Natural Soap-Making Workshop
It is time for global society to accept bacteria as normal, generally useful components of the living world and to refrain from trying to eliminate them except when they give rise to disease. To prevent or reverse the problem of antibiotic resistance, society must recognize that most bacteria are a natural and needed part of life on this planet. The antimicrobial agents affect the good as well as the bad bacteria 55 . In addition to physician education and other interventions to promote appropriate use of antimicrobial agents, consumers need to be educated 56 . They must stop demanding antibiotics for themselves and their children based on self-diagnosis and previous experiences. They should use antibiotics for the intended purpose only and complete a full course in spite of improvement in their symptoms. When members of the public save antibiotics from a current prescription for later use, disastrous outcomes can result. Meats and eggs should be well cooked and fresh vegetables...
China and India are currently the world's largest producers of sesame, followed by Burma, Sudan, Mexico, Nigeria, Venezuela, Turkey, Uganda, and Ethiopia. The total global production of sesame seeds is around 3 million tonnes annually, although the export market is dominated by China and India. Sesame seeds are used in baking, candy-making, and other food industries. Sesame seed oil is used for a number of purposes, including cooking and salad oils, and margarine, and for making soaps, pharmaceuticals, paints, exotic perfumes, cosmetics,
Sachets are made of dried flowers and are placed in loosely woven cloth so that the fragrance can be smelled. They are used in bathrooms and bedrooms (e.g., in bedding) to provide pleasant smells, and in linen closets to repel moths that destroy wool and other cloth garments. Dried rose (Rosa spp.) petals are often used in sachets to provide pleasant aromas. Dried lavendar (Lavandula offici-nalis) flowers have essential oils that not only smell nice and clean (hence, their use in soaps and perfumes), but also, destroy bacteria that cause tuberculosis and typhoid fever.24
Antiseptic A germicide used for human skin or tissue (not inanimate objects) that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. It will weaken microbes but does not usually kill them. Health-care antiseptics in soaps or other products help prevent the spread of infection in medical facilities. Antiseptics include alcohol (ethanol or isopropanol), iodine (iodophor), povidone-iodine (Betadine), hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, or hexachlorophene (Phisohex).
Studies have confirmed the potential of okra seed (dried seed) as a good source of oil and protein for both the temperate regions and the tropics (Adelakun et al., 2009a). The seed coat fraction, as reported by Oyelade et al. (2003), was found to have a protein content of about 20 , while the defatted fraction was 55 . The protein content in the whole seed flour fractions was as high as 45 for all the five cultivars studied (UI4-30, VI-104, LD-88, 47-4, and V-35). Also, when the endosperm was ground and defatted, the protein content was 55 . The fat content in the seed coat was 11 , in the endosperm was 34 , and in whole seed was 22 . Andras et al., (2005) reported on okra seed from Greece as a potential source of oil, with concentrations varying from 15.9 to 20.7 . The seed oil mainly consisted of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (up to 47.4 ). This seed oil also represents a potential source of palmitic acid, a chemical imported into the European Community, and an...
The ajowan oleoresin prepared from seeds gives a warm, aromatic and pleasing flavour to food products. The ajowan oleoresins are used in processed foods, snacks, sauces and various vegetable preparations. According to Pruthi (2001), by treating ajowan oil with aqueous alkaline solution, thymol can be extracted from it with ether or steam distillation. Both are used in the medicine pharmaceutical industries. Indian standards have been laid by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for thymol, dethymolized oil or thymene production for industrial purposes. Fatty oils produced from ajowan seed, have their use in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Fatty oils are mainly used in soap industry for flavouring and as deodorant. They are also used for perfuming disinfectant soaps and as an insecticide. Thymol isolated from the oil is a powerful antiseptic and an ingredient in a
Because contamination of foods by hands is the common denominator for many cases of foodborne viral contamination, we describe it in its own section. Hand contamination may be addressed by regular hand-washing practices, but hand disinfectants may also help. Several studies have examined the effect of hand disinfectants on the inactivation of enteric viruses (reviewed in Richards,6 and D'Souza et al.46). In general, alcohol and chlorhexidine gluconate-based hand disinfectants are not effective at reducing the levels of foodborne viruses.80 Hand-washing with soap reduces levels of viruses but does not always eliminate them. A survey of several soaps found that soaps with Triclosan, a chlorophenol, were most effective at reducing hepatitis A virus levels.80 Additional work is needed in this area to identify effective hand sanitizers against hepatitis A virus, norovirus, and other foodborne viruses. An example of an outbreak caused by contamination by hands is provided in Case study 14.3.
