Treating Social Phobias and Social Anxiety

Shyness And Social Anxiety System

The Shyness and Social Anxiety System is just as its name says. It is an e-book wherein in-depth discussions about the symptoms, causes and treatment for shyness and social anxiety are made. It is then written for individuals whose extreme shyness or social anxiety prevent them from enjoying a full life filled with social interactions among their family, friends and acquaintances in gatherings during holidays, outings and parties. The author Sean Cooper also suffered from shyness and social anxiety disorder so much so that he tried every trick in the book yet to no avail. And then he set out to conquer his own fears by researching into the psychology, principles and practices behind these two debilitating mental health issues. Continue reading...

Shyness And Social Anxiety System Summary

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Author: Sean Cooper
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Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this book, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the publicity was about.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Assessment Of Social Phobia And Panic Disorder In Depression

Social anxiety and social phobia can be assessed with behavioral observation methods (see for a review, Glass & Arnkoff, 1989) interview rating scales, such as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS Davidson et al., 1991 Liebowitz, 1987) and many self- report measures of social anxiety and avoidance, including the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (FNE Watson & Friend, 1969) and the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) by Watson and Friend (1969), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) by Mattick and Clarke (1998), and the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) for adults (Turner, Beidel, Dancu, & Stanley, 1989) and children (Beidel, Turner, & Morris, 1995) (for a more comprehensive review, see Hofmann & Barlow, 2002). For panic disorder, core fears associated with the disorder can be assessed with the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI Reiss, Peterson, Gursky, & McNally, 1986). A...

Treatment of Social Phobia in Individuals with Depression

Despite the high frequency and clinical severity of the co-occurrence of social phobia and major depression, many studies have excluded depression in clinical trials. For example, a meta-analysis of30 cognitive and or behavioral treatments of social phobia, published from 1996 to 2002, found that only 11 studies included patients with social phobia and comorbid depression (Lincoln & Rief, 2004). In this meta-analysis, the impact of comorbid depression could be examined only by comparing studies that did or did not exclude comorbid depression. The results indicated that inclusion of at least some patients with comorbid depression appeared to make little difference in the overall study findings, with near identical estimates of mean pre- to posttreatment effect sizes for studies that did (d 0.91) or did not (d 0.92) exclude patients with depression. Clinical trials examining the impact of comorbid depression on the treatment of social phobia have produced equivocal results. Van...

Social Phobia Social Anxiety

SoP refers to a fear of social situations that leads to avoidance of those situations or that, when entered into, is accompanied by intense anxiety. When the situations producing the fear are avoided to the extent that the avoidance interferes with social or occupational functioning, the problem merits a diagnosis of SoP. Because of the nature of the disorder, treatments have often included exposure to social situations, either by being conducted in a group context, or by contriving exposures to the feared social situations. As with other anxiety disorders, the skills are readily adaptable to an SH format. The problem in using SH interventions has been in prescribing exposure to social situations in which the client can practice the requisite skills. Of the nine studies, seven used written manuals and two evaluated a videotaped SH program. Among the seven studies using written manuals, six used published SH books. A Guide to Rational Living and A New Guide to Rational Living (Ellis...

Social Phobia

Social phobia usually emerges in the mid-teens and typically does not affect young children. Children and adolescents with this disorder have a constant fear of social or performance situations, like speaking in class or eating in public. They are always afraid of being embarrassed in these situations. This fear is often accompanied by physical symptoms, such as sweating, blushing, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, or muscle tenseness. Young people with social phobia are often overly sensitive to criticism, have trouble being assertive, and have low self-esteem. Social phobia may be limited to certain situations so that the adolescent may experience a sense of dread in relation to dating or recreational events but may be confident in school and work situations.

Shyness

When an infant or toddler is confronted with strangers, either adults or children, an initial reaction of reticence and withdrawal is generally accepted and understood. Being cautious with strangers, animal or human, served for millions of years as a built-in safety device and was advantageous for survival. But from age three or four onward, most parents in modern societies like to see their children overcome their natural inhibitory tendencies soon after being introduced to other people. Cultures differ in their acceptance of shyness. In the United States, having an outgoing personality is highly valued, and thus parents worry when their child is socially inhibited by temperament, fearful when confronted by strangers, says as little as possible when in the company of unfamiliar people, and prefers playing alone. In other cultures, such as in Sweden, shy, reserved behavior is preferred to bold, attention-getting behavior, and consequently shyness is seen as less of a problem. In both...

Anxiety shyness

Symptoms Self-doubt, lack of self-confidence, shyness, and indecision. There is a tendency to anticipate the worst, to be full of anxiety, and to become upset over the slightest thing, which frequently causes depression or overexcitement. Concentration may be poor, and may even

Alcoholism Versus Unwise Drinking

Organic HALLUCINOGENIC substances (plants with perception-altering properties, such as peyote and mescaline, and fungi, such as psilocybin mushrooms) have been used in various cultures in the context of religious rituals, with the dramatic visual and aural hallucinations induced being interpreted in spiritual terms. Intoxicating beverages (with alcohol and or other drugs) also have a long history of use, usually recreationally (i.e., for their relaxing and disinhibiting effects in social situations), but sometimes also for supposed medicinal purposes, as in elixirs and tonics that were marketed as patent medicines in the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

The Cognitive Theory Of Depression

Some of these events are independent of the person's control, such as some interpersonal losses, but others may actually be inadvertently established or maintained by the depressed person him herself (Davila, Hammen, Burge, Paley, & Daley, 1997 Joiner & Schmidt, 1998). For example, an individual who has developed a core belief of him herself as a loser, and as someone who cannot form an intimate relationship, may well avoid social situations or rebuff interpersonal advances. The resulting social isolation then becomes a life event that perpetuates the very negative belief of being an interpersonal loser that led to these behaviors in the first instance. The cognitive model of depression further asserts that the negative automatic thoughts, or interpretations of situations, lead to specific feelings and behaviors. For example, the thought that one cannot take any positive action to solve problems leads to feelings of helplessness and a lack of action. The perception that...

Problems with Social Interaction Active but

The essence of AS-HFA is difficulty with social interactions, although the striking social impairments of more classic autism, such as extreme remoteness and persistent avoidance of others, rarely appear. Some children, like Lauren, don't go out of their way to start conversations or interact with others but do respond if other people approach them. Other individuals show interest in people and enjoy their company they may even want to join groups and make friends. However, their ability to do so successfully is limited by their difficulty knowing what to do or say in social situations. They may be awkward and unsure during interactions. They may give the impression that they are not interested in the person they are talking to because they don't follow the

Few Key Termsand What They Mean

People with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome often appear not to understand other people's feelings or points of view, which makes their social interactions even more difficult. Often these abilities, natural to the rest of us, are delayed or do not develop at all. Empathy usually begins emerging in infancy, when young children start to show an interest in and a concern about the feelings of others. It's not uncommon in daycare centers to see babies break into sympathetic wails when another infant cries or to see toddlers bring a toy or an adult to a crying child in an attempt to comfort their peer. Preschoolers are fascinated by the moods of others and often talk about friends being angry or sad. In their pretend play, young children enact scenes in which characters are sick or upset, grappling with understanding such states and how to respond to them. While they often establish warm, loving relationships and secure bonds with parents, siblings, and understanding adults,...

Treatment sideeffects and their psychological impact

Men confronted with this treatment decision often need to take into consideration a range of factors, including the potential physical side effects of treatments and their psychological, social and emotional consequences. For example, patients being treated with radical therapies can experience severe side-effects, such as urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED), as a result of treatment. UI symptoms can persist years after treatment 8 and this can have an impact on all aspects of an individual's functioning. Men with UI often avoid social situations due to the risk of their incontinence becoming apparent to other people. They can feel embarrassed by their inability to self-control their bodily functions and by the lack of empathy from other people within social situations 9 .

