood flow abnormalities in large cerebral arteries, to study such effects. The MRA signal is derived from flowing blood, and this signal is used to create an image of cerebral arterial, or, using different image acquisition parameters, venous structure. MRA has been used...

MR Spectroscopy

We have employed 1H MRS to assess whether acute administration of small doses of cocaine to healthy young subjects could alter basal ganglia 1H MRS metabolites. We found elevated choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels, and attributed those Fig. 10. Asymptomatic stroke in association with chronic methamphetamine abuse. Axial T2-weighted image from a 24-yr-old man with a 2-yr history of chronic methamphetamine abuse. A silent infact, visible as an area of increased signal intensity...

Natural abundance

The relative proportion of an isotopic form of an atom of interest in an emission tomographic (radionuclide) or magnetic resonance experiment. Emission tomography takes advantage of the low natural abundance of radionuclides which can thus be exogenously administered to produce selective tissue contrast. Nuclei with high natural abundance e.g., protons (1H), phosphorus (31P), fluorine (19F), and lithium (7Li) can be relatively easily studied with magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Neuroimages as Psychiatric Evidence

The use of neuroimages in criminal cases is still relatively infrequent, although awareness of imaging techniques appears to be spreading among the defense bar, and criminal lawyers have occasionally combined brain scans and evidence of a family history of mental illness in a sort of genetic defense to criminal charges.12 By contrast, plaintiffs in civil cases are far more likely than criminal defendants to rely on SPECT, PET, and MRI scans, especially when the neuropsychological evidence of a...

Occupational Exposure

Iregren, A., Effects on psychological test performance of workers exposed to a single solvent (toluene) a comparison with effects of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents. Neurobehav. Toxicol. Teratol. 4 695-701, 1982. Cherry, N., Hutchins, H., Pace, T. and Waldron, H. A., Neurobehavioural effects of repeated occupational exposure to toluene and paint solvents. Br. J. Ind. Med. 42 291-300, 1985. Linz, D. H., de Garmo, P. L., Morton, W. E., Wiens, A. N., Coull, B. M. and Maricle, R. A.,...

Phencyclidine

Phencyclidine (PCP) is the chief member of a unique category of drugs classified as W-methyl-d-aspartate agonist inhibitors that have high abuse potential and severe neurotoxicity at high doses (Zukin and Javitt, 1989). PCP causes pathological changes in the CNS which ultimately result in behavioral and psychological alterations. The resemblance of PCP psychosis to schizophrenia has led to extensive research on abnormalities of PCP receptors in schizophrenic patients. Administration of the drug...

Prenatal Effects

Cocaine's ability to reduce placental blood flow was graphically illustrated in a nonhuman primate MRA study, which documented a drug-induced disruption of umbilical blood flow (Panigel et al., 1993). Several reports have noted developmental abnormalities in cases of prenatal cocaine exposure. A retrospective MR imaging study found higher incidences of neonatal cerebral infarction and congenital abnormalities including encephalocele, holoprosencephaly, intraspinal lipoma, and hypoplastic...

Prenatal Exposure

Gabrielli, O., Salvolini, U., Coppa, G. V., Catassi, C., Rossi, R., Manca, A., Lanza, R. and Giorgi, P. L., Magnetic resonance imaging in the malformative syndromes with mental retardation. Pediatr. Radiol. 21 16-19, 1990. Schaefer, G. B., Shuman, R. M., Wilson, D. A., Saleeb, S., Domek, D. B., Johnson, S. F. and Bodensteiner, J. B., Partial agenesis of the anterior corpus callosum correlation between appearance, imaging, and neuropathology. Pediatr. Neurol. 7 39-44, 1991. Case Report Mattson,...

Psilocybin

L., Scharfetter, C., Maguire, P., Stadelmann, O. and Angst, J., Positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose studies of metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the psilocybin model of psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 16 357-372, 1997. Vollenweider, F. X., Vontobel, P., Hell, D. and Leenders, K. L., 5-HT modulation of dopamine release in basal ganglia in psilocybin- induced psychosis in man A PET study with 11C raclopride....

