References

M. (2003). Sleep as restitution an introduction. J Intern Med, Vol.254, No.1, pp. 6-12 Arias, F. Rodriquez, L. Rayne, SC. Kraus, FT. (1993). Maternal placental vasculopathy and infection two distinct subgroups among patients with preterm labor and preterm ruptured membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol, Vol.168, pp. 585-591 Ategbo, J.M. Grissa, O. Yessoufou, A., Hichami, A, Dramane, KL, Moutairou, K, Miled, A, Grissa, A, Jerbi, M, Tabka, Z, Khan, NA. (2006). Modulation of...

Daytime sleepiness fall asleep and driving performance Bttner 2001 2009

The ability to drive safely and without accident needs sustained attention and alertness (Guilleminault et al. 1978, Bradley et al. 1985, Podszus et al. 1986, Findley et al. 1988a b, 1989b, 1990, 1991, 1995, He et al. 1988, Mitler et al. 1988, Lamphere et al. 1989, Roehrs et al. 1989, Bedard et al. 1991, Cassel et al. 1991a b, 1993, 1996, Kribbs et al. 1993a b, ATS 1994, Martin et al. 1996, Gerdesmeyer et al. 1997, Krieger et al. 1997, Randerath et al. 1997, 1998, Wee 1997, Wee et al. 1998a b)....

Sleep nasendoscopy

Sleep nasendoscopy (SNE) which is also known as drug induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) was pioneered at our institute.13 The beauty of this technique lies in the fact that it allows a three dimensional visualisation of the upper airway during sleep albeit drug induced. This assessment is carried out in an operating theatre setting with the help of an anaesthetist who provides sedation to the patient and closely monitors the patients cardiovascular and respiratory parameters. The sedative agents...

Sleepdisordered breathing SDB in patients with ischemic stroke

2.1 Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as a risk factor for ischemic stroke The first controlled study of sleep related breathing disorders in cerebrovascular diseases were carried out in the 80s. They concerned the snoring as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. The first studies were published by a group of Palomaki (Partinen et al, 1985). They compared the incidence of snoring in 50 men with ischemic stroke with a control group. The study was retrospective with use of a standardized...

Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system and SDB 41 Alzheimer disease

Searching for links between Alzheimer's disease and sleep-disordered breathing has already started in the eighties. Cognitive deficits observed in individuals with SDB was seen as a preliminary stage in the development of dementia. Cognitive deficits in individuals with impaired respiratory function were found on both verbal, spatial and executive functions as well as short-term memory (Naegele, 1995 Alchanatis, 2005). A number of pathomechanisms may contribute to cognitive impairment in...

ADHD and sleep

Sleep disturbance is by far one of the most reported problems (> 80 ) especially by parents and care-takers, who commonly recount restless, inadequate and often delayed and or fragmented sleep in their children. A clear distinction, however, needs to be drawn between subjective and objective sleep reports and, with respect to the latter, actigraphyc versus video-polysomnographic (vPSG) studies present a palpable difference in terms of method and quality of data accessed. Several metanalytic...

Conclusion

A lack of sleep is known to affect both our physical and mental health. The few studies that have investigated sleep in pregnancy have found both an increase in total sleep time and an increase in daytime sleepiness in the first trimester whereas the third trimester appears to be associated with a decrease in sleep time and an increase in the number of awakenings. Sleep has an important impact on maternal and foetal health. It has been associated with an increased duration and pain perception...

Discussion

Deranged circadian rhythms have been well recognized in jet lag. In this condition, one may have symptoms, and i.e. dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, sleep awake rhythm, mental and physical activity. We presume that those patients with sleep disturbance suffered from an atypical but continuous jet lag condition in their daily life. The international classification of sleep disorders (ICSD) was revised as a new sleep disorder nosology by the Association of Sleep Disorders Center in...

