Significant advances in gene targeting methods have led to the development of insightful animal models with specific alterations in corticotropin pathways. The primary components of these pathways have been engineered for upregulation, downregulation, or deficiency, and thus, provide a powerful collection of models to study specific processes that regulate the response to stress. They offer a new view into the cellular and molecular mechanisms critical for maintaining stability during stressful challenge and underscore the degree of plasticity and compensation that exists within this system. In essence, they have expanded our understanding of the role of the corticotropin system in promoting allostasis.

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