Review

Winneke, G., Acute behavioral effects of exposure to some organic solvents psychophysiological aspects. Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 92 117-129, 1982. Yamanouchi, N., Okada, S. I., Kodama, K. and Sato, T., Central nervous system impairment caused by chronic solvent abuse a review of Japanese studies on the clinical and neuroimaging aspects. Addiction Biol. 3 15-27, 1998. Grant, I. and Judd, L. L., Neuropsychological and EEG disturbances in polydrug users. Am. J. Psychiatry 133 1039-1042, 1976....

Reviews

L., Adinoff, B., Bisserbe, J. C., Martin, P. R., Rio, D., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Zubovic, E. and Eckardt, M. J., Assessment of alcoholism-related organic brain syndromes with positron emission tomography. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 10 237-240, 1986. Eckardt, M. J., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Rio, D., Rawlings, R. R. and Coppola, R., Brain imaging in alcoholic patients. Adv. Alcohol. Subst. Abuse 7 59-71, 1988. Eckardt, M. J., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Rio, D. E. and Martin, P. R., Positron emission...

Scientific Uncertainty and the Interpretation of Neuroimaging Data

The extent to which psychiatric neuroimaging evidence meets Daubert's standards for valid and reliable scientific evidence is a critical inquiry. Equally important is the extent to which, under Federal Rule of Evidence 403, psychiatric neuroimaging testimony should be considered inadmissible due to the likelihood that it will confuse, mislead, or distract the jury.26 Neuroimaging methodologies vary widely, ranging from routine CT, SPECT, and MRI scanning to the more sophisticated PET scans and...

Special Syndromes Associated with Alcoholism

M., Van Thiel, D. H., Gavaler, J. S. and Schade, R. R., Hepatic dysfunction and neuropsychological test performance in alcoholics with cirrhosis. J. Stud. Alcohol 47 74-77, 1986. Tarter, R. E., Van Thiel, D. H., Arria, A. M., Carra, J. and Moss, H., Impact of cirrhosis on the neuropsychological test performance of alcoholics. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 12 619-621, 1988. Moore, J. W., Dunk, A. A., Crawford, J. R., Deans, H., Besson, J. A., De Lacey, G., Sinclair, T. S.,...

Spectroscopy

J., Dillon, W. P., Weiner, M. W. and Fein, G., Alteration of brain phospholipid metabolites in cocaine-dependent polysubstance abusers. Biol. Psychiatry 34 261-264, 1993. Christensen, J. D., Kaufman, M. J., Levin, J. M., Mendelson, J. H., Holman, B. L., Cohen, B. M. and Renshaw, P. F., Abnormal cerebral metabolism in polydrug abusers during early withdrawal A 31P MR spectroscopy study. Magn. Reson. Med. 35 658-663, 1996. Kaufman, M. J., Pollack, M. H., Villafuerte, R....

The Meaning of Evidence

Legal scholars and their fellow academics often warn that a culture clash between science and the law is producing dire consequences for the legal system. These commentators maintain that the increasingly scientific nature of many legal problems and the fundamental differences between the legal and the scientific methods lead, ineluctably, to incomprehensible expert testimony, bewildered juries, and a widespread misapplication of scientific research in legal disputes.1 Admittedly, legal...

Topographic Mapping

Topographic mapping is a technique that provides a complete view of the distribution of brain electrical activity over the scalp at any point in time. This technique uses high-speed digital computing and mathematical algorithms to interpolate the activity of the scalp area between the EEG electrodes. Essentially, a power spectrum is generated for the electrical activity that has been recorded at each electrode site (Fig. 5). The calculated voltages are then color-coded to quantify the...

