Self-Efficacy and Health Behaviours

Strong and Confident You

Strong and Confident You

Within this audio series and guide Strong And Confident You you will learn everything you are needing to know about Hypnotherapy To Release Your Inner Strength And Confidence.

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Selfesteem Social Comparison And Response To Personal Cues

After viewing their assigned picture set, the women responded to a self-esteem scale and a body satisfaction measure and provided an open-ended description of their feelings while viewing the pictures. Finally, they responded to a paper-and-pencil version of the expression manipulation procedure to determine the level of their response to personal cues. The women who were less responsive to personal cues apparently identified with the women in the pictures. When the women who were less responsive to personal cues viewed the superslender models, they reported higher self-esteem, higher body satisfaction, and more positive emotional reactions than did those who viewed the normal-weight women. The exact opposite occurred among the women who were more responsive to personal cues. They reported significantly lower self-esteem, lower body satisfaction, and more negative emotions if they viewed the pictures of su-perslender models. In sum, two studies have demonstrated changes in self-esteem...

Evaluative Component of the Self Self Esteem

The first glimmer of self-esteem occurs when children identify standards or expec tations for behavior and live up to them. For example, parents have expectations for toilet training. When children finally master these expectations, it is a source o pride and self-esteem, at least until lar ger challenges are encountered. In later childhood, the next shift in the source of self-esteem occurs when children begin to engage in social comparison children compare themselves to others and, if they are doing better than others, then they feel good about themselves. And, later, people develop a set of internal standards, part of what they hold to be important to their self-concept. Behavior or experiences inconsistent with these internal standards can lead to decreases in self-esteem. In all cases, self-esteem results from an evaluation of oneself.

Closer Look The Six Myths of Self Esteem

Most people naturally try to enhance and protect their self-esteem, believing that it is important to psychological health. In America in the past decade there has been a growing national concern with developing self-esteem, believing it is related to all manner of good things in life. For example, the State of California set up a task force on self-esteem, which ultimately produced a report entitled The Social Importance of Self-Esteem. In it the task force argued that many if not most of the major problems plaguing society have roots in the low self-esteem of many of the people who make up society. As a result, self-esteem courses found their way into the grade schools and high schools around the country, fostering a feel-good version of self-esteem, e.g., feel good about yourself. Recently the Association of Psychological Science set up a task force charged with reviewing the scientific literature on self-esteem, particularly with respect to objective behaviors and outcomes. The...

Nonemotional Feelings Confidence Pride and Self Esteem

In the final design (Comer & Laird, 1975), the participants were recruited for a study of psychophysiological reactions to various tasks. A few weeks before their actual participation, they responded to some questionnaires, including a self-esteem measure. When they arrived for the experiment, they were first reminded forcefully that they were of course free to terminate their participation at any time, for any reason. Then it was explained that we had a variety of tasks and that they would be randomly assigned to one. They would perform it, and then we would go into the adjacent room to obtain psychophysiological recordings of heart rate, skin conductance, and so on. Was that OK Everyone said yes, of course. Two of the three ways in which people made sense of the worm eating were to change directly their self-concepts and self-esteem. Some people thought of themselves as making sacrifices for science, and they endorsed items that described themselves in more positive terms after...

Self Awareness Self Esteem and Identity Development

Closely related to self-concept is self-esteem. Many adolescents experience periods of low self-esteem. Parents of children with AS-HFA can expect the same. Sources of low self-esteem among children with AS-HFA usually relate to wanting to be liked and to have friends but not knowing how to succeed. Problems with identity and self-esteem present a serious challenge to children with AS-HFA and their families, but there are several strategies you can use to deal with these issues. As we discussed in Chapter 5 and at the end of Chapter 8, emphasizing your child's strengths and special characteristics will help him or her develop positive self-esteem. For example, if your child has a great memory, you might jokingly refer to him or her as Memory Master. Calling your child by this nickname when he demonstrates the skill makes clear that he has just done something special and gives him an easily referenced positive way of looking at himself.

Dayto Day Changes in Self Esteem

Most personality psychologists who study self-esteem focus on a person's average level, whether the person is generally high, low, or average in terms of his or her self-esteem. A few studies have been done on changes in self-esteem over long time spans in people's lives for example, in the years from adolescence to adulthood. However, with some reflection, most of us would realize that we often change from day to day in how we feel about ourselves. Some days are better than other days when it comes to self-esteem. Some days we feel incompetent, that things are out of our control, and that we even feel a little worthless. Other days we feel satisfied with ourselves, that we are particularly strong or competent and that we are satisfied with who we are and what we can become. In other words, it seems that feelings of self-esteem can change, not just from year to year but also from day to day. Psychologist Michael Kernis has become interested in how changeable or variable people are in...

Changes in Self Esteem from Adolescence to Adulthood

In a unique longitudinal study , Block and Robbins (1993) examined self-esteem and the personality characteristics associated with those whose self-esteem had changed over time. Self-esteem was defined as the extent to which one perceives oneself a relatively close to being the person one wants to be and or as relatively distant from being the kind of person one does not want to be, with respect to person-qualities one positively and negatively values (Block & Robbins, 1993, p. 91 1). Self-esteem was measured by use of an overall dif ference between a current self-description and an ideal self-description the researchers hypothesized that, the smaller the discrepancy , the higher the self-esteem. Conversely, the larger the discrepancy between current and ideal selves, the lower the self-esteem. The participants were first assessed on this measure of self-esteem at age 14 roughly the first year of high school. Then they were assessed again at age 23, roughly five years after high...

Fatigue a complex symptom with widereaching effects

But do the effects of fatigue stretch even wider, reaching well beyond traditional symptom boundaries Having energy and vitality is an important part of self-image. Fatigue is often seen as a sign of impending deterioration. So if doctors and nurses are to discuss fatigue with patients, grasping their interpretation and understanding of fatigue is essential (see Chapter 7). Fatigue can have a profound meaning for patients living with fatigue, and for their carers or family, which also need to be considered and assessed.

Studies on Resilience

Personal attributes (tolerance for negative affect, self-efficacy, self-esteem, internal locus of control) Family level Even though dispositional attributes of the child are certainly of great importance, it must be kept in mind that resilience is not an attribute born into the child (59). As Rutter noted, resilience is the concerted effect of a certain way of responding to external stressors (active coping instead of mere reacting), feelings of self-efficacy and of self-esteem (both of which are prerequisites of active coping), and a secure attachment to family members and significant others (63), according to (64) .

Therapeutic Mechanisms

Its basic premise describes the compelling sense of ego powerlessness but immediately offers the potent substitute of a viable community that provides individual attention, an explanation of alcoholism, and simple prescriptions for sobriety. ''In a community that shares the same distresses and losses, accepts its members' vulnerabilities and applauds and rewards successes, A.A. provides a stabilizing, sustaining, and ultimately, transforming group experience'' (Khantzian & Mack, 1989, 76).

Neuroscience circa 1960

Kuffler had presciently promoted to faculty status two postdoctoral fellows who had been working with him at Hopkins David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel, then 34 and 36, respectively. He'd also hired David Potter and Ed Furshpan, two even younger neuroscientists who had recently finished fellowships in Bernard Katz's lab at University College London. The last of his initial recruits was Ed Kravitz, who, at 31, had just received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Michigan. This group (Figure 1.1) became the Department of Neurobiology in 1966, which soon became a standard departmental category in U.S. medical schools as the field burgeoned both intellectually and as a magnet for research fands. In the neuroscience course medical students took during my first year, Furshpan and Potter taught us how nerve cell signaling worked, Kravitz taught us neurochemistry, and Hubel and Wiesel taught us about the organization of the brain (or, at least, the visual part of it, which was their...

