Treating Social Phobias and Social Anxiety

Shyness And Social Anxiety System

The Shyness and Social Anxiety System is just as its name says. It is an e-book wherein in-depth discussions about the symptoms, causes and treatment for shyness and social anxiety are made. It is then written for individuals whose extreme shyness or social anxiety prevent them from enjoying a full life filled with social interactions among their family, friends and acquaintances in gatherings during holidays, outings and parties. The author Sean Cooper also suffered from shyness and social anxiety disorder so much so that he tried every trick in the book yet to no avail. And then he set out to conquer his own fears by researching into the psychology, principles and practices behind these two debilitating mental health issues. Continue reading...

Shyness And Social Anxiety System Summary


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Author: Sean Cooper
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My Shyness And Social Anxiety System Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this book, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the publicity was about.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Social Skills Training Programs

Social skills programs are designed to teach specific skills within a small group (children teens generally in same age range). Best evidence indicates social skills training programs should be delivered in small groups (for example, four to eight same-gender classmates), not one-on-one. This will increase the chance for positive feedback from peers and successful transfer from the training group to the classroom or other school setting. In addition, in school settings some of the more popular children should also be included in these groups. Their presence may reduce the stigma of participating and help their less popular peers interact more positively with the other students (Zumpfe & Landau, 2002). The trainer (the guidance counselor, for example) uses social skills training curriculum. Social skills programs commonly address some of the following Use of the skill with feedback and contingent reinforcement applied in authentic situations (playing a game) is a critical component of...

Social Phobia Social Anxiety

SoP refers to a fear of social situations that leads to avoidance of those situations or that, when entered into, is accompanied by intense anxiety. When the situations producing the fear are avoided to the extent that the avoidance interferes with social or occupational functioning, the problem merits a diagnosis of SoP. Because of the nature of the disorder, treatments have often included exposure to social situations, either by being conducted in a group context, or by contriving exposures to the feared social situations. As with other anxiety disorders, the skills are readily adaptable to an SH format. The problem in using SH interventions has been in prescribing exposure to social situations in which the client can practice the requisite skills. Of the nine studies, seven used written manuals and two evaluated a videotaped SH program. Among the seven studies using written manuals, six used published SH books. A Guide to Rational Living and A New Guide to Rational Living (Ellis &...

Strategies for Teaching Social Skills Outside the Clinic

Earlier we stressed the importance of addressing social issues in a group setting, since this is where social problems usually arise, and thus this is where your child needs to practice social behavior. We also emphasized that you should practice and support your child's emerging social abilities at home whenever possible and that social skills training in a clinic alone would not do much good. In the following sections, we describe a variety of resources and techniques for working on social skills that can be used by anyone, across a variety of settings. These techniques will help your child improve his or her social behavior even when he or she is not within the four walls of the clinic or school, with a trained professional there to assist him. You are a key player in this endeavor. The following approaches do not require a professional degree to implement, just an interest in trying, a willingness to keep trying, flexibility, and a sense of humor. It is often helpful to initiate...

Treatment of Social Phobia in Individuals with Depression

Despite the high frequency and clinical severity of the co-occurrence of social phobia and major depression, many studies have excluded depression in clinical trials. For example, a meta-analysis of30 cognitive and or behavioral treatments of social phobia, published from 1996 to 2002, found that only 11 studies included patients with social phobia and comorbid depression (Lincoln & Rief, 2004). In this meta-analysis, the impact of comorbid depression could be examined only by comparing studies that did or did not exclude comorbid depression. The results indicated that inclusion of at least some patients with comorbid depression appeared to make little difference in the overall study findings, with near identical estimates of mean pre- to posttreatment effect sizes for studies that did (d 0.91) or did not (d 0.92) exclude patients with depression. Clinical trials examining the impact of comorbid depression on the treatment of social phobia have produced equivocal results. Van Velzen,...

Assessment Of Social Phobia And Panic Disorder In Depression

Social anxiety and social phobia can be assessed with behavioral observation methods (see for a review, Glass & Arnkoff, 1989) interview rating scales, such as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS Davidson et al., 1991 Liebowitz, 1987) and many self- report measures of social anxiety and avoidance, including the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (FNE Watson & Friend, 1969) and the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) by Watson and Friend (1969), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) by Mattick and Clarke (1998), and the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) for adults (Turner, Beidel, Dancu, & Stanley, 1989) and children (Beidel, Turner, & Morris, 1995) (for a more comprehensive review, see Hofmann & Barlow, 2002). For panic disorder, core fears associated with the disorder can be assessed with the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI Reiss, Peterson, Gursky, & McNally, 1986). A popular...

Interventions for Social Skills Problems

Research indicates that the most effective interventions for addressing interpersonal social skills difficulties in children and teens with ADHD are multimodal. These involve a combination of (a) psychosocial behavioral interventions, (b) medication (if indicated), and (c) educational strategies interventions involving teachers, parents, and, of course, the child. School interventions that specifically model, teach, practice, and reinforce pro-social behaviors are often provided through school-wide approaches and classroom approaches. In addition, direct, targeted small-group social skills training may take place.

Social Phobia

This phobia can produce fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in front of other people. This problem may also be related to feelings of inferiority and low self-esteem and can drive a child to drop out of school or avoid making friends. Although this disorder is sometimes thought to be shyness, it is not the same thing. Shy people do not experience extreme anxiety in social situations, nor do they necessarily avoid them. In contrast, people with social phobia can be at ease with people most of the time, except in particular situations. Often social phobia is accompanied by depression or substance abuse. Children suffering from social phobia may think small mistakes are worse than they really are, are painfully embarrassed by blushing, feel that all eyes are on them. They may fear speaking in public, dating, or talking with persons in authority, be afraid to use a public restroom or eat out, and be afraid of talking on the phone or writing in front of others.

Anxiety shyness

Symptoms Self-doubt, lack of self-confidence, shyness, and indecision. There is a tendency to anticipate the worst, to be full of anxiety, and to become upset over the slightest thing, which frequently causes depression or overexcitement. Concentration may be poor, and may even


When an infant or toddler is confronted with strangers, either adults or children, an initial reaction of reticence and withdrawal is generally accepted and understood. Being cautious with strangers, animal or human, served for millions of years as a built-in safety device and was advantageous for survival. But from age three or four onward, most parents in modern societies like to see their children overcome their natural inhibitory tendencies soon after being introduced to other people. Cultures differ in their acceptance of shyness. In the United States, having an outgoing personality is highly valued, and thus parents worry when their child is socially inhibited by temperament, fearful when confronted by strangers, says as little as possible when in the company of unfamiliar people, and prefers playing alone. In other cultures, such as in Sweden, shy, reserved behavior is preferred to bold, attention-getting behavior, and consequently shyness is seen as less of a problem. In both...

Learning and adapting

After nine years of experience, I continue to wish for easier solutions to all the problems associated with autism.1 However, my adult autistic friends presented their autism as a 'way of being and behaving' that stems from the individual's perception of our world. A way of being cannot be 'cured', which is why some of my friends find the word 'cure' so offensive. This is not to say that the autistic person cannot be helped. An autistic person can be helped in more ways than one and often actively wants to learn to adapt. Adapting is not the same as changing from autistic to normal. Adapting means developing and using meaningful communication and social skills whilst remaining autistic.

Behavioral Strategies

Completed activity logs are then reviewed in session discussion ofthese logs frequently emphasizes activities or interactions that are associated with increased depression. In addition, the logs provide essential information about the patient's daily schedule, including sleep, nutrition, and social isolation. The practice of keeping the schedule also helps to activate patients and begins training them to notice and label moods, and the specific relationships between activities and moods. Activity scheduling strategies involve inviting patients to plan specific activities during sessions and or to plan activities each night for the following day. Therapists may emphasize that it is common for people not to accomplish everything that they plan, and tasks that are left undone can be scheduled for another day.