Surgery 421 Cosmetic Effects

Most apparent but not always sufficiently addressed are the cosmetic effects of surgery. Patients may be embarrassed by their own distress from a seemingly minor problem with an otherwise good outcome and consequently may not bring forth their concerns. Nonetheless, visible scars from cancer surgery can result in some cases in social isolation. Other patients find the sight and smell of an ostomy to be repugnant and greatly overestimate how much it is apparent to others around them. It is incumbent on providers caring for these patients to explore these issues with them to ensure that they are as satisfied as possible with long-term cosmesis. If distress is identified, they should look for ways to optimize the cosmetic result, and where this is not possible, try to help the patient best cope with their situation.

The importance of the early diagnosis of the prostate cancer

In addition to the functional problem of the UI, this clinical condition causes a psychosocial disorder characterized by distress. Moreover, this is potentialised and augmented by the inability of the patient to perform habitual activities. Furthermore, the impossibility of controlling leakage and the resulting feeling of regression, and the inability to overcome the fatigue resulting from the interruption in the number of hours and the quality of sleep in the case of nocturia and anxiety increase dissatisfaction. In consequence, a restrictive social situation can be usually observed, characterized by shyness, shame from the leakage, and social stig-matization and isolation. Additionally, UI may trigger an undesirable, obsessive and strong psychological behavior related to the control of leakage of urine and of associated odors. These factors can increase the anxiety and to cause a reduction of the social life of the patient. Additionally, UI may trigger an obsessive and strong...

Behavioral Strategies

Completed activity logs are then reviewed in session discussion ofthese logs frequently emphasizes activities or interactions that are associated with increased depression. In addition, the logs provide essential information about the patient's daily schedule, including sleep, nutrition, and social isolation. The practice of keeping the schedule also helps to activate patients and begins training them to notice and label moods, and the specific relationships between activities and moods. Activity scheduling strategies involve inviting patients to plan specific activities during sessions and or to plan activities each night for the following day. Therapists may emphasize that it is common for people not to accomplish everything that they plan, and tasks that are left undone can be scheduled for another day.

Consequences of Birth Defects

Have shown that families of children with birth defects may experience more distress, as measured by higher levels of mental health treatment, than families of children without birth defects. These families, however, are no more prone to divorce, social isolation, or alcohol problems than families without a child affected by a birth defect.

Assessment Of Chronic Depression

When therapists work with patients with chronic depression, the assessment process can be challenging on a number of fronts. Generally speaking, a patient comes to therapy with a long history of the disorder, and there is a lot of ground for the therapist to cover in terms of gathering sufficient information to make sense of current problems, sharing a treatment rationale with the patient, and devising an initial formulation of the development and maintenance of the disorder. A further consideration is the fact that patients with chronic depression can be vague or evasive when giving information, as well as interpersonally sensitive, especially in novel social situations such as assessment. These two factors alone mean that the pacing of the interview needs to be slower, with more time and attention given to rapport building. This latter point is especially important given the interpersonal sensitivity that characterizes many patients' presentations can be disruptive to the process of...

Inter Vention Description

By this, we can analyze how they feel in social interactions. Talking about it in the group will permit them to redefine attributes and make proposals of how to get away from the perception of unfavorable situations and be able to reinforce the positive ones. Nevertheless, this negative perception is just a small part of their total identity.

Response Of Clients To This Intervention

Clients usually realize that coping with conflict with the group is a helpful way of dealing with it. They learn that when they are self-focused, most of all on themselves or specifically their condition, social interactions become more complicated as they introject what is transmitted by others, i.e., condolences, pity, and or affliction.

When the Children Cannot Yet Talk About Friendships

By preschool age, children can play with children that they do not consider to be friends. Toddler-age children's social interactions are more fragile and more dependent on rituals and routines than the social interactions of preschoolers. Therefore, toddlers, more often than preschoolers, play only with their friends. We assume that this is because patterns of interaction between toddlers are highly ritualized.

Socioeconomic Factors

Ill child may cause parents to become overprotective and controlling, or may render parents unable to give emotional support to the adolescent patient (1,51,52). Moreover, overprotection can compound an adolescent's existing social isolation and peer interaction owing to functional limitations, frequent interruptions of daily activities by treatment requirements, and changed physical appearance (1,51). Friends and peers may help to overcome these feelings of being different by accepting their ill friend with his or her physical limitations (53).

Observation of Your Child

The professional will also observe your child and interact with her for some period of time, making note of the same types of symptoms he or she asked you about in the interview. The examiner might set up specific situations to make sure that certain symptoms, if present, are evident during the observation period. Eye contact, for example, is often poor in children with autism spectrum conditions. To be certain that your child's eye contact is limited with the examiner because of an autism spectrum disorder and not just due to shyness or lack of opportunity, the examiner might set up explicit scenarios that powerfully pull for eye contact, such as making it necessary that your child ask for help. In such situations, typical children almost always make eye contact. Similarly, the examiner might ask your child to tell a familiar story, because most typical children will periodically make eye contact to be sure that you are following them or are interested in what they are saying. An...

Overview And Structure Of

The goals of cognitive-behavioral treatments tend to be somewhat broader than those of 'strict' behavioral approaches, and the choice of treatment goals will dictate the specific interventions implemented. For example, in broad spectrum cognitive-behavioral treatments (e.g., Azrin et al., 1976 Monti et al., 1989), the patient and therapist may select a wide range of target behaviors in addition to a treatment goal of abstinence, including improved social skills or social functioning, reduced psychiatric symptoms, and reduced social isolation, entry into the work force. Cognitive behavioral therapy also differs from cognitive therapy through greater emphasis on building specific behavioral skills (e.g., coping with craving, avoiding high risk situations, understanding behavioral patterns) and somewhat lesser emphasis on targeting and challenging maladaptive cognitions in the earlier stages of abstinence.

Effectiveness of Self Help Treatments

In the last three decades, over 60 SH studies, including 43 randomized controlled studies and 11 field trials, have examined the effectiveness of various forms of SH interventions for anxiety disorders and fear-related problems. This chapter focuses on SH programs that utilized books, tapes, or computer Internet-based materials and that were the primary treatment employed. Studies that targeted diagnosable anxiety disorders and sub-clinical levels of anxiety were examined. Targeted disorders included panic disorder (PD), specific phobia (SP), social phobia (SoP), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and subclinical problems such as test anxiety and interpersonal anxiety.

Malodorous Necrotic Ulcers

These ulcers are a major concern for cancer patients and can lead to social isolation and reduced QOL because current treatments inadequately reduce the foul smell to acceptable levels. A paper recently published reported that rinsing the ulcers twice a 2007 Elsevier Australia

Seeing Other Minds Darkly

Sharon thought this self-diagnosis was an accurate reflection of her predicament because she experienced significant problems in understanding and negotiating social interactions. She thought of herself as eccentric, and other people told her they often found it hard to communicate with her. In her professional dealings, she realized, on more occasions than she cared to remember, she had made some dreadful social gaffe with a client, but this awareness came to her only in retrospect and upon reflection. She felt uneasy with people, awkward and clumsy. Such difficulties are characteristic of people with AS but can also occur in people without the diagnosis. It would be a mistake to think that all problems of this sort are the result of ASD. Some people are shy some people have a hard time successfully navigating the social games we play. But to give that predicament a medical diagnosis or to call it a developmental disability would be to extend the concept of ASD to such a degree that...

In the Autism Spectrum Disorders

There appear to be a variety of traits that run in the families of people with autism and Asperger syndrome, especially related to the areas of language and social abilities. Higher rates of language delay, articulation problems, learning difficulties, social difficulties, and social anxiety are more often found in relatives of people with autism than in family members of people with other disabilities, such as Down syndrome. Studies indicate that these milder difficulties show up in about 10-20 of siblings of individuals with autism and often in parents as well.

Summary and Conclusions

More important, self-exposure, when not accompanied by other coping skills, may be difficult to administer. SH approaches to social anxiety may be similarly limited, when the socially anxious individual has no readily available venue to practice his skills, such as would be the case if the client were in group therapy or had a therapist directing him to enter social situations.