The importance of the early diagnosis of the prostate cancer

Reports of studies describing ED after RP have shown a range from 29 to 97.5 with less ED occurring in younger men. Men with ED may suffer from depression and low self-esteem, and experience difficulties establishing and maintaining relationships. Treatment regimens currently available for ED include psychotherapy, sex therapy, oral pharmacological agents, androgen replacement therapy, intraurethral therapy, intracavernosal injections, several procedures related to the physiotherapy and surgery 27, 38, 39, 41, 50 .

Relation Of Adhd To Drug Abuse

Serious psychiatric disorder is common among adults with a history of ADHD. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY disorder, alcohol and substance abuse, depression, and anxiety are the most common associated disorders. These associated disorders should not be viewed as invariant outcomes of ADHD but rather as disturbances for which ADHD youth are at increased risk. Whether any of these psychiatric outcomes are manifested depends on a variety of factors besides ADHD, including the child's self-esteem, opportunity for normal socialization with peers, success in school, and level of social and family support (Tarter, 1988).

Borderline intellectual functioning An IQ

Borderline personality disorder A pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image, with marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood. This type of personality disorder leads to intense feelings of abandonment, poor self-image, and unrealistic expectations of others. Moodiness and angry outbursts may be common, and the individual may seem depressed or suicidal. The hallmark of the disorder is chronic instability, affecting relationships with family members or colleagues, and a lack of close, long-term interpersonal relationships that can add to the sense of isolation and abandonment.

Methods For Studying Feelings

In fact, self-reports are like any measure of an entity that is not directly observable by the scholar's senses. Confidence in any measure of a complex, abstract entity develops through construct validation. That is, we make theoretically guided predictions about how the underlying entity and its measurement would relate to other measures or events in the world. To the extent that our measures behave in the way that the theory predicted, we gain some confidence in each component, the theory that made the prediction, the theoretical construct that was part of this theory, and the practical measurement of this construct. For example, self-perception theory predicted that women who were more responsive to personal cues would report feeling lowered self-confidence while reading women's magazines (Wilcox & Laird, 2000). When we found that after reading the magazine, the predicted group of women responded to a self-esteem scale with lower scores, we felt more confident about our theory,...

Gentle Birth Techniques

There are a substantial number of studies showing that prepared childbirth enhances feelings of self-esteem, increases the husband's degree of participation, and even strengthens the marital relationship. Whereas in the 1970s fathers were still marginally included in the birth of their children, it is almost the exception in the early twenty-first century when they are not.

Conceptualization Of Chronic Depression

Chronic depression is not a homogenous problem, and patient history, course of current episode, and presentation can vary widely. As in the standard CT model for acute depression (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), the theme of loss (actual and perceived) and the negative cognitive triad (negative view of self, world, and future) are helpful as an initial starting point for formulating the patient's problems. However, in the model of chronic depression, the losses are often more enduring and may arise as a consequence of the depression itself. Similarly, the negative thoughts that characterize a chronic presentation are more enduring in nature and have over time become interwoven with associated behavioral strategies, and their social and environmental consequences. On the basis of this observation we propose a chronic cognitive triad as follows low self-esteem (negative view of self), helplessness (negative view of the world), and hopelessness (negative view of the future).

Methods of Measuring Body Composition

It's also difficult for most people to judge their progress objectively. The best-known example of distorted self-image is anorexia, but it works both ways Many bodybuilders and exercise addicts suffer from muscle dysmorphia, a term coined by psychologists that could best be described as reverse anorexia. These are people can never seem to get big enough or muscular enough.

Phase 2 Treatment of Vulnerability to Depression

Reduced vulnerability of self-esteem to loss, disappointments, criticism a sense of her own worth, a realization that was quite painful for her. She was able to fully grasp it after work in the transference on her tendency to devalue her therapist when she felt particularly vulnerable herself.

Dealing with depression

If you have fibromyalgia, you're at increased risk for depression. Depression is a chronic and severely low mood state, in which a person feels chronically sad and has feelings of poor self-worth, appetite and sleep disturbances, and a loss of enjoyment in activities that used to be pleasurable. At worst, the depressed person considers or acts on suicidal thoughts. At best, the person feels sad and distressed. Thankfully, depression is highly treatable.

Inter Vention Description

In this case, they are aware that they are being perceived by others in a pitiful or commiserative way. This is the reason, they feel, that they need, above all else, to rebuild their situation with themselves and with friends, neighbors, and other interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, they feel they are being perceived as a person with their own specific characteristics that now include the self-concept of being seen as ill or different. For instance, they are now being labeled by others as parents of a child with Down's Syndrome, widow or widower, divorced individual, etc. This perception, from others, comes from the clients acquiring a different social status category which they feel places them out of the norm. Due to this new perception of them, by others, they have internalized a sense of feeling different with concomitant feelings of low self-esteem. The grade of perceived vulnerability is, above all, inside of the clients themselves. Neutralizing this negative affect...

Conclusion And Contraindication To This Inter Vention

The purpose of this kind of procedure is to show that when one of our circumstances becomes a threat, it affects not only oneself but also one's social self-esteem as we are perceived by others. Through the use of group therapy of this kind, the client has the opportunity to improve his or her relationships with others and with himself or herself. In other words, this type of group gives clients the opportunity to become conscious of the interaction between social comparison, social identity, and psychosocial well-being.

Emotional intelligence

Transformational leaders tend to have skills that overlap considerably with those of emotional intelligence. They are positive and sensitive, with good language skills, and high self-esteem. They are intuitive and maintain close relationships with members of their group. So, in emotional intelligence terms, they are in touch with their own feelings, honestly, they show empathy and excite emotional commitment. They are emotionally stable and encourage a similar stability in others through mood and stress management. They tend to be pleasant, more emotional, more altruistic and less aggressive than transactional leaders.

Socioeconomic Factors

Lower level of cognitive intellectual functioning Lower level of knowledge Forgetfulness Low self-efficacy Emotional disturbance (depression, low self-esteem, body-image disturbance) Condition-related factors Longer disease duration Low disease activity Less fear of acute problems Treatment-related factors

Psychological Suffering And Selfcontrol

A clinical-psychodynamic perspective suggests that human psychological suffering and problems with self-control are at the heart of addictive disorders. In fact, it is probably safe to say that to understand the psychology of addictive behavior is to understand a great deal about human psychological problems of suffering and control in general. The suffering that influences addictive behavior occurs at many levels, but it principally evolves out of susceptibilities involving people's self-esteem, relationships, emotions, and capacities to take care of themselves. Individuals who find various or particular drugs appealing (including alcohol) or who become dependent on them, discover that, short-term, the drug action or effect relieves or controls their distress that is, such drugs are used to self-medicate distress. Although problems with self-esteem and relationships are important parts in the equation of addictive behavior, it is mainly the problems with how substance-dependent...

Selfregulation Vulnerabilities

In contrast, the self-medication hypothesis has evolved from contemporary psychodynamic theory, which has placed the centrality of feelings (or affects) ahead of drives or instincts and has emphasized the importance of self-regulation, involving self-development or self-esteem (i.e., self-psychology), relationship with others (i.e., object-relations theory), and self-care (i.e., ego or structural psychology theory). These contemporary psychody-namic findings have evolved since the 1950s, based on the works of investigators such as Weider and Kaplan, Milkman and Frosch, Wurmser, Krystal, Woody and associates, Blatt and associates, Wilson, Dodes, and Khantzian. Many of these criticisms, inconsistencies, and apparent contradictions are better understood or resolved when addictive problems are considered more broadly in terms of self-regulation vulnerabilities or as a self-regulation disorder. For humans, life is the constant challenge of self-regulation, as opposed to the release,...

