The Painless Stop Smoking Cure

Quit Smoking Magic

Quit Smoking Magic is the first and Only program of its type that literally can Force You to easily kick the habit in just days even if you have a shoestring budget and absolutely no will power. Benefits: Helps You to successfully quit smoking in as little as just days. Its as easy as taking candy from a Sleeping baby. This system takes just minutes to administer. This system can be done on a shoestring budget. Absolutely no chance of Any negative side effects. Works for almost Everyone 98% success rate thus far. You will never relapse with this program. Theres no Will-power necessary with Quit Smoking Magic. Powerful concept based on Real-life experiences rather than just theories. Quit Smoking Magic Teaches You: How to quit smoking cigarettes super-fast. How to stop your Cravings dead in their tracks. How to Never relapse with this nasty habit. How to avoid spending a ton of Money in your quest for quitting. How to quit smoking Now rather than later. How to Automatically kick this habit even without will-power. How to keep from having withdrawal symptoms and nasty mood swings. How to refrain from having Insomnia after quitting. How to avoid restlessness as well as changes in appetite. Read more...

Quit Smoking Magic Summary


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Author: Mike Avery
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My Quit Smoking Magic Review

Highly Recommended

The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Advertising And Tobacco

Tobacco companies spend more than 5 billion annually to advertise and promote cigarettes and other tobacco products. Tobacco companies claim that the purpose and desired effect of marketing are merely to provide information and to influence brand selection among current smokers, although only about 10 percent of smokers switch brands in any one year. Since more than one million adult smokers stop smoking every year and almost half a million other adult smokers die from smoking-re-lated diseases, the tobacco companies must recruit an average of 3,300 new young smokers every day to replace those who die or otherwise stop smoking. Tobacco companies contend that smoking is an ''adult habit'' and that adult smokers ''choose'' to smoke. However, many medical researchers assert that cigarette smoking is primarily a childhood addiction or disease and that most of the adults who smoke started as children and could not quit. lations. The basic restrictions have been that companies cannot use...

Small Cell Lung Cancer SCLC

Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) accounts for 20 to 25 of all bronchogenic carcinomas and is associated with the poorest survival of all histologic types 6 . SCLC is most often a lesion of the central portion of the lung but is occasionally found in the peripheral portions 2, 7 . In contrast to other major types of lung cancer, SCLC is highly sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which results in initial significant improvements in the survival of patients with this disease but the overall results remain unchanged in the following years due to development of drug resistance and death of the patients 8 . Yun et al 9 observed that the age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 person-years (standard Poisson regression analysis) for small cell carcinoma was 0.5 (95 CI 0.2-1.4) for never smokers, 3.5 (95 CI 0.4-27.3) for former smokers, and 11.1 (95 CI 1.5-82.9) for current smokers. In this study 9 83.6 , 14.5 , and 1.9 patients were current smoker, former smoker, and never...

General Health Issues or But I Want to Hang Out in the Sun in a Tiny Bikini Smoking Cigarettes and Drinking with My

Many adolescents may already be tobacco smokers or are exposed to tobacco smoking through friends and family. Smoking can be detrimental to adolescents with SLE for several reasons it may exacerbate Raynaud's phenomenon it is not recommended for anyone with pulmonary disease it provides additional risk for cardiovascular disease and there is evidence that it may be associated with decreased efficacy of medications such as hydroxychloroquine (11). In one study, patients with SLE who were cigarette smokers had significantly higher disease activity scores, suggesting that exposure to cigarettes should be avoided for all SLE patients (12). Healthcare providers should ask adolescents about possible cigarette use in a confidential setting, and provide options for tobacco cessation if the adolescent is a smoker.

Development Of Physical Dependence On Nicotine

Nicotine is the chemical substance responsible for PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE on tobacco products. During the development of physical dependence on a drug such as nicotine, brain chemistry and function change. They return to normal in the presence of nicotine and come to depend on the drug for normal function. The change that results in normal function in the presence of nicotine is called neuroadaptation or TOLERANCE. When tolerance develops after a period of use of nicotine, or of any drug, the same dose produces less of an effect than previously. Tolerance develops to many of the effects of nicotine. It is well-known that people smoking their first cigarette often experience nausea and vomiting. However, after repeated exposure to cigarette smoke, these effects disappear. Their disappearance is the development of tolerance to the toxic effects of nicotine in the cigarette smoke. Tolerance also develops to the more desirable effects of nicotine such as pleasure and alertness. The...

Absorption Of Nicotine From Tobacco

Nicotine, which is absorbed into the body when tobacco products are used, can be absorbed by different routes and at different rates. Some products deliver nicotine in smoke that is inhaled. In tobacco smoke, nicotine is present in droplets that also contain water and tar. These droplets are carried by gases that include carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and nitrogen oxides. Such suspended droplets carried by gas are called an aerosol. When the aerosol is inhaled, the droplets are deposited in the small airways of the lungs, from which nicotine is absorbed into the blood stream. After absorption through the lungs, blood containing nicotine moves into the heart and then into the arterial circulation, including the brain. Nicotine reaches the brain within 10 to 15 seconds after a puff on a cigarette. This rapid delivery of nicotine to the brain produces more intensive effects than following slower delivery and provides the close temporal link between SMOKING and the development of...

Nicotine Delivery Systems and Treatment of

These medications are meant to provide nicotine to smokers as a substitute for nicotine formerly consumed from tobacco use. Nicotine medications reduce withdrawal symptoms and increase the likelihood that the individual will quit tobacco use. Two forms of nicotine medication are currently available. Nicotine chewing gum (nicotine polacrilex, also known as Nicorette) consists of nicotine in a gum that slowly releases nicotine during chewing. Each gum is typically chewed for about 30 minutes. People chew up to 16 pieces per day when trying to quit smoking. Nicotine patches are applied to the skin. They release nicotine slowly through the skin over 16 or 24 hours, depending on the patch used. Both forms of nicotine-replacement medication deliver doses of nicotine equivalent to that taken in by the average tobacco user. Nicotine chewing gum delivers about 1 to 2 mg per piece. Nicotine patches deliver from 5 to 21 mg, depending on the patch and its strength.

Elimination Of Nicotine From The Body

Nicotine in the body is eliminated primarily by breakdown by the liver. The rate of breakdown is such that the level of nicotine in the blood falls about one-half after two hours. This rate is also known as a half-life of two hours. The primary breakdown product of nicotine is cotinine. Cotinine levels in the body are about 10 times higher than those of nicotine. The half-life of cotinine is 16 hours, and cotinine persists in the body for 4 days after a person stops smoking. Cotinine levels can be measured as an indicator of how much nicotine a person is taking in.

Behavioral Aspects Of Tobacco Addiction

People continue to smoke both because they enjoy the direct drug effects of nicotine and because use of nicotine becomes associated with other pleasures through learning for instance, when the pleasurable effects of nicotine occur repeatedly in the presence of specific cues or events in the envi ronment. Eventually, those cues and events become a signal to smoke. For example, people often smoke after meals, while drinking a cup of coffee or an alcoholic beverage, during a break from work, while talking on the phone, or while with friends who smoke. After smoking in these situations hundreds of times, the user may find that these situations themselves produce a powerful urge for a cigarette. There are other learned pleasures that keep people smoking independent of the pharmacological effects of nicotine. Handling of smoking materials, and the taste, smell, or feel of tobacco smoke in the throat, all can become associated with the effects of nicotine and then become pleasurable in...

Nicotine Addiction In Youth

Ninety percent of all tobacco users begin smoking before the age of 20. The earlier in life one starts smoking, the more likely he or she is to become a regular smoker and the more cigarettes he or she will smoke as an adult. The development of addiction in youth involves a series of steps including nicotine addiction Initially, young people smoke for social and psychological reasons. The motivations include the influence of parents and friends who are smokers, and the positive images of smoking perpetuated in television and movies and in advertisements in magazines, at music and sports events, and on billboards. Personal factors also play a role. Some include poor school performance, low self-esteem, poor self-image, sensation seeking, rebelliousness, failure to take seriously the adverse effects of tobacco use, and depression or anxiety. While early stages of smoking usually consist of occasional sessions with friends, tolerance develops and withdrawal symptoms are experienced...

Treatment Of Nicotine Addiction

Treatment of nicotine addiction is discussed in the articles entitled Treatment Tobacco. The approach may be summarized as follows. Initial therapy usually does not include drugs. Smokers are encouraged to pick a day and just stop (go cold turkey). Some smokers participate in formal behavioral therapies, such as those available in smoking-cessation clinics. Those who are unable to stop on their own or with behavior therapies are more likely to be highly addicted to nicotine and are candidates for pharmacological (drug) therapy. The main drug therapies for smoking are nicotine-containing medications such as chewing gum or transdermal (skin) patches. (SEE ALSO Addiction Concepts and Definitions Adolescents and Drugs Reward Pathways and Drugs Tobacco Smokeless Tolerance and Physical Dependence Withdrawal Nicotine) BENOWITZ, N. L. (1988). Pharmacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1318-1330. U.S. Surgeon General. (1988). The...