Treatment

E., Murray, C., Dougall, N., Ebmeier, K. and Goodwin, G. M., Clonidine infusion increases uptake of 99mTc-Exametazime in anterior cingulate cortex in Korsakoff's psychosis. Psychol. Med. 24 53-61, 1994. Gilman, S., Adams, K. M., Johnson-Greene, D., Koeppe, R. A., Junck, L., Kluin, K. J., Martorello, S., Heumann, M. and Hill, E., Effects of disulfiram on positron emission tomography and neuropsychological studies in severe chronic alcoholism. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res....

Withdrawal

I., Thomas, H. M., McMahon, T. J., Wallace, E. A., O'Connor, P. G., Sullivan, M., Krystal, J. H., Hoffer, P. B., Woods, S. W. and Kosten, T. R., SPECT regional cerebral blood flow alterations in naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal from buprenorphine. Psychiatry Res. 55 181-191, 1994. Krystal, J. H., Woods, S. W., Kosten, T. R., Rosen, M. I., Seibyl, J. P., van Dyck, C. C., Price, L. H., Zubal, I. G., Hoffer, P. B. and Charney, D. S., Opiate dependence and withdrawal...

Family History of Alcoholism

C., Cohen, M. J., Antick, J. and Caine, K., Visuospatial learning in elementary school children with and without a family history of alcoholism. J. Stud. Alcohol 49 538-545, 1988. Parsons, O. A., Schaeffer, K. W. and Glenn, S. W., Does neuropsychological test performance predict resumption of drinking in posttreatment alcoholics Addict. Behav. 15 297-307, 1990. Parsons, O. A., Sinha, R. and Williams, H. L., Relationships between neuropsychological test performance...

Benzodiazepines and Alcoholism

Saletu, M., Saletu, B., Grunberger, J., Mader, R. and Karobath, M., Clinical symptomatology and computer analyzed EEG before, during and after anxiolytic therapy of alcohol withdrawal patients. Neuropsychobiology 9 119-134, 1983. Mouradian, M. D. and Penovich, P. E., Spindle coma in benzodiazepine toxicity case report. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 16 213-218, 1985. Case Report Schwarz-Ottersbach, E. and Goldberg, L., Activation levels, EEG, and behavioural responses. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 4 7-17,...

Other Risk Factors for Alcoholism

W., Bauer, L. and Hesselbrock, V., Anterior brain dysfunctioning as a risk factor in alcoholic behaviors. Addiction 90 1323-1334, 1995. Deckel, A. W., Hesselbrock, V. and Bauer, L., Relationship between alcohol-related expectancies and anterior brain functioning in young men at risk for developing alcoholism. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 19 476-481, 1995. Giancola, P. R., Zeichner, A., Yarnell, J. E. and Dickson, K. E., Relation between executive cognitive functioning and the adverse...

Utility of Event Related Potentials in Substance Abuse Research

The non-invasive and objective quality of ERPs makes this electrophysiological technique a promising method for investigating drug-induced changes in cognitive function. Because ERPs are sensitive to both biological and psychological manipulations, and they permit a simultaneous observation of electrophysiology and cognition, they can provide useful information about the neurophysiological basis of altered states of consciousness (Roth, 1977 Shagass, 1980). Furthermore, because ERP latency and...

Hepatic Cirrhosis and Encephalopathy

Cerebral volume changes including frontal and parietal sulcal width increases were described in nonencephalopathic cirrhotic alcoholics (Moore et al., 1989). Cirrhotic alcoholics were found to have more frontal and parietal lobe morphologic abnormalities than noncirrhotic alcoholics (Barthauer et al., 1992). One study noted associations between brain atrophy and both memory and frontal-premotor function (Kulisevsky et al., 1992). In addition to cerebral volume abnormalities, symmetric globus...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In 1973, Lauterbur published the first magnetic resonance image (Lauterbur, 1973). In this experiment, systematic variation of magnetic field gradients was employed to allow the localization of two capillary tubes of water in a phantom (Fig. 11). In one dimension, the application of a magnetic field gradient across a sample prior to the application of an RF pulse provides a means to localize signals that come from different locations across the gradient (Fig. 12). In this case, the resonance...