Comparisons Of Longterm Effects Of Diagnosis And Treatment By Cancer Site Breast Cancer And Hodgkins Disease

Psychological quality of life Few changes in the measures of mental health were expected and, in fact, no change was found on depression as measured by the CES-D,71 Rosenberg's measure of self-esteem,72 or on the six subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS)73 in the Hodgkin's disease cohort. A statistically significant higher score (p 0.0025) was found on the total POMS scale, indicating greater emotional distress. The only significant predictor of greater mood distress was time since diagnosis (coefficientis 1.36, p 0.01) while higher self-esteem was marginally related to lower mood distress (coefficient is 5.21, p 0.06). No changes in depression, self-esteem, or mood lower self-esteem

Review Of Efficacy Research

The approach to CT for chronic depression described briefly here (and elaborated in Moore & Garland, 2003) was first developed for use in a rigorous, randomized controlled trial of CT for chronic depression, known as the Cambridge-Newcastle Depression Study (Paykel et al., 1999 Scott et al., 2000). This study (the results of which are described in detail in Moore & Garland, 2003) indicated that CT, as outlined here, produced a significant but modest additional improvement in remission rates, overall symptom functioning, and social functioning when added to good clinical management and medication. CT also resulted in significant improvement in the key symptoms of hopelessness and low self-esteem. Most importantly, it achieved a worthwhile reduction in the rate of relapse into full major depression, over and above the effects of continued medication. Analysis of the mechanism of change by which CT prevented relapse found little evidence to support the idea that this occurs by...

Cognitive behavioural therapy CBT

In CBT the patient and therapist will work together to identify problem areas such as the patient's belief that he is fat and stupid. His belief that he is fat and stupid is likely to make him feel low in mood and to withdraw socially. As he becomes more and more withdrawn there is no one to challenge his negative beliefs even if they are not at all true and in reality he is very thin and very clever. It is a vicious circle which, over time, lowers the patients self-esteem and leads the patient to seek more and more comfort from his anorexia. In addition negative thoughts tend to lead to negative feelings, which in turn lead to negative behaviour. Here are three examples

Substance Abuse And Mood Disorders

Nearly all substances of abuse have the potential to alter mood symptoms. Classically, Psychostimulants, such as Amphetamines and COCAINE, may induce an appearance of elevated mood, racing thoughts, increased energy, and sense of well-being. Individuals who have developed tolerance to stimulants will experience, upon their discontinuation, withdrawal. These withdrawal symptoms will overlap characteristic depressive symptoms, including severe dysphoria, insomnia followed by hypersomnia, irritability, and fatigue. OPIATES induce a sense of elevated mood, and increased self-esteem. A sense of decreased anxiety is also frequently reported. Upon withdrawal, depressive symptoms are accompanied by characteristic physical symptoms such as muscle aches, drug CRAVING, lacrimation (secretion of tears), and piloerection (goose flesh).

Eating Disorders and Body Image

I'd lost 15 pounds in less than a week on my already thin frame when I was diagnosed, and as I search through my photographs from those years, I try to see a change in my body size. I never became heavy but I began to write in my journal about wanting to be thin. The language in my writing begins to reflect a rapidly diminishing sense of self-worth. Lower self-esteem and body image after diagnosis

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Few studies exist that examined the effectiveness of SH interventions for people with a diagnosis of PTSD. One recent study (Ehlers et al, 2003) compared an SH booklet, cognitive therapy, and repeated assessments in people with PTSD after a motor vehicle accident. Comparisons based on self-report measures as well as clinician-rating scales were made at 12-weeks posttreatment and 6 months after the conclusion of treatment. Although the SH treatment reduced some symptoms, the therapist-directed cognitive therapy was clearly superior to the SH booklet. In addition, treatment using the SH booklet was only slightly more effective than the assessment group at posttreatment and slightly less effective than the assessment group at follow-up. In contrast to these relatively small therapeutic effects, Hirai and Clum (2005) reported significant improvement on symptoms produced by an online SH treatment. These authors developed an 8-week online SH program for trauma victims that consisted of four...

Coping And Drug Use Coping is the

The association between ATOD use and coping is complex. In some individuals there is a direct connection. In effect, PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS are consumed to reduce tension and associated negative emotions. The consumption of drugs is motivated by their palliative effects. In most individuals, however, the connection between drug consumption and coping is more complicated. Numerous factors such as psychiatric illness, low self-esteem, deviant social values, maladaptive learned behaviors, inadequate social support, poor social skills, and personality disposition moderate and mediate the relationship between ATOD use and coping. No specific association has been established between coping style and VULNERABILITY to drug use or abuse. Thus, whereas it is generally recognized that a substantial proportion of the ATOD-using population is deficient in coping capacity, it is important

Developmentally Appropriate Uses of Computers

Portunity to control their exploration of the computer and software. Early use should be limited in duration, and frustration should be avoided. Children at this stage enjoy interacting with active links and areas on the screen, discovering the effects of clicking different choices. Some research indicates that this kind of computer use gives children an increased sense of their impact on their environment, which leads to a greater sense of self-efficacy.

Psychiatric Treatment

The general attitude of the team should be one of understanding, concern, and firmness. One should try to build a trusting relationship in which the patients feel understood but without giving them a chance to deceive. The nature and course of the illness should be clearly explained to the patient and the family. This includes the serious complications of malnutrition and the fatal outcome of severe cases. Emphasize that the goal of treatment is not to make the patient fat but to make the patient feel better and to improve self-confidence and eating habits. Weight is only a by-product of the improvement, and 'muscle mass and protein recovery,' not fat, is what has to be gained.

Trisha M Karr Heather Simonich and Stephen A Wonderlich

Given that there is evidence that trauma is related to a wide range of psychiatric problems (Johnson et al. 1999 Lobbestael et al. 2010), it may be that traumatized people with BED display increased psychiatric comorbidity. As noted in the case of Gina, the evidence suggests that, in general, a common clinical characteristic among traumatized people with BED is the presence of higher depression scores and lower self-esteem scores than in non-traumatized BED patients (Allison et al. 2007 Becker and Grilo 2011 Dunkley et al. 2010). Specific forms of psychiatric disturbance have also been associated with child maltreatment, for example CEA with dysthymia, CPA with substance use and depressive disorders, and CPN and CSA with PTSD (Becker and Grilo 2011). Currently, preliminary empirical evidence has shown associations between emotional abuse and personality pathology, including anxious-fearful personality disorders, especially AVPD (Grilo and Masheb 2002). It is possible that child...

Congenital Deformities

Congenital deformities include a broad range of physical abnormalities existing from birth, although some, such as scoliosis, may not manifest until later in life. The most common are craniofacial deformities, such as cleft lip or palate, and skeletal deformities, such as clubfoot or spina bifida. Certain chromosomal disorders such as Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome also have associated physical abnormalities, as have substance-induced problems such as fetal alcohol syndrome. The impacts of congenital deformities can be primary, such as delays in the development of motor and language skills, or secondary, such as social ostracism and low self-esteem. Surgical procedures may help with many of the physical abnormalities, although these can involve multiple surgeries and may cause more stress for the child and family members. Congenital abnormalities are best thought of as chronic illnesses multidisciplinary, as well as psychosocial, interventions at the individual, family, and...

Your Bodyyourself Draw Your Body And Explore Your Selfimage

Psychodynamic-oriented group psychotherapists (Rutan & Stone, 2000) usually encourage verbal interaction in the group and work with words, not with action or art materials (Malchiodi, 1998). When they do use planned active interventions they find it hard to incorporate these techniques into their regular group process. The following technique is used to enhance body awareness (Cash & Pruzinsky, 2002), but also to deepen exploration of self-image. It is used not as a stand-alone technique, but as part of a psychodynamic group, and therefore the interaction between group members around the drawings and the feedback they receive from one another is an important part of using it. Beyond the specific exercise of drawing one's body, this demonstrates how to integrate any art and action exercise into a psychodynamic group.

Do boys get other eating disorders

Anorexia is one of a range of eating disorders and boys are certainly prone to suffer from any of them. Whilst the different illnesses have different symptoms and effects, many of the approaches to self-help and treatment will be similar to those used for anorexics. At the end of the day the main aim for anyone suffering from an eating disorder is to reestablish healthy eating patterns, maintain a healthy weight and to regain self-confidence and self-esteem. Much of what is written in the self-help and treatment options section of this book should be useful for the carer of a boy suffering from one of these other eating disorders. I also recommend reading Fit to Die by Anna Paterson, published in 2004 by Lucky Duck Publishing. In this book the author draws the reader's attention to the characteristics of and special difficulties for men with eating disorders.