Trisha M Karr Heather Simonich and Stephen A Wonderlich

And histrionic personality disorder (HPD), as well as anxious, fearful personality disorders, including obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), appear to be the most prevalent personality diagnoses among individuals with BED. Indeed, Wilfley et al. (2000) found that the rates of OCPD and AVPD were twice as high among the BED group than a general psychiatric group. Furthermore, people with BED and OCPD or AVPD have reported higher rates of major depressive disorder (MDD), social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than participants without personality disorders (Becker et al. 2010 Wilfley et al. 2000). Therefore, comorbid psychiatric conditions appear to be typical characteristics of the majority of people with BED.

Dominance in Animal Social Groups

Although there has been little empirical experimental research done on cognitive aspects of, for example, how dominance status is recognized and represented in animals' minds, there are preliminary data that show that some animals have and use knowledge of other individuals' social ranks in their social interactions, and that individuals seem to agree on their ranking of others (Cheney and Seyfarth 1990 de Waal 1996 Tomasello and Call 1997). For example, when adult female vervet monkeys compete for grooming partners in their social group, individuals appear to rank one another and to agree on the rankings of the most preferred grooming partners. The understanding of dominance relationships having and using the social knowledge needed for making evaluations and decisions might entail constructing ordinal relationships and transitivity concerning the relationships among individuals with whom one has and has not had personal experience (Cheney and Seyfarth 1990 Tomasello and Call 1997),...

The Profundity In A Word

Based on my work in group therapy with the elderly, I have observed a number of healing and curative factors. These curative factors are the installation of hope, acceptance, a decrease in social isolation, finding of a new identity and meaning in life, support, catharsis, amelioration of fears, education, assistance in processing and dealing with painful or intense feelings, and an opportunity to help others (Cohen, 2000). Individuals who have lost a spouse often feel hopeless that they can return to a life of happiness and joy. They may even feel hopeless that they will ever just stop feeling sad all the time. We will look at specific interventions in bereavement groups that exemplify the installation of hope.

Sexual and Reproductive Health

Sexuality includes the adoption of certain gender roles (55). Society's definition of masculinity traditionally identifies the male as strong, practical, and the main bread winner in a family. The corresponding role for a woman traditionally identifies her as a wife, homemaker, attentive mother, and, more recently, an income provider. Arthritis may interfere with an individual's capacity to meet these expectations. Men with JIA are less sexually active and have greater difficulty establishing a permanent partnership than both healthy males and women with JIA (52). Poor body image, low self-esteem, social isolation, and fears of being unable to support a family or to fill the social role expected from a male in a relationship may all have contributed to this finding.

Examples Of Research Study

For socially mediated behaviors, expectancy research has revealed that college students of both sexes show less anxiety in social situations if they believe they have consumed alcohol. In addition, males show heightened sexual arousal when exposed to an erotic environment if they believe they have consumed alcohol (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). Men and women of college age have also both been found to respond more aggressively when provoked after they believe they have consumed alcohol. Sex differences have been found on the effects of alcohol on anxiety with persons of the opposite sex Women of college age have shown more anxiety in the company of an unfamiliar man when they believe they have consumed alcohol, while men of college age have shown reduced anxiety when in the company of an unfamiliar female. The results have been interpreted as reflecting gender differences regarding the acceptability of alcohol in social situations with a stranger of the opposite sex.

Family Violence And Substance

There are few reliable estimates of abuse of elderly people by family members (Pillemer & Suitor, 1988). Many cases may go unreported. One survey reported that 1.5 million elderly persons in the United States were abused in 1989, but others estimate that the range could be somewhere between 4 percent to 10 percent of the elderly population (Boudreau, 1993). Low rates of spousal abuse (3.3 ) have been noted for persons over the age of sixty-five, but only 55 percent of this population is married (Strauss & Gelles, 1990). Since women live longer than men, study of the abuse of elderly people by their children or children's spouses focuses mainly on the abuse of mothers. In relationships between adult children and their parents that have become abusive, predisposing factors include health status, dependency status, social isolation, intergenerational transmission of violent behavior, and external stressors. Anecdotal reports indicate that in 30 percent to 45 percent of cases...

Case Example 4 Identifying the Legacy of a Life Threatening Childhood Illness

S was an energetic young college student of 20, inclined to be moody, who characteristically dealt with her fears and conscious sense of shyness by pushing herself to encounter physical challenges in sports and to engage socially with others. She was seen as athletic and tough by her peers. In her junior year, Ms. S experienced an acute bout of appendicitis, which resulted in surgery. During her hospitalization, she began to experience an overwhelming sense of depression, which led her doctors to request psychiatric consultation for her.

Comorbidity Of Depression And Anxiety

There is also strong evidence for a high co-occurrence of major depression and social phobia (Magee et al., 1996 Rush et al., 2005), with even greater rates of depression among individuals with more social fears and among individuals seeking treatment (Kessler, Stang, Wittchen, Stein, & Walters, 1999). For example, in a sample of 449 outpatients with a lifetime diagnosis of social phobia, Brown and colleagues (2001) found a 60 rate of lifetime major depression and a 20 rate of lifetime dysthymia. The onset of social phobia typically occurs prior to the onset of depression (e.g., Brown et al., 2001 van Ameringen, Mancini, Styan, & Donison, 1991), and evidence suggests that social phobia increases the risk of subsequent depression (e.g., Stein et al., 2001).

Shared Psychopathology

According to Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite theory, high negative affect is a common factor shared by both anxiety and depression, whereas low positive affect and high autonomic arousal are uniquely characteristic of depression and anxiety, respectively. Research testing the validity of the tripartite model in outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders has found that social phobia and depression are both distinguished by high negative affect and low positive affect, and that neither is characterized uniquely by physiological hyperarousal (Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998). Furthermore, psy-chopathology research indicates that social phobia and depressive disorders are characterized by some of the same exaggerated beliefs about the costs of negative social performance. For example, Wilson and Rapee (2005) found that individuals with social phobia tend to believe that social errors result in negative evaluations from others, and that the negative evaluations both reflect...

Case Illustration

L., a 32-year-old, single, African American woman employed as a temporary office assistant, sought help for extreme anxiety in a variety of social situations. When describing her difficulties, J. L. reported that she had had problems with people ever since she was teased and taunted in junior high school. She reported that she had had few friends and felt continuously uneasy, alone, and terrified in school. In addition, she feared parties public speaking participating in meetings and classes speaking with unfamiliar people and authority figures being assertive maintaining a conversation entering public places, such as restaurants, coffee shops, and stores and dating. She reported that she never had a serious romantic relationship. J. L. stated that she feared all of these situations because she was worried that people were evaluating her negatively. She noted, I just have a huge fear of people. I always think that I will not be liked. She further stated, Initiating anything with...

Lifestyle and Nutrition

Some authors believe that economic conditions were the principal determinant of the gap in health status between the East and West. The close relationship between the gross national product per capita and life expectancy is well known, but the inhabitants of Central Europe were less healthy than their wealth predicted. The dramatic changes that occurred after the onset of communism created a toxic psychosocial environment. A loss of personal perspectives, chronic stress, tension, anger, hostility, social isolation, frustration, hopelessness, and apathy led to a lowered interest in health and to a very high incidence of alcoholism and suicide. People living for many decades in the informationally polluted environment rejected even useful health education.

Treatment of Panic Disorder in Individuals with Depression

In summary, current research on panic disorder indicates that brief programs of CBT targeting panic disorder lead to strong treatment effects regardless of the presence of depression. In some cases, comorbid depression does improve with the treatment of the panic disorder, but if this is not the case, initial study indicates that subsequent CBT targeting the depression can help to resolve it. Similar encouraging evidence is also available for the CBT of social phobia.