Self Help Therapies for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

Smoking is a proven risk factor for the three leading causes of death in the United States heart disease, cancer, and stroke. It is responsible for approximately 440,000 premature deaths in the United States each year and represents the single most preventable cause of death in our society (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , 2002a). Nevertheless, it is estimated that 45.8 million Americans continue to smoke (CDC, 2004). Additionally negative effects of environmental smoke among non-smokers have been firmly established, with mortality rates estimated at up to 38,000 annually as a result of involuntary smoking (CDC, 2002a). In addition to premature mortality, smoking was responsible in the period from 1995 to 1999 for approximately 157 billion in annual health-related economic losses (CDC, 2002a). Due to the well-known negative health consequences of smoking on the individual smoker, as well as to surrounding nonsmokers, and the economic costs of smoking, American society...

Clinical Practice Guidelines For The Delivery Of Smoking Cessation Interventions

Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for the delivery of brief advice and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in health care settings.76,77 Within cancer care settings, physicians, nurses and other cancer care providers can readily offer compelling advice to cancer survivors about the risks of continued smoking and the health benefits of quitting. Brief cessation counseling techniques known as the 5 A's model are widely recommended (1) Ask about smoking, (2) Advise about quitting, (3) Assess readiness to quit, (4) Assist, and (5) Arrange follow-up.78 Clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence were first published in 1996 and then updated in 2000,76 are based on an expert panel's comprehensive and systematic review of the evidence base for the management of tobacco-dependent patients. The eight key recommendations and findings are summarized in Table 1. Brief counseling involves assisting smokers to develop and use practical problem-solving and...

Efficacy of Smoking Cessation Interventions in Cancer

Very few randomized smoking cessation clinical trials with cancer patients have been published. These studies have utilized small sample sizes, focused primarily on hospitalized patients, and used nonrandomized designs. Both minimal and more intensive programs have been associated with dramatically high rates of cessation suggesting that the cancer survivor population is quite responsive to these cessation programs.63,79,80 In these studies, abstinence rates for the intervention (experimental) and usual care (control) conditions have been high, up to 70 in the first 6 months, far above the naturalistic quit rates reported in the general population of smokers (generally, 10 to 15 ).76 Gritz and colleagues62,68 compared the effects of usual care (standardized physician advice including education about the risks of smoking and the benefits of abstinence) to intervention (standardized advice with three types of self-help materials tailored to the special needs and concerns of head and...

Systems Level Barriers to Smoking Cessation

The removal of financial barriers for smokers in need of treatment for tobacco dependence is a public health priority in the United States, particularly for uninsured, underinsured, and underserved smokers. Although reimbursement for smoking cessation interventions is improving, there are limitations to the coverage of tobacco-dependence treatment, particularly intensive treatment. Less than 33 of employers provide coverage for smoking cessation interventions.111 These services require expensive co-payments, limited coverage for face-to-face counseling (instead favoring less costly web-based or printed materials for self-help programs), and referral to public health programs that may not meet the specific needs of cancer survivors. However, there have been promising advances in recent reimbursement trends. Once solely affiliated with corporate wellness programs, smoking cessation treatment is now shifting toward consideration for inclusion as a medical benefit.112 Further, based on...

Clinical Care Approaches For Promoting Smoking Cessation In Cancer Survivorship

Our smoking cessation program at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center follows a stepped-care model (see Figure 1), with all cancer care providers able to provide step 1, minimum intensity counseling to patients. Step 2 includes moderate intensity counseling through referral to the smoking cessation program, in which certified Tobacco Treatment Specialists (TTSs) (nurse specialists) perform an intake assessment of smoking behaviors, develop a tobacco treatment plan, offer brief counseling for cessation, advise options for smoking cessation pharmacother-apy, and conduct serial follow-up assessments with patients and survivors to monitor smoking cessation status and outcomes. Recognizing the geographic range of cancer survivors treated at a tertiary cancer care center, the TTSs also refer to local resources in the community. Step 3 is intensive treatment for smoking cessation delivered by psychologists who provide specialized care of smokers at high risk for continued smoking in...

Treatment Of Smokeless Tobacco Addiction

Much evidence indicates that the use of smokeless tobacco produces addiction and leads to serious health consequences as does the use of smoked tobacco. However, little is known about effective treatment for smokeless tobacco (i.e., snuff or chewing tobacco) addiction. The general behavioral approach is similar to that for cigarette smoking, although the specific learned associations and cues are naturally somewhat different. Self-help materials are available from a variety of sources in the United States. Some strategies include the use of alternative activities, such as chewing gum, hard candy, sunflower seeds, nuts, toothpicks, or beef jerky. Formal treatment programs are also available in some parts of the country. At the present time, insufficient evidence exists to suggest that the use of established medications designed for helping cigarette smokers increases long-term cessation among users of smokeless tobacco. (See also Addiction Concepts and Definitions Relapse Prevention...

Smoking Cessation And Weight Gain

It is not clear whether weight gain during cessation is temporary or permanent, although the majority of studies indicate that some weight gain (about 5 pounds) is likely to be long-term. Although the mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are not clear, a number of hypotheses have been set forward. These include a metabolic effect for smokers this is supported by research indicating that smokers and nonsmokers have few differences in the amount of calories consumed. Another hypothesis is that smoking lowers the body's ''set point'' for weight and smoking cessation raises that set point to be equivalent to that of nonsmokers. A third hypothesis is based on the observation that an increase in caloric intake occurs in those who stop smoking, and increased consumption may be responsible for the weight gain. Although weight gain is likely to accompany cessation, actual weight gain during smoking cessation does not appear to be related to cessation outcomes. Nevertheless, in reaction...

Optimal Treatment of Small Cell Lung Cancer

Thirty years of clinical research activity in the field of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) treatment get me to conclude that standard treatment for this disease has not yet been precisely defined. Some recent editorial assertions are untrue, due to rapid evolution of knowledge or to simplification risks. We will try here to highlight some ideas whose application presently can optimise treatments of patients affected by this cancer.

Effects Of Smoking Cessation

There are a number of physiological effects that take place in the human body after cessation of smoking. About twenty minutes after cessation, the blood pressure and pulse rate return to normal, and the body temperature increases to normal. About 8 hours later, the carbon monoxide level in the blood drops to normal, and after 1 day, an individual s chance of a heart attack decreases. After two days, nerve endings start to regenerate, and the ability to smell and taste is improves. After two weeks, an individual s circulation improves and the functionality of the lungs increase by a maximum of 30 percent. After a year of smoking abstinence, the risk of coronary heart disease is reduced to half that of a smoker, and after five years of cessation, the risk of death by lung cancer is cut in half. After fifteen years, the risk of coronary heart disease is equal to that of a nonsmoker.

Research On Cessation Of Tobacco

Although the scientific study of smoking treatments dates from the mid-1900s, nonscientific and scientific treatments often overlap. Until the 1980s, there were still many observers who doubted that tobacco use was based on an addic tion to or dependence on nicotine. In the 1950s and 1960s, many experts believed that smoking was ''just a bad habit.'' Experts at that time failed to appreciate that tobacco use was a form of drug use instead, they saw smoking as the kind of habit that could be broken by taking certain behavioral steps. This attitude was the origin of the so-called behavioral techniques for stopping smoking. In the early part of the twentieth century, self-help movements were very popular and were directed against alcohol and other drug problems. Such efforts at behavioral changes have a long history in society. Perhaps because they are so commonplace, people tend not to seek professional help for dealing with minor behavioral problems. As a result, it should not be...

Treatment Of Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms

Two pharmacologic approaches, nicotine replacement therapy and drugs to manage symptoms associated with withdrawal, have been taken to reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. In addition, behavioral approaches for withdrawal have been tested. Nicotine replacement therapy. The purpose of nicotine replacement is to substitute a safer and controllable form of nicotine to the smoker to aid in cessation. Although nicotine replacement delivery systems vary, all attempt to reduce the amount of nicotine available during cessation so that an individual is weaned from nicotine addiction. Two nicotine replacement therapies are available over-the-counter nicotine polacrilex gum and the transdermal nicotine patch. Two other delivery systems are available through prescriptions an oral nicotine inhalation system and a nasal nicotine spray. The effectiveness of each of the systems has been well-established in randomized, controlled trials. Symptom treatment. A number of drug therapies have been approved...

Alcohol And Tobacco

There is greater evidence of sex-role convergence in Tobacco use. In 1955, 52 percent of adult men smoked, compared with 25 percent of adult women. Since then, the proportion of men who smoke has decreased markedly while rates among women have held fairly steady. Among adults aged 35 and older in 1993, 27 percent of men and 21 percent of women were current smokers. Among youths aged twelve to seventeen, girls have surpassed boys in their rates of current cigarette use (10 percent of girls compared with 9 percent of boys in 1993). Because boys are more likely than girls to use smokeless tobacco products, however, their overall rates of nicotine addiction still exceed girls' rates. Biener (1987) reviews factors that have contributed to the convergence in male and female smoking. Product developments such as filtered and low-tar cigarettes have made smoking easier for women to tolerate physically. Tobacco companies have targeted Advertising to make smoking attractive to young women. Once...

Comparison Of Addiction To Nicotine And Other Drugs

Nicotine addiction is similar to and as powerful as addiction to other drugs, such as HEROIN, ALCOHOL, and COCAINE. All these drugs have psychoac-tivity and produce pleasure. They increase the likelihood that people will spend time looking for them and engaging in rituals while taking them and that users will continue to take them in the face of risk to their well-being and health. The psychoactivity of nicotine is subtle and does not interfere with normal functioning in daily life. Thus nicotine s psy-choactivity differs from that of heroin and cocaine, which produces more intense euphoria and may be disruptive to everyday functioning. Despite this difference, nicotine is addictive. A subtle psychoactive effect, especially when experienced with each puff of smoke, taken hundreds of times a day, exerts a powerful effect on behavior over time. The magnitude of effect becomes apparent when each puff of cigarette is considered as a dose of nicotine. A smoker who takes 8 puffs per...