Exercise Behavior Change Interventions In Cancer Survivors

At the University of Alberta, we have recently developed a 62-page exercise guidebook for breast cancer survivors (Exercise for health An exercise guide for breast cancer survivors) based on the theoretical components of the TPB. The information in the exercise guidebook was formulated and written based on behavioral, normative, and control beliefs elicited from breast cancer survivors in previous research. The guidebook consists of 10 chapters and includes participant-centered activities designed to enhance attitude (i.e., instrumental and affective attitudes), subjective norm (i.e., injunctive and descriptive norms), PBC (i.e., self-efficacy and controllability), and implementation intentions (e.g., goal-setting, planning). These written activities are also designed to facilitate participant engagement in the information. The exercise guidebook also incorporated previous research examining exercise preferences of breast cancer survivors.2,32

Strategy 2 Exercise to Reduce Stress

Bo Walker, the radio host who agreed to participate in a makeover for Let's Live magazine, worked very hard at my plan and kept exercising even when the twelve-week makeover period was completed and the magazine articles had gone to press. Bo's moment of truth came when the radio station announced that they were not renewing his contract. Suddenly, he was faced with the stress of being the forty-year-old unemployed father of a two-year-old child with financial, career, and self-esteem issues.

Clinical And Public Health Implications

The research on exercise determinants suggests that cancer care professionals need to help cancer survivors develop strong intentions (motivation) to exercise during and after their treatments. According to the TPB,19 these intentions are best facilitated by strategies that will convince cancer survivors that exercise is beneficial and enjoyable (instrumental and affective attitudes), that they are capable of exercising (control and self-efficacy), and that important others in their life will encourage and support them (subjective norm). Underlying attitudes, perceptions of control, and subjective norms are the salient beliefs that cancer survivors have about exercise and these will be the primary targets of any exercise behavior change intervention. Perceptions of control or self-efficacy (perceived barriers) can be enhanced by helping cancer survivors anticipate and overcome the known barriers to exercise. Similar to the motives, the barriers will vary by cancer survivor group and...

What Happens When There Is a Lapse vs a Relapse during CCT

A lapse can cue therapist and patient to design specialized homework over the telephone to address the symptoms and to determine whether a session should be scheduled soon or out of sequence. The therapist's aim is to promote a sense of mastery and self-efficacy and to help the patient learn that he she can use compensatory strategies successfully and independently to reduce depressive symptoms. If a patient relapses during C-CT, the frequency of sessions can be increased until the symptoms of MDD have remitted and functioning is restored. If the relapse is detected immediately rather than later, we predict that fewer sessions of C-CT will be necessary to restore remission.

Psychological Morbidity

Packham et al. (48) reported a 32 anxiety and 5 depression incidence in 246 adult JIA patients. Patients with systemic onset JIA had significantly higher levels of anxiety 41.7 and depression 10.7 , and those with oligoarticular JIA had lower levels of anxiety 7.7 compared to patients in the other JIA subsets. Depression was most commonly seen when the age at onset of JIA was between 6 and 12 years (11.1 ) compared to early (2.7 ) or late (0 ) onset JIA. Those patients in the late onset group over 12 years of age had the highest risk of developing anxiety-related problems (41.5 , p< 0.05), compared to the mid (29.6 ) and early (28.7 ) groups. The age at onset of disease may have a later effect on the effectiveness of learned coping strategies to avoid anxiety or depression. The apparent benefit to psychological health in the early onset group may be related to a lack of sufficient cognitive development (49) to comprehend the potential effects of arthritis. In the mid and late onset...

The emotional effects of a Caesarean birth

Once you're discharged from the hospital, you may begin to experience negative feelings about having had a Caesarean birth, even if you were accepting of the surgery at first. You may be angry that childbirth didn't happen the way you had hoped it would. You may grieve that you weren't able to give birth vaginally. You may feel like a failure as a woman, doubting your femininity and self-worth. To make things worse, you may feel guilty about having these feelings Comments from friends and family like, You took the easy way out, or Are you going to have your next baby naturally may be making you feel even worse.

Sexual and Reproductive Health

There is an increased risk (at least 3.4 ) of premature ovarian failure in women with JIA compared to the general population (53). There are significant implications for women with JIA in terms of when they should consider starting a family, as delay may put them at risk of infertility. Early loss of ovarian function has both significant physical sequelae (amenor-rhoea, breast atrophy, mucosal dryness, fatigue, and loss of libido) and psychosocial sequelae (exclusion from motherhood, loss of self-esteem, and poor body image). It also has major health implications, with a nearly two-fold, age-specific increase in mortality rate (54). Sexuality includes the adoption of certain gender roles (55). Society's definition of masculinity traditionally identifies the male as strong, practical, and the main bread winner in a family. The corresponding role for a woman traditionally identifies her as a wife, homemaker, attentive mother, and, more recently, an income provider. Arthritis may...

Anja Hilbert and Andrea S Hartmann

Currently, body image is defined in a multidimensional way (Rosen 1990 Thompson 1990). Figure 7.1 illustrates the components of a disturbed body image. Regarding the cognitive-emotional component, people with body image disturbance are dissatisfied with their body and are overly concerned with their weight and shape. The feelings about weight and shape may even determine their self-esteem. Perceptually, they also overestimate their body size. Additionally, body image disturbance involves behaviors like body checking, e.g., pinching themselves and checking repeatedly if pants fit. As people with body image disturbance do not feel comfortable in their body, they also hide in loose-fitting cloth or by avoiding places such as the beach. Various studies in AN and BN have focused on over- or under-estimation of body size, for example, using the silhouette technique or the photo distortion technique where patients are asked to adjust a distorted picture of themselves until it depicts the...

Causes of Domestic Violence

According to the first theoretical approach, characteristics associated with individuals who abuse their partners include low self-esteem, isolation from social support, a manipulative nature, and a desire for power and control (Kakar 1998). These individuals are likely to be unable to cope with stress, be unwilling to take responsibility for their own actions, have extreme feelings ofjealousy and possessiveness, be overly dependent on the victim, and or have certain mental or psychological disorders. Additionally, some studies have indicated that violent individuals are more likely to abuse drugs or alcohol. The use of controlled substances, however, has not been shown to necessarily cause violence. The characteristics that have been associated with the victims of violence are used to explain why individuals would become involved with and or remain in a relationship with an abusive person. Attributes associated with the victim include low self-esteem isolation from social support...

The Problem of Access

Childhood disorders have negative and lasting consequences for the psychological well-being and social functioning of afflicted children and cause a significant burden on children, families, and communities (Cap-pelli et al., 1989 Silver, Stein, & Bauman, 1999). Without treatment, the prognosis for many of these problems is usually poor. Left untreated, disruptive and aggressive behavior in childhood tends to persist and evolve to more sociopathic behaviors in adulthood (McMahon & Wells, 1998). Internalizing problems such as depressive and anxiety disorders places individuals at risk of relapse of these disorders throughout the life span (Hofstra, Van der Ende, & Verhulst, 2000). Other developmental problems may also impinge on children's self-esteem and cause frustration and stress for the entire family (Schulpen, 1997).

Other Types Of Exercise

Some exercises can improve balance. For example, you can use balance boards, Swiss balls, and variable surfaces to assist in balance training. However, balance problems are individual, and a balance training program should be designed by your healthcare professional to address your specific needs and maximize safety. A study evaluating a structured Awareness through Movement program to improve balance demonstrated improvements in balance, balance confidence, and self-efficacy.

