How To Improve Your Self Esteem

The Rise Of You

The Rise Of You

Learn how instantly boost your confidence and quickly change a negative outlook. This ebook will reveal how you can find so much confidence inside yourself that you will be able to be the person you have always wanted to be and do the things you most want to do. You will learn what true self-confidence is and how to nurture yourself so that you stop the habits that sabotage you and start building the mindset that will grow your self-confidence.

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Quantum Confidence By Song Chengxiang

Quantum Confidence System is a program that provides learners with full information about the Morry Method brainwave entrainment technology. This innovative technology is invented by Morry Zelcovitch, who is known as a credentialed brainwave entrainment engineer. The Morry Method applies a proprietary protocol that is developed for introducing various stimuli to the brain as well as mind. Your confidence is packed in CDs of four modules. Thats the entire Quantum Confidence System that is going to change your life forever. The Morry Method let learners release specific combinations of endorphins, neurotransmitters, together with hormones that bring specific results and benefits. Besides, The Morry Method utilizes unique, and more powerful isochronic and monaural tones. The author explains that these special brainwave entrainment tones have more uniform wave shapes. This system must be considered much in the same way, it is important once you get to the point where you want to be that you keep up a maintenance routine, a routine designed to maintain your results, without it you definitely run the risk of returning to the state that you were in previous to your use of the Quantum Confidence system.

Quantum Confidence System Summary


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Contents: Ebook, Audios
Author: Song Chengxiang
Price: $97.00

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Evaluative Component of the Self Self Esteem

The first glimmer of self-esteem occurs when children identify standards or expec tations for behavior and live up to them. For example, parents have expectations for toilet training. When children finally master these expectations, it is a source o pride and self-esteem, at least until lar ger challenges are encountered. In later childhood, the next shift in the source of self-esteem occurs when children begin to engage in social comparison children compare themselves to others and, if they are doing better than others, then they feel good about themselves. And, later, people develop a set of internal standards, part of what they hold to be important to their self-concept. Behavior or experiences inconsistent with these internal standards can lead to decreases in self-esteem. In all cases, self-esteem results from an evaluation of oneself.

Closer Look The Six Myths of Self Esteem

Most people naturally try to enhance and protect their self-esteem, believing that it is important to psychological health. In America in the past decade there has been a growing national concern with developing self-esteem, believing it is related to all manner of good things in life. For example, the State of California set up a task force on self-esteem, which ultimately produced a report entitled The Social Importance of Self-Esteem. In it the task force argued that many if not most of the major problems plaguing society have roots in the low self-esteem of many of the people who make up society. As a result, self-esteem courses found their way into the grade schools and high schools around the country, fostering a feel-good version of self-esteem, e.g., feel good about yourself. Recently the Association of Psychological Science set up a task force charged with reviewing the scientific literature on self-esteem, particularly with respect to objective behaviors and outcomes. The...

Nonemotional Feelings Confidence Pride and Self Esteem

In the final design (Comer & Laird, 1975), the participants were recruited for a study of psychophysiological reactions to various tasks. A few weeks before their actual participation, they responded to some questionnaires, including a self-esteem measure. When they arrived for the experiment, they were first reminded forcefully that they were of course free to terminate their participation at any time, for any reason. Then it was explained that we had a variety of tasks and that they would be randomly assigned to one. They would perform it, and then we would go into the adjacent room to obtain psychophysiological recordings of heart rate, skin conductance, and so on. Was that OK Everyone said yes, of course. Two of the three ways in which people made sense of the worm eating were to change directly their self-concepts and self-esteem. Some people thought of themselves as making sacrifices for science, and they endorsed items that described themselves in more positive terms after the...

Self Awareness Self Esteem and Identity Development

Closely related to self-concept is self-esteem. Many adolescents experience periods of low self-esteem. Parents of children with AS-HFA can expect the same. Sources of low self-esteem among children with AS-HFA usually relate to wanting to be liked and to have friends but not knowing how to succeed. Problems with identity and self-esteem present a serious challenge to children with AS-HFA and their families, but there are several strategies you can use to deal with these issues. As we discussed in Chapter 5 and at the end of Chapter 8, emphasizing your child's strengths and special characteristics will help him or her develop positive self-esteem. For example, if your child has a great memory, you might jokingly refer to him or her as Memory Master. Calling your child by this nickname when he demonstrates the skill makes clear that he has just done something special and gives him an easily referenced positive way of looking at himself.

Dayto Day Changes in Self Esteem

Most personality psychologists who study self-esteem focus on a person's average level, whether the person is generally high, low, or average in terms of his or her self-esteem. A few studies have been done on changes in self-esteem over long time spans in people's lives for example, in the years from adolescence to adulthood. However, with some reflection, most of us would realize that we often change from day to day in how we feel about ourselves. Some days are better than other days when it comes to self-esteem. Some days we feel incompetent, that things are out of our control, and that we even feel a little worthless. Other days we feel satisfied with ourselves, that we are particularly strong or competent and that we are satisfied with who we are and what we can become. In other words, it seems that feelings of self-esteem can change, not just from year to year but also from day to day. Psychologist Michael Kernis has become interested in how changeable or variable people are in...

Changes in Self Esteem from Adolescence to Adulthood

In a unique longitudinal study , Block and Robbins (1993) examined self-esteem and the personality characteristics associated with those whose self-esteem had changed over time. Self-esteem was defined as the extent to which one perceives oneself a relatively close to being the person one wants to be and or as relatively distant from being the kind of person one does not want to be, with respect to person-qualities one positively and negatively values (Block & Robbins, 1993, p. 91 1). Self-esteem was measured by use of an overall dif ference between a current self-description and an ideal self-description the researchers hypothesized that, the smaller the discrepancy , the higher the self-esteem. Conversely, the larger the discrepancy between current and ideal selves, the lower the self-esteem. The participants were first assessed on this measure of self-esteem at age 14 roughly the first year of high school. Then they were assessed again at age 23, roughly five years after high...

Selfesteem Social Comparison And Response To Personal Cues

After viewing their assigned picture set, the women responded to a self-esteem scale and a body satisfaction measure and provided an open-ended description of their feelings while viewing the pictures. Finally, they responded to a paper-and-pencil version of the expression manipulation procedure to determine the level of their response to personal cues. The women who were less responsive to personal cues apparently identified with the women in the pictures. When the women who were less responsive to personal cues viewed the superslender models, they reported higher self-esteem, higher body satisfaction, and more positive emotional reactions than did those who viewed the normal-weight women. The exact opposite occurred among the women who were more responsive to personal cues. They reported significantly lower self-esteem, lower body satisfaction, and more negative emotions if they viewed the pictures of su-perslender models. In sum, two studies have demonstrated changes in self-esteem...

Review Of Efficacy Research

Despite the paucity of efficacy research on cognitive-behavioral treatments for dually diagnosed depression and substance use problems (see O'Brien et al., 2004 Rounsaville, 2004), at least two rigorous studies suggest that CT demonstrates superior efficacy in treating substance abuse and dependence compared to alternative treatment approaches, specifically when the patients are also clinically depressed (Carroll et al., 1994 Maude-Griffin et al., 1998). Another study compared a cognitive-behavioral intervention and relaxation training for alcoholics with depressive symptoms (who were simultaneously receiving standard alcohol treatment ). The cognitive-behavioral treatment had superior results on multiple measures of decreased alcohol consumption at follow-up, suggesting better staying power than relaxation training (Brown, Evans, Miller, Burgess, & Mueller, 1997). In a similarly designed study, alcohol-dependent individuals with elevated depressive symptoms who received...

The Good News about Growing Older

Perhaps the most important advantage of maturity in adolescents with AS-HFA (as well as many typical teenagers) is that increased autonomy brings a greater opportunity to shape their own experience and seek a niche in the world that is more compatible with their own strengths and interests. Robin, a young woman with Asperger syndrome, was frustrated throughout childhood by others' lack of appreciation of her interest in photography. Her parents and teachers would continually try to get her to set aside this fascination to do schoolwork, and kids were always trying to escape her long speeches on photographic techniques. But in high school Robin gained both social stature and self-esteem when she joined the yearbook staff and found everyone hounding her for a chance to occupy some space in her viewfinder.

Table 198 Characteristics of Avoidant Personality Disorder

Activities are restricted to avoid embarrassment Low self-esteem Because of their low self-confidence and need for constant reassurance, depend ent persons may not work well independently. They may wait for others to start projects or may need direction often during a task. They may demonstrate how inept they are, so as to trick others into assisting them. They may avoid becoming proficient a a task, so as to keep others from seeing that they are competent to work by themselves. It is too bad that a person who relies on others to solve problems may never learn the skills of living or working independently .