History Of Tobacco

Tobacco was introduced to Europeans by Native Americans at the time of Columbus's exploration of the New World (1492-1506). The first written records of tobacco use date from this time, but there is archaeological evidence for tobacco's wide use in the Americas as early as c.e. 600-900. Native Americans considered tobacco as sacred, a plant used in social, fertility, and spiritual ritual. For Acute nicotine poisoning was a central aspect of the practice of shamanism in many parts of South America. South American shamans would smoke or ingest tobacco to the point of producing a nicotine-mediated trance or coma. The dose of nicotine could be titrated to produce a coma state resembling death, but from which the shaman would recover. Recovery from apparent death enhanced the perception of the shaman's magical powers. In 1492 Columbus encountered natives in His-paniola smoking tobacco in the form of large cigars. Enticed by the sacred and special regard in which they held tobacco,...

Nicotine And Tobacco

TOBACCO is a tall, herbaceous plant, the leaves of which are harvested, cured, and rolled into cigars, shredded for use in cigarettes and pipes, and processed for chewing or snuff. Tobacco has become a commercial crop in almost all tropical countries as well as in many temperate ones. The main source of commercial tobacco is Nicotiana tabacum, although Nicotiana rustica is also grown and is used in Asian tobaccos. Tobacco has been developed to yield a wide range of morphologically different types, from the small-leaved aromatic tobaccos to the large, broad-leaved cigar tobaccos. Tobacco is native to South America, where it was used in a drink for ritual purposes long before inhaling the smoke of the dried plant material was first documented by the Maya more than 2,000 years ago. Tobacco was then traded and grown in Central America it moved into Mexico and the Caribbean and eventually into North America by about 800 A.D. The Arawaks of the Caribbean smoked tobacco, and during...

Molecularly targeted therapies in lung cancer

Ros1 Mutation

Excessive stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor increases proliferation of cancer cells in different kinds of tumours, i.a. in non-small-cell lung cancer. Cell growth signal is transmitted from EGFR (HER1), after its heterodimerisation with other member of HER family (ERBB2 - HER2, HER3 or HER4), through phosphorylation of Pi3K AKT and RAS RAF MAPK mTOR pathway. The phosphorylation takes place due to EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, which performs hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and free phosphate. Tyrosine kinases are a part of EGFR but also other cell receptors and signalling proteins. Phosphorylation disorder initiated by EGFR tyrosine kinase is associated with the development of NSCLC that is independent from tobacco smoke carcinogens. Blocking of EGFR function may be achieved by using small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or monoclonal antibodies (such as cetuximab), which bind to extracellular domain of EGFR. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase function by TKI-EGFR is much...

Patient Related Barriers to Smoking Cessation

There are several patient level barriers for smoking cessation in cancer survivors including high nicotine dependency, urgency of cessation advice, cancer-specific health beliefs, psychological distress, disease and treatment variables, social network influences and misreporting of smoking status. Table 3. Smoking Cessation in Cancer Survivors High psychological distress High nicotine dependence Abrupt cessation vs. commitment to Patients diagnosed with tobacco-related cancers typically report long histories of heavy tobacco use.62,68,86 Heavy cumulative tobacco exposure is associated with strong nicotine dependency and severe withdrawal symptoms (i.e., cravings, restlessness, difficulty concentrating, insomnia, etc.) following smoking abstinence. Thus, cessation approaches in cancer survivors may require consideration of combined pharmacotherapies to address both nicotine withdrawal and other common symptoms such as anxiety and depression. The perceived urgency for abrupt and...

Nicotine Tolerance And Dependence

Nicotine is the pharmacologic agent that acts on the central nervous system (CNS). Its actions are seen in the brain where it operates on cholin-ergic receptors. The cigarette is a very fast and effective delivery system and effects occur rapidly after a single inhalation of tobacco smoke. Nicotine quickly crosses the blood-brain barrier and, once in the brain, interacts with brain receptors. Nicotine alters moods and acts on pleasure-seeking receptors in the brain, including dopamine and serotonin. The nicotine alkaloid affects numerous body systems It raises blood pressure and the heart rate. It also affects the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and both stimulant and depressive effects are observed in cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and skeletal systems. Initial exposure to nicotine is not a pleasant experience, often causing sickness, intoxication, and disruptions in physiologic functioning. After a period of daily smoking (assumed to be at least a few weeks), the body...

Cigarette Smoking And Cardiovascular Disease

Cigarette smoking-related cardiovascular diseases have been described widely. However, the mechanisms of their effects on cardiovascular system were not totally clear. The effects of nicotine and carbon monoxide on blood vessel walls, unfavorable lipid profiles, increased myocardial work and the decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood of smokers contribute to the overall effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular disease 3J. Of the increased cardiovascular risk caused by smoking, it is estimated that approximately one-tenth of this is due to smoking-induced changes in serum lipid 4 , The majority of studies indicate elevations in serum cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased hepatic lipase activity in smokers, with decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol 5 , A mechanism to explain the link between smoking and some of the observed changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations includes the...

Cigarette Smoking And The Risk Of Stroke

Heavy smoking ( 20 cigarettes day) increases both the incidence 37-41 and mortality from stroke 40,41 , Cigarette smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage 42-48 , In contrast, evidence concerning the role of tobacco in the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial, yet it appears that heavy, but not light-to-moderate cigarette smoking, increases the risk 9,38,49,50 , Smoking is dose-dependantly associated with the risk of ischemic stroke 38,46 , Cessation of smoking reduces stroke risk 37,39 , with major reduction within 2-5 years after cessation 37,39,46 , indicating that part of the effects of smoking is reversible. The risk of stroke seems to return to the level of never-smokers in light smokers, but heavy smokers seem to retain an increased risk even though also they benefit from cessation 37 , There are several mechanisms by which smoking may cause stroke. Cigarette smoking causes an immediate, yet reversible increases in blood pressure...

Pollutants and Tobacco Smoke as Adjuvant Factors

The role of tobacco smoke, a complex mixture of various particles and organic compounds, has been extensively studied. The studies which have recently been reviewed consistently demonstrate that the risk of lower airway disease such as bronchitis, recurrent wheezing in infants as well as pneumonia is increased. Whether passive tobacco smoke exposure is causally related to the development of asthma is still disputed 8, 9 . smoked up to the end of pregnancy and continued to smoke after birth. In this subgroup of the cohort, a significantly increased sensitization rate regarding IgE antibodies to food proteins, particularly to hen's egg and cow's milk, was only observed during infancy, whereas sensitization rates later on were not different from children who had never been exposed to tobacco smoke. These observations might be related to the fact that in children the highest urinary cotinine concentrations are detected during the first years of life, when the child spends most of the time...

On Selecting A Way To Stop Smoking

Smokers should be advised to take a long view of their efforts to stop smoking, understanding that if one method does not help them, they should try another, and another, until they have stopped smoking. Any one attempt to stop smoking can meet with poor success. With repeated attempts, the smoker may encounter some success. Also, repeated attempts give the smoker experience with assorted treatment techniques, so that the individual begins to learn for what helps and what does not help. Finally, there may be a kind of ''no more nice guy'' effect, so that the smoker gets fed up with failing to quit smoking. It is also important to realize that no two programs are delivered in exactly the same way. The individual characteristics of a therapist and the client's rapport with that therapist can contribute to a therapy's success. The person who wants help to stop smoking should investigate available community resources the library is good place to start. If the first attempt fails,...

Genetic mutations in lung cancer cells

Women Safety India

Apart of chromosomal aberrations single gene mutations can appear in lung cancer cells. These mutations can be revealed with molecular biology techniques. Mentioned mutations do not often appear simultaneously in one cancer cell (less than 3 of tumour cells). They concern genes important for correct proliferation, differentiation and cell growth such as oncogenes and genes for signal proteins involved in a complicated network of intracellular signal transmission (predominantly genes for tyrosine and threonine-serine kinases). Accumulation of driver mutations in different genes is detected depending on history of tumour exposure to carcinogens. Failure of DNA repair and progressive genetic instability leads to appearance of mutation that drives cancer development, its growth and metastases 4 . Molecular type of lung cancer is partially consistent with histological type of tumour. Although frequency of occurrence of some driver mutations is extremely rare, in only 20 of NSCLC tumours...

Smoking Cessation in the Overweight or Obese Patient

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease. Because of its attendant high risk, smoking cessation is a major goal of risk-factor management. This aim is especially important in the overweight or obese patient, who usually carries excess risk from obesity-associated risk factors. Thus, smoking cessation in such patients becomes a high priority for risk reduction. Evidence Statement Smoking and obesity together increase cardiovascular risk, but fear of weight gain upon smoking cessation is an obstacle for many patients who smoke. Evidence Category C. Rationale Both smoking and obesity are accompanied by increased risks for cardiovascular disease. Many well-documented health benefits are associated with smoking cessation, but a major obstacle to successful smoking cessation has been the attendant weight gain observed in about 80 percent of quitters. This weight gain averages 4.5 to 7 lb, but in 13 percent of women and 10 percent of men, weight gains in excess of...