Social Development and Exercise

Self-esteem is directly influenced by exercise by providing the opportunity for children to explore their bodies' abilities. This exploration molds children's self-concept. When exercise is based on individual performance levels and improvements are made, increased self-esteem often results. By using tools such as self-talk, goal-setting, and self-assessment, exercise can help children gain a more positive self-concept and better self-esteem. Positive self-esteem leads to improved cognitive and social development.

Case Illustration

L. reported long-standing difficulties with depressed mood. More often than not, she felt down and had difficulty engaging in activities. Along with her depressed mood, she reported that she had sleeping problems, low self-esteem, poor concentration, and a sense of hopelessness about the future. J. L.'s symptoms had been present since she was approximately 15 years old. Her depression appeared to have been a direct consequence of her social anxiety.

Antecedents of Father Involvement

Related to expectations is the notion of intended-ness, that is, the extent to which a father intended or welcomed the birth of his child. There is some evidence that a father's positive parenting may be strongly associated with whether the pregnancy was intended. Unwanted and mistimed childbearing has been linked to negative children's self-esteem.

Effect of cancerrelated fatigue on perceptions of self

An important effect of CRF detected in half of the qualitative studies was that participants reported it changed their view of themselves (Armes 1995 Krishnasamy 1996 Pearce and Richardson 1996 Messias et al. 1997 Ream and Richardson 1997 Magnusson et al. 1999). Feelings of a loss of control (Armes 1995 Krishnasamy 1996 Ream and Richardson 1997 Holley 2000), disempowerment (Krishnasamy 1996), and reduced self-confidence (Ream and Richardson 1997) seemed to induce lowered self-efficacy (Armes 1995) and self-esteem (Armes 1995 Krishnasamy 1996 Magnusson et al. 1999). As a consequence of this, participants developed an altered perception of themselves (Armes 1995 Messias et al. 1997) and grieved for their old self and previous life (Krishnasamy 1996 Ream and Richardson 1997)

Submission In The Service Of Possession

Insofar as the lover can induce the beloved to depend on him, even exploit him, the lover feels indispensable and achieves a kind of security. The lover submits in order to hold on to his beloved and occasionally share in her power. He feels a sense of permanence and importance in being indispensable to someone important. But this mode of relating to the beloved necessarily carries with it a sense of self-impoverishment. The lover sacrifices himself to the security of the relationship. Unlike the impulse to surrender, where the aim is transcendence, the motivation here is not so grand. The lover does not seek to obliterate the self so as to be reborn, or enlarged, but seeks to secure the truncated self. Subordination is deeply damaging to self-esteem, so the lover may have recourse to covert equalizers, such as affairs.

Coping with cancerrelated fatigue

The importance of tailoring self-care strategies to the needs of individual patients within their unique social context is described by Robinson (1988), who suggests that the crucial factor in the promotion of self-efficacy is the re-creation of a sense of personal and social order. This is achieved by developing a detailed plan for each day of what activities will be performed and when, ideally spreading them out through the day, and reorganizing the environment within which one enacts social roles. He says that this 'involves making harsh decisions about what is achievable in the light of competing objectives. These decisions may involve making complex calculations, for example about the use of a limited supply of energy before fatigue sets in' (Robinson 1988, p. 116). Kelly and Field (1996) concur with this, saying 'coping with chronic illness involves coping with bodies' (Kelly and Field 1996, p. 247), but this is particularly difficult work and may be emotionally draining as an...

Dominantsubmissive Adaptations Among Couples

The lawyer, formerly dominant, demanding, and controlling, now became abject and pleading. Whereas before he had claimed he would not abandon his other mistress for fear that she would commit suicide, now he decided to give her up. He was disconsolate and despondent to the point of threatening suicide himself if his beloved would not marry him. She, in turn, exhibited more dignity, self-respect, and presence than she had had in years, and put off giving him an immediate answer. Eventually, though, she was clearly moved by his apparent transformation and hyperbolic promises, and, although cautious, was ultimately persuaded to return to him and they were married. Of course, their relationship gradually drifted back to its original power balance. But, subsequently, whenever she became sufficiently alarmed at the intensity or direction of his involvement elsewhere she threatened divorce or had an affair. This was always enough to precipitate a recurrent suicidal crisis in him which was...

Communication and Interpersonal Processes in Cancer Survivors

The social cognitive processing model of adjustment to cancer provides a context for understanding the impact of social constraints on cancer survivors.64,72 According to this model, a supportive social network fosters adjustment to stressful events, such as cancer, by providing an atmosphere in which one's thoughts and feelings about their illness can be freely discussed and worked through. Such interactions may be beneficial because they are inherently validating, because they facilitate the maintenance of self-esteem, or because they provide the survivor with feedback about how she or he is managing the experience that enhances their perceptions of control or ability to cope.72 Conversely, unsupportive interpersonal interactions are postulated to inhibit the free discussion and discourse that enable a patient to adequately process the cancer experience and reduce distress.69,70,72 Some support exists for this model. Social constraints are associated with higher levels of intrusive...

Experimenter Bias And Compliant Participants

Predictions were for opposite effects on self-esteem, and the experimenter was blind to the group membership at the time the manipulations were administered and the measures taken. In response to pictures of the slender models, the self-esteem of women who were more responsive to personal cues declined, whereas the self-esteem of situational cue women went up.

No sport and lots of tender loving care

The one positive thing to come out of our experience with the paediatrician is that Joe started talking to me about his physical decline. It was as if our trip to the paediatrician had made him realise how ill he really was. He talked mostly when we were walking in the park and I could see a tiny glimmer of hope that perhaps my very sick child might actually be starting to want to get better, whereas previously he had been in complete denial that anything was wrong. He spoke to me about how he wanted to lose some weight before Christmas so he would be a better sportsman and that a couple of boys had teased him about having a fat bum, which he found upsetting. He told me he had lost lots of weight in New Zealand because he didn't really like the food and so he took the opportunity to eat minimal amounts. When he returned from New Zealand he had felt fitter and healthier, and some of his friends had complimented him on his new slim line physique, and that made him feel good. He also...

Mediating Mechanisms Motivation versus Anxiety

The developmental predictions regarding how susceptible children are to CL and AL might be further explained by differences in the mechanisms that are triggered by these labels. Mainly, there are two main explanations that have been used to interpret the significant effects in the gender labeling studies. Initially, the results were explained in terms of motivational factors (e.g., Bradbard et al., 1986 Davies, 1986, 1989 Helper & Quinlivan, 1973 Montemayor, 1974). For example, cognitive theories suggest that children do not explore, choose, or perform well in opposite-sex tasks because they are motivated to define themselves according to the gender norms set forth by society. In this view, children make value judgements according to their self-categorization as either a boy or a girl and seek to behave in ways consistent with these values. Similarly, the proposed mechanism by social learning or social cognitive theory is also motivation. Children's motivation to avoid doing well...

Typical Response To The Inter Vention

My clients feel a renewed sense of self-esteem in nearly all aspects of their lives as their skills improve. They feel hopeful that they can conquer obstacles that come their way without retreating into a world of fear that has paralyzed them in the past. This is evidenced by observing the group members using their newfound skills appropriately week after week during group sessions with decreased anxiety. This type of intervention assists my clients in all aspects of their lives, providing a sense of self-esteem, self-worth, pride, and overall well-being.

Contraindica Tions

This intervention may have contraindications if the client is not fully educated about the purpose of the skills training from the start. The client must understand that assertive communication is for the sake of the client and not for the sake of changing others. Clients must recognize that standing up for their rights and expressing their views will provide them with a greater sense of freedom, enhanced self-esteem and self-worth, and assist him or her in eliminating self-destructive behaviors by uncovering some of those pent-up thoughts, feelings, and desires. They will feel more empowered to overcome obstacles, which in the past they were too fragile to overcome, simply by getting it off their chest rather then consciously suppressing their thoughts and feelings. Another contraindication to learning this type of skill is a possible loss of a current relationship. It is sad but true. For example, in the case of a marriage or other intimate partner relationship, the more dominating...