Goals Of Vulnerability Research

A large number of risk factors for substance abuse have been reported (Table 1). They include characteristics that fall within the demographic, environmental, socio-cultural, family, personality, behavioral, psychiatric, and genetic domains. Among these are Poverty, unemployment, poor quality of education, racial discrimination, ready availability of drugs, family discord, family alcohol and drug use, sexual abuse, lack of family rituals, neuropsychological deficits, childhood aggressiveness, low self-esteem, teenage pregnancy, rebelliousness, delinquency, drug use by peers, mental health problems, and cultural alienation. A number of protective factors for substance abuse have also been reported (Table 2) however, these are considerably fewer than the reported number of risk factors, primarily because less attention has been focused on their identification. In general, the protective factors that have been reported are the opposite of known risk factors....

Psychological Consequences

Among obese people were the topic of a literature review that reported that weight cycling was not associated with depression or other psychopathology or depressogenic cognitive styles. It was observed, however, that weight cycling was associated with decreased perceptions of health and well-being, decreased eating self-efficacy, and weak increases in binge eating severity. Subsequently, it was concluded that an individual's perception of being a weight cycler may be more related to psychological problems than the actual number of pounds lost and regained over time. In 2000, the National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity concluded that concerns that dieting induces eating disorders or other psychological dysfunction in overweight and obese adults are generally not supported by empirical studies. This is in contrast to the wide belief that dieting is a necessary precursor for subsequent development of eating disorders.

Psychological effects of exercise on depression

Research on the psychological effects of exercise in individuals with cancer is limited. Nevertheless, the results of existing studies have demonstrated that exercise does benefit individuals with cancer both psychologically and emotionally, including increased self-concept, improved self-esteem, increased self-control, feeling of decreased depression and anxiety, as well as overall improved quality of life (Courneya and Friedenreich 1997, 1999 Mock et al. 1997 Winningham et al. 1994). The psychological mechanism of exercise may play the most important role in reducing depression and anxiety by bringing about positive changes in mood states, changes shown to occur in young and older healthy adults and in a variety of patients (Table 14.3). Enhances sense of well-being, improves self-efficacy in controlling pain and fatigue, reduces depression

Alison E Field and Kendrin R Sonneville

Depressive symptoms and other measures of negative affect have been investigated in many studies as a possible risk factor for an eating disorder. In a prospective study of adolescent girls, elevated depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, but not anxiety and anger, predicted binge eating onset (Stice et al. 2002). Consistent with those results, a prospective study of adolescents observed that those with high depressive symptoms were three times more likely than their peers to start binge eating however, they also found that girls who engaged in binge eating were likely to develop high depressive symptoms. Weight to Eat is a school-based program aimed at the primary prevention of eating disturbances by targeting unhealthy dieting and binge-eating (Neumark-Sztainer et al. 1995b). The program consists of 10 weekly hour-long sessions implemented by a nutritionist health educator and conducted within classes during the school day (Neumark-Sztainer et al. 1995b). The program is based on...

Idealization And The Family Romance

Consciously, though, idealization has been detached from the parents and transferred either to fantasy figures or people whom the child knows. The fantasies serve to preserve the child's narcissism insofar as he elevates his self-worth by identifying with his grander imaginary parents. And the fantasies hold out the hope of rescue, of better times, against the disappointment of the present. Even in these early family romances, we can begin to see elements that will distinguish mature love the object who feeds (or loves) us must be idealized in order for him to validate our own worthiness, to gratify, by our identification with him, our longing for omnipotence. In the early romances, this takes the concrete form of our being related to the royal, rich, and famous. We are rescued from situations in which we feel unloved or unappreciated. And by virtue of our association with the exalted personages of our imaginary relationships, we find our true identities and are released from the...

Drug Tapering and Discontinuation

The patient, a 44-year-old man who works as a county clerk, has a major depressive disorder of recent onset. He had two previous episodes 1 and 3 years earlier that were treated by his primary care physician with fluvoxa-mine (100 mg per day) for 4 months each time. Although in this case his physician has prescribed fluvoxamine (100 mg per day), he wonders whether a different treatment may be justified. Careful assessment discloses only partial remission after each episode. The psychiatrist confirms treatment with fluvoxamine, but introduces the need of a sequential approach. After 3 months of drug treatment, the patient is given the combined treatment, CT + WBT. The CT part of treatment yields important insights and modification of some of his maladaptive attitudes. WBT allows him to realize how his lack of autonomy leads his workmates consistently to take advantage of him. This results in workloads that, because of their diverse nature, undermine the patient's environmental mastery,...

Michael J Devlin Stephen A Wonderlich B Timothy Walsh and James E Mitchell

Addiction and BED 250-1 Addiction Transfer Model 187-9 addiction treatment models 102 adolescents anxiety in 45 in behavioral weight loss programs 170 binge eating in 42-8, 118-19 body dissatisfaction in 45, 223 body mass index in 171 depression in 45, 222 development of body image disturbance 82 dietary restraint in 46, 47 family-based therapy for anorexia nervosa 100 loss of control eating in 42-8, 119, 148, 156-7, 170-8 low self-esteem in 171, 172, 222 and negative affect 82, 171, 172 obese 43, 224 overweight 45, 47, 170, 171, 220, 224 parental influences on 36-7, 82, 177, 222 prevalence of BED 16, 18, 44 prevention of BED in 223, 224 psychosocial impairment in 43, 45, 223 risk factors for BED 94, 219, 220, 221, body checking 78, 79, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87 body dissatisfaction and body image disturbance 78 and childhood trauma 59 in children and adolescents 45, 82, 223 compared in BED, obesity without BED, and bulimia nervosa 79-80 and depression 79, 82 and the dual pathway model of...

Dieting and Weight Loss

Normal weight who gain and lose weight throughout their lives. Because of the societal appearance standards for women and girls, they are at particular risk for the side effects of weight cycling. Additionally, the reduced calorie intake can cause dieters to receive inadequate nutrients such as calcium, thus increasing their risk for osteoporosis and related injury (NEDA, 2005b). Psychologically, dieting can lead to eating disorders such as binge eating, depression, and lowered self-esteem (Darby, Hay, Mond, Rodgers, & Owen, 2006 Grilo, & Masheb, 2000 NEDA, 2005b). However, the National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity's (2000) review of the literature suggests that these concerns have been exaggerated and makes the point that, such concerns should not preclude attempts to reduce caloric intake and increase physical activity to achieve modest weight loss or prevent additional weight gain (p. 2581). Unlike many other studies assessing the effects of dietary...

Triangles And The Oedipus Complex

Triangulation may be used to punish a disappointing or errant lover, or to even out the score. A husband may believe he has forgiven his wife after she confesses a prior affair, only to feel himself drawn into a love affair of his own shortly thereafter. Triangulation may also be used to re-establish a sense of gender adequacy when one's femininity or masculinity has been damaged by a competitive defeat, either erotic or non-erotic. For example, a man who has received a shattering blow at work may be more than usually vulnerable to the ministrations of his adoring secretary. Alternately, triangulation may be used to alter not one's own self-image, but one's image in a lover's eyes, with one lover hoping to pique the other's interest and coax fading love back to full intensity through the agency of jealousy. Triangulation may even be used as a self-punishment. A lover who is radiantly happy in love may experience guilt at his great good fortune, and he too may embark on a triangular...

Enslavement And Masochism

In enslavement (obsessive self-destructive love or masochistic surrender or both) the goals may be the same, but the depth and insatiability of the need doom the yearning lover to almost inevitable defeat. Sometimes, too, the impulse to surrender can be contaminated with the need for self-punishment. When this occurs and the lover comes to feel empty and worthless except for the perpetuation of his love, he has entered the realm of desperate love and he feels enslaved. The line dividing self-transformation from self-abnegation may sometimes be porous, and the deterioration of surrender into self-abnegation and self-destruction rapid. All serious critiques of romantic love point to its frequent corruption into enslavement. Without a strong core of identity and self-worth the lover's wish to merge is perverted into a wish to submerge himself into the beloved. This latter impulse may be so strong that the lover will sacrifice his autonomy, even his life in the vain attempt to achieve it....

