Hmp

Hypericin

Isomallotochromanol and isomallotochromene Luteolin

Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid

Panduratin A

Pycnogenol

Rhein

Rocaglamides Sanggenon C Sphondin Silymarin Saucerneols

Sauchinone and Manassantins Wedelolactone Yakuchinones A and B Benzopyrene

Rotenone Chlorophyll catabolite Pheophorbide A Iridoid glycoside Aucubin Others a-Lipoic acid Astaxanthin Germinated barley S-allylcysteine Vitamin C Vitamin E

Terpenes Andalusol

Anethol and analogs

Artemisinin

Avicins

Betulinic acid

Celastrol

Costunolide

Ergolide

Excisanin A

Foliol

Germacranolides

Ginkgo biola ext.

Ginsenoside Rg3

Guaianolides

Helenalin

Hypoestoxide

Kamebacetal A

Kamebakaurin

Kaurenic acid

Linearol

Oleandrin

Oxoacanthospermoldes Parthenolide Pristimerin Triptolide (PG 490) Ursolic acid Alkaloids Cepharanthine Conophylline Morphine and its analogs Tetrandine Sinomenine A Benz[a]phenazine Lapachone

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester CAPE Phenolics Ethyl gallate Saponin

Calagualine Stilbene Resveratrol and analogues

10.8 Conclusions

Extensive research in the last few years has clearly proven that TNF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and thus is involved in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. Suppression of TNF is a double-edged sword. While unquestionably TNF plays a critical role in inflammation, suppression of TNF will mitigate both its beneficial and its harmful effects. These studies show that safer modulators of TNF are needed.

Acknowledgements. Supported by the Clayton Foundation for Research (to BBA), Department of Defense US Army Breast Cancer Research Program grant (BC010610, to BBA), a PO1 grant (CA91844) from the National Institutes of Health on lung cancer chemoprevention (to BBA), a P50 Head and Neck Cancer SPORE grant from the National Institutes of Health (to BBA), and Cancer Center Core Grant CA 16672. We thank Mr. Walter Pagel for careful reading of the manuscript and providing valuable comments.

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