Correcting Your Life Lenses A New Vision

In this chapter, we help you understand the nature of life-lenses. Your views of people, events, and even your self-image depend upon which lenses you look through. This chapter helps you realize whether your lenses are dirty, cracked, smoky, colored, or clear. A quiz shows you which lenses you look through and how they may cause you emotional trouble, and the exercises demonstrate how to change problematic life-lenses.

Feeling good for nothing

When you try really hard to achieve something and are unsuccessful, you understandably get frustrated. And if you keep trying and are still unsuccessful, you may start to wonder whether you're doing something wrong or are just no good at whatever you're trying to achieve. This can be the case when you don't get pregnant with IVF. If you try over and over again and the treatment doesn't work, your self-confidence and self-esteem take a beating. If you're running low on self-confidence and self-esteem, you may start to feel useless and a failure in all sorts of ways, which in turn makes you depressed and feeling even worse. If you get into this vicious cycle where you feel ever more down in the dumps, you need to seek help, because breaking this cycle on your own can be very difficult. Make time to see an IVF counsellor. The counsellors have seen and heard it all before and can help you get back on top of things.

Facts And Fancies About Obesity

But behind this obvious lesson, the film leaves the impression of a relationship between food and character the meat-eaters, calm, friendly and self-reliant, the starch-eaters, irritable and afraid. Political and economic considerations apart, it is impossible not to draw an unfavourable comparison between the starch-eating Kikuyu with their murderous cult of Mau-Mau, and the aloof but good-tempered, meat-eating Masai with their obvious self-respect and dignity.

Psychosocial Interventions For Survivors With Advanced Cancer

The other psychotherapeutic approach that has been investigated in the context of AC is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Like SET, this therapy has generally been administered to advanced breast cancer patients in weekly small group sessions. However, CBT interventions for AC patients have generally been more structured and didactic, incorporating the use of cognitive restructuring, behavioral relaxation and communication skills training, and weekly homework exercises in addition to the expression of feelings and the development of group support.72 In addition, CBT groups tend to be briefer in duration than the more open-ended SET groups, ranging from 8-35 weeks.71,72 Trials of CBT have demonstrated short-term improvements in mood and self-esteem in the treatment group relative to a no-treatment control group, but these gains were not sustained at 3- or 6-month follow-up.71,72 In addition, no survival benefit of CBT groups has been reported.71,73

Friends are so important

As you have all observed, Joe's health has deteriorated dramatically over the last couple of months. We have had every medical examination under the sun done and (thank goodness) these all proved negative. The initial psychiatric analysis has diagnosed 'severe anorexia nervosa', which means he has lost 25 of his body weight, and in Joe's case it has been very quick. There is no simple explanation (could be social, chemical, biological, physiological or a combination of all of these) and sometimes the trigger is totally irrelevant to the recovery. Having read a few books and talked to the psychiatrist, it is evident that this condition is unusual but not unheard of in 12-year-old boys. Sufferers are often very talented and bright and come from a very wide variety of backgrounds. It is a vicious disease in that the more you lose your weight and strength, the more your body's defences fall down, and the more susceptible you are to low self-esteem, and obsessive behaviour. On a brighter...

Academic Selfperceptions And Mental Health

But more importantly, we found that variations in mental health related to the trajectories of change in risk status. These results were summarized in Figure 14.3. The incliners had significantly higher self-worth than the decliners at Time 2 even though they were performing more poorly in terms of their grades (see Figure 14.4) at that time. Furthermore, when they were adolescents (at Time 4), they still had significantly higher self-worth in addition, they were more satisfied with their lives and reported higher levels of ego resilience and less anger than the decliner group. We looked at the issue of co-occurrence in one other way (Roeser & Eccles, 1998). Using only the middle cohort of children in the CAB study (those in Grade 2 at the start of the study), we clustered the children based on indicators of academic motivation (ability self-concept and academic valuing) and mental health (a composite of scores on depressive affect, self-esteem, and anger scales) when they were in...

Maintenance of Normative Well Being

Contributions of Personality, Affective, and Social-Cognitive Variables to Well-Being under Normative Life Conditions. NA Negative Affectivity PA Positive Affectivity GSE Generalized Self-Efficacy. Reprinted with Permission from Lent.4 Figure 1. Contributions of Personality, Affective, and Social-Cognitive Variables to Well-Being under Normative Life Conditions. NA Negative Affectivity PA Positive Affectivity GSE Generalized Self-Efficacy. Reprinted with Permission from Lent.4 In a nutshell, life satisfaction is predicted to be greatest when people possess favorable traits (e.g., tendency to experience high positive affect and low negative affect), are satisfied within their most prized life domains, participate actively in tasks they value, and perceive that they are making progress at goals that are most important to them. In addition to these direct influences, life satisfaction is assumed to be influenced indirectly by self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and...

Confidence And Behavior

A similar effect was observed in a study of self-presentation (Baumeister, Hutton, & Tice, 1989) in which one member of an interaction pair was asked to brag or to present him- or herself very modestly. This behavior in turn affected how the naive partners in each pair behaved, making them act less or more modestly to match. The interesting self-perception result was that this shift in self-presentation by the naive participants also changed their reports of their self-esteem. Nonconsciously adopting the

Learning Disabilities Association

Children with learning disabilities who have not been diagnosed or properly treated experience serious, lifelong negative consequences, including low self-esteem, delinquency, and illiteracy. Thirty-five percent of students identified with learning disabilities drop out of high school (this does not include students who drop out without being identified as having learning disabilities.) Fifty percent of young criminal offenders tested were found to have previously undetected learning disabilities when offered educational services that addressed their learning disability, the recidivism rates of these young offenders dropped to below 2 percent.

BOX 61 Girls on the

Girls on the Run is a nonprofit organization that works with local volunteers and community-level councils to encourage preteen girls to develop self-respect and healthful lifestyles through running (Girls on the Run, 2004). A 12-week, 24-lesson curriculum has been developed for use in after-school programs and at recreation centers and other locations. Evaluation of the program has found improvements in participants' self-esteem, body-size satisfaction, and eating attitudes and behaviors (DeBate, 2002).

Specific Clinical Features Of Depression Associated With

Gunderson and Elliott (1985) reviewed early studies that suggest depression in BPD is characterized by loneliness, emptiness, boredom, and feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, rather than guilt, remorse, and low self-esteem. Suicidal ideation and overt suicidal behaviors are more common among depressed patients who also have Cluster B personality disorders (Shea, Glass, Pilkonis, Watkins, & Docherty, 1987), and McGlashan (1987) reported that depressed patients with BPD were more likely actually to commit suicide during a 15-year follow-up.

Bipolar Symptoms in Youth versus Adults

Fewer studies have examined differences in the symptomatic expression of bipolar depression. Goodwin and Jamison 36 summarized the results of several studies, and showed that youth with bipolar depression were significantly less likely to experience anhedonia, morning worsening, fatigue, anorexia, hopelessness, agitation, psychomotor retardation, and definite delusions as compared with adults. On the other hand, youth with bipolar depression were significantly more likely than adults to have a depressed appearance, poor self-esteem, somatic complaints, and hallucinations.

Dieting and Eating Disorders

Gender expectations play in those struggles (Andersen 2000 70 Bordo 1999 Grogan 1999 58-67). In general, research has shown that men desire larger, more muscular (mesomorphic) bodies because greater physicality is associated with desirable masculine traits like strength, power, and aggression (Bederman 1995 42 Grogan i999 58). According to silhouette studies, questionnaires, and interviews conducted between i985 and i997, men aspire to muscular physiques, and their self-esteem is influenced by the ways in which they measure their own bodies in relationship to the mesomorphic ideal (Grogan 1999 59-67). This measurable body dissatisfaction in men and boys is referred to by some as the Adonis complex, a widespread crisis among today's boys and men (Pope et al. 2000 iii). In this argument, men and boys are preoccupied with the appearance of their bodies but have no outlet for discussing this preoccupation in a society that has taught them not to be hung up about how they look (Pope et al....