Loss of control and binge eating in children and adolescents

Like most cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment protocols, CBT for BED targets specific thoughts and behaviors that are directly associated with the disorder (Fairburn 2008). For example, many people who have BED report periods of overeating followed by periods of under-eating (restriction) these periods of under-eating and restriction can trigger a binge episode (Herman and Polivy 1980). A cycle of dietary restriction and binge eating is created that maintains bingeing behavior. One behavioral therapeutic focus for BED is to emphasize moderation of food intake (Wilfley et al. 2002). With regard to cognitions and emotions, binge eating episodes are frequently preceded by negative affect (for a review, see Wolfe et al. 2009). Negative cognitions and self-talk about body shape and weight, low self-esteem, and negative affect are targeted in CBT for BED to reduce dysfunctional thinking patterns that perpetuate the binge cycle (Stein et al. 2001 Wilfley et al. 2011). See Chapter 11...

Management of Emotions

Fmri Scan Examples Psychology

Other studies suggest that emotional expressiveness is good for our psychological health and general adjustment. King and Emmons (1990) had participants keep daily records of how they were feeling each day for three consecutive weeks. The participants completed a questionnaire measure of emotional expressiveness. The researchers found that emotional expressiveness correlated with higher levels of happiness over the three weeks, as well as with lower levels of anxiety and guilt. A similar study by Katz and Campbell (1994) found that emotional expressiveness was correlated with higher self-esteem.

Emotion in the arts and in sport

Also involved might be the straightforward links that come from conditioning. For example, a person might have conditioned links formed between exercise, looking good and feeling a heightened sense of self-efficacy. This effect (and others) in exercise and sport comes about through a mixture of the psychological and the physiological.

Cant get an erection

Some features of your appearance such as tremor may cause you to lose self-esteem. Other features such as drooling may make you think that you're unattractive to your partner. These features, if relevant, must be discussed and resolved. Some men (and women) because of their physical limitations no longer maintain proper grooming. Thus, hair may grow from their nose or ears, or their teeth may be dirty. If relevant, these features should be remedied. Some people because they move slowly and cannot turn in bed become unduly anxious and cannot perform sexually. For them, taking Sinemet or a dopamine agonist (Mirapex, Requip) an hour before intercourse is helpful.

Sex Differences in Depression

Depression is marked by characteristics such as low self-esteem, pessimism (expecting the worst to happen), and the perception that one has little control over one's life. It's one of the most common psychological maladies of modern humans, and there is evidence that the rate of depression is increasing. Five studies comprised of 39,000 individuals living in five areas of the world revealed that young people are more likely than older people to have experienced at least one major episode of depression (Nesse & Williams, 1994). Moreover, the incidence of depression appears to be higher in more economically developed cultures (Nesse & Williams, 1994). 5. Among depressed college students, men are more socially withdrawn, more likely to use drugs, and more likely to experience aches and pains women are more likely to experience hurt feelings and a decline in self-esteem. ference appears around the age of 13, when heterosexual interactions start to increase. And it is well-documented that...

Evaluation of Oneself

Self-esteem is a general evaluation of self-concept along a good-bad or like-dislike dimension Do you generally like yourself and feel you are a worthwhile, good person Do you feel that others respect you Do you feel you are basically a decent, fair person Do you take pride and satisfaction in what you have done, in who you are, and in who you would like to become Self-esteem is the sum of your positive and negative reactions to all the aspects of your self-concept. Most of us have a mixed reaction to ourselves we have to take the bad with the good, and we acknowledge that we have both strengths and weaknesses. How we feel about ourselves can change from day to day and even from hour to hour . When we do something that is not consistent with our self-concept, such as hurt someone' s feelings, but we do not think of ourselves as uncaring, then we may experience a dip in self-esteem. Such fluctuations, howeve , occur around our average level of self-esteem. Most personality...

Marney A White and Loren M Gianini

We turn now to discuss psychological functioning in obese people suffering with BED. Most notably, in comparison to obese people who do not binge eat, adults with BED tend to exhibit higher levels of eating disorder-specific pathology in addition to more non-eating-related psychopathology. Compared to their NBO counterparts, adults with BED are more concerned about their weight and shape, and more preoccupied with their eating (Grilo and White 2011 Marcus et al. 1988). This pattern is also found in obese treatment-seeking children and adolescents (Decaluwe et al. 2003). Adults with BED report a greater discrepancy between their current and ideal body size than NBO (Striegel-Moore et al. 1998). There is also a significant subset of BED adults who overvalue their shape and weight, meaning that shape and weight are important aspects by which they evaluate their self-worth. As observed in bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa, when overvaluation is present, patients will value their body...

Clare Stevinson Kristin L Campbell Christopher M Sellar and Kerry S Courneya

Alterations in body weight and body composition affect many cancer survivors. Weight loss is a typical symptom of many cancers, and both chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause mucositis, anorexia, and nausea, making food intake difficult.11 Conversely, weight gain is associated with some chemotherapy protocols used in treating breast cancer,12 and increased appetite caused by some steroid treatments. Reduced activity during and after cancer treatment also contributes to weight gain. Further side effects include pain, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments (e.g., forgetfulness, inability to concentrate),13 and a host of psychological sequelae.14 These can range from clinical depressive or anxiety disorders, to occasional feelings of anger, guilt, confusion or loneliness. Loss of self-esteem, and concerns over body image, are also frequently reported. Psychological distress may persist long beyond the end of treatment in some cancer survivors,15,16 and can have a significant impact...

The Classic Female Fat Pattern

While I would agree with the self-help authors who tell female readers that the key to self-esteem is to love your body, I believe that a woman should find a balance between accepting her body just as it is and paying serious attention to the significant health risks of being overfat. There is nothing life-affirming about having type 2 diabetes, painful and over-stressed joints, and an increased risk of heart disease after menopause. As we have seen, being overfat also increases the risk of certain types of cancers. For example, a recent report published by the National Cancer Institute showed that women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater were twice as likely to develop cervical cancer. Women with the lowest waist-to-hip ratio, indicating a significant accumulation of abdominal fat,

Impact Of Chronic Rheumatic Disease On Growth And Development

Pubic Hair Male

Young people with such conditions may experience either condition or both. Together they can result in short stature, reduced bone density (see Chapter 12), low self-esteem, poor body image, and delayed development of the psychosocial tasks of adolescence (see Chapter 1).

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Self Help Approach

All self-help interventions share potential advantages. Privacy maintenance is more easily secured using self-help approaches. Moreover, improvements in problem status after self-help interventions are more easily attributed to the self-helper's own competence, with a concomitant increase in self-esteem. Autonomy is more easily preserved than in face-to-face therapy, as there is less dependence on a therapist. Moreover, because therapy is delivered in the natural environment, the failure of strategies and their effects to generalize to real-life sexual situations is seldom encountered.

Psychodynamic Models of Depression

Narcissistic vulnerability need for others to buttress self-esteem caretakers leads to narcissistic vulnerability Unsuccessful efforts to idealize others to compensate for low self-esteem Abraham (1924) posited that the depressed patient had had a severe injury to an early healthy sense of narcissism (self-esteem) by way of childhood disappointments in love, usually at the hands of the mother. Such an injury could stem, for example, from losing a view of the self as a parent's favorite or from disappointments in gaining an alliance with the mother against the father (or vice versa). Onset of the illness in adulthood is triggered by a new disappointment, unleashing strong hostile feelings toward those individuals, past and present, who have thwarted the patient's desire for love. For Ms. C, the church leaders she had relied on emotionally became the objects of considerable hostility once they disappointed her. Thus, she demonstrated a readiness to become enraged at those individuals,...

Table 195 Characteristics of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Self-esteem that is strong but paradoxically fragile Envy of others Table 19.5 lists the main characteristics of the narcissistic personality disorder , along with examples of some typical beliefs and thoughts persons with this disorder might have. Narcissists sometimes reach positions of high achievement, due primarily to their self-confidence and ambition. Nevertheless, their interpersonal lives ar usually fraught with the problems that come with feelings of entitlement, an excessive need for praise and recognition, and an impaired recognition of others' needs. They have difficulty maintaining intimate relationships

Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Self-efficacy and performance mutually influence one anoth . Self-ef ficac leads to better performance then better performance leads to further increases in self-efficac . As such, high self-efficacy is most important when starting out on some par ticular task. If the task is complex, it can be broken down into parts or subgoals, which can be accomplished. For example, in learning to dive from a diving board, a child can practice jumping in from the side of the pool, then going in head first fro the side of the pool, then going on the diving board and jumping, then finally divin from the diving board. Accomplishing each subgoal along the way can increase overall self-efficac . Self-efficacy can also be influenced b modeling, by seeing others engage in the performance with positive results. In summary, self-efficacy beliefs can have fa -reaching effects on people's behavior. People's beliefs about what they can accomplish will influence the goals they selec for themselves. Self-ef...

