From the Laboratory to the Courtroom

For the researcher who is unfamiliar with the courtroom, it may be difficult to envision how the adversarial pressures of the legal system distort research, as group data are selectively misapplied in the individual legal case. A brief illustration of this phenomenon is instructive. Consider a hypothetical principal investigator working in the teaching hospital of a major research university. This investigator decides to conduct a typical fMRI activation study with 20 subjects of mixed age,...

Event Related Potentials

Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a series of positive and negative voltage deflections in the ongoing EEG that are time-locked to sensory, motor, or cognitive events (Hillyard and Picton, 1987). These electrical potentials represent the summation of electrical activity of large numbers of neuronal elements acting in synchrony during information processing (Kutas and Hillyard, 1980 Wood and Allison, 1981). The technique of measuring ERPs involves recording the electrical response of the brain...

Special Syndromes Associated with Alcoholism

A., Crawford, J. R., Deans, H., Besson, J. A., De Lacey, G., Sinclair, T. S., Mowat, N. A. and Brunt, P. W., Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently healthy non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis. A controlled study. J. Hepatology 9 319-325, 1989. Zeneroli, M. L., Cioni, G., Crisi, G., Vezzelli, C. and Ventura, E., Globus pallidus alterations and brain atrophy in liver cirrhosis patients with encephalopathy an MR...

Heroin

I., Akindele, M. O. and Tompsett, S. L., Heroin and human sleep. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28 374-381, 1970. Volavka, J., Zaks, A., Roubicek, J. and Fink, M., Electrographic effects of diacetylmorphine (heroin) and naloxone in man. Neuropharmacology 9 587-593, 1970. Volavka, J., Zaks, A., Roubicek, J. and Fink, M., Acute EEG effects of heroin and naloxone. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 165, 1971. Volavka, J., Levine, R., Feldstein, S....

Marchiafava Bignami Disease

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare hemispheric disconnection syndrome typically associated with chronic alcoholism. The characteristic corpus callosum lesion appears hypodense or hyperdense on T1- or T2-weighted images, respectively, suggestive of callosal demyelination. Because MBD symptoms are quite variable, prior to the advent of noninvasive brain imaging techniques such as X-ray computerized tomography (CT) or MR imaging, antemortem diagnosis was not possible. A number of early MR...

Family History of Alcoholism

Elmasian, R., Neville, H., Woods, D., Schuckit, M. and Bloom, F., Event-related brain potentials are different in individuals at high and low risk for developing alcoholism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79 7900-7903, 1982. Pollock, V. E., Volavka, J., Goodwin, D. W., Mednick, S. A., Gabrielli, W. F., Knop, J. and Schulsinger, F., The EEG after alcohol administration in men at risk for alcoholism. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 40 857-861, 1983. Begleiter, H., Porjesz, B., Bihari, B. and Kissin, B.,...

PET and Spect Cameras

Differences in the design of PET and SPECT cameras derive specifically from their respective patterns of photon emission (i.e., dual vs single photons). Specifically, PET cameras infer the site of an annihilation event from the characteristic back-to-back paths and principles of coincidence detection of photons (Fig. 2) (Hoffman and Phelps, 1986 Links, 1990). In its simplest conceptual form, a PET camera is a ring of radiation detectors. Each radiation detector comprises two parts 1) a dense...

Marc J Kaufman PhD and Jonathan M Levin MD MPH

To date, magnetic resonance (MR) technologies have been used primarily for clinical evaluation of patients with substance abuse-related neurologic complications. The MR literature contains several types of reports. The largest segment consists of MR imaging findings regarding the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on gross brain structure. A smaller segment includes case report descriptions of relatively infrequent cerebrovascular abnormalities found in neurologically impaired illicit drug users....

Mescaline

Oepen, G., Fuenfgeld, M., Harrington, A., Hermle, L. and Botsch, H., Right hemisphere involvement in mescaline-induced psychosis. Psychiatry Res. 29 335-336, 1989. Hermle, L., Funfgeld, M., Oepen, G., Botsch, H., Borchardt, D., Gouzoulis, E., Fehrenbach, R. A. and Spitzer, M., Mescaline-induced psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurometabolic effects in normal subjects experimental psychosis as a tool for psychiatric research. Biol. Psychiatry 32 976-991, 1992. Hermle, L.,...

Acute Administration

K., Wikler, A. and Rubie, D. C., Studies on marihuana and pyrahexyl compound. Public Health Report 61 1059-1085, 1946. Ames, F., A clinical and metabolic study of acute intoxication with cannabis sativa and its role in the model psychoses. J. Ment. Sci. 104 972-999, 1958. Hollister, L. E., Sherwood, S. L. and Cavasino, A., Marihuana and the human electroencephalogram. Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 2 305-308, 1970. Jones, R. T. and Stone, G. C., Psychological studies...

Acute Effects

Cocaine is profoundly vasoactive, which likely explains the increased incidence of stroke and cerebrovascular dysfunction observed in cocaine abusers (Daras, 1996). While the incidence of stroke associated with cocaine abuse is low (see below), there is mounting evidence suggesting that chronic repetitive cocaine abuse may be associated with subtle (Volkow et al., 1988a Holman et al., 1991 Levin et al., 1995) but progressive (Kaufman et al., 1998c) cerebrovascular dysfunction. Consequently,...

Recording the Electroencephalogram

The technique of recording EEG involves obtaining a sample of brain electrical activity from a number of electrodes placed on the subject's head. Generally, a set of 21 electrodes is used, and the electrodes are placed over the scalp according to the 10-20 International System of electrode placement (Jasper, 1958). The 10-20 International System specifies the actual position in which the electrodes should be placed over the cerebral cortex by measuring standard landmarks on the skull. The...

Chronic Administration

L. and Herning, R. I., Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 21 143S-152S, 1981. Struve, F. A., Straumanis, J. J. and Patrick, G., Persistent topographic quantitative EEG sequelae of chronic marihuana use a replication study and initial discriminant function analysis. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 25 63-75, 1994. Struve, F. A., Patrick, G., Straumanis, J. J., Fitz-Gerald, M. J. and Manno, J., Possible EEG sequelae of very long...

MR Spectroscopy

Our group has employed phosphorus (31P) MRS to evaluate the effects of polydrug use on cerebral phosphorus metabolite levels. Our initial study of cocaine- and heroin-dependent polydrug abusers found increased cerebral phosphomonoesters (PME) and decreased P-NP (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) levels during the first week of medicated withdrawal. These metabolite abnormalities were attributed to membrane breakdown and bioenergetic dysfunction, respectively (Christensen et al., 1996). 31P MRS...