Multiple Sleep Latency Test MSLT

The Multiple Sleep Latency Test by Carskadon and Dement (1977) recorded the sleep latency lying down and is recommended for the investigation of daytime sleepiness in OSAS patients in the ICSD-2. The MSLT is based on the assumption that a strong physiological sleepiness can reduce the sleep latency (Arand et al. 2005). For a long time the MSLT has been considered a gold standard for the investigation of daytime sleepiness (Carskadon et al. 1986). The MSLT (as well as the Maintenance of...

Symptoms

Although OSAS and UARS share common symptoms, in most cases the clinical manifestations are different (Stoohs 2008). The most common symptoms of SAHS patients include chronic loud snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, personality changes, depression and deterioration of quality of life (Pichel 2004). Hypersomnolence is the principal daytime manifestation of sleep disordered breathing. Excessive sleepiness resulting from increased breathing effort and sleep disruption is the guide symptom of...

MSLT and MWT criticism

Although MWT and MSLT are often used in practice, since years there is the assumption that its operationalization does not correspond to the tonic activation. Johns (1998) excludes that the MSLT is suitable as a predictor of daytime sleepiness in everyday situations, regardless how strict are implementation and evaluation standards. Although have the sleep latency on both tests satisfactory correlations as Sangal and colleagues (1992, 1997a) showed in subjects with various sleep disorders (r...

Sleepdisordered breathing disorders in neurological diseases

Respiratory disorders in patients with neurological diseases may be a result of damage to different parts of the respiratory rhythm generator and controlling structures responsible for generation of respiratory movements (neuromuscular disorders). Vascular damage to the respiratory center may lead to central respiratory disturbances. Neurodegenerative disease can damage the respiratory center (Cormican, 2004), as well as demyelinating lesions (Auer, 1996) located within the respiratory center....

Other parasomnias

Ten disorders are classified under this category (Table 1). The most common are sleep bruxism, sleep enuresis, and primary snoring. Sleep bruxism is the third most common parasomnia and it can be bothersome to the bed partner. Bruxism is not a dangerous disorder. However, it can cause permanent damage to the teeth and uncomfortable jaw pain, headaches, or ear pain. Approximately 8.2 of people experience it at least once a week. Sleep apnea and anxiety disorders are the most prominent risk...

RLS and other neurologic disorders

Peripheral neuropathy has also been associated with RLS. A recent case-control study (Hattan E et al 2009) in a Quebec population examined 245 patients with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy and 245 age and gender matched controls. The authors considered a positive response to three of the four essential criteria to be 'screen-positive'. All 'screen-positive' patients were subsequently evaluated by a blinded movement disorders specialist. Of the 245 peripheral neuropathy patients, 26.5 were...

Differential diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder

RBD is a relatively rare condition and is largely unknown to most physicians (see above 2), therefore it is often misdiagnosed and mistreated. The differential diagnosis of recurrent dream enactment behavior includes NREM parasomnia, nocturnal panic attacks, nocturnal seizures, nightmares, nocturnal wandering associated with dementia, and OSAS (Boeve, 2010a). A complaint of nocturnal disruptive behaviors is the major clinical feature of several other conditions, such as primary and secondary...

Mayo sleep questionnaire

RBD is a parasomnia that can develop in otherwise neurologically-normal adults as well as in those with a neurodegenerative disease. Confirmation of RBD requires PSG. A simple screening measure for RBD is desirable for clinical and research purposes. Boeve et al. developed the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ), a 16-item measure to screen for the presence of RBD, periodic legs movement disorder (PLMD), restless legs syndrome (RLS), sleepwalking, OSAS and sleep-related leg cramps (Boeve, 2010a...

Intech

Free online editions of InTech Books and Journals can be found at www.intechopen.com Sleep and Pregnancy Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Disturbed Breathing and Sleep Disorders in Pregnancy 1 Michelle A. Miller, Manisha Ahuja and Francesco P. Cappuccio Adolescents with Sleep Disturbance Causes and Diagnosis 21 Sleep Disorders Diagnosis and Management in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD 31 Elemental Mercury Exposure and Sleep Disorder 47 Alfred Bogomir Kobal and Darja Kobal...