Rank Order Stability in Adulthood

Similar findings eme ge for personality dispositions that are not strictly subsumed by the Big Five. In a massive meta-analytic study of the stability of self-esteem how good people feel about themselves Trzesniewski, Donnellan, and Robins (2003) found high levels of continuity over time. Summarizing 50 published studies involving 29,839 individuals and four lar ge national studies involving 74,381 individuals, they found ACL Self-Confidence stability correlations ranging from the .50s to the .70s. How people feel about themselves their level of self-confidence appears very consistent over time. Simila findings have been obtained with measures of prosocial orientation and interpersona empathy (Eisenberg, Guthrie, Cumberland, Murphy, Shepard, Zhou, & Carlo, 2002). In sum, personality dispositions, whether the standard Big Five or other dispositions, show moderate to considerable rank order stability over time in adulthood.

Closer Look Bullies and Whipping Boys from Childhood to Adulthood

Although the victims, or whipping boys, do not have any external characteristics that appear to set them apart, they do have certain psychological characteristics. Most commonly, victims tend to be anxious, fearful, insecure, and lacking in social skills. They are emotionally vulnerable and may be physically weak as well, making them easy targets who don't fight back. The victims suffer from low self-esteem, lose interest in school, and often show difficulties establishing or maintaining friendships. They seem to lack the social support that might buffer them against bullies. It has been estimated that 10 percent of all schoolchildren are

Observational Learning

Imitate behavior in some cases and not others. In particular, children are more likely to imitate a model when they see the model's behavior rewarded rather than punished. In addition, self-efficacy beliefs play into a child's choice of imitation. If the child believes that she does not have the talent necessary to imitate a particular behavior, she will not attempt to do so. Thus it seems that both cognitive and social factors come into play in observational learning, and that is why Bandura's theory is also called a social cognitive theory of learning.

Development of the Self Concept

Although very young children are fascinated with their reflections, it takes while for a child to be able to recognize photographs of him- or herself in a group. A child needs to be about 2 years old before he or she can pick his or her picture out of a crowd (Baumeister , 1991). Around this time, the second year of life, children begin to grasp the idea that other people have expectations for them. For example, this is about the time when children can follow rules set up by parents. Children learn that some behaviors are good and other behaviors are bad, and they evaluate their own behavior against these standards. They will smile when they do something good and frown when something bad occurs. They clearly are developing a sense of themselves relative to standards. This is the beginning of self-esteem.

Approaches to the Self

Evaluative Component of the Self Self-Esteem Evaluation of Oneself Research on Self-Esteem There are many aspects to the self the ways we see and define our selves, or our self-concept, the evaluation we make of that self-concept, which is called self-esteem, and our social identities, which are the outward reflections we show other people. .now thyself was the advice given by the Greek Oracle at Delphi. Do you know yourself Who are you How would you answer this question Would you define yourself first as a student, as a son or daught , or as someone's spouse or boy- or girlfriend Or would you define yourself by listing you various characteristics I am smart, optimistic, and confident Or would yo instead give a physical description I am a male, 6 ' 6 tall, about 200 pounds, with red hair and a ruddy complexion No matter how you respond to this question, your answer is an important part of your self-concept, your understanding of yourself. Moreover, some people are satisfied with who...

Promotion of Mistrust

Few researchers have directly investigated the influences of messages focused on the equality of all races and or silence about race in terms of their consequences for children's development. However, scholars have emphasized that children of color socialized from an egalitarian perspective may have unrealistic expectations concerning intergroup relations and, consequently, unable to comprehend and cope with experiences involving racial bias (Smith, Fogle, & Jacobs, in press Spencer, 1983 Stevenson, 1995). Spencer (1983) also noted that lack of direct instruction and discussion about race among parents of color means that traditional views and prevalent stereotypes remain unchallenged. Supporting this perspective, Bowman and Howard (1985) found that Black youth who were not taught anything about race had lower self-efficacy scores than did recipients of proactive racial ethnic socialization strategies. In addition, Kofkin and colleagues (Kofkin et al., 1995) found correspondence...

L Oriana Linares Nicole A Morin

Based on the community violence studies of the early 1990s, between 44-82 of school-aged children and youth are exposed to community violence, depending on definitional criteria, methodology, and sample characteristics (Overstreet, 2000 Stein, Jaycox, Kataoka, Rhodes, & Vestal, 2003). According to the early studies, by the end of elementary school, almost all children residing in high crime innercity areas of Washington and New Orleans had heard (98 ) or witnessed (90 ) moderate to severe levels of violent occurrences (Richters & Martinez, 1993 Osofsky, Wewers, Hann, & Fick, 1993). School-aged children exposed to community violence are at risk for an array of problematic behavior including lower self-competence (Farver, Ghosh, & Garcia, 2000), high levels of distress (Martinez & Richters, 1993), depression (Durant, Getts, Cadenhead, Emans, & Woods, 1995), post-traumatic stress disorder (Fitzpatrick & Boldizar, 1993 Jaycox, Stein, Kataoka, Wong, Fink, Escudero, & Zaragoza, 2002),...

Repression and Contemporary Research on Memory

Repressing Personlaity

What are some of the symptoms The Courage to Heal suggests indicate a person is likely to have been abused The book lists, among other things, low self-esteem, self-destructive thoughts, depression, and sexual dysfunction. This book, and others like it, provides a strong message that, even in the absence of a specific memor , many people should conclude that they have been abused. However , there are many causes of low self-esteem, depression, and sexual dysfunction. In addition, these symptoms are associated with many other psychological disorders, such as phobias and anxieties, and these disorders certainly can occur without a history of abuse.

Establishing the Therapeutic Alliance

Because of the depressed patient's susceptibility to feelings of loss, rejection, and abandonment, many such patients are hungry for a connection that feels solid, responsive, and understanding. This connection alone can provide a powerful motivation for treatment and can in itself help the patient to feel less alone and more hopeful. Because of their fragile self-esteem, such patients also welcome the opportunity to identify with a therapist who seems knowledgeable and assured. Finally, the opportunity to investigate which areas of their self-image are faulty and which are accurate is often welcome as well, because depressed patients can be quite confused about realistically appraising their thoughts, behaviors, and attributes.

Fissure in the Field

Most of the empirical research in contemporary personality addresses the ways in which individuals and groups dif fer. For example, the extensive research literature on extraversion and introversion, on anxiety and neuroticism, and on self-esteem all focuses on the ways in which people dif fer from one another. The extensive research on masculinity, femininity, and androgyny deals with the psychological ways in which men and women dif fer, as well as the ways in which they acquire sex-typed social roles and behavior patterns. Research on cultures shows that one major dimension of difference concerns the degree to which individuals endorse a collectivistic or an individualistic attitude, with Eastern cultures tending to be more collectivistic and Western cultures more individualistic. One way to examine personality psychology might be to pick a dozen or so current research topics and explore what psychologists have learned about each. For example, a lot of research has been done on...

Biological Changes Associated with Puberty

Impact of these differences depends on the cultural beliefs and norms that relate to the meaning of early maturation for both girls and boys. For example, among white populations, early maturation tends to be advantageous for boys, particularly with respect to their participation in sports activities and their social standing in school. By contrast, early maturation can be problematic for white girls, because the kinds of physical changes girls experience with puberty (such as weight gain) are not highly valued among many white American groups who value the slim, androgynous female body characteristic of white fashion models. In a 1987 study, Roberta Simmons and Dale Blyth found that early maturing white females had lower self-esteem and more difficulty adjusting to school transitions, particularly the transition from elementary to junior high school, than later maturing white females, white males, and both early and later maturing African-American females. Similarly, in a 1990 study...

Roy W Pickens Dace S Svikis

Gender differentiation in society occurs at many levels and in the major institutions such as government, family, the economy, education, and religion, as well as in face-to-face interpersonal interaction (Giele, 1988). It is therefore not surprising that drug use behavior differs for men and women. Because of the pervasive way in which gender roles affect most aspects of people's lives, it remains a complex task to understand gender differences in patterns of drug use. It is expected that gender will influence patterns of substance use and consequences of substance abuse, in part because men and women are socialized according to different behavior patterns and values. Normative expectations for men include self-reliance and physical effectiveness. By contrast, women are taught to value close relationships and to define themselves in terms of those relationships. With regard to substance use, the literature shows that gender (a) is associated with use of alcohol and drugs (b) is...