In addition to asking me to lose weight prior to surgery my doctor has asked me to quit smoking I dont think I can lose

Once again your doctor is not trying to sabotage your surgery. People who smoke do not do as well following any surgery requiring general anesthesia as nonsmokers. If you are a smoker it is likely that it will be more difficult to get you to breathe on your own following surgery than if you were a nonsmoker. Quitting even for a short period of time prior to surgery can make coming off the respirator easier. Quitting smoking on top of losing weight may seem like a major task, but you will be in much better shape for surgery if you do. If you remain off cigarettes long-term following surgery you will dramatically reduce your risk of heart disease, lung disease, and many forms of cancer. A smoke-free you, a lighter you, a healthier you. Think of how you can really change your life in the next six to twelve months. For some people a smoking cessation aid makes quitting a lot easier. One way to help determine if you might benefit from a smoking cessation tool is to answer one simple...

Future Directions For Promoting Smoking Cessation In Cancer Survivorship

At an individual treatment level, there is first a need to target and examine the effectiveness of established evidence-based treatments for tobacco dependence in cancer survivors. Interventions developed for the general population of smokers may be applicable to the cancer survivor population.22 For instance, Schnoll and colleagues, recognizing the potential barrier of psychological distress, are conducting a randomized clinical trial examining whether combination pharmacotherapy including bupropion (in addition to NRT and behavioral counseling) increases quit rates in head and neck cancer patients over and above NRT and behavioral counseling alone. Presumably, the more intensive treatment condition (addition of bupropion) will be superior and more responsive to the psychological needs of cancer survivors, many of whom report heightened psychological distress. These important findings will replicate work conducted in the general smoking population and may support treatment matching...

Assessment Of Readiness To Quit Tobacco

The application of behavioral treatments to tobacco-dependent individuals begins with an assessment of preparation for change. Readiness to change negative health behaviors has conceptualized in the transtheoretical model originated by James Prochaska and Carlos DiClemente. This model posits that there are reliable Stages of Change in health awareness and motivation, and that appropriate treatments vary by the stage. There are five stages of change (1) pre-contemplation, a period where during the next 6 months, the tobacco user is not considering quitting (2) contemplation, a period when a tobacco user is seriously considering quitting in the next 6 months (3) preparation, a period when, a tobacco user who tried quitting in the previous year, thinks about quitting in the next month and (4) action, a 6 month period after the tobacco user makes overt changes to stop using tobacco products. The last stage, maintenance, is the longest and describes the tobacco-free period after cessation....

Molecular biology methods in lung cancer diagnostics

Routine genetic testing for somatic mutations in lung cancer biopsies is becoming the standard for providing optimal patients care. However, it is unclear whether this testing should be routine for all lung cancer patients, because the prevalence of the most common mutations is very low especially in heavy smokers with squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, great number of molecular biology methods and variety of biological material acquired from patients create a critical need for robust, well-validated diagnostic tests and equipment that are both sensitive and specific for mutations. An In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device (IVD) is defined in Directive 98 79 EC of European Parliament and of the Council. IVD is described as any medical device which is a reagent, calibrator, control material, kit, equipment or system, whether used alone or in combination, intended by the manufacturer to be used in vitro for the examination of specimens, including blood and tissue donations, derived from the...

Provider Related Barriers to Smoking Cessation

Inadequate staff training and provider attitudes may also deter the delivery of smoking cessation interventions. Despite the promulgation of the clinical practice guidelines, surveys report many primary health care providers feel unprepared to assist their patients in smoking cessation, and a majority of providers do not routinely advise or assist their patients in cessation attempts.76,101-104 Findings estimate that smoking status is assessed in 50-66 of clinic visits,103,105-107 and smoking cessation interventions are provided in 3-20 of smokers' visits.107,108 Within the cancer care setting, Sarna et al.109 surveyed 4000 members of the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) to assess cessation practice patterns and attitu-dinal and skill set barriers to the provision of cessation advice and assistance. The most frequently reported perceived barriers to the delivery of smoking cessation interventions by oncology nurses in this sample were (1) lack of patient motivation, 74 (2) lack of time,...

Challenges Of Promoting Smoking Cessation In Cancer Survivorship

Clinical practice guidelines predominantly based on the experiences of primary care patients may not fully accommodate the specific needs and considerations of cancer survivors and their families. Part of the challenge of tailoring smoking cessation interventions to meet the special needs of cancer survivors is that, at present, little is known about the naturalistic factors that impede their smoking cessation efforts.84-87 Again, most studies understandably have focused on the treatment- and smoking-related characteristics of lung and head and neck cancer patients.19,35,40,64,68-70,72 In the general population of smokers, multiple patient-, provider-, and system-related barriers (e.g., inadequate provider training to deliver cessation interventions, and inadequate access to cessation treatments) may impede the delivery of smoking cessation interventions and the effective dissemination of the clinical practice guidelines. The context of cancer diagnosis has unique impact on all of...

Nicotinereplacement Therapies

Nicotine-replacement therapies can help reduce the nicotine withdrawal symptoms after smoking cessation. Replacement therapies help individuals deal with their smoking gradually by separating the behavioral and pharmacological components of smoking. While physical symptoms of nicotine withdrawal are reduced, the individual can focus on dealing with the behavioral challenges of stopping. The most commonly used nicotine-replacement therapies are a gum that releases nicotine as it is chewed and a patch that slowly releases nicotine into the body through the skin. These therapies are available over-the-counter. Transdermal nicotine patches appear to be preferred by individuals over nicotine gum. They seem to have the fewest side effects and are associated with the greatest long-term abstinence rates. Nicotine nasal sprays and nicotine vapor inhalers that deliver nicotine through the respiratory system are less common forms of nicotine-replacement therapy. They became available in the...

Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms

The DSM-IV recognizes nicotine dependence as a substance-related disorder, with a well-defined withdrawal syndrome. The potential withdrawal symptoms include dysphoric or depressed mood insomnia irritability, frustration, or anger anxiety difficulty concentrating restlessness decreased heart rate and increased appetite or weight gain. The severity of the symptoms will depend on the severity of nicotine dependence. Withdrawal symptoms are strongest in the first few days after smoking cessation, and usually diminish within a month, although some smokers may continue to have withdrawal symptoms for many months. A number of other sequelae accompany smoking cessation. There is evidence that cognitive ability is impaired when smoking cessation is attempted. The cognitive deficits are correlated with disruptions in brain electrophysiologic function. Figure 1 shows that deficits in an arithmetic task follow a similar time course as changes in the brain s electrical activity. These effects...


Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease. Because of its attendant high risk, smoking cessation is a major goal of risk-factor management. This aim is especially important in the overweight or obese patient, who usually carries excess risk from obesity-associated risk factors. Thus, smoking cessation in these patients becomes a high priority for risk reduction. Smoking and obesity together apparently compound cardiovascular risk, but fear of weight gain upon smoking cessation is an obstacle for many patients. Therefore, the panel recommends that All smokers, regardless of their weight status, should quit smoking. Evidence Category A. Prevention of weight gain should be encouraged and if weight gain does occur, it should be treated through dietary therapy, physical activity, and behavior therapy, maintaining the primary


Prenatal exposure to smoking has been linked with a number of impairments to the fetus, including impairments to memory, learning, cognition, and perception. Such impairments may result from chronic fetal hypoxia, a loss of oxygen to the cells that may impair normal development of the central nervous system. Maternal smoking during pregnancy also affects the respiratory system of a fetus, and newborns of smokers tend to have reductions in expiratory flows. It may also alter the developing lung and result in respiratory illness in the infant. Low birth weight is another factor commonly associated with prenatal exposure to smoking, and even passive smoking that is, from the father or another person in the vicinity of the mother seems to affect an infant's weight. Some studies have shown an average decrease in birth weight of about 200 grams in newborns whose mothers smoked throughout pregnancy. The risk of a low-birth-weight infant has also been estimated to be two to four times greater...

Effects Of Nicotine

The first pharmacological studies of nicotine were initiated in 1843 by Orfila. Nicotine is an Nicotine Effects in the Body. The actions of nicotine in a human body are complex. They depend on the amount of nicotine given, the route of administration (e.g., by mouth or intravenously), the time over which the dose is given, and the individual's history of exposure to nicotine. In high doses, nicotine produces nausea, vomiting, convulsions, muscle paralysis, cessation of breathing, coma, and circulatory collapse. Such high doses are seen after accidental absorption of a nicotine-containing insecticide or an overdose of nicotine. In lower doses, such as those used by people who consume tobacco products, the effects are very different. They include a speed up in heart rate and blood pressure increased force of contraction of the heart constriction of blood vessels in the skin, producing cool, pale skin constriction of blood vessels in the heart relaxation of skeletal muscles increased...

Nicotine Addiction

Addiction to nicotine is well documented. The development and characteristics of nicotine addiction are described in detail in a report from the U.S. Surgeon General published in 1988. In this report, The Health Consequences of Smoking Nicotine Addiction, the surgeon general presents criteria for nicotine addiction including the following 1. Highly controlled or compulsive use. Smokers have great difficulty abstaining. Seventy percent of the 45 million smokers in the United States today report that they would like to quit and can not. 2. Psychoactive effects. Nicotine, as described earlier in this article, has pronounced effects on the brain. 3. Drug-reinforced behavior. Tobacco use is motivated by a desire for the effects of nicotine. People do not smoke cigarettes that do not contain nicotine. Very few people choose to smoke cigarettes that deliver very low doses of nicotine. (See also the article on tobacco.) Other factors lead to the conclusion that nicotine is addictive 1. It is...