How could an aloof child seek social interaction

I was half-afraid that if I did not take Alexander to playgroup I would be denying him the opportunity to form and develop social skills. Equally I couldn't see how he would make friends in the playgroup set-up when he failed to play with his brother and sister. How could an aloof child seek social interaction I gave in to my fear and enrolled him in the same playgroup as his elder brother. As I suspected, he made no attempt to make friends. The children who approached him in the beginning soon stopped.

An Intervention Of Eight Stages

The orientation of groups was cognitive behavioral and included social skills training, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, and the curative factors associated with dynamic group psychotherapy (Wong, 2005). Cognitive behavioral principles and techniques were used to target the conceptual elements of hardiness so as to heighten one's tendency toward resiliency and improve current adjustment and functioning. The primary focus was on the here and now and on the future. Group sessions were in the sequential order as described in the following section.

Providing Alexander with pleasant and meaningful social interaction9

For a short while Alexander attended the local playgroup in the hope that he could pick up social skills from the other children. But when he was there he drew and painted numbers. He did not play with children. His accurate and artful replication of numbers gained him much praise from the staff. Everyone was telling me about 'how intelligent' Alexander must be. OK, so he was intelligent. Did his intelligence prevent him from having fun, talking and playing with other children I did not think so. Advocating that I was denying Alexander the opportunity to mix with other children, which in turn deprived him of the opportunity to learn social skills, the professional opinion condemned my decision to withdraw Alexander from the playgroup (what a vicious circle ).10

Review of Efficacy Research

There is little literature on CT approaches to drug-resistant depression. Fen-nell and Teasdale (1982) failed to detect a significant effect of CT in five chronic, drug-refractory, depressed outpatients. Antonuccio et al. (1984) applied a psychoeducational group treatment (including relaxation, increasing pleasant activities, cognitive strategies, and social skills) to 10 outpatients with unipolar depression who had not responded to antidepressant medication. All patients continued drug treatment. One patient dropped out of group treatment, four were no longer depressed, two showed some improvement, and three patients were still depressed after psychoeducational group treatment. Improvements were maintained at 9-month follow-up. Miller, Bishop, Norman, and Keitner (1985) examined the effectiveness of a treatment program comprising CT, pharmacotherapy, and short-term hospitalization in six chronic, drug-resistant, depressed females. The approach produced a substantial improvement in...

Cognitivebehavioral Therapy

Cognitive-behavioral treatments represent a group of approaches, grounded in social learning theories of substance abuse, that hold that lack of effective coping skills may be one factor underlying the development or perpetuation of substance use disorders. Cognitive behavioral treatments have been among the most well defined and rigorously studied of the psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence, and have a comparatively high level of empirical support across the addictions. For example, in their review of cost and effectiveness data for treatments for alcohol use disorders, Holder and colleagues (1991) included social skills training, self-control training, stress management training, and the Community Reinforcement Approach (Azrin et al., 1976), all broad-spectrum CBT approaches, as having good empirical evidence of effectiveness. Recent meta-analyses (Irvin et al., 1999) and reviews of the effectiveness of treatments for substance abuse (APA Workgroup on Substance...

Applied Behavior Analysis

Social skills groups Beneficial when social skills group is unavailable or when child has more communication problems nym, TEACCH. This treatment program was developed in the 1960s by Dr. Eric Schopler, a psychologist at the University of North Carolina. A cornerstone of the TEACCH educational approach is visual structure and organization of the environment and learning materials. As discussed in Chapter 2, many children with autism spectrum disorders have difficulty with abstract, language-based tasks and instructional techniques, but have relatively good visual-spatial capacities. The TEACCH program capitalizes on the visual, mechanical, and rote memory strengths of many AS-HFA children, using them to develop weaker skills, such as language, imitation, cognitive, and social skills. Together, teachers and parents design an individualized treatment plan for the child that will be implemented in both the classroom and the home.

Interventions for Preschool and Beyond

Some of these interventions use the same principles as the preschool programs just reviewed, so your child may still benefit from the use of behavioral or visual techniques, at a level appropriate for his or her age and intelligence. The two most common needs of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome are social skills training and educational assistance. There is a wide variety of different interventions for each, so we have devoted a separate chapter to each of these topics and will mention them only briefly here.

Educational Assistance

In Chapter 7, we describe in detail the kinds of educational structure that appear most useful for students with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Many of the accommodations we suggest capitalize on your child's good visual skills and memory, using these strengths to make up for weaknesses in organization, planning, attention, and flexibility. The most essential part of educational programming is adapting the curriculum to your child's individual problems and unique abilities (more on this in Chapter 5 as well). At this point we will only say that, in addition to finding social skills training for your child, you will probably want to contact your school district to discuss the most appropriate ways to deliver educational support to your child.

Examples Of Research Study

For socially mediated behaviors, expectancy research has revealed that college students of both sexes show less anxiety in social situations if they believe they have consumed alcohol. In addition, males show heightened sexual arousal when exposed to an erotic environment if they believe they have consumed alcohol (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). Men and women of college age have also both been found to respond more aggressively when provoked after they believe they have consumed alcohol. Sex differences have been found on the effects of alcohol on anxiety with persons of the opposite sex Women of college age have shown more anxiety in the company of an unfamiliar man when they believe they have consumed alcohol, while men of college age have shown reduced anxiety when in the company of an unfamiliar female. The results have been interpreted as reflecting gender differences regarding the acceptability of alcohol in social situations with a stranger of the opposite sex.

Parents as Treatment Managers

One of your biggest challenges as parents of a child with AS-HFA is bringing all the therapy options together into a cohesive treatment program that addresses your child's needs and promotes normal development in an integrated fashion. Your child may work on improving his or her social skills in an outpatient therapy group in a clinic, at school, at home, and in speech-language therapy. It is necessary that someone coordinate the different goals of each of these interventions, taking care that all involved are working toward a common set of needs and not at cross-purposes. Often this role falls to you.

The role of a volunteer friend

Inviting volunteers into our home was the best present I could have given my son. It was a gift of love and future social skills. Thanks to their time, effort and understanding, Alexander transformed into a child who enjoys interaction. Unlike age peers, volunteer helpers could model what friendship is all about

Friendship and Healthy Development

As suggested by important developmental theorists like Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and Harry Stack Sullivan, friends provide emotional support, validation and confirmation of the legitimacy of one's own thoughts and feelings, and opportunities for the development of important social and cognitive skills. Children with friends are less likely to feel lonely, and friendships provide a context for the development of social skills and knowledge that children need to form positive relationships with other people.

On accepting disabilities

Many of the disabilities of survivors of childhood cancer are invisible. To help children and teens reach their true potential, changes in intellectual functioning and social skills must be diagnosed early and addressed. Students whose style of learning has changed as a result of treatment need their parents and teachers to explore the many excellent methods to enhance their ability to learn.

Emotional or Internalizing Disorders

Treatments that have been found to be successful often involve intervention into the psychosocial components of the disorder. For example, treatment may involve helping the children identify and modify mal-adaptive beliefs and perceptions, develop social skills and problem-solving abilities, and broaden their resources for coping with stress. A particularly effective focus in treatment of adolescents with depression has been on interpersonal relationships, addressing the stage-salient concerns of adolescents. Although they are often prescribed, evidence for the effectiveness of antidepressant medication in children and adolescents has been mixed, possibly because of the methodological challenges of studying medications during periods of still rapid development.

Clinical heterogeneity of ASD

Clinical heterogeneity of autism showed three major categories idiopathic autism, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and syndromatic autistics that usually resulted from an identified syndrome with known genetic etiology. Traditionally, ASD includes autism, Asperger syndrome, where language appears normal, Rett syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), in which children meet some but not all criteria for autism. Rett syndrome (RTT), occurring almost exclusively in females, is characterized by developmental arrest between 5 and 18 months of age, followed by regression of acquired skills, loss of speech, stereotypic movements (classically of the hands), microcephaly, seizures, and intellectual difficulties. These disorders share deficits in social communication and show variability in language and repetitive behavior domains 1 . Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis. Mental...