Psychosocial Influences On Painrelated Limitations In Cancer Survivors

Numerous investigations have been conducted addressing the role of psychosocial factors in the prediction of prolonged pain and disability associated with work-related musculoskeletal conditions.26,104,105 Systematic reviews of prospective cohort studies indicate that initial levels of pain severity are predictive of prolonged pain-related disability.106 Gheldolf et al.107 found that pain-related fears were significant determinants of the inability to work in individuals with back pain. Cross-sectional and prospective studies have shown that high levels of pain catastrophizing are associated with more intense pain, more severe functional limitations, and more prolonged work absence.108-110 Lack of confidence in the ability to perform physical activities has been associated with more severe functional limitations.62,111 Pain severity and depressive symptoms have been associated with premature termination of involvement in pain management programs, with greater occupational disability,...

Emphasis on Self and the Notion of Narcissism

Ego psychology generally emphasizes the role of identity , which is experienced by the person as a sense of self. Contemporary psychoanalysts Otto Kernber g (1975) and Heinz Kohut (1977) are important contributors to the psychoanalytic conception of the role of the self in normal personality functioning and in disorders. In normal personality functioning, most people develop a stable and relatively high level of self-esteem, they have some pride in what they have so far accomplished, they have realistic ambitions for the future, and they feel that they are getting the attention and affection from others that they deserve. Most of us have a healthy level of self-esteem we consider ourselves worthwhile, we like ourselves, and we believe that others like us as well. And most of us engage in self-serving biases, which refer to the common tendency for people to take credit for successes, yet to deny responsibility for failure. Some take self-esteem too far , however, trying to increase...

Single Remedy Homoeopathy

It was mostly the physicians among the homoeopaths who accused the lay healers of abusing Hahnemann's doctrine for their own commercial interests their hotchpotch homoeopathy , they argued, was only paving the ground for ruthless business operations.93 They criticized them as well for bringing homoeopathy together with other healing approaches such as iridology.94 The physicians also deplored the homoeopathic lay healers' shocking lack of expertise and skills which they tried to conceal behind their arbitrary remedy mixtures. The physicians, on their part, were also vehemently attacked by the lay practitioners. The tightly organised and programmatic guild of quacks was said to have kept on insulting and vilifying the medical fraternity it appears that the lay practitioners did not suffer from a weak self image.95 95 Balzli (1925), p. 325. For the concept of quack doctor cf. Jutte (1996), p. 38. Concerning the self-image of the lay associations cf. Grubitzsch (1996), p. 59-64.

Personnel Selection Choosing the Right Person for the

The 16 Personality Factor (16 PF) questionnaire, described in Chapter 3, is also being used in vocational advising and selection. The 16 PF profile that best matches police o ficers is one that empha sizes boldness and self-confidence, qualities that facilitate one s abilities to direct or control others and to achieve goals (Krug, 1981). A heightened need for adventure and a strong need to influence other are linked with the enjoyment of careers that provide challenge and opportunities to take char ge. The police of ficer personality profile low on the need for support from others, which suggests a very self-assured personality. All of these personality characteristics appear to combine into a masculine profile. Nevertheless, the profile that matches the poli prototype occurs equally often among normal men and women in U.S. samples (Krug, 1981). Psychologically , men and women appear about equally equipped with the personality traits that most match the police of ficer prototype The...

The Role of Parents During Adolescent Development

Regarding peer involvement, there might be fear of rejection and segregation from peers leading to increased absence from school and other activities and social segregation. As far as identity is concerned, an inferior self-image with lower self-esteem, sometimes depression, may lead to concerns about the future and their emerging sexuality. Of course, both the severity of the condition and personal and family history are major influences. Family becomes then a critical element. Health professionals may also play an important role. They need to understand the family in this new life-cycle stage, how family dynamics may influence the adolescent's development and how they may facilitate communication among the different elements of the family system. Assessment of the adolescent psychosocial maturation and autonomy is a priority when dealing with teenagers and is covered further in Chapters 2 and 4.

Laura M DeRose Jeanne Brooks Gunn

Being less prepared cognitively and emotionally, but also socially. This may make it more difficult for early maturers to successfully navigate the pubertal transition. Third, timing of puberty may interact with social context. Experiencing the pubertal transition either earlier or later than one's peers may have negative effects on the individual as he or she is perceived as deviating from normative development (Brooks-Gunn & Petersen, 1983 Neugarten, 1979). For example, earlier-maturing girls gain weight at a time when most girls still have childlike physical appearance, which may be one reason why early-maturing girls have reported poorer self-esteem especially related to their body image (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1985 Tobin-Richards, Boxer, Petersen, & Albrecht, 1990). Before the 1980s, only two major studies were conducted on the effects of pubertal development the California and the Fels Longitudinal Growth Studies. The 1970s were marked by two seminal works that described the lack...

The Thought Query Quiz

The Thought Tracker demonstrates how the way you think about occurrences influences the way you feel. Sad feelings inevitably accompany thoughts about loss, low self-worth, or rejection. Anxious or worried feelings go along with thoughts about danger, vulnerability, or horrible outcomes. To complete your Thought Tracker in Worksheet 4-15, follow these instructions

Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

In one version of gender schema theory, Bem (1981) proposes that children develop gender schemas by virtue of the pervasive gender messages in society and that sex-typing occurs when children's self-concept and self-esteem gets assimilated into gender schemas. Interestingly, Bem's theory also focuses on individual differences in the degree of being sex-typed. She asserts that individual differences schemas and sexism schemas can replace gender schemas when children are encouraged to process information according to the variability within groups and the historical roots and consequences of sex discrimination (Bem, 2000).

Implications for practice

Fatigue needs an integrative approach. Exercise and physical activity should be integrated with other fatigue management strategies, including modifying dietary needs, relieving other symptoms, practicing progressive muscle relaxation, and assessing meeting emotional and spiritual needs. Cognitive therapy focusing on increasing individuals' self-efficacy can be an effective motivational intervention to encourage individuals with cancer to participate in exercise and physical activity (Haas 2000). It can be assumed that an integrative approach to fatigue management will improve the ability of cancer patients and survivors to manage their fatigue.

Intrinsic Motivation Theories

Until recently, intrinsic motivation researchers like Deci and Ryan and Csikszentmihalyi have dealt with conditions, components, and consequences of intrinsic motivation without making a distinction between intrinsic motivation as a state versus intrinsic motivation as a trait-like characteristic. However, interest in trait-like individual differences in intrinsic motivation is growing particularly among educational and sport psychologists (see Amabile et al., 1994 Gottfried, 1990 Harter, 1998 Nicholls, 1989 Schiefele, 1991). These researchers define this enduring intrinsic motivational orientation in terms of three components (1) preference for hard or challenging tasks, (2) learning that is driven by curiosity or interest, and (3) striving for competence and mastery. The second component is most central to the idea of intrinsic motivation. Both preference for hard tasks and striving for competence can be linked to either extrinsic or more general need-achievement motivation....

Current Status of the Field

Personality psychologists doing research today typically focus on specific com ponents of personality , such as self-esteem specific traits, such as extraversion o agreeableness or specific processes, such as the unconscious processing of informa tion. This is the direction toward which the field of personality psychology has shifte over the past 100 years. The early personality theorists, such as Sigmund Freud, constructed theories about the whole person. These grand theories focused on universal properties of human nature, such as Freud' s theory that all behavior is motivated by sexual or aggressive impulses or the theory that all persons go through specific stage of psychosexual development. Starting about 50 years ago, personality psychologists began turning away from grand theories of personality . In their place, personality psychologists began constructing mini-theories of specific parts of personalit . That is, they began to focus on distinct components of the whole person....

Addressing Narcissistic Vulnerability

Narcissistic vulnerability is the tendency to react to slights and disappointments with a significant loss of self-esteem (Kohut 1966 Rothstein 1984 Spezzano 1993). As noted in Chapter 1 ( Introduction ), narcissistic vulnerability has been viewed by generations of analysts as central to the development of depression. Because of its crucial role, it is important to help the patient become aware of this vulnerability and to collaboratively explore its dynamics.

Biphasic Mood Disorder

Psychological theories of depression generally view interpersonal losses (actual or perceived) as risk factors for developing depression. In fact, available evidence suggests that childhood loss of a parent or loss of a spouse are associated with depression. Classic psychoanalytic theories center on ambivalence toward the lost object (person), although more recent theories focus on the critical importance of the object relationship in maintaining psychic equilibrium and self-regard. The cognitive-behavioral model views cognitive distortions as the primary events that foster a negative misperception oi the world, which in turn generate negative emotions. The learned helplessness model (based on animal studies) suggests that depression arises when individuals come to believe they have no control over the stresses and pains that beset them. Three to four of the following criteria are required during the elevated mood period Self-esteem highly inflated, grandiosity

Peer Support In Hospital Settings

Organizing less structured programs such as vacation social groups, bowling trips, Christmas parties, or inviting local cosmetic companies in for a pamper day may serve to increase self-confidence levels and facilitate the development of peer support networks. In addition, therapy groups such as hydrotherapy or gym groups involving similar others may also serve to facilitate social networks. Careful selection of patients by health professionals may further enhance this process, by considering age, interests, problems, and personalities.