Abstinence and Relapse

While most studies of chronic alcoholics have been conducted during the postalcohol period (e.g. during detoxification or abstinence), few studies have employed repeated MR measurements to document brain changes associated with prolonged abstinence or relapse. Several of these studies reported reversibilty of alcohol-induced ventricular enlargements (Schroth et al., 1988 Mann et al., 1989 Zipursky et al., 1989). The Zipursky study also demonstrated ventricular volume stability over time in...

Neutral Cues Cocaine Cues

Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose as a tracer for cerebral glucose metabolism, showing increased activity in brain regions implicated in several forms of memory, when human volunteers who abused cocaine were exposed to drug-related stimuli. Cocaine abusers were studied under a neutral condition (left) and also in a test session in which they were presented with drug-related stimuli, such as a videotape of cocaine self-administration. They reported...

From the Laboratory to the Courtroom

Weinstein Brain Images Murder

For the researcher who is unfamiliar with the courtroom, it may be difficult to envision how the adversarial pressures of the legal system distort research, as group data are selectively misapplied in the individual legal case. A brief illustration of this phenomenon is instructive. Consider a hypothetical principal investigator working in the teaching hospital of a major research university. This investigator decides to conduct a typical fMRI activation study with 20 subjects of mixed age,...

Event Related Potentials

Localization P300 Two Odd Ball Task

Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a series of positive and negative voltage deflections in the ongoing EEG that are time-locked to sensory, motor, or cognitive events (Hillyard and Picton, 1987). These electrical potentials represent the summation of electrical activity of large numbers of neuronal elements acting in synchrony during information processing (Kutas and Hillyard, 1980 Wood and Allison, 1981). The technique of measuring ERPs involves recording the electrical response of the brain...

Heroin

I., Akindele, M. O. and Tompsett, S. L., Heroin and human sleep. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28 374-381, 1970. Volavka, J., Zaks, A., Roubicek, J. and Fink, M., Electrographic effects of diacetylmorphine (heroin) and naloxone in man. Neuropharmacology 9 587-593, 1970. Volavka, J., Zaks, A., Roubicek, J. and Fink, M., Acute EEG effects of heroin and naloxone. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 165, 1971. Volavka, J., Levine, R., Feldstein, S....

Marchiafava Bignami Disease

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare hemispheric disconnection syndrome typically associated with chronic alcoholism. The characteristic corpus callosum lesion appears hypodense or hyperdense on T1- or T2-weighted images, respectively, suggestive of callosal demyelination. Because MBD symptoms are quite variable, prior to the advent of noninvasive brain imaging techniques such as X-ray computerized tomography (CT) or MR imaging, antemortem diagnosis was not possible. A number of early MR...

PET and Spect Cameras

Differences in the design of PET and SPECT cameras derive specifically from their respective patterns of photon emission (i.e., dual vs single photons). Specifically, PET cameras infer the site of an annihilation event from the characteristic back-to-back paths and principles of coincidence detection of photons (Fig. 2) (Hoffman and Phelps, 1986 Links, 1990). In its simplest conceptual form, a PET camera is a ring of radiation detectors. Each radiation detector comprises two parts 1) a dense...

Marc J Kaufman PhD and Jonathan M Levin MD MPH

To date, magnetic resonance (MR) technologies have been used primarily for clinical evaluation of patients with substance abuse-related neurologic complications. The MR literature contains several types of reports. The largest segment consists of MR imaging findings regarding the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on gross brain structure. A smaller segment includes case report descriptions of relatively infrequent cerebrovascular abnormalities found in neurologically impaired illicit drug users....

Recording the Electroencephalogram

The technique of recording EEG involves obtaining a sample of brain electrical activity from a number of electrodes placed on the subject's head. Generally, a set of 21 electrodes is used, and the electrodes are placed over the scalp according to the 10-20 International System of electrode placement (Jasper, 1958). The 10-20 International System specifies the actual position in which the electrodes should be placed over the cerebral cortex by measuring standard landmarks on the skull. The...