Educational Placement

Regular classrooms have a much higher student-to-teacher ratio than special education settings. When the child doesn't understand something, he or she will be unlikely to seek help or clarification, and teachers may be too busy with the larger group to notice. His or her problems in comprehension, abstract reasoning, and organization may go unrecognized if the child has good reading and calculation skills. Teasing may not be monitored, and development of social skills may not be a focus of remediation as it might be in a special education classroom. So even children who seem to have natural AS-HFA strengths to benefit from and relatively minimal challenges to impede regular education will likely still need some special accommodations to help them be successful.

The Anatomy Of Autism

What has all this to do with autism In the late 1990s our group at U.C.S.D. noted that mirror neurons appear to be performing precisely the same functions that seem to be disrupted in autism. If the mirror neuron system is indeed involved in the interpretation of complex intentions, then a breakdown of this neural circuitry could explain the most striking deficit in people with autism, their lack of social skills. The other cardinal signs of the disorder absence of empathy, language deficits, poor imitation, and so on are also the kinds of things you would expect to see if mirror neurons were dysfunctional. Andrew Whitten's group at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland made this proposal at about the same time we did, but the first experimental evidence for the hypothesis came from our lab, working in collaboration with Eric L. Altschuler and Jaime A. Pineda of U.C.S.D.

Public or Private School

Many families need to choose among a variety of therapeutic options and must constantly weigh the costs against the benefits. Will this money be better spent elsewhere If we choose this private school, will we need to give up speech therapy or social skills training This is another example of the need to choose your battles.

Strategies for Improving Childrens Social Behavior

Social skills can be taught in many different settings. The traditional arena is in a school or clinic, through an organized social skills group. However, as you shall see in this chapter, there are a variety of other places where and times when you can help your child acquire critical social skills at home, around the neighborhood, and in nontherapeutic group settings (for example, scouts). Many of the principles and techniques used in typical therapeutic groups can be used by parents at home. In fact, social skills groups are much more beneficial if supplemented by follow-up at home. So whether your child attends such a group or not, it will be important for you to know what you can do outside the clinic to reinforce more appropriate social behavior too.

The Good News about Growing Older

Fortunately, adolescence and young adulthood have a plus side too. By this time, some people with AS-HFA, especially those who have received appropriate treatment for several years, have a solid set of tools for navigating social situations. Greater familiarity with the rules of social discourse can help them fit in and draw less negative attention from their peers than during childhood. At the same time, the typical adolescents and young adults around them are maturing too, which often means they are developing greater acceptance of differences in others. You can't count on tolerance, of course cruelty among teenagers is widespread and well publicized, so you as a parent will want to continue to deal with any teasing and bullying of your child that does come up in the ways suggested in Chapter 8. But, in general, these sorts of problems do decrease in high school and drop to very low levels in adulthood. less talk about unfamiliar or uninteresting topics and therefore less social...

Promoting Social Opportunities

College will provide your adult child with numerous opportunities to further develop his or her social skills. There are many settings in college where social skills are taught at a more academic level. For example, classes in speech communication and drama emphasize how best to communicate, how to convey emotion, and how to read other people's response to you. Sociology and psychology classes can provide insight into the way others work and the rules underlying human behavior. An abundance of special interest groups, ranging from rock group fan clubs to star-gazing societies, provide opportunities for socialization within the comfort of an area of interest. Responding to the increasing presence of students with AS-HFA on college campuses, the administrative offices or student bodies of many colleges are developing autism spectrum disorder friendship or support groups.

Elizabeth Wallace Thomas R Kosten

Other treatments draw from social learning models. These assume that behaviors, such as drug abuse, are learned in many ways, including operant conditioning, classical conditioning, imitation (learning by watching someone else), and learning certain ways of thinking. These models also usually assume that imitation and learning new ways of thinking are more important for humans than other ways of learning. An example of a treatment based on a social learning model is cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, where the drug abuser is taught new ways of viewing old situations, as well as new social skills, in the hope that these new thoughts and skills will lead to a less troubled life, which does not demand drug abuse to make it tolerable.

Reducing the Impact of Bipolar Disorder A Developmental Perspective

During the past five years, several reports have clarified the age-specific phenotypic manifestations of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents 2-5 . These studies consistently demonstrate that paediatric bipolar disorder commonly presents with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct, and substance use disorders, is associated with poor outcome and high relapse and school drop-out rates, and often requires polypharmacologic intervention. Recently, the first study to assess the psychosocial impact of paediatric bipolar disorder described that bipolar children exhibit significant impairment in child-parent and child-peer interactions and social skills compared with ADHD children and healthy controls 6 .

Adapting Ct For The Older Patient

CT for late-life depression is very similar to CT for other populations, with only a few modifications. There is typically a psychoeducational component to educate the patient about cognitive theory of depression and the process of therapy a focus on challenging pessimistic thinking behavioral activation strategies and other skills-based training as needed (social skills, anxiety management, time management, and problem solving). Therefore, the modifications to CT focus largely on accounting for age-related changes in cognitive functions that impact new learning and attention accounting for physical disabilities adjusting the therapeutic frame to allow for disability and the numerous demands that older people have on their time and energy and a consideration of cohort beliefs. Thus, CT content does not change rather, the means by which it is presented and the speed at which information is acquired are different for older patients. Table 18.1 summarizes this

Research and Good Fathering

Since the 1990s, a new body of research on fatherhood has emerged that goes beyond the simple dichotomy of presence versus absence to a deeper understanding of the multidimensional levels of parental involvement that make a difference in children's development. There is enough evidence to suggest that positive and nurturing parental involvement can make an important contribution to the healthy development of children. In addition to providing economic resources for their children, positively involved fathers can make a difference in their children's lives by providing options, being a good role model, and helping them to negotiate complex social interactions. Children who grow up with in-

Substance P NKi receptor antagonists

Substance Headache

Abstract Stress responses involve changes in hormone secretion, respiration, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal function, and behavior in order to prepare an organism to respond to perceived or actual danger. They are orchestrated by neural circuits including the amygdala, brainstem, and hypothalamus. Substance P is a peptide neurotransmitter that is expressed within these neural pathways and can activate various physiological systems in a manner consistent with an integrated stress response. Preliminary clinical trials using highly selective substance P (NK) receptor) antagonists (SPAs) have shown promising findings in patients with stress-related disorders (major depression, irritable bowel syndrome and social phobia). These observations suggest that substance P in the brain is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and that SPAs may provide a novel approach to pharmacotherapy. Recently, drugs that act by blocking the actions of substance P, a neuropeptide...

Loss of control and binge eating in children and adolescents

IPT targets negative affect by addressing social interactions that are related to mood rather than directly targeting eating behaviors. It is based on the assumption that binge eating occurs in response to poor social functioning, such as isolation and rejection, and consequent negative moods (Wilfley et al. 1997). Interpersonal relationships and social functioning are of vital importance to adolescents (Mufson et al. 2004) and many adolescents use peer relationships as a measure of self-evaluation therefore, they may be more motivated to engage in treatment and prevention programs focusing on social relationships. Interpersonal deficits describe people who are either socially isolated or who are involved in chronically unfulfilling relationships, often resulting from poor or very limited social skills. Interpersonal role disputes refer to conflicts with a significant other (e.g., a parent) that emerge from differences in expectations about the relationship. Role transitions occur...

Assessment Of Depression With Lgb Women And

Patient verbal self-report and written self-report measures are standard in clinical practice. Although standard self-report measures are useful, clinicians need to review their customary forms for heterosexist content. For example some questionnaires ask about social anxiety around people of the opposite sex. The assumption is that heterosocial anxiety will complicate the individual's establishing intimate relationships. However, simply rephrasing the question to ask whether the patient experiences anxiety around someone he she finds romantically attractive assesses the same problem and includes same-sex attractions.