Comfort and Compatibility with Adults

Johan fastened his top button and smoothed down his hair. He smiled with excitement as he walked downstairs to meet his parents' friends who were coming over for dinner. Johan loved to talk to people, but he had difficulty interacting with the children at school. They often made jokes that were confusing to him, and sometimes they made fun of his conversation topics. But he always had a great time interacting with his parents' adult friends. They talked about more interesting things and they never made fun of him. His parents had noted this preference when he was younger, so they invited their friends over more often and encouraged Johan to participate. They found that even though these positive social interactions weren't with peers, each occasion seemed to increase Johan's comfort and interest in just being around others, both adults and children. His parents were delighted that his comfort with adults had translated into success with peers during a recent class trip to a nursing...

Identifying Your Childs Strengths

The six characteristics listed above are a good place to start in identifying your own child's potential strengths. But keep in mind that it's not always easy or simple to identify strengths. Nor is it easy to determine which behaviors that usually manifest themselves as weaknesses can be redirected to make them strengths. When your child's endless discussion of the detailed features of myriad video game characters is getting in the way of social interactions and family plans, it can be a chal

Venous Leg Ulceration

Chronic venous leg ulceration (VLU) is a common recurrent problem in the elderly population and may result in immobility, with 45 of patients being housebound (Baker & Stacey 1994). As a result, individuals with VLU frequently experience depression, anxiety, social isolation, sleeplessness and reduced working capacity (Leach 2004). CVI, which is characterised by an increase in capillary permeability, inflammatory reactions, decreased lymphatic reabsorption, oedema and malnutrition of tissues, is a precursor to VLU. As HCSE increases venous tone while reducing venous fragility and capillary permeability and possesses anti-oedematous and antiinflammatory properties, it has been speculated that by improving microcirculation, ulceration may be delayed or prevented (Blaschek 2004).

Functional Assessment and Functional Analysis

In addition to ascertaining the patient's formal diagnoses, the clinician also does a functional assessment and analysis of the role of alcohol and other drugs in the patient's life. The functional assessment examines the patient's adjustment across a number of important life domains, including schooling and or employment, health and safety, interpersonal relationships, legal involvement, and further areas of psychiatric symptomatology. The functional analysis examines the factors pertinent to the development and maintenance of the patient's use of alcohol and other drugs. These factors include high-risk situations (e.g., feeling lonely, getting paid, going to a bar), faulty beliefs (e.g., I only drink beer, so there's no way that I can have an alcohol problem), and reinforcement contingencies (e.g., a patient feels less anxious in social situations when he she drinks, but then experiences negative consequences when he she arrives late and hung over at work)....

Facts And Fancies About Obesity

Fear of social failure - much commoner than is generally admitted - may result in avoidance of any situation where shyness may be exposed and humiliation result. Instead of joining in the conversation at a communal meal, the bashful person over-eats silently, relying on the excuse of a full mouth for not speaking.

The Developmental Onset of Memory

By age two and a half, as is well documented in the work of Robyn Fivush and her colleagues, children describe specific past experiences such as a trip to an amusement park. Such early memories, however, do not generally become a permanent part of autobiographical memory, the subset of episodic memory that represents individuals' own life histories. Most people do not recall anything that happened before they were three years of age. This phenomenon is described as infantile amnesia. Although the reasons for infantile amnesia are not completely understood, several factors appear to be important in explaining the developmental emergence of autobiographical memory. One of these is the maturation of the frontal lobes of the brain, which continues throughout early childhood. A second factor appears to be the emergence of the self-concept, which serves as a conceptual framework for the organization of memories. Another is the role of social interactions in maintaining early memories....

Personality Disorder The concept

Of personality refers to the set of relatively stable and characteristic behaviors that individuals display in perceiving and responding to the environment, along with a particular way of thinking about themselves. These patterns of behavior and self-perception are called personality traits. They are manifested in a variety of social interactions in day-to-day living, and their diversity is extensive. When these traits become exaggerated, inflexible, and maladaptive, they begin to impair social functioning and can cause subjective distress. Different constellations of maladaptive traits are clinically diagnosed as personality disorders. Frequently, individuals identified as having a personality disorder do not see themselves as others see them, do not recognize the annoyance their behavior engenders in those around them, and hence do not seek to change their behaviors unless there are significant social repercussions. The characteristic traits of a personality disorder typify the...

Social Competence and Problem Behavior

As for the study of sympathy and personal distress, we have been interested in the additive and multiplicative contributions of emotionality and regulation. In general, we predicted that high emotionality, particularly frequency and intensity of negative emotion, combined with low regulation, would be associated with externalizing types of behavior problems and low social competence. In contrast, low regulation of emotion (e.g., through low attentional control) combined with high behavioral inhibition low impulsivity and high emotionality (especially negative emotionality) was expected to predict internalizing types of problems such as high levels of shyness and withdrawn behavior. For both externalizing and internalizing behavior, prediction is expected to be greater when measures of both emotionality and regulation are obtained. Further, we hypothesized that moderational effects would be found for emotionally driven internalizing or externalizing problem behaviors (e.g., that...

Learning Disabilities and ASHFA

Rience selective difficulty with mathematics, visual-spatial skills (for example, completing puzzles, mazes, drawing), and handwriting, but function fine when the activity relies primarily on language skills (for example, reading, spelling, answering questions). They are often clumsy and late to walk or develop other motor skills, such as riding a bike. Many children with NLD have trouble reading the emotions of others and may have other social difficulties, such as shyness or trouble making friends. Some of these difficulties overlap with the autism spectrum disorders (social problems and delayed motor skills, for example), while others are relatively rare in autism spectrum disorders (such as poor visual-spatial skills). To be diagnosed with NLD, a child must experience the hallmark cognitive and academic symptoms of the syndrome, including poor math and visual-spatial skills and lowered nonverbal intelligence the social and motor symptoms alone are not enough for a diagnosis. Dr....

Taking Advantage of Your Social Support System

Social support is a key ingredient in staying happy and healthy. Social isolation is a common warning sign of depression. If you find that you want to avoid interacting with others, that might serve as a gentle reminder that it's an important time to do the opposite and reach out. Getting some support can help you feel more connected to others and less alone in dealing with your problems. Talking to your therapist or a trusted friend or family member or attending a support group meeting can help boost your mood and help you make it through a low period. If leaving the house feels like too much, you can call someone supportive or invite a friend or family member to visit you. Problems can sometimes seem bigger than they are when you try to deal with them on your own. Talking through a problem with someone who cares about you can help reassure you and put your concerns into perspective.

Socialemotional concerns and carer support

PD is known to lead to social isolation, sedentary habits, and depression. While resting tremor, a common initial PD symptom, rarely results in significant physical disability, it is frequently reported as a source of psychological distress. Most patients report being embarrassed or self-conscious regarding tremors. In the later stages of PD, tremor or rigidity may cause significant distress and add to functional disabilities. Also in the later stages, the changes in voice quality, facial expression, and lack of hand gesturing contribute to communication challenges, and thus to social participation. The OT intervenes to minimize these responses. The approach involves O Carer education and support. O Involvement of the family in the rehabilitation process. O Teaching the family the sensory cues to facilitate function. O Encouragement of participation in local

Measuring Effects of Drugs on Behavior

People throughout world take drugs such as HEROIN, Cocaine, and ALCOHOL because these drugs alter behavior. For example, cocaine alters general activity levels it increases wakefulness and decreases the amount of food an individual eats. Heroin produces drowsiness, relief from pain, and a general feeling of pleasure. Alcohol's effects include relaxation, increased social interactions, marked sedation, and impaired motor function. For the most part, the scientific investigations of the ways drugs alter behavior began in the 1950s, when chlorpromazine was introduced as a treatment for Schizophrenia. As a result of this discovery, scientists became interested in the development of new medications to treat behavioral disorders as well as in the development of procedures for studying behavior in the laboratory.

Newborn screening tests

Neurofibromatosis can be stressful for many affected children, who may experience social isolation and loneliness or worry about possible future complications. Anxiety about the need for medical treatments, a sense of losing control, and the feeling of being different from others are often experienced.