Tobacco Dependence

One commonly used pharmacological treatment for tobacco dependence is a nicotine-containing gum called Nicorette. The main reason to quit smoking cigarettes is its powerful association with lung cancer, emphysema, and other medical problems. Yet nicotine, the active ingredient in cigarettes, is another drug that is associated with pleasant effects and with withdrawal discomfort, thereby making it an extremely addicting drug. Providing cigarette smokers with nicotine replacement in the form of a gum will help them avoid the health risks associated with smoking cigarettes. One problem with Nicorette is that it is difficult to chew correctly and therefore people need to be trained in how to chew it in order to derive the therapeutic effect. Recently, a patch has been developed that is placed on the arm and automatically releases nicotine. A method that shows good potential as a treatment, the patch was made avail able in the early 1990s. Detoxification from nicotine may also be...

Tobacco and Nicotine

Tobacco is one of the most powerful stimulant plants known, and nicotine its active principle is one of the most toxic of all drugs. An average cigar contains enough nicotine to kill several people. When tobacco is smoked, most of the nicotine is destroyed by the heat of burning. (To kill people with a cigar, you'd have to soak the cigar in water till it turned dark, then make people drink the liquid.) Nicotine is so strong and dangerous that the body very quickly develops tolerance to it to protect itself. If a person begins smoking regularly, tolerance to the poisonous effects of nicotine develops in a matter of hours (as compared to days or weeks for heroin and months for alcohol). In the form of cigarettes, tobacco is the most addictive drug known. It is harder to break the habit of smoking cigarettes than it is to stop using heroin or alcohol. Moreover, many people learn to use alcohol and heroin in nonaddietive ways, whereas very few cigarette smokers can avoid becoming addicts....

Nicotine Abuse

Smoking remains a major public health problem. According to the World Health Organization, there are 1.1 billion smokers worldwide. According to the U.S. Center for Disease Control, there are 46.2 million adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Tobacco use in the United States results in 440,000 deaths each year (about one in five deaths.) The economic costs (medical costs and lost productivity) of tobacco use are 150 billion. Tobacco contains nicotine, which binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These receptors bind acetylcholine, but they also are activated by nicotine, an action inhibited by curare. Tobacco is a stimulant that improves alertness, memory, and mood, but it also forms a strong physical and psychological chemical dependence (addiction). Furthermore, nicotine can increase anxiety, restlessness, and disturb metabolism. The continual activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can cause a person to become addicted to smoking, requiring progressively...

Stopping smoking

Smokers have lower fertility than non-smokers The many toxic substances in tobacco smoke have negative effects on sperm count, follicle development, ovulation, transport of the egg through the fallopian tubes, fertilisation and embryo development yes, pretty much every aspect of fertility Women who smoke need nearly twice as many IVF cycles to conceive as non-smokers. The risk of early pregnancy loss after IVF treatment is twice as high for women who smoke as for non-smokers. Quitting smoking can be extremely difficult, because nicotine is a very addictive substance, but if you and or your partner smoke, make a pact to kick the habit before you start IVF treatment. Many effective methods are available to make quitting smoking easier. To find out how you can help yourself to stop smoking once and for all

Acetylmethadol See LAlpha

Born exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs while in the uterus a far larger number have been exposed, in utero to sedatives and nicotine. The increased recognition of such drug-exposed babies parallels the dramatic increase in drug use, both licit and illicit, by women since the beginning of the 1970s. Drug-addicted women often use multiple substances including ALCOHOL, NICOTINE, MARIJUANA, Tranquilizers, Cocaine, and Opioids (e.g., Heroin and Methadone). The drugs are carried across the placenta from mother to fetus. The clinical presentation of the newborn (neonate) depends on the substance, the amount and frequency used during pregnancy, and the time since last use. Withdrawal will occur in 55 to 94 percent of infants exposed to heroin and other opioids. Infants of regular heavy users usually have a low birth weight, because of intrauterine growth retardation and frequent premature births.

Understanding The Smoking Habit

Almost all smokers started before the age of 21 most before the age of 18 many before the age of 14. Young people who learn to inhale cigarette smoke and experience the mood-altering effects from the inhaled nicotine quickly become dependent on cigarettes to help them cope with the complexities of everyday life. Having developed a nicotine dependence, they find they must continue smoking to avoid the downside of nicotine withdrawal. The earlier they start to smoke, the more dependent they seem to become and the sooner they start to experience smoking-related health problems. Six years of research at the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University reveals that a child who reaches age 21 without smoking, using illegal drugs, or abusing alcohol is virtually certain never to do so. A survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services among high school students who smoked half a pack of cigarettes a day found that 53 percent had tried to quit...

Purpose Of Cigarette Advertising

To offset the effect of thousands of studies showing the adverse health effects of smoking and of the requested warning labels on cigarette packages, the tobacco industry has continued to claim that no one has yet ''proven'' that smoking ''causes'' health problems that these are just ''statistical associations.'' But, recently in Florida, a six-person jury decided, on April 7, 2000, that tobacco companies' cigarettes were a deadly, addictive, and defective product and caused cancer for three smokers who sued the industry in a class-action lawsuit. The companies must pay 12.7 million to the plaintiffs. The jury has yet to decide the punitive damages, which could be massive. The state of Florida, in order to protect its tobacco payments in the future, passed a law capping the amount of bond the companies would have to post in order to appeal such punitive damages at 100 million or 10 percent of the company's net worth, whichever is less. 2. To associate...

History Of Tobacco Advertising And Promotion

Tobacco advertising and promotional expenses have steadily increased. In 1997, the tobacco companies spent 5.66 billion to promote their products, up from 5.11 billion in 1996. The largest category of spending was for promotional allowances to wholesalers and retailers, 2.4 billion, more than double their spending in 1990. Next were expenditures for retail value added. At 970 million, this category includes non-cigarette items given away with cigarettes. Coupons and multiple STAT (Stop Teenage Addiction to Tobacco), at their 1991 STAT-91 Conference, addressed the problem of tobacco companies' efforts to encourage tobacco addiction in young people. It was learned that the RJR Nabisco cartoon camel was at the center of the most extensive advertising campaign ever created to influence the values and behavior of young people. Camel's share of the teenage market rose from almost nothing to almost 35 percent in just three years by ''this sleazy dromedary.''

Cardiovascular Disease

A number of large intervention trials using disease outcomes (rather than biomarkers such as LDL oxidation) have also been conducted to try to demonstrate a protective effect of vitamin E, ,3-caro-tene, and, to a lesser extent, vitamin C supplements on cardiovascular disease. Most have been carried out in high-risk groups (e.g., smokers) or those with established heart disease (i.e., people with angina or who have already suffered a heart attack).

Overview Of Patterns Of Asbestos Use And Recognition Of Its Health Consequences

A number of adverse health outcomes are now causally associated with exposure to asbestos. An approximate timeline for recognition of the adverse consequences is provided in this section, as drawn from published sources. The first to be recognized was asbestosis, a pneumoconiosis characterized by fibrosis of the lung and reduction of lung function (Table 1.1), first reported as early as 1907 (Hamilton and Hardy 1974, as cited in Becklake 1976). Iron-coated fibers, called asbestos bodies, are typically found in the tissues of affected lungs. Mesothelioma, an uncommon tumor of the pleural and peritoneal mesothelium (tissues lining the thoracic and abdominal cavities and the organs in them), was linked to asbestos in the early 1960s in clinical case reports, and the increased risk was then further shown in cohort studies of asbestos workers. In the 1950s, epidemiologic studies documented the association of lung cancer with asbestos exposure, and the risk was found to be particularly...

Dietary Sources and High Intakes

Vegetables deficiency is likely in people whose habitual intake of fruit and vegetables is very low. However, clinical signs of deficiency are rarely seen in developed countries. The range of intakes by healthy adults in Britain reflects fruit and vegetable consumption the 2.5 percentile intake is 19 mg per day (men) and 14 mg per day (women), while the 97.5 percentile intake from foods (excluding supplements) is 170 mg per day (men) and 160 mg per day (women). Smokers may be at increased risk of deficiency there is some evidence that the rate of ascorbate catabolism is 2-fold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers.

General Approach To Evidence Review

The committee was charged with assessing the evidence concerning the causation of selected cancers, other than lung cancer and mesothelioma, by exposure to asbestos fibers. The charge required that the committee compile and review the available evidence, attempting to identify all relevant epidemiologic studies, and then evaluate whether the evidence was sufficient to infer the existence of a causal relationship. There are now well-established models for meeting the charge, dating as far back as the landmark 1964 report of the US surgeon general on smoking and health (HEW 1964), which reached the conclusion that smoking causes lung cancer and other diseases. That report assembled the full body of relevant scientific evidence and evaluated it according to formal guidelines. Abundant, comprehensive reviews of various other agents have since been conducted to gauge whether the sets of evidence associating them with particular health outcomes warrant causal conclusions. Effect...