Making things different

Changing things, with his knowledge and within his understanding of why you are changing things, is a gift of unconditional love from you to him and good teaching practice. You are now laying the foundation for teaching the meaning of flexibility and are helping him exercise self-control that stems from self-reliance.

Defense Mechanisms in Depressed Patients

A s discussed in Chapter 2, patients prone to depression use a number of defense mechanisms that can be usefully recognized for therapeutic work as habitual ways of protecting themselves from conscious comprehension of warded-off affects and fantasies (Bloch et al. 1993). Although these defenses may temporarily ease painful feelings, in the long term they can worsen depressive symptoms. As described in Chapter 9 (Idealization and Devaluation), for example, idealization employed in an effort to bolster self-esteem or protect others from aggression may lead to disappointment and devaluation when self and others cannot meet the inflated expectations. Therefore, it is important to help patients become aware of characteristic defenses and more directly access underlying, threatening fantasies. As long as patients avoid awareness of their anger, for example, it is difficult to help them view anger as less toxic or to help them keep from turning the anger against themselves. Defense...

Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Inherited enamel defects that occur in the absence of a generalized syndrome are collectively designated as amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). The range of enamel malformations observed in patients with AI is classified according to the thickness, hardness and smoothness of the affected enamel. Differences in these parameters are believed to reflect differences in the timing, during amelo-genesis, when the disruption occurred. During tooth formation, enamel first appears on the surface of recently deposited dentin, at the forming dentinoenamel junction. Flaws in the dentinoenamel junction can result in an enamel layer that tends to shear from the underlying dentin. During the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the thickness of the enamel layer increases by appositional growth the continuous deposition of enamel proteins on the existing enamel surface, which is accompanied by the radial movement of the formative cells (ameloblasts) away from the point of secretion and is associated with the...

Future Directions For Promoting Smoking Cessation In Cancer Survivorship

In addition to examining the application of pharmacological treatments for cancer survivors, there is a need to enhance behavioral interventions to promote long-term smoking abstinence. For instance, based on learning theory, scheduled reduced smoking (SRS) involves a progressive and systematic reduction in smoking rate by lengthening the duration of time between cigarette consumption.120By adhering to a discrete tapering schedule, delivered using a handheld computer, smokers can develop coping strategies in response to an increasing delay between cigarettes, relying less on smoking itself as a coping strategy.121 We are currently testing the efficacy of an SRS behavioral intervention for newly-diagnosed cancer patients scheduled for surgery with follow-up assessments conducted into the extended phase of survivorship. We hypothesize that presurgical SRS will enhance quitting self-efficacy leading to improved maintenance of smoking cessation in hospitalized cancer patients. Additional...

Summary And Evaluation

This chapter presented an outline of what personality psychologists know about the self. This knowledge is neatly divided into three broad areas self-concept, self-esteem, and social identity. These aspects of the self are important to understanding personality. The notion of a self makes sense in terms of our everyday lives and our experience. We frequently use terms such as selfish, self-worship, selfless, self-consciou and self-esteem in everyday life. In the evolution of language, we developed a rich vocabulary for talking about the self. This reflects people s general preoccupation with themselves. Another reason psychologists are interested in the self is that it plays an important role in organizing a person's experiences of the world. What a person deems important, for example, are the things that are relevant to his or her self-concept. Moreover, people behave dif ferently when they are self-involved than when they are not, so the concept of the self is important for...

Some Concluding Thoughts

In math, Joseph's teacher devised simple problems involving the mileage between different cities in Utah. And during reading, he let Joseph read any book he chose, rather than the one the class was reading together. In this way, his teachers and parents made positive use of his intense focus on geography, motivating him to work and rescuing his plummeting grades in all academic subjects. After seeing the success of this relatively simple intervention, Joseph's teacher added a geography unit for the whole class, even though it was not typically part of the third grade curriculum, and allowed Joseph to act as the assistant teacher during the module. He also asked Joseph to go to younger classrooms to read to children. This special job made Joseph feel important and good about some of his abilities, despite the teasing and other failures he was also experiencing at school. Helping others is often a very successful way to build self-esteem and self-efficacy.

What You Can Try on Your

Regardless of whether you seek out other treatment for your emotional well-being, there are things that you can do to help yourself. You may want to keep a journal see the next section, where I describe how to begin. Table 11.8 lists some other suggestions that have been helpful to cancer survivors. Also refer to the other chapters in this book they cover many of the topics listed in Table 11.8 in more depth. For example, in Chapter 7 I discuss the enormous health benefits of exercise during the recovery period. One of the important and widely recognized side effects of regular cardiovascular exercise is an improvement in mood. Regular exercise can be a powerful antidote to a mood disturbance by releasing chemicals in your brain. The purely chemical result of exercise, endorphin release, is good for your emotions, but so are other outcomes, such as the boost to your self-esteem when you relearn to physically challenge yourself and trust your body again.

Step Two Be Clear About Your Definition of Spirituality and Religion

The chief complaint of many group members is a lack of self-esteem and a profound sense of shame about themselves. Often, in lieu of a real or true self, a person develops a false self' and loses connection with himself or herself in the service of survival and protection of the true self' (Miller, 1981). For many, this is the great tragedy of their lives underlying the presenting complaints. So, what does this have to do with spirituality Practically, what occurs in group is that an individual begins to open up about his or her self-worth. Gradually, as trust in the group and leader increases, the individual invites us into his or her life at a deeper level, overcoming the initial reluctance to do so. A spiritually informed response is it is not because we are perfect that we are worthy of love, but because we are human that we are worthy of love.

Am lonely as I want to be able to talk but have a hard time

I guess I want you to see that one of your roles in your child's life is to shower him with your unconditional love. You can do that better than anyone else. Your love can prevent and cure your child's loneliness. Your love can help him develop self-esteem and overcome his fears - whatever his fears might be. It can also inspire him to talk about a range of emotions.

The Good News about Growing Older

Perhaps the most important advantage of maturity in adolescents with AS-HFA (as well as many typical teenagers) is that increased autonomy brings a greater opportunity to shape their own experience and seek a niche in the world that is more compatible with their own strengths and interests. Robin, a young woman with Asperger syndrome, was frustrated throughout childhood by others' lack of appreciation of her interest in photography. Her parents and teachers would continually try to get her to set aside this fascination to do schoolwork, and kids were always trying to escape her long speeches on photographic techniques. But in high school Robin gained both social stature and self-esteem when she joined the yearbook staff and found everyone hounding her for a chance to occupy some space in her viewfinder.

Theoretical Empirical and Applied Bases of a Positive Youth Development Perspective1

Everyone should, of course, be pleased when such behaviors diminish. However, it is very dispiriting for a young person to learn that he or she is regarded by adults as someone who is likely to be a problem for others as well as for himself or herself. It is very discouraging for a young person to try to make a positive life when he or she is confronted by the suspicion of substance use and abuse, unsafe sexual practices, and a lack of commitment to supporting the laws and mores of society. What sort of message is sent to youth when they are spoken of as inevitably destined for trouble unless parents or practitioners take preventive steps How do such messages affect the self-esteem of young people, and what is the impact of such messages on their spirit and motivation

Chronic Illness And Friendship

The relationship between friendship and social activity is not always straightforward however. A Canadian study (6) reported that young people with physical disabilities between the ages of 11 and 16 were less socially active and involved in fewer intimate relationships despite reporting good self-esteem, strong family relationships, and many close friends compared to national statistics. Other factors may therefore be relevant. Adolescents with JIA have reported increased social support from parents and teachers, which could perhaps be interpreted as having a potentially negative impact on the development of social activities. Overprotectiveness by parents, teachers, and health professionals often results in a delay in the development of self-advocacy, separation from family, as well as the challenging of authority, all of which are necessary to achieve independence from parents. Disease experience has been shown to correlate with levels of self-competence, including physical...