Discussion and Conclusions

While comparisons between the participating countries need to be treated with care, the lower CSDD and QUALID scores in Finland and Sweden indicated better QoL while the relatively higher CSDD and QUALID scores in Estonia indicated lower levels of well-being, matching trends indicated in other research (Wilson, 2006). This may reflect macro-level circumstances in the transitional economies of former eastern-bloc countries. Disparities in the health and well-being of older people represent a major health and social policy challenge to establishing some level of parity between member states. For example, there is a need for appropriate health and social care responses to meet undiagnosed and untreated depression within those communities. There is also a need to develop wider social policies to address the key problems of social isolation, poor housing, low income, and so on of this vulnerable group of people. Unfortunately, the transition to free-market economies has tended to...

Barriers to Meeting Recommended Nutrient Intakes and Healthful Dietary Intake Patterns by Older Persons

Elderly persons face a number of challenges in meeting their recommended nutrient intakes. In the first instance, they are likely to be those with the least sophisticated or available knowledge of the nutrients required and the food sources to provide them. The social, economic, and physiological changes imposing on the lives of persons surviving to advanced age pose logistical problems for their selecting and purchasing a diet. Economic dependency and the limited incomes of older persons may restrict their access to high-quality foods. Social isolation, depression, and impaired mobility, as well as chewing difficulties may limit the variety of items included in the diet with advancing age. In some circumstances, it may be that free-living and independent elders are relatively less able to optimize their nutrient intake and dietary pattern compared to more dependent individuals served or fed in institutional settings.

The Good News about Growing Older

Fortunately, adolescence and young adulthood have a plus side too. By this time, some people with AS-HFA, especially those who have received appropriate treatment for several years, have a solid set of tools for navigating social situations. Greater familiarity with the rules of social discourse can help them fit in and draw less negative attention from their peers than during childhood. At the same time, the typical adolescents and young adults around them are maturing too, which often means they are developing greater acceptance of differences in others. You can't count on tolerance, of course cruelty among teenagers is widespread and well publicized, so you as a parent will want to continue to deal with any teasing and bullying of your child that does come up in the ways suggested in Chapter 8. But, in general, these sorts of problems do decrease in high school and drop to very low levels in adulthood. less talk about unfamiliar or uninteresting topics and therefore less social...

Concomitants Of Cancer Survivorship 21 Distress

In addition to the documented prevalence of clinical depression and other types of behavioral health problems, many more survivors report feelings of distress, daily or episodically. Distress is generally defined as a multi-determined unpleasant emotional experience of a psychological (cognitive, behavioral, emotional), social, and or spiritual nature that may interfere with the ability to cope effectively with cancer, its physical symptoms and its treatment. Distress extends along a continuum, ranging from common normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness and fears to problems that can become disabling, such as depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation, and spiritual crisis.1 Although usually not as severe as a psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety or depression, the prevalence rates of distress are even higher.

Why Should Professionals Be Interested

A U.K. study involving national focus groups of young people with JIA highlighted the need to consider social aspects of the young person's life alongside their physical and psychological needs (1). Young people reported an overwhelming need to meet similar others with JIA and the need for health professionals to pay increased attention to issues such as bullying, social isolation, and the loss of valued social activities. In a health care setting discussion of such topics can help develop rapport and build trusting relationships. In addition the development of interventions to address these issues may prove invaluable. Developing a supportive client-centered relationship that is seen as responsive and motivating may improve adherence, as has been demonstrated in young people with diabetes, comparing a client-centered approach with doctors who were expert decision makers who adopted a traditional medical model (10). Health care workers may therefore need training to ensure that their...

Decision making 7 practical steps

Your actual age (chronological age) has limited influence on how cancer will respond to therapy or its prognosis. Biological changes and other changes associated with aging are more reliable in estimating an individual's vigor and life expectancy as well as the risk of treatment complications. These changes include malnutrition, loss of muscle mass and strength, depression, dementia, falls, social isolation, and the ability to accomplish daily activities such as dressing, bathing, eating, shopping, housekeeping, and managing one's finances or medication.

Developmental Changes in Social Cognitive Reasoning

Considerable research on social-cognitive development has been inspired and informed by the theory of cognitive development formulated by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Drawing on Pi-agetian theory and research, John H. Flavell in 1985 identified a number of developmental trends in social cognition. One deals with a change in reasoning from surface to depth. Young children deal with social situations in a superficial, concrete fashion. They focus almost exclusively on salient, external features of others, and are easily deceived by impressions and appearances. Adolescents are better able to go beyond surface appearances and make inferences about peoples' psychological motives and states. A second theme involves the development of metacognition. Meta means to transcend metacognition involves thinking about thoughts and cognitive processes. Not only does this promote introspective self-awareness and self-examination, it also enhances the ability to Developmental...

Supportiveexpressive And Interpersonal Psychotherapy

A key strategy with IPT is to develop more productive means for achieving the desired social gratification or tension reduction for which the drug abuse substitutes. In a multiple drug abuser, this substitution may differ markedly for various drugs. For example, the abuser may be using cocaine to reduce social isolation and to ''meet exciting new people'' but may be abusing alcohol because the cocaine ''crash'' is reduced by the alcohol. Since only the cocaine, and not the alcohol, is directly related to the social deficit, only the cocaine abuse will directly benefit from interpersonal therapy. In general, the interpersonal impact will be somewhat different for the abuse of licit drugs such as alcohol, illicit drugs such as heroin and cocaine, and drugs such as benzodiazepines. Among cocaine addicts, for example, the licit drugs such as alcohol are often used in response to interpersonal tension, while the illicit drugs such as heroin lead to consequences of increased interpersonal...

Cognitive And Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral therapy is a behavioral approach to treating cocaine dependence that is often conducted through group therapy. The idea behind the therapy is to make drug use less attractive and to create alternatives to drug use by changing an individual's internal and external environment. Some therapy is modeled on techniques that individuals have used themselves to abstain from using or cut back on cocaine use. The approach attempts to help patients to recognize situations in which they are most likely to use cocaine, to avoid these situations when appropriate, and to cope more effectively with problems and problematic behaviors associated with drug abuse. For example, individuals learn how to cope with boredom, anger, frustration, and depression, and how to handle social pressure to use drugs. Sometimes individuals rehearse social situations in therapy sessions, to better equip them for handling such situations when they encounter them. Individuals are also urged to give...

Q How can animal distress be recognized and treated

Contingent inhumanity includes husbandry and housing conditions that are distressful, but are not a required part of an experiment. Laboratory animals inhabit a social world that includes conspecifics, whether in their home cage or just within the room, as well as humans social isolation and inter-animal aggression are both potential sources of distress for animals. Animals that are timid can be acclimated and trained to cooperate with research and husbandry procedures. Environmental conditions such as temperature and lighting and lack of a hiding opportunity can cause animal distress and can be fixed in the animals' favor without compromising the study.

Some Other Objections

A few other objections are sometimes raised against the self-perception account of feelings. One is that there seems to be no room for hiding or disguising one's feelings, or for pretending. If self-perception theory is correct, then if we pretend to feel something, we should feel it. Of course, we have all had many experiences of hiding or simulating feelings in order to meet the demands of social situations. Does this mean that self-perception theory is somehow wrong The answer is probably not, for at least four reasons. First of all, the necessary movements of, for example, facial expressions may be extremely subtle. In one study that very nicely matches some of the conditions of everyday pretense, participants were induced to adopt facial expressions that were so small that they were un-detectable by observers, although they were revealed by EMG recordings (McCanne & Anderson, 1987). Despite being undetectable, these miniexpressions were sufficient to produce changes in...

Environmental Factors

It is important to note that Thomas and Chess's studies in the 1960s and 1970s were based on the ideal characteristics for an infant reared in Western society. Culture also plays a role in the fit between the child and his environment. For instance, Mary Rothbart and others have found that parents in the United States and the People's Republic of China described their children using the same dimensions. Chinese infants, however, were lower in activity level compared to American children, a finding that has been replicated in other studies. In addition, the implications of certain temperament styles for children's development differ across cultures. Shyness or behavioral inhibition is associated with adjustment problems in the United States and Canada the same temperament style, however, is associated with healthy development in China. What is considered a difficult temperament style depends on the culture, context, and characteristics of the family.