Kay E Segal Sarah E Altman Jessica A Weissman Debra L Safer and Eunice Y Chen

Eating disorderbehaviors are considered quality-of-life-interfering behaviors and are not specifically prioritized among the other quality-of-life targets. In deciding which quality-of-life target to treat, the clinician prioritizes patient problems that are immediate, easily solved, functionally related to higher priority targets such as life-threatening behavior, and that fit the patient's goals. For example, in the case of Mary, her BED and major depression were accompanied by complaints of difficulty maintaining relationships. As she describes, intense social anxiety led to her retreating alone to her apartment for hours. When binge eating was prioritized over social anxiety, her bingeing, anxiety, and depression did not improve and the patient increasingly disengaged from therapy. Frequent assessment via chain analysis throughout the course of treatment is required for determining the relationship between quality-of-life targets and life-threatening behaviors. Chain analysis...

Cant get an erection

Few men bring up this issue with their doctors, and few doctors ask about it. This doesn't mean it's unimportant. The ability to achieve and maintain an erection is frustrating, embarrassing, and distressing to you and your partner. Achieving and maintaining an erection results from the successful interplay of several different physical and psychological processes. One or more of these may be impaired in PD. Thus, anxiety and or depression may result in a loss of a desire to have or think about sex. The desire to have sex or think about sex is called libido. A loss of libido results in impotence. Most men with PD, however, retain their desire for sex, and this coupled with impotence, heightens frustration, results in abstinence, and deepens social isolation.

Personality Revealed through Perception

Abel Feild

A second major area of research reviewed by Witkin and Goodenough (1977) concerns the interpersonal correlates of field independence-dependence. Field-dependen people, as might be predicted, tend to rely on social information and frequently ask other people for their opinions. They are attentive to social cues and, in general, are oriented toward other people. They show a strong interest in others, prefer to be physically close to other people, gravitate to social situations, and get along well with others. Field-independent people, on the other hand, function with more autonomy and display a more impersonal or detached orientation toward others. They are not very interested in others' opinions, keep their distance from others, and show a preference for nonsocial situations. Is it better to be field-independent or field-dependent Like most personali dimensions, there are pros and cons associated with both tendencies (and remember , we are describing points along a continuum, not two...

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

The mastery of social skills within friendships is not limited to typical children. Friendships appear to facilitate conflict resolution and conflict avoidance in children enrolled in an intervention program for emotionally disturbed children (Howes, 1985a). Toddler-age friends were more likely than acquaintances to avoid conflict. Similarly, preschool friends were less likely than acquaintances to misinterpret prosocial bids and more likely to avoid conflict by decreasing their agonistic bids. Howes, C. (1984). Social interactions and patterns of friendship in normal and emotionally disturbed children. In T. Fields (Ed.), Friendships between normal and handicapped children. Norwalk NJ Ablex. Howes, C. (1988c). Same- and cross-sex friends Implications for interaction and social skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 3, 21-37. Smith, E., & Howes, C. (1994). The effects of parent's presence on children's social interactions in preschool. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9, 45-59.

Capsule History of Psychology

Until the middle of the nineteenth century the nature of the mind was solely the concern of philosophers. Indeed, there are a number of reasons why some have argued that the scientific investigation of the mind may prove to be an impossible undertaking. One objection is that thoughts cannot be measured and without measurement, science cannot even begin. A second objection is to question how humans could objectively study their own thought processes, given the fact that science itself depends on human thinking. A final objection is that our mental life is incredibly complex and bound up with the further complexities of human social interactions perhaps cognition is simply too complex to permit successful scientific investigation.

Promotion Of Remineralization And Reversal Of The Demineralization Process

Sjogren Wound

Artificial salivas are available and are primarily palliative. Some of these products will have additives aimed at stimulating saliva or providing beneficial proteins, enzymes, or ions. Some patients depend on these products extensively. Others find these products not to their taste, and prefer water as a wetting agent. In any case, patients are advised to try different products to determine if there is one that they like. These products are useful to get very dry patients through difficult periods (telephone conversations, going to sleep, and social interactions). Patients are advised to make sure the artificial saliva is applied to the hard palate, buccal mucosa, and inner lips.32

The Building Blocks of Personality Disorders

Traits of personality describe consistencies in behavior , thought, or action and represent meaningful differences between persons, as we described in Chapter 3. Personality disorders can be thought of as maladaptive variations or combinations of normal personality traits. Widiger and colleagues describe how extremes on either end of specific trait dimensions can be associated with personality disorders ( idiger et al., 2002a, 2002b). For example, a person with extremely low levels of trust and extremely high levels of hostility might be disposed to paranoid personality disorder . A person very low on sociability but very high on anxiety might be prone to avoidant personality disorder. A person with the opposite combination extremely high on sociability and low on anxiety might be prone to histrionic personality disorder . Thus, the concept of traits, such as the five-factor model of traits, can be especiall useful for describing personality disorders (T rull & McCrae, 2002). Social...

Personality and Social Interaction

Psychological Facts About Shy People

Shyness and the Selection of Risky Situations These three processes selection, evocation, and manipulation are three key ways in which personality interacts with the social environment. Individuals in everyday life are not exposed to all possible social situations individuals with certain personality dispositions seek out and avoid social situations selectively . Personality also influences how we evoke di ferent reactions from other people and how others, in turn, evoke dif ferent responses from us, sometimes quite unintentionally . And personality affects how we purposefully influence, change, exploit, and manipulat the others with whom we have chosen to be associated. Among these three processes, selection is the first, since it determines the people to whom we are exposed But are these positive correlations caused by the active selection of mates who are similar Or are these positive correlations merely by-products of other causal processes Sheer proximity, for example, could, in...

Marney A White and Loren M Gianini

On average, adults with BED report higher depression, lower quality of life, and lower self-esteem than NBO adults (de Zwaan et al. 2002 Isnard et al. 2003). Much like Jamie, they may feel depressed about their eating, shape, and repeated failed attempts to lose weight. In general, patients with BED tend to be more concerned with rejection and feeling unworthy as compared to NBO (Nauta et al. 2000). Additionally, binge eating obese adults have higher rates of Axis I comorbid psychopathology than NBO (Fontenelle et al. 2003). In particular, they are more likely to suffer from major depression, and, to a lesser extent, anxiety disorders (Fowler and Bulik 1997). In terms of Axis II diagnoses, some evidence suggests that people with BED have significantly higher rates of all personality disorder diagnoses, particularly borderline personality disorder and avoidant personality disorder (Telch and Stice 1998 Yanovski et al. 1993).

The Social and Cultural Domain

We will describe three key processes whereby personality affects social interactions. The first process is through selec tion, in which people may choose specifi social environments according to their personalities. An example of this is assor-tative mating, where people look for specific kinds of people to marr , often people who have similar personality traits. A second process whereby personality affects social interactions is through the reactions we evoke in others. For example, in ar guments between married couples, there are specific ways that men tend to up set their wives, and other ways in which women tend to upset their husbands. We will examine how people evoke distress, as well as positive feelings, in others. A fina process whereby personality affects social interactions is through manipulations for influencing others. What are the strategies that people use to get what they want from others How do people go about influenc ing others We will discuss research on...

Dimensional Model of Personality Disorders

Widiger (1997) ar gues that disorders simply are maladaptive variants and combinations of normal-range personality traits. The personality traits most studied as sources of disorders are the five traits of the five-factor model, which we reviewed in Cha ter 3. Costa and Widiger (1994) edited an influential book supporting the idea tha the Big Five traits provide a useful framework for understanding disorders. Widiger (1997) presents data ar guing that, for example, borderline personality disorder is extreme narcissism, and schizoid disorder is extreme introversion accompanied by low neuroticism (emotional stability). Extreme introversion accompanied by extremely high neuroticism, on the other hand, results in avoidant personality disorder . Histrionic disorder is characterized as extreme extraversion. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a maladaptive form of extreme conscientiousness. Schizotypal personality disorder is a complex combination of introversion, high neuroticism, low...