Idealization and Devaluation

Reich (1960) described self-esteem regulation as depending on the nature of the inner image against which we measure our own self, as well as on the ways and means at our disposal to live up to it (p. 216). Persons who are narcissistically vulnerable because of traumatic early experiences of helplessness, rejection, or loss often develop compensatory unconscious fantasies of power, magnificence, or invulnerability in themselves or in those on whom they depend. Such fantasies interfere with the development of a realistic ego ideal or wished-for self-image (Milrod 1982) based on the actual or reasonable abilities of the individual. When the individual fails to meet such highly unrealistic expectations, depression ensues or he or she looks to others to offset the resulting sense of diminishment. Depressed individuals may search for mentors, friends, lovers, and therapists who appear to be perfect, strong, and whole, with the magical hope that they will confer these qualities on the...

The Five Cs of Positive Youth Development

An internal sense of overall positive self-worth and self-efficacy one's global self-regard, as opposed to domain specific beliefs. For instance, programs promote positive youth development when they instill in youth attributes of competence such as self-efficacy, resilience, or social, cognitive, behavioral, and moral competence attributes of confidence such as self-determination and a clear and positive identity and attributes of social connection such as bonding attributes of character such as spirituality and a belief in the future (Catalano et al., 1999). In addition, programs promote positive youth development when they enhance ecological assets related to empowerment such as recognition for a young person's positive behaviors, provide opportunities for prosocial involvement, and support prosocial norms or standards for healthy behavior (Catalano et al., 1999). In this regard, Roth and Brooks-Gunn (2003a) compare programs that seek to promote the Five Cs programs that are aimed...

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

Reported more frequent race-related socialization were less likely than other children to demonstrate pro-Black attitudes, suggesting that either parent's intended messages about racial pride may have been interpreted by children as negative messages about African Americans or that parents failed to report their own behaviors accurately. Interestingly, in Marshall's (1995) study, parents' reports of ethnic socialization were significantly correlated with children's ethnic identity stage, whereas children's reports were not. Thus, a variety of questions concerning the correspondence between parents' reports of racial ethnic socialization and both children's reports of racial ethnic socialization and children's outcomes (e.g., group identification, self-esteem) need to be explored. This is especially important given the overemphasis on proactive, explicit, verbal, messages among researchers studying racial ethnic socialization to date. That is, we need to explore both how racial ethnic...

Identifying Anger Guilt and Self Punishment Embedded in Character

Be a patient who attempts suicide in response to a rejection, with this act intended, at least partially, to provoke lifelong guilt in the rejecting party. Whether one detects the pleasure in pain, which is the hallmark of masochism, or simply the chronic suffering due to inhibition that dramatically curtails self-esteem, it is crucial to focus on these embedded character features that may predispose some depressed patients to dysthymia or to future depessive episodes.

The Right Amount of Exercise

All children, even those with chronic illnesses such as asthma and diabetes and those with motor dysfunction, must include exercise as part of a total fitness program. All children can engage in exercise that will increase their overall heath. In special cases, professionals such as doctors, teachers, and coaches can work together to create an exercise program that will benefit the health and self-esteem of a child.

Application of Self Regulation to Self Help Treatments

For Change and Enhancing Self-Efficacy for Change and Enhancing Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy strategies Bandura's (1991) construct of self-efficacy plays an important role in SH treatments. An individual's motivation to attain a goal will be largely determined by her belief in her ability to engage in behaviors she thinks are related to the goal. If she possesses a strong self-efficacy in her ability, she will continue to engage in this behavior even when progress is slow and the goal is not being attained. If she does not possess the requisite skills but believes that the skills can be acquired, she will engage in behaviors necessary to acquire the skills and apply them in appropriate settings. For self-administered treatment programs, this self-regulation principle can be translated in terms of teaching skills that are requisite to attain the goal and prescribing graded exercises for practicing these skills in increasingly challenging situations. Table 4.1 provides a partial list of...

Referral for services

Therapy at the hospital for two years, and I wanted the school to take over. I brought in articles from Candlelighters Childhood Cancer Foundation and spoke to the teacher, principal, nurse, and counselor Gina had a dynamite teacher who really listened, and she helped get permission to have Gina tested. Her tests showed her to be very strong in some areas, and very weak in others. Together, we put together an IEP which we have updated every spring. Originally, she received weekly occupational therapy and daily help from the special education teacher. She's now in fourth grade and is doing so well that she no longer needs occupational therapy she only gets extra help during study hall. They even recommended her for the student council, which has been a tremendous boost for her self-confidence.

Jos Verbeek and Evelien Spelten

Cancer Patient Return Work

Being able to return to work and to stay at work is important, both for society and for the individual. From a societal point of view it is important to reduce avoidable work incapacity. Economic loss is involved in unnecessary work cessation. From an individual's point of view, not being able to return to work following an illness frequently results in financial loss, social isolation, and reduced self-esteem. This financial loss is additional to the increased financial costs patients already endure due to their illness. Conversely, return to work can improve the quality of life of cancer patients, can have a positive effect on self-esteem and social or family roles. Patients consider return to work to be important. Work performance after cancer treatment is frequently seen as a measure of recovery in its own right.9 From our review, it became apparent that the earlier emphasis on legal and insurance issues had been augmented by a wider scope of factors impacting the return to work...

Core Dynamic Formulation for Depression

The literature, then, suggests two broad models of depression those involving aggression toward others that is ultimately directed toward the self, and those focusing on difficulties with self-esteem in patients whose expectations of themselves far exceed their capacity to live up to them. Finally, some theorists refer to links between the two models. Rudden et al. (2003) have attempted to integrate these factors into a core dynamic formulation for depression. In this formulation, narcissistic vulnerability is seen as fundamental to the susceptibility to depression (Figure 2-1). This vulnerability results in sensitivity to disappointment and rejection and thus to easily triggered rage, which leads to feelings of guilt and worthlessness. The self-directed rage compounds the injury to an individual's self-esteem, which then escalates the narcissistic vulnerability, and so on, in a vicious cycle. Defenses, including denial, projection, passive aggression, identification with the...

Addressing Angry Reactions to Narcissistic Injury

It is important in treating depression psychodynamically to explore angry reactions to perceived rejections in early life, as well as negative affects toward those with whom the patient has experienced a recent loss or rejection. Therapeutic efforts are aimed at helping patients become more tolerant of and less threatened by their anger, which they tend to see as disruptive to relationships and potentially harmful to others (Table 7-1). In addition, angry feelings can trigger guilt and may cause a lowering of self-esteem. Anger often is turned toward the self, intensifying depressive symptoms. As patients explore origins of their rageful,jealous, or spiteful affects and realize the distortions in perception these often cause, these feelings become detoxified. They are no longer dreaded or disowned as unacceptable reactions that will ensure rejection or condemnation.

Social Cognitive Theory

Bussey and Bandura's (1999) most recent account proposes that children's development of sex-typed knowledge and competencies is promoted by modeling, enactive experience, and direct tuition. As in previous versions of their theory, observational learning continues to take center stage as the major conveyor of gender-typed information. Through cognitive functions such as attentional and representational processes, symbolic conceptions derived through modeling are able to be translated into behavioral courses of action. Whether children will actually perform the learned behaviors, however, will depend on the incentive motivators (i.e., direct, vicarious, or self-evaluative) associated with the outcomes. Through these social experiences, children also develop outcome expectancies and self-efficacy beliefs that become linked to sex-typed roles and conduct. These cognitions are then expected to regulate children's sex-typed behavior. For example, if a girl observes other girls in her...

Sources of Strength and Buffers of Race Related Stressors

Religion has been theorized to be an adaptive coping mechanism that has enabled African Americans to transcend the limitations and harshness of their social realities and to give meaning and direction to their individual and collective existence. During the 1980s, nearly 70 percent of African Americans reported themselves to be members of a church. Churches provide informal support (e.g., friendship, companionship, advice and comfort, help during illness, financial assistance), formal services (e.g., meals on wheels, transportation, group outings and vacations, ministerial counseling), and moral guidance. Religiosity and church membership enhance self-esteem partly as a consequence of the perception that one is held in high regard by other believers and by an omnipotent divine other who makes his her presence felt in one's life. Religiosity also buffers the negative psychological effects of stress. Having a mother who seeks spiritual support is one of several factors that...