Neighborhoods and Schools

Sociologists spearheaded investigations of neighborhood contexts as driving forces behind troubling social trends. Shaw and McKay (1942) proposed a social disorganization theory to explain neighborhood-level concentrations of crime. By mapping delinquency rates by neighborhood, they found support for their theory that economic hardship, high residential instability, and racial-ethnic heterogeneity contribute to high neighborhood crime because they undermine community social ties and community-based controls. Wilson (1987) focused attention on neighborhood-level poverty and on concern with the social isolation that accompanies concentrated poverty in urban neighborhoods. Cut off from adequate resources, opportunities, and role models, residents in such neighborhoods are drawn to antisocial and risk behaviors. Based on these and other theories, Jencks and Mayer (1990) identified five emerging theories or models of how neighborhood context influences individual behavior, namely via...

Management of the Bipolar Patient

A recent survey carried out among members of Fondazione IDEA, an advocacy association based in Italy, indicated that, out of 1130 patients who suffered from mood disorders (25 bipolar) 3-5 years before and were free of symptoms at the moment of the survey, lingering effects of the disease and impaired social functioning were present in 35 of the cases, despite their apparent return to working or professional activities and social interactions. The most severely impaired items were those referring to the relationship with the other or capability to communicate with the other, both at the workplace and within the family. Furthermore, about 20 of the respondents reported they felt stigmatized both within the family and at the workplace or socially. As generally known, a poor or reduced social adjustment is associated with a poor quality of life and a higher risk of relapses 5 .

Research and Good Fathering

Since the 1990s, a new body of research on fatherhood has emerged that goes beyond the simple dichotomy of presence versus absence to a deeper understanding of the multidimensional levels of parental involvement that make a difference in children's development. There is enough evidence to suggest that positive and nurturing parental involvement can make an important contribution to the healthy development of children. In addition to providing economic resources for their children, positively involved fathers can make a difference in their children's lives by providing options, being a good role model, and helping them to negotiate complex social interactions. Children who grow up with in-

Substance P NKi receptor antagonists

Substance Headache

Abstract Stress responses involve changes in hormone secretion, respiration, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal function, and behavior in order to prepare an organism to respond to perceived or actual danger. They are orchestrated by neural circuits including the amygdala, brainstem, and hypothalamus. Substance P is a peptide neurotransmitter that is expressed within these neural pathways and can activate various physiological systems in a manner consistent with an integrated stress response. Preliminary clinical trials using highly selective substance P (NK) receptor) antagonists (SPAs) have shown promising findings in patients with stress-related disorders (major depression, irritable bowel syndrome and social phobia). These observations suggest that substance P in the brain is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and that SPAs may provide a novel approach to pharmacotherapy. Recently, drugs that act by blocking the actions of substance P, a neuropeptide...

Loss of control and binge eating in children and adolescents

IPT targets negative affect by addressing social interactions that are related to mood rather than directly targeting eating behaviors. It is based on the assumption that binge eating occurs in response to poor social functioning, such as isolation and rejection, and consequent negative moods (Wilfley et al. 1997). Interpersonal relationships and social functioning are of vital importance to adolescents (Mufson et al. 2004) and many adolescents use peer relationships as a measure of self-evaluation therefore, they may be more motivated to engage in treatment and prevention programs focusing on social relationships. The group context for IPT-WG is important because members, particularly those with interpersonal deficits, are encouraged to use the group as a social network where they can work on decreasing social isolation while forming new social relationships, which could model such behaviors outside of the therapeutic context (Wilfley et al. 1998). IPT-WG is time-limited and lasts 12...

Assessment Of Depression With Lgb Women And

Patient verbal self-report and written self-report measures are standard in clinical practice. Although standard self-report measures are useful, clinicians need to review their customary forms for heterosexist content. For example some questionnaires ask about social anxiety around people of the opposite sex. The assumption is that heterosocial anxiety will complicate the individual's establishing intimate relationships. However, simply rephrasing the question to ask whether the patient experiences anxiety around someone he she finds romantically attractive assesses the same problem and includes same-sex attractions.

Kay E Segal Sarah E Altman Jessica A Weissman Debra L Safer and Eunice Y Chen

Eating disorderbehaviors are considered quality-of-life-interfering behaviors and are not specifically prioritized among the other quality-of-life targets. In deciding which quality-of-life target to treat, the clinician prioritizes patient problems that are immediate, easily solved, functionally related to higher priority targets such as life-threatening behavior, and that fit the patient's goals. For example, in the case of Mary, her BED and major depression were accompanied by complaints of difficulty maintaining relationships. As she describes, intense social anxiety led to her retreating alone to her apartment for hours. When binge eating was prioritized over social anxiety, her bingeing, anxiety, and depression did not improve and the patient increasingly disengaged from therapy. Frequent assessment via chain analysis throughout the course of treatment is required for determining the relationship between quality-of-life targets and life-threatening behaviors. Chain analysis...

Cant get an erection

Few men bring up this issue with their doctors, and few doctors ask about it. This doesn't mean it's unimportant. The ability to achieve and maintain an erection is frustrating, embarrassing, and distressing to you and your partner. Achieving and maintaining an erection results from the successful interplay of several different physical and psychological processes. One or more of these may be impaired in PD. Thus, anxiety and or depression may result in a loss of a desire to have or think about sex. The desire to have sex or think about sex is called libido. A loss of libido results in impotence. Most men with PD, however, retain their desire for sex, and this coupled with impotence, heightens frustration, results in abstinence, and deepens social isolation.

Personality Revealed through Perception

Abel Feild

A second major area of research reviewed by Witkin and Goodenough (1977) concerns the interpersonal correlates of field independence-dependence. Field-dependen people, as might be predicted, tend to rely on social information and frequently ask other people for their opinions. They are attentive to social cues and, in general, are oriented toward other people. They show a strong interest in others, prefer to be physically close to other people, gravitate to social situations, and get along well with others. Field-independent people, on the other hand, function with more autonomy and display a more impersonal or detached orientation toward others. They are not very interested in others' opinions, keep their distance from others, and show a preference for nonsocial situations.

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Social interactions and patterns of friendship in normal and emotionally disturbed children. In T. Fields (Ed.), Friendships between normal and handicapped children. Norwalk NJ Ablex. Smith, E., & Howes, C. (1994). The effects of parent's presence on children's social interactions in preschool. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9, 45-59.

Capsule History of Psychology

Until the middle of the nineteenth century the nature of the mind was solely the concern of philosophers. Indeed, there are a number of reasons why some have argued that the scientific investigation of the mind may prove to be an impossible undertaking. One objection is that thoughts cannot be measured and without measurement, science cannot even begin. A second objection is to question how humans could objectively study their own thought processes, given the fact that science itself depends on human thinking. A final objection is that our mental life is incredibly complex and bound up with the further complexities of human social interactions perhaps cognition is simply too complex to permit successful scientific investigation.

Promotion Of Remineralization And Reversal Of The Demineralization Process

Sjogren Wound

Artificial salivas are available and are primarily palliative. Some of these products will have additives aimed at stimulating saliva or providing beneficial proteins, enzymes, or ions. Some patients depend on these products extensively. Others find these products not to their taste, and prefer water as a wetting agent. In any case, patients are advised to try different products to determine if there is one that they like. These products are useful to get very dry patients through difficult periods (telephone conversations, going to sleep, and social interactions). Patients are advised to make sure the artificial saliva is applied to the hard palate, buccal mucosa, and inner lips.32

The Building Blocks of Personality Disorders

Traits of personality describe consistencies in behavior , thought, or action and represent meaningful differences between persons, as we described in Chapter 3. Personality disorders can be thought of as maladaptive variations or combinations of normal personality traits. Widiger and colleagues describe how extremes on either end of specific trait dimensions can be associated with personality disorders ( idiger et al., 2002a, 2002b). For example, a person with extremely low levels of trust and extremely high levels of hostility might be disposed to paranoid personality disorder . A person very low on sociability but very high on anxiety might be prone to avoidant personality disorder. A person with the opposite combination extremely high on sociability and low on anxiety might be prone to histrionic personality disorder . Thus, the concept of traits, such as the five-factor model of traits, can be especiall useful for describing personality disorders (T rull & McCrae, 2002).