Promoting Good Nutrition for Children

It is unlikely that the Western world, with its working mothers and busy parents, can return to a society where all meals are consumed as families. Eating and socializing over meals are nevertheless important for child development since they may encourage children to recognize satiety during the time spent eating. Further, the communication and stimulation that should take place during family meals develops children's social skills. Even when family meals are not practical, eating should be organized, and to some extent formalized, preferably away from distractions such as television, which may detract from awareness of the quantity of food consumed. Snacking should be at specific times rather than an activity that happens because food is available or because there is nothing else to do. Table 6 outlines some of the principles to be followed when trying to develop good eating and nutritional habits in childhood.

Closer Look Bullies and Whipping Boys from Childhood to Adulthood

Although the victims, or whipping boys, do not have any external characteristics that appear to set them apart, they do have certain psychological characteristics. Most commonly, victims tend to be anxious, fearful, insecure, and lacking in social skills. They are emotionally vulnerable and may be physically weak as well, making them easy targets who don't fight back. The victims suffer from low self-esteem, lose interest in school, and often show difficulties establishing or maintaining friendships. They seem to lack the social support that might buffer them against bullies. It has been estimated that 10 percent of all schoolchildren are

Closer Look The Six Myths of Self Esteem

After crushing these myths about self-esteem, we can ask the question So, what good is self-esteem As described elsewhere in this chapter, self-esteem improves persistence in the face of failure. Persons high in self-esteem perform better in groups than those with low self-esteem. Also, having a poor self-image is a risk factor for developing certain eating disorders, especially bulimia. Low self-esteem is also related to depression, and high self-esteem is related to happiness. High self-esteem also is related to social confidence and taking the initiative in making new friends. It is most likely the case that successes in academics, in the interpersonal domain or in one's career, lead to both happiness and to self-esteem. Consequently, efforts to artificially boost children's self-esteem (through unconditional praise, for example) might fail. Rather we should encourage and praise children when they put effort into learning or achieving the skills necessary to succeed in the various...

Development of the Self Concept

A final unfolding of the self-concept, during th teen years, involves perspective taking the ability to take the perspectives of others, or to see oneself as others do, to step outside of oneself and imagine how one appears to other people. This is why many teenagers go through a period of extreme self-consciousness during this time, focusing much of their energy on how they appear to others. You might vividly recall this period of your life, the strong emotions involved in episodes of objective self-awareness, of seeing oneself as an object of others' attention. Remember going to gym class in your funny gym uniform, or that first trip to the beach in your new swim ming suit Often, objective self-awareness is experienced as shyness, and for some people this is a chronic problem.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Retention, sometimes called flunking, is the practice of having a child repeat a grade in school to help the child acquire the academic and social skills needed for success in later grades. Most research, however, has found that simply repeating the same grade is not very effective. Although children who are retained often perform better during their second year in the same grade, their gains usually shrink or disappear in subsequent years. Moreover, children who are retained are more likely to develop a bad attitude toward school and are more likely to drop out of school than nonretained children with similar levels of poor achievement.

Promotion of Mistrust

Ance of cross-race peers and with their reports of negative intergroup social interactions. Others have found negative consequences as well (Biafora et al., 1993 Rumbaut, 1994 Smith, Atkins, & Connell, 2003). Thus, racial ethnic socialization messages that promote racial mistrust may prompt youth to withdraw from activities that are essential for access to opportunity and reward structures of the dominant society (Biafora et al., 1993). Moreover, they may motivate youth to engage in activities that deviate from accepted norms.

Skill Deficits Versus Performance Deficits

Social skills problems can result from a skill deficit, in which the child does not know what to do in a social situation and needs to learn the skills to become socially competent. Social challenges can also have nothing to do with a lack of skills. According to a leading authority, Dr. Russell Barkley, children with ADHD typically do not have a skill deficit, but rather a performance deficit. They know what they are supposed to do and the appropriate social skills, but fail to apply or perform those needed skills (Barkley, 1998). When the child has difficulty acquiring or learning a skill, he or she may need a different intervention than a child who already knows the skill, but struggles to perform it. Children who have a deficit in specific social skills need direct, explicit teaching and frequent opportunities to practice those appropriate skills. Those children teens who know the appropriate skills but do not perform them due to inhibition problems need a lot of external rein...

Kathleen K Bucholz Revised by Rebecca J Frey

Different constellations of anxious mood, physical symptoms, thoughts, and behaviors, when maladaptive, constitute various anxiety disorders. Panic disorder is characterized by brief, recurrent, anxiety attacks during which individuals fear death or losing their mind and experience intense physical symptoms. People with obsessive compulsive disorder experience persistent thoughts that they perceive as being senseless and distressing (obsessions) and that they attempt to neutralize by performing repetitive, stereotyped behaviors (compulsions). The essential feature of phobic disorders (e.g., agoraphobia, social phobia, simple phobia) is a persistent fear of one or more situations or objects that leads the individual to either avoid the situations or objects or endure exposure to them with great anxiety. Generalized anxiety disorder is diagnosed in individuals who persistently and excessively worry about several of their life circumstances and experience motor tension and physiologic...

Brillat Savarin Jean Anthelme 17551826

In his chapters on obesity and dieting, Brillat-Savarin positions himself as a lay expert. For him, obesity is a disease that makes the beautiful ugly, the strong weak, the intelligent dumb. It produces a distaste for dance, that most civilized of social interactions, creates the context for diseases such as apoplexy, dropsy, ulcers in the legs, and makes all diseases difficult to cure. Thus, no obesity is found among that class of persons who eat to live, instead of living to eat. But, it takes real courage either to lose weight or to keep from gaining it (Brillat-Savarin 1999 195). His approach is to avoid excess and the need to balance all qualities of food. Discretion in eating, moderation in sleeping, and exercise on foot or horseback, is his dieting course (Brillat-Savarin 1999 195). Yet, he recognizes that such a simple prescription is almost always met with objections by those who need to undertake it. Diet is the most important, for it acts without cease day and night...

Physiological Approach to Personality

Most physiological personality psychologists today do not focus on global variables, such as gross body type. Instead, the majority of researchers in this area use measures of distinct physiological systems, such as heart rate or brain waves. The typical research question posed by contemporary psychologists concerns whether some people will exhibit more or less of a specific physiological response than others unde certain conditions. For example, are shy people likely to show a higher level of anxiety, as exemplified by la ge increases in heart rate, when called on to perform a difficult task in front of an audience, compared with persons who are not shy Notic that this question involves the specific conditions (audience) under which a specif personality characteristic (shyness) will produce a specific psychological respons (anxiety), which will show up in a specific physiological indicator (heart rate). These connections are depicted in Figure 7.1.

Bronchopneumonia See pneumonia

Certain personality characteristics seem to be associated with bulimia, including a fear of losing control, inflexible thinking, perfectionism, dissatisfaction with body shape, and an overwhelming desire to be thin. Bulimia has also been linked to mood disturbances such as depression or social anxiety.

Learning and Forgetting at School

Frankie's situation was becoming desperate. His parents came to see me, hoping I could find a way to improve his behavior and his learning at school. To teach him at home would mean depriving him of the opportunity to interact with other children and so perhaps improve his social interactions. Frankie had enjoyed his first school years and had made some friends who came to the house to play and invited him to their birthday parties in return. The more time Frankie spent with other children, the less he seemed to pursue his eccentric interests at home. Now he wanted to play with other children, not just on his own. His parents thought this positive change was a product of their determination that he go to the local school rather than to a special school for children with autism. But now he was clearly unhappy in school he was bored and uninterested in the regular school subjects and was interested only in flags. He was making little progress in reading and arithmetic. He showed no...

Marion K Underwood Lara Mayeux Mikal Galperin

Emotion regulation is the ability to manage one's subjective experience of emotion, especially its intensity and duration, and to manage strategically one's expression of emotion in communicative contexts (Saarni, 1999, p. 200). Individual differences in emotional reactivity and emotion management relate to many dimensions of social functioning empathic responding, prosocial behavior, shyness, and externalizing behavior problems (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1999). Children's capacity to control strong feelings in relationships with other children is particularly fascinating because these relationships are horizontal in that they require negotiation among individuals who are approximately similar in age and status (Hartup, 1989), authority figures are not present to provide structure, and children in close relationships frequently construct their own frameworks for social interaction (Laursen, Hartup, & Koplas, 1996). Other research and theory suggests that not only are these children using...