Prevention Cleanliness and prompt attention to skin injury can help prevent impetigo. Impetigo patients and their families should bathe regularly with antibacterial soaps and apply topical antibiotics to insect bites, cuts, abrasions, and infected lesions immediately. Impetigo in infants is especially contagious and serious. To prevent spreading, pillowcases, towels, and washcloths shouldn't be shared and should be washed with antibacterial soaps and chlorine bleach.
This brings up again an idea proposed a longer time ago, according to which the divalent cation calcium prevents the intestinal absorption of part of the dietary fat and increases faecal lipid loss and sterol excretion forming insoluble fatty acid soaps and bile salts (Denke et al., 1993, Drenick, 1961, Vaskonen et al., 2001, 2002, Vaskonen 2003, Welberg et al., 1994). By the same mechanism calcium may enhance a cholesterol-lowering effect of other food components, e.g. plant sterols (Vaskonen et al., 2001). The extent of this effect increased with an increasing proportion of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet, whereby, with Western eating habits, the energy excretion with fat is probably around 1 and 3 of the daily energy supply, i.e. around 30 and 90 kcal day. In a study by Shahkhalalili and co-workers (2001) calcium fortification of chocolate doubled calcium ingestion from 950 to 1855 mg day and increased faecal fat excretion by 36 kcal day (4.04 g day). This effect seems...
In addition, the contribution of the different mechanisms (i.e. the Zemel mechanism versus the formation of calcium soaps) to the overall calcium effect is not clear, although answering this question may be of a certain relevance for the development of calcium supplements and calcium-fortified food. The use of highly water-soluble complex calcium salts and the addition of caseinophosphopeptides improves calcium bioavaila-bility, increases calcium absorption and thus promotes lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and increased loss of lipids from adipocytes according to Zemel's hypothesis, while the formation of calcium soaps and thus the intestinal fat excretion would be reduced.
In the following sections the question will be addressed as to whether a role for calcium in weight control is substantiated by facts gained from epidemiological studies and the results of in vitro, animal and human intervention studies, showing either a positive role for calcium in lipid metabolism and weight control, or no effect at all. In order to understand these effects, the role of calcium in the regulation of energy metabolism is to be examined. This comprises effects on cellular energy metabolism (the Zemel hypothesis) and the reduction of energy intake by the formation of poorly absorbable calcium soaps and a potential calcium effect on appetite.
Besides Zemel's hypothesis, that decreased intracellular calcium levels brought about by increased dietary calcium would promote lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and the reduction of intracellular fat depots in adipose tissue, two other mechanisms have been suggested as explanations of an anti-obesity effect increased faecal lipid loss due to the formation of calcium soaps in the intestine as well as a decreased or later food intake after a previous calcium-rich meal. The contribution, however, of the different mechanisms to the overall calcium effect is unclear, although it is of critical importance to decide whether calcium intake should be increased by consuming highly water-soluble complex calcium salts and the addition of caseinophosphopeptides. Due to their high bioavailability, these complex calcium compounds, like calcium lactate gluconate, indeed support the Zemel mechanism, but it needs to be elucidated whether they also play a role in the formation of calcium soaps and thus...
Coconut can be a food allergen (Fries & Fries, 1983). It is a top-five food allergy in India, where coconut is a common food source (Teuber & Peterson, 1999). On the other hand, food allergies to coconut are considered rare in Australia, the UK, and the USA. As a result, commercial extracts of coconut are not currently available for skin-prick testing in Australia or New Zealand. Coconut-derived products can cause contact dermatitis (de Groot etal., 1987). They can be present in cosmetics, including some shampoos, moisturizers, soaps, cleansers, and handwashing liquids (Pinola et al., 1993).
Skin, care of Skin must be cleansed daily to remove the dirt and grease, bacteria, and odor. Soaps are the products used for these purposes. There are differences in the types of soaps that may be used on the skin, and they differ in outward appearance, fragrance, cost, and composition. For example, superfatted soaps contain excess fatty material and leave an oil residue on the skin, which is designed to improve mildness. Transparent soaps contain glycerin and varied amounts of vegetable fats. other soaps may be produced for specific purposes, such as oatmeal soap for skin that tends to break out. The choice of a proper soap demands on the child's age, skin texture, skin problems, and personal needs. All soaps are good at cleansing, but because of age, heredity, climate, and skin texture, there are many different methods of proper skin cleansing.