Assembly of Literature Database

The biomedical literature concerning asbestos is vast (about 25,000 citations in the searchable reference databases MEDLINE and EMBASE), but much of it exclusively addresses asbestos's role in causing asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Given the committee's circumscribed task of answering the question of whether this known carcinogen plays a causal role in producing pharyngeal, laryngeal, esophageal, stomach, or colorectal cancer ( selected cancers ), the committee saw no need to revisit the entire body of information on asbestos's biologic activity or even to review the entire epidemiologic literature on asbestos exhaustively. The subset of epi-demiologic literature referring to the selected cancer sites, however, did need to be identified comprehensively, retrieved when possibly pertinent to the task, and thoroughly reviewed when found to be relevant. The secondary literature (e.g., ATSDR 2001 Becklake 1979 EPA 1986 IARC 1977, 1987 Kleinfeld 1973 Landrigan et al. 1999 Li et...

Autocrine loops 2 receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream effectors

IGF-1R is another relevant RTK expressed in SCLC that mediates mitogenic and cellular differentiation signals. In addition, SCLC cell lines also secrete the ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2 171, 172 , being the former currently associated with lung cancer risk 173, 174 . The therapeutic relevance of IGF-1R has been emphasized by the development of an IGF-1R-blocking antibody and an IGF-1R inhibitor, that inhibit the growth of SCLC cell lines, unless they have constitutively high Akt activation 175, 176 .

Xanthophyll bCryptoxanthin

3-Cryptoxanthin is one of the lesser known carote-noids that also has provitamin A activity and appears to have a protective health role. Several epidemiological studies suggest that dietary 3-cryptoxanthin is associated with lower rates of lung cancer and improved lung function in humans. A large prospective study on dietary intake and cancer, which included an interview on dietary habits and life style, identified -cryptoxanthin as protective against lung cancer after correcting for smoking. However, the beneficial effects for -cryptoxanthin suggested by these results could be merely an indicator for other antioxidants and or a measure of a healthy life style that are more common in people with high dietary intakes of -cryptoxanthin. In tissue culture, -cryptoxanthin has a direct stimulatory effect on bone formation and an inhibitory effect on bone resorption. Studies of these beneficial effects in humans have not been conducted.

Effects On Microcirculation And Nitric Oxide

A double blind, dose-finding study found that flavanol-rich cocoa increased circulating NO species in the plasma of male smokers, with maximal effects seen with ingestion of 176-185 mg flavanols (Heiss et al 2005). Another double-blind trial found that ingestion of a high-flavanol cocoa drink, but not a low-flavanol one, enhanced NO bioactivity and increased plasma concentrations of nitroso compounds 2007 Elsevier Australia

Bcl2 in SCLC prognosis

Bcl-2 is frequently expressed in SCLC cell lines 247 and tumors 248-251 , suggesting that it plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Nevertheless, there is no correlation between Bcl-2 expression and resistance to therapy and or survival 252-256 . The relation to tumor stage is less clear, ranging from no relation to positive correlation, depending on the author 255, 257 . A correlation between Bcl-2 expression and decreased incidence of metastases, indicating attenuation or resistance to apoptosis, has also been reported 258 . Recently, in a series of 205 carcinomas, including lung cancer, Bcl-2 expression was associated with better overall survival. The risk of mortality was 2.3-fold higher in patients without Bcl-2 expression. Bcl-2 appeared to be the key biological factor influencing clinical behavior in the most common epithelial cancers 259 . Furthermore, despite higher Bcl-2 expression, SCLC cell lines present higher spontaneous apoptotic index than other lung cancer...

Tea and Cancer Prevention

Cancer of the esophagus is decreased in animal models by tea (40), just as a lower risk is noted in parts of China of cancer of the esophagus in people who drink tea (41,42, reviewed also in Refs. 43,44). Similar results hold for oral cancer (45). There are more cigarette smokers in Japan than in the United States but the incidence of lung cancer in Japan is lower than in the United States, possibly because there are more tea drinkers in Japan, accounting for this protection. In parallel, mice and rats exposed to the tobacco-specific nitrosamines displayed a lower incidence of lung tumors when the animals were drinking tea (46). Even ''spontaneous lung tumors in mice were decreased by intake of black or green tea (47). The mechanism may depend on a reduction of oxidative stress (48). This inhibition by tea was due to lower

The Nutritional Transition and Its Health Effects

With people living longer, and with low birth weight at an all-time low, Asian health should be improving. But with increased Westernization of the Asian diet, elevated tobacco use (generally among Asian men), and lifestyle changes (such as decreased physical activity), there has been a marked rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, hypertension (high blood pressure), and certain cancers. obesity is also a growing health problem in Asia, and is strongly associated with hypertension (along with body mass index and age). Despite the low obesity levels in the Asia Pacific region, rates of obesity-related diseases such as diabetes and CVD are on the rise. High blood pressure is also a growing problem in Asia. In India, Indonesia, and Thailand alone, nearly 10 to 15 percent of adults have high

Historical And Institutional Factors

In the mid-to-late 1970s, the United States directed its international drug-control attention to eliminating the heroin and marijuana crossing our border at Mexico. As the U.S.-Mexican crackdown began to achieve positive results and the number of U.S. smokers of Mexican marijuana diminished, Colombian traffickers seized the opportunity to break into the lucrative U.S. drug market by smuggling large amounts of marijuana and small packages of cocaine. In the early 1980s, Florida became the destination of choice for smugglers because of its long coastlines, access to boats and planes, location in the Caribbean, and large Hispanic population by 1986, Colombia supplied an estimated 80 percent of the cocaine HCl.

Cytodiagnostic Tools for SCLC

Besides exfoliative cytology, transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology 18, 19 , transbronchial needle aspiration 20 , endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy 21 have been utilized for the diagnosis of lung cancer. In a study of 393 primary lung cancers, the diagnostic methods used by Okutan et al 3 were sputum cytology (27.3 ), transbronchial biopsy and lavage (38.6 ), thoracocentesis and pleural biopsy (15.8 ), transthoracic fine needle aspiration (13.6 ) and open lung biopsy (4.7 ). Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a safe, easy to perform, and useful tool for the diagnosis and staging of pulmonary neoplasm, with a minimum of complications 22 . However, the frequency of satisfactory specimen by this tool varies widely, which is as low as 46 22 and as high as 93.4 18 . Khoo et al 23 observed that combining TBNA with the option for EUS-FNA immediately after unrevealing TBNA gave a yield approaching that

Alcohol Use And Abuse Among Adolescents

Another significant reason for concern about alcohol ingestion by adolescents is the close association of alcohol abuse with the use of other drugs. There is considerable evidence that alcohol use tends to precede use of illicit drugs, and some researchers argue that, based on long-term studies, alcohol serves as a ''gate-way'' to the use of illicit substances. As early as the eighth grade, alcohol users were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, and use of marijuana and cocaine than non-users of alcohol. This difference persists through grade 12 and thereafter (Kandel and Yamaguchi, 1993).

Asbestosrelated Pulmonary Diseases And Their Mechanisms

The causal association between asbestos exposure and nonmalignant and malignant diseases of the lungs and mesothelial linings is well established and supported by epidemiologic, animal, and mechanistic toxico-logic studies (IARC 1987). The biologic mechanisms responsible for asbestos-related disease are complex and reflect a chronic, multistep process involving interactions between genetic predisposition and possibly other exposures, including exposure to viruses. Those mechanisms will be discussed in detail after a brief summary of the clinical features and risk factors of lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. fuse interstitial fibrosis) of the lungs and visceral pleural fibrosis and parietal pleural plaques of the pleural linings (Table 5.1). In the pleura, bilateral and symmetric fibrotic plaques usually reflect environmental or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers, and consequently pleural plaques are considered to be markers of asbestos exposure (Travis et al. 2002). These...

Cell Surface Adhesion Molecules

From the evidence discussed so far, it would be natural to assume that well differentiated, non-invasive and non-metastatic carcinomas will express normal or relatively high levels of cadherins, whereas tumours that are poorly differentiated and possess a high metastatic potential will not. This correlation has been shown to hold true for several tumour types including squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (49), lung cancer (50), prostate and bladder carcinomas (51, 52), pancreatic cancer (53) and lobular breast cancer (29).

Programs of some European countries 811 Finland

Specifically, Finnish smoking prevention and cessation campaigns, are worth meantioning details. Cigarette consumption in Finland was the highest in the world, in the period between two wars consequently, the lung cancer incidence in men was one of the highest in the world. Due to combined effect of legislative measures, health promotion activities and strict monitoring, smoking decreased drastically over time, and nowadays is among the lowest in Europe.

Efficacy of Cytology in Diagnosis of SCLC and EPSCC

Transthoracic FNAC of the lung is an accurate diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of lung malignancies and is an excellent technique for distinguishing small cell carcinoma from other malignant neoplasms. The efficacy of transthoracic FNAC in the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma and other lung malignancies was 96 versus 88 , respectively, with an equal specificity of 100 and sensitivity of 67 versus 81 18 . Mitchell et al 93 observed that the predictive values of FNA cytology for specific morphologic variants were 70 for squamous cell carcinoma, 86 for adenocarcinoma, and 95 for small cell lung carcinoma. Weisbrod et al 94 found that an unequivocal cytological diagnosis of SCLC had a positive predictive value of 0.90 at their institution. According to Caya et al 95 none of the 31 patients with autopsy-and or biopsy proven disease had false positive results for SCLC. Typing accuracy for SCLC versus NSCC was 97 in their material. A review by Degaldo et al 18 , showed that the sensitivity...

Dropouts And Substance

In addition, when students drop out before graduating from high school, they often begin spending more time with older youths and adults, some of whom serve as role models for substance use and who may give the dropouts cigarettes or offer them opportunities to try alcohol or other drugs for the first time. As a result, not only is there the possibility that substance use may lead to dropping out, but it is also possible that dropping out may lead to substance use.