Interpersonal Interventions

They took the approach of adapting Interpersonal Therapy (IPT 44 ) for depression to bipolar disorder and adding elements to stabilize the pattern or rhythm of social interactions. The second interpersonal approach has focused on the potential therapeutic impact of interpersonal group therapy interventions for individuals with bipolar disorder. Although some authors have cautioned about the negative impact of group interventions on such patients (e.g., 45 ), or about the negative impact of patients with bipolar disorder on groups (e.g., 46 ), others have utilized primarily interpersonal here-and-now approaches in group format to address interpersonal difficulties (e.g., 47-49 ). In addition, others have addressed interpersonal issues of stigma and social isolation by incorporating interpersonal elements into psychoeducational groups (e.g., 50, 51 ).

Recognizing Order and Following Rules

People with AS-HFA often navigate the world by forming explicit rules or recognizing patterns about how things work, the ways people interact, and how events typically unfold. Parents are often amazed by their child's ability to analyze information and extract a set of patterns or rules by which something operates. One adolescent girl with AS-HFA commented that she noticed that one of the authors (G.D.) preferred clothing with horizontal stripes, whereas a coworker preferred clothing with vertical stripes. In fact, neither of us had consciously noticed that we had this preference, but when we mentally reviewed our wardrobes we had to admit that she was right. While we don't know exactly what facility enables people with AS-HFA to see certain patterns in behavior and conduct, we do know that this ability can compensate for the lack of natural intuition about social situations associated with AS-HFA. Rules, patterns, laws, and principles can help a person who lacks common sense about...

Pervasive developmental disorder PDD A

Wide spectrum of neurobiological disorders (also known as autistic spectrum disorders) characterized by delayed development of communication and social skills. The most noticeable feature of a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) is a problem with communication, including using and understanding language. Children with these disorders can also have trouble relating to others and may play in an unusual way with toys flicking, shaking, spinning, or lining up toys. Children with

Summer Treatment Programs

There are some highly effective summer treatment programs for children with ADHD that utilize a strong behavioral and social skills component, along with parent training and other aspects of a multimodal approach. For information about such programs in the United States and Canada, see the following website ht-tp or contact CHADD at Fad, K. S., Ross, M., & Boston, J. (1995). We're Better Together Using Cooperative Learning to Teach Social Skills to Young Children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 27(4), 28-34. Koplewicz, H. S. (2002, April). Managing Social Skills All Day, Every Day. CHADD ATTENTION, 8(5), 25-31. Attention Novotni, M., & Peterson, R. (2001). What Does Everybody Else Know That I Don't Social Skills Help for Adults with AD HD. Plantation, FL Specialty Press. Rosenthal-Malek, A. (1997, January February). Stop and Think Using Metacognitive Strategies to Teach Students Social Skills. Teaching Exceptional Children, 29(3),...

Acidum Nitricum For Heartburn

Acidum phosphoricum (Phosphoric ac.) 71 Aconitum napellus (Aconite) 32 anaphylactic shock 206, 272 Arnica montana (Arnica) 37 Papaver somniferum (Opium) 60 shoulder pain 47 shyness 83 subsp. nigricans Smilax medica see Smilax officinalis Smilax officinalis (Sarsaparilla) 166, 306 Smilax ornata Smilax regelii see Smilax officinalis snake bites, first aid 272 sneezewort see Arnica montana social phobias 211 soda ash see Natrum carbonicum sodium arsenate see Natrum arsenicum sodium carbonate see Natrum carbonicum sodium chloride see Natrum chloratum sodium fluoride see Natrum fluoricum sodium phosphate see Natrum phosphoricum sodium sulfate see Natrum sulphuricum sodium tetraborate see Natrum tetraboracicum Solanum dulcamara (Dulcamara) 62,

The Turn to Language Structuralist and Poststructuralist Approaches

As for gender, the discourses of primary school mathematics teaching and 'child-centred pedagogy' (Walkerdine 1984) tend to view as laudable 'active learning', 'breaking set' and so on, and to view as pathological 'rote-learning' and rule-following. But these ideas are 'gendered'. Girls tend to be positioned in the social interactions of the classroom as neat, helpful, hard-working and well-behaved, and then their production of behaviour consistent with such 'characteristics' tends to be read as evidence of their passivity. In contrast, boys' naughtiness and restlessness in the classroom is seen as testifying to their 'potential', 'mathematical flair' and so on (Walkerdine et al. 1989). We can note that many of the adjectives used in these gender 'stereotypes' purport to be descriptive, but they can be seen as producing meaning, and hence performance Thus discourses can be seen not simply as 'representative' of reality, but rather as productive of it.

Reflectivity and Impulsivity

It is important to note that correlational studies have been conducted on any relationship between intelligence and each of the three cognitive styles. There is consistent data indicating no direct relationship exists between cognitive styles and intelligence. Nevertheless, an individual's ability to acquire knowledge on an equal plane with peers, or to demonstrate his or her knowledge in specific social or academic settings, may be affected by cognitive styles. Through early childhood development, continued success or frequent difficulties in these abilities could affect personality and social interactions.

Peer Support In Hospital Settings

Support networks for young people with chronic illness (21). ChlPS is a generic program recognizing that young people with any chronic illness face many similar psychosocial issues irrespective of illness type. Initially the program begins with an eight- week group for eight- young people with a variety of diagnoses. The group is run by a health professional and a trained peer leader and during these sessions they are able to discuss what it's like to live with a chronic illness. As a follow-up from this program, an ongoing social and recreational timetable is planned by participants. Activities include movie nights and newsletter production. A leadership training program is also offered to graduates of the program who then become co-facilitators and leaders of other activities. A qualitative evaluation study of the ChIPS program reported a positive impact on well being of young people with a reduction in social isolation, an improved acceptance of illness and improved adherence to...

How Does Bipolar Disorder Impact Children

Youth with bipolar disorder may also experience difficulty with peer relationships, including social isolation, teasing, and frequent conflict with other children. If they exhibit impulsive or aggressive behaviors, they may have difficulty making or sustaining friendships. Children and adolescents may miss social cues or misinterpret the intentions of others (e.g., thinking that other children are being mean when they are not) and may feel very anxious about interacting with others. They may also feel emotionally overwhelmed by social demands and may avoid or withdraw from peers.

Jos Verbeek and Evelien Spelten

Cancer Patient Return Work

Being able to return to work and to stay at work is important, both for society and for the individual. From a societal point of view it is important to reduce avoidable work incapacity. Economic loss is involved in unnecessary work cessation. From an individual's point of view, not being able to return to work following an illness frequently results in financial loss, social isolation, and reduced self-esteem. This financial loss is additional to the increased financial costs patients already endure due to their illness.

Conceptualization Of Depression In Older Adults

Late Life Depression Elderly

Depression in older adults can vary considerably across persons in terms of presentation and etiology. Between 1 and 4 of older adults experience major depression (Waraich, Goldner, Somers, & Hsu, 2004), with 40 of depression in older adults representing a recurrent episode, with the first episode having occurred in young adulthood, and 30 being the very first episode of depression ever (late-onset depression Blazer, 2003). For many years, researchers felt that depression was an understandable consequence of aging, because older adults are exposed to so many risk factors associated with the onset of depression. It is not uncommon for older adults to complain about sadness related to bereavement, social isolation, caregiver strain, and financial problems all salient psychosocial risk factors for depression

Harlow Harry 19051981

Baby monkeys without playmates or real mothers behaved in socially incompetent ways. Six months of social isolation rendered the animals permanently inadequate socially. Infant-infant play was slower for cloth-mother-reared infants, who caught up in about a year. Sexual behaviors were abnormal for the surro-

Individual Psychotherapy

Traditional psychotherapy can help some, but in our opinion a limited number of, individuals with AS-HFA. Generally, individual psychotherapy involves discussion of emotions and gaining insight into behavior patterns or interpersonal issues. Since most AS-HFA children, adolescents, and even adults have limited self-awareness, do not naturally make social comparisons, and often show little insight into the nature and reasons for their difficulties, this form of psychotherapy is often not very helpful for them. Additionally, the realm in which the majority of problems arise for those with AS-HFA, social situations, are best dealt with in larger group formats, rather than in individual therapy sessions. One of the chief difficulties encountered in autism is the lack of automatic generalization, from one situation to another, from one interaction to another, from one setting to another, from one person to another. It is therefore unlikely that work done in a one-to-one setting with an...