When saturated fatty acids are ingested along with fats containing appreciable amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, they are absorbed almost completely by the small intestine. In general, the longer the chain length of the fatty acid, the lower will be the efficiency of absorption. However, unsaturated fatty acids are well absorbed regardless of chain length. Studies with human infants have shown the absorption to be 75, 62, 92, and 94 percent of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, respectively, from vegetable oils (Jensen et al., 1986). The absorption of palmitic acid and stearic acid from human milk is higher than from cow milk and vegetable oils (which are commonly used in infant formulas) because of the specific positioning of these long-chain saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position of milk triacylglycerols (Carnielli et al., 1996a Jensen, 1999). The intestinal absorption of palmitic acid and stearic acid from vegetable oils was 75 to 78...
Dill is used primarily as a condiment. Dried fruits (seeds) are used in pickles, soups, spiced beets, fish, and fish sauces, with eggs, and in potato salads. Roasted fruits serve as a coffee substitute. Hot fruit extracts are used to make jams and liqueurs the dill oil is also used in liqueurs. Fresh leaves are used in salads, with cottage cheese, cream cheese, steaks, chops, avocado, cauliflower, green beans, squash, tomatoes, and tomato soup, zucchini, and shrimp. Dried leaves, known as dill weed, are also used to season various foods. Ethiopians use tender plant parts, dried fruits, and flowers in flavorings, especially alcoholic beverages. Oil from the seed is used chiefly as a scent in soaps and perfumes, and in the pickle industry. Weed oil, from the aboveground parts of the plant, is used in the food industry because of its characteristic dill herb smell and flavor (FAC, TAN). Chew 1 2-1 tsp seed (APA) 2 tsp crushed seed cup water (APA) 1 g seed (HHB) 3 g seed (KOM PHR) 0.1-0.3...
A glycerin-and-water mixture is used because, in addition to having good electrical properties, it is well-suited to tissue contact. Glycerin is a common ingredient of soaps, hand creams, and many foods is inexpensive does not cause any known skin irritations is environmentally innocuous and does not support bacterial growth (a significant concern in the clinical setting 4 ).
In Europe and Asia, the oil is usually extracted in three stages. The first pressing is made cold. The oil contained is of very good quality and high grade. It has a light colour and agreeable taste and odour. The second pressing is made of the heated residue, which is subjected to a high pressure. The oil obtained is coloured and is refined before being used for edible purposes. The residue is used for the third extraction under the same conditions as for the second. The oil obtained from the third extraction is of inferior quality, not suitable for human consumption and is generally used for the manufacture of soaps.
Sun sensitivity A toxic skin reaction to the sun that can be caused by a variety of substances, such as some prescription medications and consumer products, as well as some physical disorders. it often occurs because a substance (called a photo-sensitizer ) has been ingested or applied to the skin examples of these photosensitizers include certain drugs, dyes, chemicals in perfumes and soaps, and plants such as buttercups, parsnips, and Sun sensitivity can also be triggered by the coal tars in some medicated soaps and shampoos, or the oil of bergamot in certain perfumes, toilet soaps, lemons, and limes. Topical photosensitizers can be found in cosmetics, face creams, perfumes, and aftershave lotions. in addition, plants such as celery, wild carrots, limes, and meadow grass contain photosensitizing compounds. industrial contaminants and air pollutants such as tars and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are also potent photosensitizers.
Leaves are used in flavouring soups, salads, casseroles and stews because of their pungent, celery-like flavour. The stems are used for candied products. Roots are peeled and cooked as a vegetable. Powdered root is sometimes used as a spice. The volatile oil extracted from the roots is highly valued for use in perfumery, soaps and creams, and it has been used for flavouring tobacco products. The seeds and seed oil are used for flavouring agents in confectionery and liqueurs.
Rickets and osteomalacia A deficiency of either calcium or vitamin D can produce these bone disorders. (See Vitamin D monograph for further information.) Infants The percentage and type of fats within an infant formula and their ability to bind calcium salts and increase excretion has been shown to influence the bone mineral content (BMC) of infants. One hundred 8-week-old infants given formulas considered to be more similar to breastmilk and less likely to form calcium soaps in the gut showed increased BMC after only 1 month's treatment compared with those infants on standard formula (Kennedy et al 1999).
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