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Fig. 6. Early deprivation in the common marmoset and acute stress endocrinology assessed via urinalysis. (A) Urinary Cortisol response to ED performed in the morning or afternoon on PND 2-28, N= 10 ED infants, with urine samples pooled, AM or PM, for pre-ED (basal) and post-ED (90- and 120-min deprivations). In AM urines, pre- and post-ED values did not differ significantly from each other (/(9) = 0.19, p > 0.84). whereas in PM urines, post-ED values were significantly greater than pre-ED (/(9) = 3.79. p < 0.005).

(B) Urinary adrenaline response to ED performed on PND 2-28, N= 10 ED infants, with urine samples pooled, AM and PM, for pre-ED (basal) and post-ED (90- and 120-min deprivations). Titres were significantly greater in post-ED samples (/(9) = -5.86, p < 0.002).

(C) Urinary noradrenaline response to ED performed on PND 2-28, N= 10 ED infants, with urine samples pooled, AM and PM, for pre-ED (basal) and post-ED (90- and 120-min deprivations). Titres were significantly greater in post-ED samples (t(9) = —7.49, p < 0.0001). (D) Morning basal urinary Cortisol titres in ED infants compared with CON siblings at PND 28. Titres were significantly reduced in ED subjects (t(6) = —3.81. < 0.01). Statistical analysis was performed using the paired t test in all cases. All hormone titers were expressed relative to urinary creatinine content to control for variation in urinary volume and concentration; creatinine titers were very similar in pre- and post-ED samples and in ED and CON subjects. "Reprinted from Biological Psychiatry, 52, AC Dettling, J Feldon and CR Pryce, Repeated parental deprivation in the infant common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, Primates) and analysis of its effects on early development, 1037-1046, Copyright (2002), with permission from Society of Biological Psychiatry."

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