Personality and Social Interaction

Psychological Facts About Shy People

Shyness and the Selection of Risky Situations These three processes selection, evocation, and manipulation are three key ways in which personality interacts with the social environment. Individuals in everyday life are not exposed to all possible social situations individuals with certain personality dispositions seek out and avoid social situations selectively . Personality also influences how we evoke di ferent reactions from other people and how others, in turn, evoke dif ferent responses from us, sometimes quite unintentionally . And personality affects how we purposefully influence, change, exploit, and manipulat the others with whom we have chosen to be associated. Among these three processes, selection is the first, since it determines the people to whom we are exposed Shyness and the Selection of Risky Situations Although mate selection provides a dramatic example of the ef fects of personality on social choices, several other domains of selection have also been explored by...

Marney A White and Loren M Gianini

On average, adults with BED report higher depression, lower quality of life, and lower self-esteem than NBO adults (de Zwaan et al. 2002 Isnard et al. 2003). Much like Jamie, they may feel depressed about their eating, shape, and repeated failed attempts to lose weight. In general, patients with BED tend to be more concerned with rejection and feeling unworthy as compared to NBO (Nauta et al. 2000). Additionally, binge eating obese adults have higher rates of Axis I comorbid psychopathology than NBO (Fontenelle et al. 2003). In particular, they are more likely to suffer from major depression, and, to a lesser extent, anxiety disorders (Fowler and Bulik 1997). In terms of Axis II diagnoses, some evidence suggests that people with BED have significantly higher rates of all personality disorder diagnoses, particularly borderline personality disorder and avoidant personality disorder (Telch and Stice 1998 Yanovski et al. 1993).

The Social and Cultural Domain

We will describe three key processes whereby personality affects social interactions. The first process is through selec tion, in which people may choose specifi social environments according to their personalities. An example of this is assor-tative mating, where people look for specific kinds of people to marr , often people who have similar personality traits. A second process whereby personality affects social interactions is through the reactions we evoke in others. For example, in ar guments between married couples, there are specific ways that men tend to up set their wives, and other ways in which women tend to upset their husbands. We will examine how people evoke distress, as well as positive feelings, in others. A fina process whereby personality affects social interactions is through manipulations for influencing others. What are the strategies that people use to get what they want from others How do people go about influenc ing others We will discuss research on...

Dimensional Model of Personality Disorders

Widiger (1997) ar gues that disorders simply are maladaptive variants and combinations of normal-range personality traits. The personality traits most studied as sources of disorders are the five traits of the five-factor model, which we reviewed in Cha ter 3. Costa and Widiger (1994) edited an influential book supporting the idea tha the Big Five traits provide a useful framework for understanding disorders. Widiger (1997) presents data ar guing that, for example, borderline personality disorder is extreme narcissism, and schizoid disorder is extreme introversion accompanied by low neuroticism (emotional stability). Extreme introversion accompanied by extremely high neuroticism, on the other hand, results in avoidant personality disorder . Histrionic disorder is characterized as extreme extraversion. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a maladaptive form of extreme conscientiousness. Schizotypal personality disorder is a complex combination of introversion, high neuroticism, low...

Closer Look The Six Myths of Self Esteem

After crushing these myths about self-esteem, we can ask the question So, what good is self-esteem As described elsewhere in this chapter, self-esteem improves persistence in the face of failure. Persons high in self-esteem perform better in groups than those with low self-esteem. Also, having a poor self-image is a risk factor for developing certain eating disorders, especially bulimia. Low self-esteem is also related to depression, and high self-esteem is related to happiness. High self-esteem also is related to social confidence and taking the initiative in making new friends. It is most likely the case that successes in academics, in the interpersonal domain or in one's career, lead to both happiness and to self-esteem. Consequently, efforts to artificially boost children's self-esteem (through unconditional praise, for example) might fail. Rather we should encourage and praise children when they put effort into learning or achieving the skills necessary to succeed in the various...

Development of the Self Concept

A final unfolding of the self-concept, during th teen years, involves perspective taking the ability to take the perspectives of others, or to see oneself as others do, to step outside of oneself and imagine how one appears to other people. This is why many teenagers go through a period of extreme self-consciousness during this time, focusing much of their energy on how they appear to others. You might vividly recall this period of your life, the strong emotions involved in episodes of objective self-awareness, of seeing oneself as an object of others' attention. Remember going to gym class in your funny gym uniform, or that first trip to the beach in your new swim ming suit Often, objective self-awareness is experienced as shyness, and for some people this is a chronic problem.

Promotion of Mistrust

Ance of cross-race peers and with their reports of negative intergroup social interactions. Others have found negative consequences as well (Biafora et al., 1993 Rumbaut, 1994 Smith, Atkins, & Connell, 2003). Thus, racial ethnic socialization messages that promote racial mistrust may prompt youth to withdraw from activities that are essential for access to opportunity and reward structures of the dominant society (Biafora et al., 1993). Moreover, they may motivate youth to engage in activities that deviate from accepted norms.

Kathleen K Bucholz Revised by Rebecca J Frey

Different constellations of anxious mood, physical symptoms, thoughts, and behaviors, when maladaptive, constitute various anxiety disorders. Panic disorder is characterized by brief, recurrent, anxiety attacks during which individuals fear death or losing their mind and experience intense physical symptoms. People with obsessive compulsive disorder experience persistent thoughts that they perceive as being senseless and distressing (obsessions) and that they attempt to neutralize by performing repetitive, stereotyped behaviors (compulsions). The essential feature of phobic disorders (e.g., agoraphobia, social phobia, simple phobia) is a persistent fear of one or more situations or objects that leads the individual to either avoid the situations or objects or endure exposure to them with great anxiety. Generalized anxiety disorder is diagnosed in individuals who persistently and excessively worry about several of their life circumstances and experience motor tension and physiologic...

Brillat Savarin Jean Anthelme 17551826

In his chapters on obesity and dieting, Brillat-Savarin positions himself as a lay expert. For him, obesity is a disease that makes the beautiful ugly, the strong weak, the intelligent dumb. It produces a distaste for dance, that most civilized of social interactions, creates the context for diseases such as apoplexy, dropsy, ulcers in the legs, and makes all diseases difficult to cure. Thus, no obesity is found among that class of persons who eat to live, instead of living to eat. But, it takes real courage either to lose weight or to keep from gaining it (Brillat-Savarin 1999 195). His approach is to avoid excess and the need to balance all qualities of food. Discretion in eating, moderation in sleeping, and exercise on foot or horseback, is his dieting course (Brillat-Savarin 1999 195). Yet, he recognizes that such a simple prescription is almost always met with objections by those who need to undertake it. Diet is the most important, for it acts without cease day and night...

Physiological Approach to Personality

Most physiological personality psychologists today do not focus on global variables, such as gross body type. Instead, the majority of researchers in this area use measures of distinct physiological systems, such as heart rate or brain waves. The typical research question posed by contemporary psychologists concerns whether some people will exhibit more or less of a specific physiological response than others unde certain conditions. For example, are shy people likely to show a higher level of anxiety, as exemplified by la ge increases in heart rate, when called on to perform a difficult task in front of an audience, compared with persons who are not shy Notic that this question involves the specific conditions (audience) under which a specif personality characteristic (shyness) will produce a specific psychological respons (anxiety), which will show up in a specific physiological indicator (heart rate). These connections are depicted in Figure 7.1.

Bronchopneumonia See pneumonia

Certain personality characteristics seem to be associated with bulimia, including a fear of losing control, inflexible thinking, perfectionism, dissatisfaction with body shape, and an overwhelming desire to be thin. Bulimia has also been linked to mood disturbances such as depression or social anxiety.