Role of Cytology in Management

Transthoracic FNAC can be used with confidence to select treatment modalities and avoid unnecessary surgeries in patients with lung malignancies. When the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma is reached in a patient with a lung mass, a surgical treatment approach is no longer considered and chemotherapy becomes the treatment of choice 18 . As a result of EUS-FNA, thoracotomy thoracoscopy was avoided in 49 and mediastinoscopy was avoided in 68 in a study by Larsen et al 122 . According to Yasufuku et al 24 , cytologically diagnosed all the 5 cases of small cell lung cancer in their study were referred for chemotherapy. In the report by Larsen et al 122 , the direct result of the cytological diagnosis obtained by EUS-FNA was that a final diagnosis of small cell lung cancer was made in eight patients resulting in referral for chemotherapy, and in another three patients with benign disease specific treatment could be initiated (sarcoidosis, mediastinal abscess, and leiomyoma of esophagus).

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any of the conditions that affect the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow and nutrients to the heart. It is the leading cause of death worldwide for both men and women. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of CAD. Controlled risk factors associated with CAD include hypertension, cigarette smoking, elevated blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol, triglyceride), a high-fat diet (especially saturated fats and trans-fatty acids), physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, and stress. Lifestyle changes can assist in prevention of CAD. Uncontrolled risk factors include a family history of CAD, gender (higher in males), and increasing age.

Other Past Drug Epidemics

In the 1600s, in Europe, there were epidemics of Chocolate (cocoa) consumption, Tobacco consumption, and COFFEE consumption. These epidemics followed shortly after colonization of the Americas by Europeans and were sustained by ever-increasing supplies of these products shipped from the cash-poor colonies. About the same time that the international agreements on opium and opium products were passed, the United States experienced an increase in tobacco smoking, ultimately with peak population levels of tobacco smoking occurring during World War II and the following years, before declines occurred in conjunction with the surgeon general's 1962 report on smoking and health and other publicity about the health hazards of smoking. When one considers the social climate of the 1990s, a time when tobacco smoking was not at all a socially approved drug-use practice, it may be difficult to imagine that during World War II Lucky Strikes and other cigarettes were passed out to soldiers as part of...

Epidemiology Of Drug Abuse

Sponsored National Comorbidity Survey. According to this survey, one in three tobacco smokers had tobacco problems, signs, and symptoms consistent with their having become dependent on tobacco and one in seven drinkers had alcohol problems, signs, and symptoms consistent with their having developed the clinical syndrome of alcohol dependence. Among those who reported use of marijuana, heroin, or other controlled substances, one in seven reported drug problems, signs, and symptoms consistent with their having become dependent on these drugs. These survey-based estimates are already high enough to provoke social concern. They would be even higher if corrections were to be made to account for respondents who were hesitant to report either their consumption of these drugs or the problems associated with drug use that they had.

Drugspecific Estimates For The Us Population

Monitoring the Future (MF) estimates show that about 65 percent of high school seniors have smoked TOBACCO cigarettes at least once. An estimated 35 percent of high school seniors smoked tobacco cigarettes at least once during the month prior to the survey, and 23 percent had become daily tobacco smokers. According to the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), which included household residents age 12 years and older, an estimated 68 to 71 percent smoked tobacco cigarettes at least once, for a total of about 149,021,000 to 155,515,000 smokers. An estimated 29 to 32 percent had smoked in the year prior to the survey, for a total of 64,012,000 to 69,522,000 recently active smokers most of these had smoked in the month prior to the survey (57,811,000-63,072,000). There was an important age and sex-related variation in these estimates. For example, among adults past age 34, males were more likely than females to have been recent tobacco smokers...

Effects of Antioxidants on Metastasis

The high-dose therapy was not effective in increasing life span nor was tumor size greater, but secondary metastases increased. Life span was increased 1.4fold in the very high dose group, but again secondary metastases increased equal to the high-dose group. The results suggest the antioxidants may have protected me-tastasizing cells from apoptosis. Perhaps metastasizing cells are under greater oxidative stress than tumor cells and require additional antioxidants. They are certainly under great oxidative stress while they travel through the lungs during circulation. Another study also reported that synthetic antioxidants increased metastasis of lung cancer cells injected into mice but did not affect growth of the primary tumor that formed.193 Moreover, other studies have reported metastasizing cells are protected from apoptosis by high intracellular glutathione levels in vivo.194,195 As we will see in Chapter 18, some antioxi-dants, including vitamins C and E, increase...

Staging and Clinical Workup

Though a TNM staging system exists for primary lung cancers, the most widely used staging system for SCLC is the Veterans Administration Lung Study Group (VALG) system which utilizes the dichotomy of limited stage versus extensive stage disease 3 . The VALG system defines LS-SCLC as disease confined to one hemithorax which is encompassable within a reasonable RT portal. This staging system for SCLC was proposed in an era of radiation oncology where radiation treatments were planned using a simpler two-dimensional fluoroscopy-based approach of RT planning. This staging system considers patients with pleural effusions with or without confirmation of cytologic involvement, contralateral hilar, mediastinal or supraclavicular nodal involvement to have extensive stage disease. Most clinicians who treat SCLC would still consider those with pleural effusions to have extensive stage disease, and modern clinical trials involving LS-SCLC patients exclude those with pleural effusions, with or...

Families And Drug Use One major

Although recent reductions in the use of illicit drugs present a somewhat optimistic picture of the future of American families, the overall number of drug casualties is still grim and the consequences are debilitating. Every year, 100,000 Americans die as the result of drug abuse. That number should increase with the spread of AIDS. Alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drug abuse are number-one health problems, especially among the young. Life expectancy has steadily risen over the past seventy-five years in all age groups except that for youth aged fifteen to twenty-four, who now have a higher death rate because of injuries and disappearances related to drug use. Long-term substance abuse is associated with DEPRESSION, hostility, malnutrition, lower social and intellectual skills, broken relationships, mental illness, economic losses, and growing CRIME rates.

Hgf And Met Prognostic Significance

Are potential indicators for prognosis of cancer patients. Yamashita et al (244) extensively analyzed relationships between HGF protein levels in tumour tissues and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with breast cancer. Higher HGF levels in breast tumour tissues correlated well with disease relapse and reduced overall survival, indicating that tissue HGF level is useful prognostic marker in breast cancer patients. Similar findings were noted by other workers (245, 246). Likewise, HGF levels in tissues of non-small cell lung carcinoma (250), gastric cancer (192), and endometrial carcinoma (190), were associated with poor outcome of these diseases. Thus, HGF level is a useful indicator for risk of relapse and short survival time for patients with these cancers. In addition to tissue HGF levels, serum HGF levels were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer (247, 248), gastric cancer (249), and lung cancer (251). Since HGF protein levels in tissues and sera can be...

Thoracic RT Dose Fractionation

Though the role of thoracic RT for LS-SCLC has been established, the ideal RT dose fractionation parameters for LS-SCLC thoracic RT have not yet been defined. LS-SCLC patients treated in most Canadian centres receive between 45-50 Gy using conventional daily fractionation schemes (180-200 cGy fraction), but these patients still have significant rates of local failure ranging from 30-60 2 . These poor local control outcomes may be at least in part related to the natural biology of SCLC. Non-small cell lung cancers are considered to be rapidly growing tumors with doubling times ranging from 72-146 days 23 . Such rapid doubling times are believed to enable these tumors to repopulate rapidly during RT 24 , which likely worsens local control rates. Since SCLC is generally thought to be a more rapidly growing histology than non-small cell 23 , the impact tumor repopulation occurring during RT which worsens local control may be even greater with SCLC. Hypofractionated external beam RT is...

Thoracic RT Target Volume

Efforts to improve accuracy of RT target volume definition in lung cancer patients are ongoing. PET scanning exploits the differential uptake of a radio-labeled glucose analogue into neoplastic tissue to provide three dimensional images of tumor tissues. This nuclear imaging modality has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity for NSCLC, and this relatively high diagnostic accuracy has lead to the completion of several clinical trials investigating the feasibility of using PET imaging to supplement information from CT image sets to plan RT treatments for NSCLC patients 52,53 . Results from early PET clinical trials of small numbers of SCLC patients indicate small cell tumors are also PET-avid and PET scanning may contribute to the initial staging of SCLC patients 52,54 . Further clinical trials are needed to study the utility of using information from PET scans to plan RT treatments for SCLC patients.

Stress Hormone Research in Periodontal Disease

Epinephrine infusions (10 g in 5 ml) in rabbits have produced vasoconstriction within the gingival vasculature, which was also observed with infusions of nicotine (0.081 mg in 5 ml). The combination of epinephrine and nicotine infusions demonstrated a synergistic effect on gingival blood flow with a more profound vasoconstriction observed than for either infusion alone (Clarke et al. 1981). The vessels delivering blood to the gingivae are end-arterioles with limited collateral vessels at the papillary tips (Shannon et al. 1974). This may provide a degree of vulnerability to gingival tissue viability during periods of ischaemia (epinephrine nicotine) and may provide a potential mechanism for the development of necrotising periodontal diseases. In humans, attempts to relate urinary catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine

Hair Analysis As A Test For Drug

USE Because every drug taken becomes a permanent part of the user's hair, laboratory analysis of hair can reveal the presence of a variety of drugs, including HEROIN, COCAINE, AMPHETAMINES, PHENCYCLIDINE, MARIJUANA, NICOTINE, and BARBITURATES. Hair analysis is widely accepted by courts, parole boards, police departments, and employers around the country for detecting long-term drug use. It's also increasingly used to determine maternal fetal drug exposure and to validate self-reports of drug use.