Closer Look Narcissism and Social Interaction

In terms of selection, narcissists tend to choose people who admire them, who will reflect the extraordinarily positive view they hold about themselves. They don't want people around who will view them as anything other than as extraordinary, beautiful, or brilliant (Buss & Chiodo, 1991). In fact, because narcissists view themselves as exceptional performers, they tend to select social situations in which they perceive that their opportunity for glory will be enhanced, and conversely avoid situations in which their self-perceived magnificence will not be noticed by others (Wallace & Baumeister, 2002). While they tend to appoint themselves to positions of power (Buss & Chiodo, 1991), they strenuously avoid social situations that don't afford the chance to show off their brilliance (Wallace & Baumeister, 2002). Life, however, sometimes has a way of crashing in, and narcissists are sometimes rejected. When they are rejected, narcissists tend to lash out with great anger at those they...

Does Levodopa Cause Motor Fluctuations

In a retrospective study, Lesser et al. (62) collected data from 131 PD patients relating to severity of disease and late complications and assessed whether these problems were attributed to duration of disease or levodopa therapy. A relationship was seen between the presence of fluctuations and duration of therapy, since those with fluctuations tended to be treated for four years or more. This was not true for dyskinesia. They, therefore, associated fluctuations with levodopa therapy but did not rule out the possibility that those receiving levodopa longer had a more progressive disease. It was recommended that initiation of therapy be delayed until the patient begins to function unsatisfactorily in occupational or social situations. This is perhaps the most frequently quoted paper on the subject however, the authors themselves pointed out the flaws in a retrospective study and indicated the need for a prospective evaluation of the problem.

Nutrition and Health in the Urban World

The urban elderly are another generational group of concern in terms of their risk to suffer nutritional deficiencies. To the extent that their age, per se, makes them more susceptible to undernutrition and social isolation, with the weakening of extended family traditions, and afflicts more urban than rural elders, their situation in the urban context can be more nutritionally precarious.

Attention Deficit Information Network Inc A

Children with autistic disorder demonstrate little interest in friends or social interactions, often failing to develop verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Typically, these children function at a low intellectual level most experience mild to severe mental retardation. About half of people with autism score below 50 on IQ tests, 20 percent score between 50 and 70, and 30 percent score higher than 70. However, estimating IQ in young children with autism is often difficult because problems with language and behavior can interfere with testing. Children and adults with autism typically have problems in verbal and nonverbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.

Closer Look Fit for the

When assisting a business in hiring for a particular job, a psychologist typically starts by analyzing the requirements of that job. The psychologist might interview the employees who currently work in that job or might interview the supervisors who are involved in managing the people in that particular job. The psychologist might then observe workers in that job, noting any particular verbal, written, performance, and social skills needed to perform the job. He or she might also take into account both the physical and social aspects of the work environment in an effort to identify any special pressures or responsibilities associated with the job.

Table 197 Characteristics of Paranoid Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder The major feature of the avoidant personality disorder is a pervasive feeling of inadequacy and sensitivity to criticism from others. Clearly, no one likes to be criticized. However, avoidant persons will go to great lengths to avoid situations in which others may have opportunities to criticize their performance or character , such as in school, at work, or in other group settings. The main reason for this anxiety about performance is an extreme fear of criticism or rejection from others. Such persons may avoid making new friends or going to new places, through fear of criticism or disapproval. Friends may have to plead and promise lots of support and encouragement in order to get them involved in new activities.

The Positive Side Of Bipolar Disorder

Positive experiences associated with changes in their moods, such as increased sensitivity and alertness, higher productivity, being more comfortable and outgoing in social situations, increased sexual enjoyment, and heightened creativity (Jamison et al. 1980). In fact, people with bipolar disorder are more likely to pursue creative occupations than others are (Tremblay, Grosskopf, and Yang 2010). The reasons why creativity is more common among people with bipolar disorder aren't fully understood, but for many, this is one of the silver linings of the disorder.

Forming and maintaining relationships

Charles is a 23-year-old rather shy and inhibited man. He lives with a male flat-mate and has a good, steady job in an office. The prospects for career advancement are reasonable although not startling and Charles has a number of outside interests, all of which tend to be pursued alone -reading, running and hiking or walking in the countryside when time off allows. He gets on well with his parents and visits them quite regularly. Like him, they tend to be quiet people who keep themselves to themselves. So far, Charles has not had a girl-friend. He finds it difficult to talk to women and can never seem to strike up the necessary boldness to invite a woman whom he likes out for a meal or to go to the cinema. He hasn't spent much time wondering why this is so, just putting it down to his inherent shyness and quietly hoping that some day something will happen and a relationship will develop for him. occasionally travelling up and down in the lift. She looks worried and glances up at...

Prevalence of Personality Disorders

The total prevalence rate for having at least one personality disorder is about 13 percent. That is, at any given time, approximately 13 percent of the population is diagnosable with a personality disorder of one or more types. This brings up the issue of comorbidity, which we also mentioned in our A Closer Look on the Unabomber . A substantial proportion, between 25 and 50 percent, of the people who meet the criteria for a diagnosis on one personality disorder will also meet the criteria for diagnosis on another personality disorder (Oltmanns & Emery , 2004). Many of the personality disorders contain common features. For example, several disorders involve social isolation, including schizotypal, schizoid, avoidant, and, in many cases, obsessive-compulsive disorder. Uninhibited and irresponsible behavior is one of the criteria for a diagnosis of borderline, histrionic, and antisocial personality disorders. As such, dif ferential diagnoses are often challenging in personality...

Scientific evaluation of the Intermed

Subsequently the INTERMED item pool was reduced and validated by means of correlations with existing longer, one-dimensional instruments 35,38 . Because no reference standard for the assessment of case complexity existed, in the evaluation of the concurrent validity the authors compared the INTERMED with a variety of other instruments that were valid for some of the dimensions of the INTERMED, such as the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical Health Component Score in the biologic domain, the SF-36 Mental Health Component Score and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the psychologic domain, and scales measuring characteristics such as social support and social isolation in the social domain 14,39 . This approach was based on a psychometric evaluation of concurrent validity. In contrast with a purely clinimetric approach, items reflecting subjective data were not excluded, because complaints perceived and expressed by the patient are relevant for the assessment of case complexity and...

Hie Social and Cultural Domain

Personality Characteristics Desired in a Marriage Partner 497 Assortative Mating for Personality The Search for the Similar 499 Do People Get the Mates They Want 501 Personality and the Selective Breakup of Couples 503 Shyness and the Selection of Risky Situations 504 Other Personality Traits and the Selection of Situations 505 Evocation 506

The specific emotions

Or think of your reactions when you lose some favourite object. Sadness might be described as somewhat purer than the other negative primary emotions. It is made up of a mixture of down-heartedness, being discouraged, loneliness and feelings of isolation. It tends to follow the loss of something that was dear to us, whether this is a job, a house, a loved one, a favourite car, or even something like time. Unlike fear, anxiety and anger, the main effect of sadness is to slow us down rather than speed us up. In the extreme, sadness takes the form of grief, although grief is made up of much more than sadness alone. It also embraces anger, disgust, contempt, fear, guilt and even shyness, protest and despair. In this sense, it is not an emotion but a state comprised of a constellation of emotions that vary from time to time and person to person. Not all those who experience grief will necessarily experience all these processes and those who do might not experience them in the same...