Learning and Forgetting at School

Frankie's situation was becoming desperate. His parents came to see me, hoping I could find a way to improve his behavior and his learning at school. To teach him at home would mean depriving him of the opportunity to interact with other children and so perhaps improve his social interactions. Frankie had enjoyed his first school years and had made some friends who came to the house to play and invited him to their birthday parties in return. The more time Frankie spent with other children, the less he seemed to pursue his eccentric interests at home. Now he wanted to play with other children, not just on his own. His parents thought this positive change was a product of their determination that he go to the local school rather than to a special school for children with autism. But now he was clearly unhappy in school he was bored and uninterested in the regular school subjects and was interested only in flags. He was making little progress in reading and arithmetic. He showed no...

Marion K Underwood Lara Mayeux Mikal Galperin

Emotion regulation is the ability to manage one's subjective experience of emotion, especially its intensity and duration, and to manage strategically one's expression of emotion in communicative contexts (Saarni, 1999, p. 200). Individual differences in emotional reactivity and emotion management relate to many dimensions of social functioning empathic responding, prosocial behavior, shyness, and externalizing behavior problems (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1999). Children's capacity to control strong feelings in relationships with other children is particularly fascinating because these relationships are horizontal in that they require negotiation among individuals who are approximately similar in age and status (Hartup, 1989), authority figures are not present to provide structure, and children in close relationships frequently construct their own frameworks for social interaction (Laursen, Hartup, & Koplas, 1996). Other research and theory suggests that not only are these children...

Interpersonal Interventions

They took the approach of adapting Interpersonal Therapy (IPT 44 ) for depression to bipolar disorder and adding elements to stabilize the pattern or rhythm of social interactions. The second interpersonal approach has focused on the potential therapeutic impact of interpersonal group therapy interventions for individuals with bipolar disorder. Although some authors have cautioned about the negative impact of group interventions on such patients (e.g., 45 ), or about the negative impact of patients with bipolar disorder on groups (e.g., 46 ), others have utilized primarily interpersonal here-and-now approaches in group format to address interpersonal difficulties (e.g., 47-49 ). In addition, others have addressed interpersonal issues of stigma and social isolation by incorporating interpersonal elements into psychoeducational groups (e.g., 50, 51 ).

Recognizing Order and Following Rules

People with AS-HFA often navigate the world by forming explicit rules or recognizing patterns about how things work, the ways people interact, and how events typically unfold. Parents are often amazed by their child's ability to analyze information and extract a set of patterns or rules by which something operates. One adolescent girl with AS-HFA commented that she noticed that one of the authors (G.D.) preferred clothing with horizontal stripes, whereas a coworker preferred clothing with vertical stripes. In fact, neither of us had consciously noticed that we had this preference, but when we mentally reviewed our wardrobes we had to admit that she was right. While we don't know exactly what facility enables people with AS-HFA to see certain patterns in behavior and conduct, we do know that this ability can compensate for the lack of natural intuition about social situations associated with AS-HFA. Rules, patterns, laws, and principles can help a person who lacks common sense about...

Acidum Nitricum For Heartburn

Acidum phosphoricum (Phosphoric ac.) 71 Aconitum napellus (Aconite) 32 anaphylactic shock 206, 272 Arnica montana (Arnica) 37 Papaver somniferum (Opium) 60 shoulder pain 47 shyness 83 subsp. nigricans Smilax medica see Smilax officinalis Smilax officinalis (Sarsaparilla) 166, 306 Smilax ornata Smilax regelii see Smilax officinalis snake bites, first aid 272 sneezewort see Arnica montana social phobias 211 soda ash see Natrum carbonicum sodium arsenate see Natrum arsenicum sodium carbonate see Natrum carbonicum sodium chloride see Natrum chloratum sodium fluoride see Natrum fluoricum sodium phosphate see Natrum phosphoricum sodium sulfate see Natrum sulphuricum sodium tetraborate see Natrum tetraboracicum Solanum dulcamara (Dulcamara) 62,

The Turn to Language Structuralist and Poststructuralist Approaches

As for gender, the discourses of primary school mathematics teaching and 'child-centred pedagogy' (Walkerdine 1984) tend to view as laudable 'active learning', 'breaking set' and so on, and to view as pathological 'rote-learning' and rule-following. But these ideas are 'gendered'. Girls tend to be positioned in the social interactions of the classroom as neat, helpful, hard-working and well-behaved, and then their production of behaviour consistent with such 'characteristics' tends to be read as evidence of their passivity. In contrast, boys' naughtiness and restlessness in the classroom is seen as testifying to their 'potential', 'mathematical flair' and so on (Walkerdine et al. 1989). We can note that many of the adjectives used in these gender 'stereotypes' purport to be descriptive, but they can be seen as producing meaning, and hence performance Thus discourses can be seen not simply as 'representative' of reality, but rather as productive of it.

Reflectivity and Impulsivity

It is important to note that correlational studies have been conducted on any relationship between intelligence and each of the three cognitive styles. There is consistent data indicating no direct relationship exists between cognitive styles and intelligence. Nevertheless, an individual's ability to acquire knowledge on an equal plane with peers, or to demonstrate his or her knowledge in specific social or academic settings, may be affected by cognitive styles. Through early childhood development, continued success or frequent difficulties in these abilities could affect personality and social interactions.

Peer Support In Hospital Settings

Support networks for young people with chronic illness (21). ChlPS is a generic program recognizing that young people with any chronic illness face many similar psychosocial issues irrespective of illness type. Initially the program begins with an eight- week group for eight- young people with a variety of diagnoses. The group is run by a health professional and a trained peer leader and during these sessions they are able to discuss what it's like to live with a chronic illness. As a follow-up from this program, an ongoing social and recreational timetable is planned by participants. Activities include movie nights and newsletter production. A leadership training program is also offered to graduates of the program who then become co-facilitators and leaders of other activities. A qualitative evaluation study of the ChIPS program reported a positive impact on well being of young people with a reduction in social isolation, an improved acceptance of illness and improved adherence to...

How Does Bipolar Disorder Impact Children

Youth with bipolar disorder may also experience difficulty with peer relationships, including social isolation, teasing, and frequent conflict with other children. If they exhibit impulsive or aggressive behaviors, they may have difficulty making or sustaining friendships. Children and adolescents may miss social cues or misinterpret the intentions of others (e.g., thinking that other children are being mean when they are not) and may feel very anxious about interacting with others. They may also feel emotionally overwhelmed by social demands and may avoid or withdraw from peers.

Jos Verbeek and Evelien Spelten

Being able to return to work and to stay at work is important, both for society and for the individual. From a societal point of view it is important to reduce avoidable work incapacity. Economic loss is involved in unnecessary work cessation. From an individual's point of view, not being able to return to work following an illness frequently results in financial loss, social isolation, and reduced self-esteem. This financial loss is additional to the increased financial costs patients already endure due to their illness.

Conceptualization Of Depression In Older Adults

Late Life Depression Elderly

Depression in older adults can vary considerably across persons in terms of presentation and etiology. Between 1 and 4 of older adults experience major depression (Waraich, Goldner, Somers, & Hsu, 2004), with 40 of depression in older adults representing a recurrent episode, with the first episode having occurred in young adulthood, and 30 being the very first episode of depression ever (late-onset depression Blazer, 2003). For many years, researchers felt that depression was an understandable consequence of aging, because older adults are exposed to so many risk factors associated with the onset of depression. It is not uncommon for older adults to complain about sadness related to bereavement, social isolation, caregiver strain, and financial problems all salient psychosocial risk factors for depression

Harlow Harry 19051981

Baby monkeys without playmates or real mothers behaved in socially incompetent ways. Six months of social isolation rendered the animals permanently inadequate socially. Infant-infant play was slower for cloth-mother-reared infants, who caught up in about a year. Sexual behaviors were abnormal for the surro-

Confidence and Social Supremacy

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