Review Of The Evidence

The committee identified a primary prevention, population-based approach to be the most viable long-term strategy for reducing obesity and its chronic disease burdens. Examples of the effectiveness of primary prevention interventions include smoking cessation to reduce lung cancer incidence, condom use to lower HIV transmission, and fruit and vegetable consumption to prevent cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (Kroke et al., 2003 WHO, 2003).

Demographic Differences

In general, there is not much difference between male and female students in cigarette use. As with most drugs, the greater difference is seen among older, heavy smokers, but even so the difference is rather small In 1999, 15 percent of male seniors reported smoking at the rate of a half pack or more per day, versus 12 percent of female seniors. College-Bound versus Non-College-Bound. Non-college-bound students are more likely than college-bound students to use any of the licit or illicit drugs. More frequent use of the drug tends to show greater differences. For example, 6 percent of non-college-bound eighth graders report smoking marijuana daily, compared to 1 percent of the college-bound corresponding figures for tenth and twelfth graders are 10 percent versus 3 percent, and 9 percent versus 5 percent, respectively. Striking differences show up between college-bound and non-college-bound students in cigarette smoking rates. For example, smoking a half pack or more a day is more...

Influence of Friends on One Another

Friends can have negative effects on children if they engage in problematic behaviors. For example, aggressive children tend to have aggressive friends. Similarly, adolescents who smoke or abuse alcohol or drugs tend to have friends who do so. However, because children tend to chose friends who are similar to themselves in behaviors, attitudes, and identities, it is difficult to determine whether friends actually affect one another's behavior or if children simply seek out peers who think, act, and feel as they do. Some research suggests that friends do influence one another's behavior, at least to some degree or for some people. For example, some investigators have

Monitoring Mental Activity

PET with FDG was used to compare smokers and nonsmokers who were shown cigarette-related videos designed to induce cigarette craving (Arthur Brody, Brentwood Biological Research Institute, UCLA, CA). They found that glucose use increased in several regions of the brain when the smokers craved cigarettes. The anterior cingulate gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior temporal lobe (regions involved in anxiety and other emotion) became more active when smokers were given cigarette-related cues. The increase in metabolic activity in the prefrontal cortex was greatest when craving was greatest. Takahashi et al. found increased dopamine release by nicotine in cigarette smokers but not in nonsmokers. Dopamine release enhances the rewarding effect of smoking in those who become dependent. Nicotine activates the ventrotegamentum area that leads to release of dopamine.

Other Antidepressants

Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR, Zyban) appears to work by inhibiting the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Bupropion has a low incidence of sexual side effects. In addition to its efficacy in treating major depression, bupropion has been shown to be effective in smoking cessation (marketed as Zyban) and attention deficit disorder. Bupropion has a higher than average risk of seizures compared with other antidepressants. The risk of seizures is greatest above a daily dose of 450mg or alter a single dose of greater than 150mg of immediate-release bupropion.

Rtpcr For Detection Of Micrometastasis

RT-PCR has been used to amplify the mRNA of cytokeratin 19 and then used for the detection of micrometastatic cells within the bone marrow or peripheral blood in breast cancer patients. The detection of other epithelial cancers has been facilitated by the detection of mRNA of CEA for breast, colorectal gastric and oesophageal cancer and mRNA of surfactant proteins A, C and D for non small cell lung cancer. A diverse number of applications for this technology remain under intense investigation.

Clinical Presentation

SCLC is a histologic subtype of lung cancer with a distinct biology and clinical course. SCLC is found almost exclusively in smokers. This cancer has a rapid doubling time and a more aggressive clinical course than non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and it often disseminates at presentation. SCLCs respond remarkably to chemotherapy initially, but they frequently relapse and metastasize. Govindan et al. reported on the incidence of SCLC using the surveillance, epidemiology and end results database 5 . The incidence of SCLC as a percentage of the number of patients diagnosed with all types of lung cancer decreased from 17.26 in 1986 to 12.95 in 2002. Possible explanations for the decreased incidence include the decrease in the percentage of smokers and the change to low-tar filter cigarettes. However, one of the reasons for the decreased incidence of SCLC may be how pathologists distinguish between SCLC and NSCLC 6 . The incidence of LCNEC is very low. It was reported to range from...

Taste Masking and Stability Enhancement

Ion-exchange resins have been used as taste masking agents since the 1970s. Bitter drugs are adsorbed on the resin, which can then be formulated to deliver drug in immediate or controlled-release mode. Nicotine, a volatile oil and an irritant, is adsorbed to a weakly acidic methacrylic and divinylbenzene resin e.g., Amberlite IRP64, which is then incorporated into a flavored chewing gum base. Chewing and contact with salivary fluid results in the nicotine being gradually released from the resinate and absorbed through the buccal mucosa 25 . The resinate allows nicotine, which otherwise is unstable and unpalatable, to be formulated as a pharmaceutical product for treating nicotine addiction.

Induction of Apoptosis by Isothiocyanates In Vivo

Although apoptosis can occur in in vitro models, it is of greater importance to know that such an event can occur in vivo. Smith et al. reported the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by AITC in colorectal crypt foci of rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Follow-up studies conducted using brussels sprout extracts gave similar results, confirming that isothio-cyanates derived from the diet can induce apoptosis (174,175). Fisher rats F344 exposed to the carcinogen azoxymethane (AZO) develop aberrant crypt foci in colonic tissues, the formation of which is believed to be associated with the development of colon cancer. In rats fed AZO along with sulforaphane, PEITC or their respective N-acetylcysteine mercapturic acid metabolites show a significant reduction in the formation of aberrant crypt foci during the postinitiation phase. During the initiation phase only sulforaphane and PEITC were effective (85). More recent data have addressed the possible role of...

National Public Health Priority

Obesity prevention should be public health in action at its broadest and most inclusive level, as is true for the ongoing efforts to prevent youth from smoking. For example, local communities are passing ordinances that ban or limit cigarette vending machines, schools and community youth organizations are discouraging or banning smoking, states are passing excise taxes to raise tobacco prices, the federal government is providing national leadership and the resources for research and programs, and the private sector is restricting smoking in workplaces (Box 4-1) (Economos et al., 2001 IOM, 2003). In addition, a broad, complementary, and continuing campaign aimed at reducing adult smoking continues to be conducted. The 2004 Surgeon General's report on tobacco use emphasized that a comprehensive approach one that optimizes synergy from a mix of educational, clinical, regulatory, economic, and social strategies has emerged as the guiding principle for effective efforts to reduce tobacco...

Equivocal Effects of Antioxidants

The actual effect of an antioxidant seems controversial. Antioxidants may show their chemopreventive properties in two ways. One is that anti-oxidants may protect the cells from mutation or carcinogenesis by reducing the elevated ROS because an elevated ROS level is involved in the early stage of carcinogenesis. Numerous studies supported the protective effects of antiox-idants (133,134). On the other hand, there were also reports denying the protective effects of antioxidants (135). For example, antioxidant resulted in higher incidence of lung cancer and mortality in male smokers (136). In the lung cells of smokers, ROS level probably plays a role in inducing and eliminating the precancerous lung cells induced by chemical carcinogens. Antioxidant suppresses the apoptosis and potentially promotes the development of lung cancer. Thus, one must be cautious in predicting the exact effects of antioxidants under in vivo condition. Flavonoids of chrysanthemum also may show different effects...

Abused Prescription Drugs

During the mid seventies to early eighties, research showed that stimulant drugs improve the performance of most people, regardless of whether they have a diagnosis of ADHD, on tasks requiring good attention this explains the high level of self-medicating around the world in the form of stimulants like caffeine and nicotine.

Ecadherin dependent regulation of cellcell adhesion by EFAs

Expression of E-eadherin by GLA in cancer cells. Tumour cells were treated with either a range of PUFAs (A and B) or with GLA for upto 48 hours (C and D) and then proteins were extracted, separated with SDS-PAGE and molecule visualised with enhanced chemiluminiscence. The relative level of the molecule is indicated in the figure as relative protein band densities from the corresponding gel photo. GLA, among the fatty acids tested, selectively up-regulated the expression of E-cadherin, a 120kDa cell-cell adhesion molecule (A and B). This effect was seen 24 hours after treatment (C and D). A HRT18 human colon cancer cell B and C PLC PRF 5 human liver cancer cell D Cor L23 human lung cancer cells (47). Figure 5. Expression of E-eadherin by GLA in cancer cells. Tumour cells were treated with either a range of PUFAs (A and B) or with GLA for upto 48 hours (C and D) and then proteins were extracted, separated with SDS-PAGE and molecule visualised with enhanced chemiluminiscence....

Dynamic MRbased Analysis of Tumor Movement

Fast MR acquisition techniques allow direct dynamic visualization of respiratory motion, including assessment of parenchyma, chest wall and diaphragm, with high spatial and temporal resolution 8,9,10 . In the first step, a dynamic MR-based study was designed. The main goal was to accomplish a high precision characterization of tumor movements of upper and mid lobe localized tumors (in as high a patient number as possible), and to calculate numerical data for safety margins to be considered in 3D planning of lung cancer patients.

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