Characteristics of Neighborhoods and Schools that Impact the Mental Health and Risk Behavior of Children and Youth

Positive Affirmations Youth

Each of these resources can affect children's social-emotional development, either directly or indirectly. Neighborhoods with adequate learning activities will attract children in off-school hours, thereby both engaging them intellectually and keeping them under adult supervision and off the streets where they would be more likely to join in antisocial activities. Similarly, social and recreational activities provide children with typically adult-monitored opportunities to structure after-school and weekend times, again diminishing opportunities to engage in antisocial activities or risk behaviors. Quality child care for preschool children and quality schools and after-school programs for school-aged children foster both social-emotional as well as cognitive development. Adequate health care services can promote social-emotional development by providing mental health counseling and preventive services regarding risk behaviors such as drug use and sexual behavior. Finally, employment...

Case Example 2 Identifying Feelings ofParental Rejection

Q's mother seemed consistently overwhelmed by the demands of raising her five children and offered little recognition of her daughter, either. The high-spirited patient managed to find ways of entertaining her siblings and friends, somewhat as her father, when present, entertained the family, and this became a significant source of self-esteem. In adulthood, however, after a number of love relationships failed, Ms. Q found

Defense Mechanisms in Depression

Psychoanalytic theorists have considered the possibility that certain defenses (i.e., internal or behavioral means of averting painful feelings or threatening unconscious fantasies) either may be specifically mobilized by depressive affects or may predispose individuals to the development of depressive syndromes (Brenner 1975 Jacobson 1971). Bloch et. al (1993) described three possibilities in this regard 1) defenses may become structured in response to a chronic mood disturbance 2) maladaptive defenses may actually lead to depression and 3) the mood disorder and defenses may each be related to a third factor, such as underlying low self-esteem. For most theoreticians, the defenses in depressed patients are initially triggered to contend with intolerably angry fantasies or with painfully low self-esteem but actually only result in an exacerbation of depression. Thus, anger projected outward, according to Abraham (1911), ends up being directed toward the self, whereas efforts to...

Psychological and Social Service Issues in Adoption

Another area that has received considerable attention in the adoption field is the placement of children across racial lines. Critics of transracial adoption have argued that this practice not only undermines children's self-esteem, racial identity, and emotional stability, but also promotes racial and cultural genocide. In contrast, individuals who support transracial adoption emphasize that children's interests are best served by placing them in a nurturing and stable family as quickly as possible, even if the children are of a different race than the parents, rather than waiting until an in-racial adoptive placement can be achieved. Although research has shown that most children who are placed across racial lines show similar patterns of psychological adjustment as those individuals who are adopted in-racially, questions still remain regarding the long-term impact of transracial adoption, especially in relation to the development of a secure racial identity.

Superior Academic Skills

One way to use this strength is to have your child tutor less capable peers in school. This can carry over to areas that may be more difficult for your child, such as social interaction, while also improving your child's self-esteem and potentially increasing interest in peers. Norma had a hard time interacting with the other students in her sixth-grade class. They often teased her, and she frequently thought their interests were silly. However, she was an excellent student, particularly in English. She could sound out and spell any word, even those at the college level. The school psychologist suggested to her teacher that asking Norma to tutor kids who didn't read very well might be a good way to increase her self-esteem. Norma greatly enjoyed her work as a peer tutor. It not only showcased her talents and helped her feel valued by her peers, but also allowed her to connect socially in a predictable, structured, and comfortable way.

Patient Related Barriers to Smoking Cessation

Abstinence Low quitting self-efficacy Cancer patients may have a general lack of knowledge about the health benefits of smoking cessation specific to the course of their cancer. Indeed, tobacco-dependent cancer patients often report fatalistic health beliefs such as the damage is done and that it is too late to quit. Compounded by an extensive history of heavy tobacco use, and the likelihood of prior failed attempts to quit smoking, self-doubting beliefs may foster low self-efficacy for quitting, a potent barrier to smoking cessation. Relatedly, cancer survivors' knowledge about specific health risks of smoking (e.g., impact on cancer recurrence or second primary cancer) may be potent motivators of smoking behavior change.88 Wold and colleagues88 examined causal attributions related to cancer diagnosis in cancer survivors and showed that most cancer survivors, regardless of smoking status, believed that smoking would cause the same type of cancer diagnosis in other people. However,...

Manheim Camryn 1961 Jewish American actress

The book, like the play, has been well received by critics and members of the public who are looking for alternatives to the stick-thin role models who dominate fashion and media. According to the Village Voice, Manheim is regarded as a supersize role model, especially for women struggling with body issues, dieting, eating disorders, and low self-esteem (Taormino 2000). She is active in the civil-rights world at large, which she sees as a legacy of her Jewish, academic parents (Manheim 1999 74).

Alzheimers Disease AD

A typical patient, a 75-year-old retired professor living in a senior living center, began to have difficulty finding his room when returned from meals. He kept asking What's my room number Later, he couldn't remember names, or what people had said to him 2 minutes before. He began to forget mealtimes, became less active and at times seemed agitated and depressed. He lost all self-esteem and confidence. Despite his increasing memory loss, he maintained a good spirit, but eventually began to have bad days. He could no longer to carry out activities that he enjoyed so much in the past, such as reading and listening to concerts. After several years, he lost control of his body functions, and died soon afterward.

Social and Emotional Health

This sort of treatment, which is hypothesized to produce adverse emotional consequences such as low self-esteem, negative body image, and depressive symptoms for obese children, is not limited to peers it may also come from adults, including parents, teachers, and health-care providers (Strauss et al., 1985). Even though obesity in children has become more common, such negative treatment has not diminished (Latner and Stunkard, 2003), as revealed by obese children who continue to be socially marginalized by their peers (Strauss and Pollack, 2003). In one longitudinal study, associations between obesity and low self-esteem appear to emerge by early adolescence and were strongest in Hispanic and white adolescent girls but not in African-American girls (Strauss, 2000). The emotional consequences are somewhat stronger in girls than in boys, increase with age, and may be greater in those obese children who seek treatment (Schwartz and Puhl, 2003). Having concerns about being

Superego Upholder of Societal Values and Ideals

Like the id, the superego is not bound by reality . It is free to set standards for virtue and for self-worth, even if those standards are perfectionistic, unrealistic, and harsh. Some children develop low moral standards and, consequently , do not feel guilty when they hurt others. Other children develop very powerful internal standards, due to a superego that demands perfection. The superego burdens them with almost impossibly high moral standards. Such persons might suf fer from a chronic level of shame because of their continual failures to meet their unrealistic standards.

Central Dynamics of Depression A Summary

Despite their variations in focus, almost all psychoanalysts describing their patients with depression have emphasized narcissistic vulnerability as triggering susceptibility to this syndrome. The basis of this vulnerability varies, however, from disappointments in early relationships to fragile self-esteem based on factors such as childhood experiences of helplessness or reactive fantasies of disempowerment or castration. A sense of narcissistic injury predisposes patients toward the experience of shame and anger, which may become important aspects or triggers of later depressive episodes. In almost every theorist's description, aggression ultimately is directed toward the self, although the basis of this dynamic varies. The possibilities include hatred projected outward and then experienced as directed toward the self, and aggressive feelings and fantasies directed toward aspects of the self identified with an ambivalently experienced other. A severe superego attacks the self for...

Stress Demon Of The Modern

Dealing constructively and creatively with stress will be more satisfying than a futile attempt to escape from stress. For example, if you quit your job to avoid occupational stress, you may encounter the stresses of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and a lower standard of living. Remember, the human body is biologically programmed for fight or flight. Although flight may have worked well in the past, when people were confronted by saber-toothed

Mixed Empirical Findings

Other studies found no differences between self-care and supervised children on a number of variables. Nancy L. Galambos and James Garbarino found that supervised and unsupervised fifth and seventh graders in rural settings did not differ on school adjustment, school orientation, achievement, and levels of fear. Stephen C. Messer and his colleagues reported no differences in personality tests and SAT scores between college students who had previously been in self-care and those who had been in supervised care. J. L. Richardson and colleagues found that stress levels of unsupervised students did not predict substance use. Hyman Rodman, David J. Pratto, and Rosemary S. Nelson found no differences among supervised and unsupervised children on measures of self-esteem, internal or external locus of control, and a behavior rating scale for urban and rural children of racial diversity. Deborah Lowe Vandell and Janaki Ramanan reported that children in the care of single mothers after school...