The significance of psychosocial stress

Semiacute psychosocial stress is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The incidence of sudden death increases directly after a major disaster 54 . Also, reversible cardiac failure caused by sudden emotional distress has been reported 55 . A major role in the pathogenesis of these complications has been ascribed to activation of the HPA axis. Evidence of neurohumoral arousal and elevation of arterial blood pressure has been noted in situations associated with acute and subacute stress 56,57 . Exaggerated physiologic responses to acute stressors also have been shown in depressed, hostile, and low-SES subjects 37,58,59 . Chronic stress and hostility have been linked to increased reactivity of the fibrinogen system and of platelets, both of which increase the risk of myocardial infarction 60,61 . Also, tension and anxiety over a more prolonged period of time have been observed to be independent risk factors of incident coronary heart disease, atrial...

Inclusion of Preschoolers with Special Needs

In the 1980s and 1990s, there was an ever-increasing emphasis on educating children with special needs (e.g., learning disabilities) alongside typically developing peers in the ''regular'' classroom rather than in separate, ''special'' classes that enroll only children with disabilities. Although mandated by federal laws and regulations, this move toward inclusion has been controversial. Nevertheless, there has been considerable research documenting the potential benefits of inclusion at all levels of education, including the preschool level. These benefits are not typically seen on standardized measures of achievement but rather on social and cognitive behaviors within the classroom. Moreover, these benefits are seen for typically developing children as well as for children with special needs. Inclusion, however, may not alleviate all the problems of children with special needs. For example, children with cognitive disabilities in inclusive classrooms participate in fewer social...

Summary And Evaluation

Personality does not exist solely inside the heads of individuals. The personality characteristics we carry with us af fect the outside world. Perhaps most important, personality affects the ways in which we interact with other people occupying our social world. Indeed, the reciprocal influences of personality and social interactions hav brought the fields of personality psychology and social psychology closer together i recent years (Swann & Seyle, 2005). This chapter described three key processes by which personality af fects social interaction. First, we select people and environments, choosing the social situations to which we will expose ourselves. Personality plays a key role in the selection process. In selecting a mate, for example, people worldwide look for mates who are dependable, are emotionally stable, and have a pleasing disposition. Furthermore, we tend to select mates who are similar in personality to ourselves, in a process known as assortative mating. Complementary...

Precipitating Factors

Sified according to whether wife beating was absent or rare, occurred in less than half of households occurred in more than half of households, or was present in almost all households. Using these criteria, it was found that wife beating occurred in 84 percent of the societies in the sample. Occurrence of this behavior was best explained by both social acceptance of violence and economic dominance of men. In a restudy by Erchak and Rosenfeld (1994), additional societies were selected for analysis and when wife beating was coded as simply being either present or absent it was found that that it occurred in 80 percent of the sample. However, social isolation occurred in 47 percent of societies without wife beating, in contrast to occurrence in 94 percent of nonisolated societies. Socially isolated societies were typically smaller, and their members need to be mutually interdependent for the purposes of survival. In comparison, societies where raiding or warfare against outsiders was...

Equality In Human Relations

For many individuals, group therapy provides special skills to deal with problems in social situations. Among the difficulties experienced by clients is the inability to ask for acknowledgment of their personal rights and needs. The foundation of this problem may be a resistance to express both positive and negative feelings, a lack of confidence to be direct, and a judgment that their requests are unreasonable and unacceptable to others. Alberti and Emmons (1990) suggest that Assertive behavior promotes equality in human relationships, enabling us to act in our own interests, and to stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety, to express honest feelings comfortably and to exercise personal rights without denying the rights of others (p. 7).

Measuring Temperament

Not all temperament characteristics fit neatly into these four dimensions. Shyness, for example, has been investigated as an aspect of reactivity (i.e., the tendency to withdraw from new social situations) and as the opposite end of sociability (i.e., the tendency to not want to be around people). While many researchers have focused on one or more of these dimensions, others have categorized children based on combinations of traits and styles. Some dimensions of temperament have to be assessed in specific contexts. Reactivity and shyness, for instance, must be observed in novel situations because the behavior of interest may not appear in familiar contexts or may appear for only some children. For example, children who are withdrawn in unfamiliar situations are considered temperamentally shy. Children who are withdrawn in both familiar and unfamiliar situations, on the other hand, are considered anxious and possibly at risk for developing an anxiety disorder. Sometimes children's...

Field Dependence and Field Independence

There is also a strong connection between this cognitive style and social interactions. People who are field-dependent are frequently described as being very interpersonal and having a well-developed ability to read social cues and to openly convey their own feelings. Others describe them as being very warm, friendly, and personable. Interestingly, Witkin and Donald Goodenough, in their 1981 book Cognitive Styles, explained that this may be due to a lack of separation between the self and the environment (or ''field'') on some level. Field-dependent people notice a lack of structure in the environment (if it exists) and are more affected by it than other people.

L Psychosocial Aspects of Overweight and Obesity

Ing adolescence or with early onset of obesity, and those with emotional disturbances. 127, 235 244 250-253 It is no surprise, then, that in some groups of obese persons, these individuals are more dissatisfied and preoccupied with their physical appearance, and avoid more social situations due to their appearance. 254, 255 Body image dissatisfaction and the desire to improve physical appearance often drives individuals to seek weight loss. However, obese persons seeking weight reduction must come to terms with real limits in their biological and behavioral capacities to lose weight. Otherwise, weight loss attempts may only intensify the sense of failure and struggle that is already present among many obese individuals. For this reason, psychosocial interventions which incorporate strategies to improve body image may be helpful for those who want to lose weight and are very concerned about their physical appearance. A review of body image interventions in obese persons can be found in...

Is a journey of understanding worth it

Alexander needed more time to process input, not that he was unable to process it. I asked a team of doctors to review my son's needs. I told them about the problems and asked if they would recommend home tuition for Alexander. The answer was 'We have successfully integrated many children with autism into mainstream schools therefore we can't recommend home tuition. We must think about his social skills.' Whilst a team of strangers to us is thinking or worrying about Alexander's social skills, away from being bullied for being autistic, Alexander is developing them at a pace that makes sense to him.

Prestroke Nutritional Status

The prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition at the time of hospital admission following stroke has been variably reported as 8-30 . More detailed information obtained within 4 days of hospital admission has classified 9 of stroke patients as undernourished, 16 as overweight, and 75 as of normal nutritional status, based on a range of observational and nutritional assessment techniques. In relation to stroke outcomes at 6 months, the presence of under-nutrition shortly after admission has been independently associated with a significantly greater mortality and increased likelihood of developing pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeds before hospital discharge. Furthermore, patients of normal nutritional status have been found to be less likely to develop pressure sores than those who were undernourished or overweight. Specifically, a low serum albumin concentration has been found to be a significant predictor of post-stroke functional impairment, morbidity, and...

How Effective Is Self Help in Primary Care

Meta-analytic reviews of the efficacy of self-administered treatments (Bower, Richards, & Lovell, 2001 Cavanagh & Shapiro, 2004 Cuijpers, 1997 Gould & Clum, 1993 Scogin, Bynum, Stephens, & Calhoon, 1990) conclude that self-administered treatment is significantly more effective than no treatment for problems ranging from fears, depression, headache, insomnia, social skills, parent-child training, to sexual dysfunction. This effect extends to follow-up periods of several months. Surprisingly, several studies have found that self-administered treatment is as effective as therapist-administered treatment (Cuijpers, 1997 Gould & Clum, 1993 Marrs, 1995 Scogin et al., 1990) with the effect sizes for self-administered

Asperger syndrome Aspergers disorder A

Condition characterized by sustained problems with social interactions and social relatedness, and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of interests, activities, and behaviors. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who first documented this cluster of characteristics in the 1940s.

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