The Dimensional TEFF Model

And also IADL help is seen as an integral part of care and not only as environmental support. The philosophy behind this is that care must meet the everyday needs of dependent people, and not only aim at support but also at activation of the older people themselves to use their own resources and develop self-efficacy in daily living, where doing the IADL tasks together with a care professional is seen as a means to realise this goal. The Lawtonian Model was seen as adequate for the German care system, while the Activation Model was favoured by the Nordic countries and UK. The two models are not reflecting any disagreement of the goal of long-term care (to provide comprehensive support and maximise QoL of the client), but the difference is rather in the care philosophy behind the concept of professional care.

Promoting Physical Activity

In adolescents, correlates of physical activity include perceived activity competence, intention to be active, sensation seeking, perception of academic rank and academic expectations, and depression (an inverse correlate) (Sallis et al., 2000 Motl et al., 2002 Schmitz et al., 2002). Perceived self-worth, perceived time constraints, and value placed on health and appearance may influence prevalence of physical activity or change in physical activity levels in adolescent girls (Schmitz et al., 2002 Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2003b). Physical activity self-efficacy (confidence in one's ability to participate in exercise) has been widely studied as a potential psychosocial correlate of increased levels of physical activity, but the association is not clear in children and adolescents (CDC, 1997).

Application Of Mbsr To Cancer Survivors

The frank uncertainty cancer brings into the lives of those affected poses an immense challenge to preexisting perceptions of personal control over one's future and one's own body. Such perceived loss of control and questioning or uncertainty regarding one's sense of self-efficacy are strongly associated with psychological distress and diminished psychosocial adjustment to cancer.93,94 MBSR addresses these factors in several ways. Adopting the attitude and practice of acceptance, that is, holding experience in awareness while relinquishing identification with the felt imperative to react or respond, frees patients from unrewarding efforts to control the uncontrollable. Attachment to threatened aspects ofthe conditioned temporal sense of self, one's social identity, is softened by a growing understanding that we embody deeper currents of being whose sources we share with the larger universe. Facing and accepting the totality of one's experience as it is, including losses and...

Juvenile Onset Bipolar Disorder Longitudinal Studies Long Overdue

The clinical distinction between BD and ADHD is complicated by directly overlapping DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of talkativeness, distractibility, and psychomotor agitation. Other symptoms, although not identical in DSM-IV terminology, can be difficult to discern. For example, decreased need for sleep in BD can be confused with the sleep difficulties common in ADHD, flight of ideas in BD can be mistaken for difficulty sustaining attention in ADHD, and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences in BD may blur with impulsiv-ity in ADHD. Both disorders frequently involve impairments in social and family relationships, school performance, and self-esteem. Also, both are highly comorbid with other disorders, such as learning disability, oppos-itional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder. ADHD is quite commonly diagnosed in juveniles with BD 1 although the reverse is not true longitudinal studies of ADHD have generally not shown an...

Depression and Anxiety

During adolescence (and sometimes earlier), many children who were previously oblivious to or even content with their lack of social connections start to experience distress. In childhood, much of friendship consists solely of acting as playmates and engaging in activities, such as sports or video games, together. During adolescence, however, the very nature of friendship changes in several ways that can challenge young people with AS-HFA. Friendships become more sophisticated and complex, with an increasing emphasis on trust, mutual sharing of personal information, and common or admired personality characteristics. These changes in the nature of friendship often increase the social difficulties encountered by adolescents with AS-HFA. These problems are compounded by the burgeoning self-awareness and the ability to make comparisons between the self and others that develop during adolescence. Feeling excluded or irreparably different can and often does lead to depression among...

CT with African Americans

Group psychotherapy has been cited as a useful approach for working specifically with African American women, for whom a promoted sense of sisterhood may help to combat common feelings of alienation, loneliness, and daily stress (Boyd-Franklin, 1987). It is suggested that combining the collective benefits of an intensive support group and the psychotherapeutic treatment goal of behavior change, results in a therapeutic support group hybrid that allows black women to address a variety of problems including anxiety, symptoms of depression, and low self-esteem. Furthermore, pervasive burdens associated with managing family responsibilities, maintaining healthy relationships, and contending with workplace discrimination are also addressed. African American women's groups should include six to eight members to promote an atmosphere of intimate sharing, while also allowing for periodic absences.

Cognitive behavioural therapy

Joe had his second cognitive behavioural session with George. Having established a reasonable level of trust in the first session Joe was more talkative in this session and was able to talk openly about events leading up to his illness and the period in which he lost weight. George quickly established that Joe had perfectionist tendencies and could not cope with failure. Joe's self-esteem had fallen during his illness and he very much believed that his peers were better than he was both academically and on the sports field. Over the course of the next six weeks George continued to work with Joe, helping him to identify and then challenge some of these negative thoughts. In addition George attempted to examine Joe's ritualistic and obsessive tendencies that the care team felt were still in evidence in Joe's behaviour at The Great Barn. It was difficult for George to make much progress in this area however as Joe was adamant that he had stopped all these habits since he had put on...

Behavioral Therapy And Alcoholisim Treatment

One in five men and one in ten women who visit their primary care providers are at-risk drinkers or alcohol-dependent. Brief intervention, which is designed to be conducted by health professionals who do not specialize in addictions treatment, can help at-risk drinkers to decrease their risk and to motivate alcohol-dependent patients to enter formal alcoholism treatment. The main elements of brief intervention can be summarized by the acronym FRAMES feedback, responsibility, advice, menu of strategies, empathy, and self-efficacy. Although

Empirical Research On Depression With Lgb Women And

Hershberger and D'Augelli (1995) found a relationship between victimization and mental health problems in LGB youth. Family support and self-acceptance mediated the impact of victimization on mental health. D'Augelli (2002), in a study of 542 youth from community settings, found that over 33 of LGB youth reported a past suicide attempt, 75 had been verbally abused, and 15 reported having been physically attacked because of their sexual orientation. More symptoms were related to their parents not knowing about their sexual orientation or to both parents having a negative reaction to their child disclosing an LGB sexual orientation.

Social Role And Identity

Threatening to self-esteem because people may have invested heavily in the performance of these roles. For example, employment provides many opportunities such as financial security, access to health insurance benefits, opportunities for fulfilling interactions, and social relationships with work-based colleagues, social status and power, enhanced self-esteem through knowledge and skill acquisition. Of course, not all work-related experiences are so life enhancing and some people relish the opportunity to quit certain working environments to redirect their energies in more fulfilling ways. A diagnosis of cancer and subsequent survival may precipitate a reappraisal of life goals.

Supportiveeducative interventions

Providing patients with the time and the opportunity to discuss fatigue and the meaning that it holds for them could prove a key aspect of any fatigue intervention strategy. Patients' worries and fears are frequently channelled through discussion of fatigue (Krishnasamy 1997). Discussion can be especially important when a patient has recently been diagnosed as having cancer, and can become increasingly important as the patient's disease advances and more active strategies requiring either physical or mental effort become more difficult. Patients could be assisted with prioritizing their daily activities and hobbies, and with pacing their energies, to ensure that valued activities remain possible. Patients' self esteem, confidence, and overall psychological well-being can be enhanced when patients achieve realistic and valued goals, thereby boosting their morale.

Cognitive behaviour therapies

Like many therapies, then, CBT is verbally based and deals with changing beliefs in order to change behaviour. Nevertheless, it is important to say that the successful performance of something is more effective for a person than simple changes in beliefs. For example, actually taking an examination successfully or going to a party or giving a speech without breaking down with anxiety is clearly more effective than simply believing that one might be able to without actually trying it. Both changed beliefs and changed behaviours are important, but it is changes in behaviour that lead to greater feelings of self-efficacy. This, then, helps to set up a positive feedback system, a very non-vicious spiral.