Conclusion And Contraindications

The group's coaching provided support but self-efficacy is more achievable when the accomplishment is internalized and more likely to generalize outside of group. The theory of self-regulated behavior suggested by Bandura (1977), illustrates this intrinsic reinforcement that comes from self-evaluation is much more influential than the extrinsic reinforcement dispensed by others (p. 333.)

Selecting the Instrumentation to Evaluate the QoL in Clients with Dementia

Ultimately, the instruments chosen were the QUALID and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. QUALID was developed in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center to assess the effects of treatment on QoL in people with severe dementia. It consists of 11 observable behaviours rated for the previous week on a five-point Likert scale by interview with a caregiver. It also includes two questions for the interviewer to rate the quality of the information. A sum score of responses indicates relative well-being in a range 11-55, with lower scores representing higher QoL. Although relatively new and untested, the scale was appropriate for our use and was well received during the pilot testing. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia is completed by an interviewer and includes both the responses of the client and a relative or care person who knows the client well, and based on the week prior to interview. Responses use a three-point scale...

The specific emotions

Embarrassment is the simplest of them and need not be an entirely negative emotion one can be amused at one's own embarrassment. It is mainly about making a social gaffe of some sort, or, to put it more formally, of not fulfilling a social role properly, losing self-esteem and leading others to form what one believes might be a negative social impression of one. Think, for example, of a situation in which it is important that you make some smooth social introductions and halfway through them you forget one of the key names (somebody you know perfectly well) and simply cannot think of it for the life of you.

Steady versus Multiple Dating

There are advantages and disadvantages to both steady and multiple dating (going out with more than one person). While the most serious long-term disadvantage of going steady appears to be early marriage, dating a single person on a steady basis can provide a sense of security for the adolescent and meet emotional and social needs. In addition to feeling popular, adolescents who date steadily tend to be those who report the highest self-esteem. Nevertheless, adolescents who have clear educational and or vocational goals tend to go steady less often, and females who have higher levels of self-esteem tend to date frequently, but are less likely to go steady. Finally, multiple dating often involves the adolescent in more superficial relationships and provides fewer opportunities to develop the interpersonal skills that are involved in getting to know one person well.

But everyone else can have a baby

For many women, motherhood is the ultimate expression of femininity and so you may feel less of a woman if you can't have children. In fact, you may feel less of a person altogether and it's not uncommon that the infertility experience dints your self-esteem and self-confidence, hopefully not in a lasting way. I talk about ways to maintain your self-confidence in Chapter 11.

HOME and Socio Emotional Development

Although not actually an index of social competence per se, having an internal locus of control is considered salient for good mental health and adaptive functioning (Rotter, Chance, & Phares, 1972). We reported low, but significant, correlations between the Early Childhood HOME and locus of control orientation at age 6 to 8 years (Bradley & Caldwell, 1979a). More recently we examined relations between the Early Adolescent HOME and self-efficacy beliefs for European American and African American children ages 10 to 15 (Bradley & Corwyn, 2001). We found low to moderate correlations for self-efficacy beliefs pertaining to both school and family but nonsignificant relations for self-efficacy beliefs pertaining to peers. This latter finding was not surprising in view of the fact that self-efficacy beliefs tend to reflect experiences in particular situations (in this case peer groups) (Bandura, 1997). Findings by Bakeman and Brown (1980) Lamb et al. (1988) Erickson, Stroufe, and Egeland...

A specific health problem smoking

The reasons for starting to smoke are to do with things social and with personality. Socially, the availability of cigarettes is a factor that influences the starting and the continuing of smoking in young people. Perhaps stronger factors, though, are to do with self-image. So, for example, rebellious teenagers are more likely to begin smoking than less rebellious teenagers.

The Impact Of Pain On Emotional Functioning Of The Cancer Survivor

The results of numerous investigations suggest that self-efficacy for managing pain54,62 might represent a protective or resilience factor against negative pain-related outcomes. In pain research, self-efficacy has been defined in terms of one's overall confidence in the ability to deal with symptoms, stresses or limitations associated with a pain condition.63,64 Considerable research has addressed the relation between self-efficacy and pain-related outcomes in patients with arthritic conditions (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia).28,65 High levels of self-efficacy are thought to impact on emotional functioning by promoting the use of coping strategies, increasing the range of activities individuals will undertake and by increasing the effort invested in activity.66 The role of self-efficacy as a determinant of psychological and physical functioning in cancer survivors with persistent pain has yet to be systematically studied.

How Receptive are Primary Care Patients to Self Administered Treatment

Williams (2003) discussed predictors of outcome in self-help and indicated that those who have negative attitudes toward the self-help format, poor concentration and memory, and weak visual processing would be least likely to benefit from self-help. These authors suggest that those with an internal locus of control and more self-efficacy are the best candidates for self-administered treatments.

A bridge built on perseverance

If your child is non-verbal, you can help him say his first word and his second and third without being a miracle worker or believing in miracles. You can also help your talking child make sense of the words he is already using, and you can help your child grow wings of self-confidence. Be prepared to feel frustrated most of the time, but please don't give up.

Patient Related Factors

Adolescents with a chronic disease are often hindered in their striving towards normality and autonomy, which may lead to depression, behavioral disturbances, low self-esteem, or social adjustment difficulties (24,54-56). Patients with recent onset chronic illness must renegotiate their self-identities as formerly well persons. Denial of disease may reflect patients' resistance to accept their illness and medications act as a reminder that they are not normal, which may consequently result in poor adherence with proposed treatment (54). Myths about arthritis that permeate the public perception may also indirectly contribute to poor adherence. Because arthritis is generally viewed as an inevitable consequence of old age, adolescents can meet disbelief from their environment, which may provoke additional psychological distress. Another powerful predictor of poor adherence is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to one's confidence in performing a particular behavior (57,58). In a large...

Factors affecting carers perceptions of fatigue

Problems with relationships, loss of partners, or social roles all impact negatively on self-esteem and feelings of well-being (Mathieson and Stam 1995). Negative perceptions of self-worth have been linked to feelings of fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Often undisclosed feelings such as resentment or anger towards the patient as a result of the severe limitations imposed on the carer's life may further contribute to their sense of low self-worth and subsequently contribute to feelings of fatigue (Holicky 1996 Kuyper and Wester 1998) Low self worth resulting from feelings of powerlessness and lack of recognition by others have been identified as major sources of stress for carers. Reports on the lack of awareness of carers' needs by patients, coupled with feelings of being overlooked by healthcare professionals, have been identified as being distressing to carers, and thus potentially contribute to feelings of fatigue (Holicky 1996 Kuyper and Wester 1998 Plant 2000)

What is anorexia and what are the effects

But anorexia is much more than just being about food. The sufferer is normally deeply unhappy about some aspect of his life and will have a very low self-esteem. Many sufferers feel that their illness gives them the attention from their loved ones that perhaps they felt they weren't getting before. Finding out what has made the sufferer unhappy or craving attention can be very difficult and sometimes impossible to work out. There are literally hundreds of reasons why young people suffer from anorexia nervosa. The most important thing to remember is to look forward, not back. Often the cause is irrelevant to the recovery and most anorexics do eventually recover. growth in general stops. In boys you don't have such a clear indicator as loss of periods, but ongoing puberty may be arrested or slowed down, and your son may revert to a more childlike state. This is certainly what happened with Joe. As he lost weight he looked younger, he spoke more quietly and became much less physically...

Summary and Conclusions

Theories of self-regulation provide a framework for developing effective self-administered treatments for a variety of problems. Aspects of self-regulation address the importance of enhancing motivation to change and strategies for enhancing motivation. Important to each of the theories are the strategies of goal-setting and feedback of success or failure provided by monitoring progress toward the goal. Change is seen as coming about by increasing motivation, specifying strategies for change, and having the motivated individual monitor whether the approach is moving him toward his goal. If it is, the strategies are continued, with new intermediate goals being set, further attention to improving on one's strategies, and adding new strategies. A variety of specific techniques were identified to increase motivation. Also identified were strategies to increase self-efficacy, a self-regulation component specific to Bandura's approach.

Addressing Nutrition in Refugees

From the international community and host government. In some cases, refugees may live in open situations in which they integrate into the local community. In almost all cases, refugees are dependent on outside assistance, although the level of need depends on the level of self-reliance the refugees are able to achieve. In some instances, refugees are able to bring some material goods with them when they flee and or have some sort of income-generating activity, such as access to land and labour and employment. However, this very much depends on the policies of host governments. In these cases, refugees are not totally dependent on food aid, and nutrition management response takes these factors into account by adjusting humanitarian assistance and the food aid ration to meet the assessed needs.