Regulation

Due to their carcinogenic potential, JECFA did not define maximal tolerable daily intake for aflatoxins. Indeed, these molecules being cancer initiators, the most realistic way to protect consumers against these contaminants is to reduce human exposure to the as low as reasonably achievable level (Trischer, 2004). In 2003, among the 99 countries that have implemented regulation for mycotoxins content in foods, all had at least regulatory value for aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxins content (FAO,...

Amplification Based Methods Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR has revolutionized molecular studies. The principle of the technique is that a thermostable DNA polymerase can be used to amplify a specific region of DNA to detectable levels based on template DNA found in the microorganism of interest. In conventional PCR methodology, amplicons are then separated out by gel electrophoresis, the DNA stained, and the size of the DNA bands determined by comparison to standard DNA. Use of such amplification techniques has expanded considerably over recent...

Clostridia

Clostridium perfringens and C. botulinum are potentially pathogenic microorganisms that are often contaminants in fresh meat. They are strictly anaerobic bacteria that may be present in the normal gut flora of animals and humans. They are spore-forming bacteria enabling them to survive in unfavourable environments, which present a challenge in food preservation. C. perfringens will grow in the temperature range from 15 to 50 C. At optimum temperature, 35-40 C, the growth rate is very fast, with...

Enhancement of Animal Host Response

Vaccination of animals, particularly when combined with other measures implemented further along the food chain, is considered as a promising strategy for foodborne pathogen reduction. For example, in pigs and cattle, vaccines against Salmonella strains causing disease have been successfully used (House et al., 2001) and vaccination of poultry against Salmonella contributed to significant reduction of the pathogen in poultry meat in the UK. Nevertheless, for other pathogens, such as E. coli...

Food Safety Research on Meat Hygiene

Government contributions to the food safety of meat products would be enhanced through a focus on science-based interventions, applied research, and education initiatives and not on punitive measures directed at industry, which will have a negligible impact on maintaining or improving the safety of the food supply or improving public health outcomes. Each fiscal year the US Congress appropriates funds to federal agencies to carry out their functions, including funds that are directed for...

Foodborne Pathogens of Significance in Readyto Eat Meat and Poultry Products

The microorganisms of concern with respect to RTE meat and poultry products include spores of spore-forming pathogens C. botulinum, C. perfringens and B. cereus during cooling and holding of products and L. monocytogenes resulting from recontamination of thermally processed products. Within the sous vide meat and poultry products, the survival and growth of non-proteolytic C. botulinum is of significance as these spores can germinate and grow during extended refrigerated storage and...

Metabolism and Meat Contamination

Administration of labelled toxin demonstrated that citrinin is only weakly absorbed after oral administration and quickly eliminated in urine and faeces, at least in rodents (Phillips, Berndt, & Hayes, 1979). In poultry, the administration of a contaminated diet containing 440 ppm of citrinin did not allow the detection of residual contamination in muscles, whereas only weak amounts of the toxin were found in liver of exposed animals. Lower doses (110-330 ppm) did not lead to residual...

Prevention of Recycling of Pathogens in the Environment

Farm animals can be exposed to microbial pathogens through grazing, harvested feed or a water supply that has previously been contaminated by Main principles and control measures for Prevention of recycling of pathogens in the environment Prevention of recycling of pathogens in the environment Prevention of introduction and or spread of pathogens within the farm Prevention of Ingestion of pathogens by animals Suppression of ingested pathogens within animal GI tract Fig 1.1 Main principles and...

Prevention of Transmission of BSE from Cattle to Humans

Mechanically recovered meat (MRM or mechanically separated meat, MSM) was derived from the flesh-bearing bones and carcass remnants of cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. During the early 1960 s automated high-pressure devices were developed whereby residual material, which was difficult to remove by hand, could be removed from bones and carcasses in a puree form. The vertebral column was often used for the production of MRM and this resulted in the risk of cross contamination of MRM by spinal...

Principles of Predictive Modeling

Mathematical models were first used in food microbiology in the early 20th century to describe the thermal destruction of pathogens in food, but the concept of predictive microbiology really emerged in the 1980s. This concept was first developed and extensively discussed by McMeekin and his colleagues at the University of Tasmania (Ratkowsky, Olley, McMeekin, & Ball, 1982 McMeekin, Olley, Ross, & Ratkowsky, 1993 McMeekin, Olley, Ratkowsky, & Ross, 2002). Now predictive microbiology or...

Regulation EC No 8522004

Regulation (EC) No. 852 2004 lays down general hygiene requirements to be respected by food businesses at all stages of the food chain including primary production. The Regulation does not apply to small quantities of primary products supplied directly by the producer to the final consumer or by the producers to local retail establishments directly supplying the final consumer. Examples of such products are vegetables, fruits, eggs and raw milk or products collected in the wild such as...

Stabilization Cooling Performance Standards

Stabilization cooling performance standards for preventing the growth of spore-forming bacteria are given in 9 CFR 318 for RTE roast beef, cooked beef, and corned beef products fully cooked, partially cooked, and char-marked meat patties and certain partially cooked and RTE poultry products. The regulations and supporting documents specify two performance criteria for chilling (1) there can be no multiplication of toxigenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum, and no more than a...

Introduction

In the United States, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that the number of foodborne illnesses annually is approximately 76 million cases, resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths. Of those, almost 14 million cases of foodborne illness, 60,854 hospitalizations, and 1,800 deaths are caused by known foodborne pathogens (Mead et al., 1999). The cost of human illness, medical expenses, and productivity losses associated with the six most dominant foodborne...

Human Health Concerns with E coli O157H7

E. coli O157 H7 was first described in 1975 in California after it was isolated from a woman with bloody diarrhea, but its identification as an enteropathogen was not until two, nearly simultaneous, U.S. outbreaks during 1982 (Ingham et al., 2006 Wells et al., 1983). It is considered a serious threat to public health in developed countries. In the United States alone, it is the single greatest cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) (Andreoli et al., 2002). E. coli O157...

BSE Epidemic and Relationship to Variant CJD

BSE occurs in adult animals in both sexes, typically in animals aged 5 years and more. It is a neurological disease in which affected animals show signs that include changes in mental state, abnormalities of posture and movement and of sensation. The clinical disease usually lasts for several weeks and it is invariably progressive and fatal. The average incubation period of BSE is 5 years, and only very rarely do animals under 3 years of age display symptoms. BSE was first confirmed in the...

Other Decontamination Processes

Other processes that have been proposed as potential decontamination interventions, alone or in combination, include irradiation (gamma or electron beam), ultraviolet light, high hydrostatic pressure, infrared technology, electromagnetic fields, pulsed light, sonication, microwaves, bacteriophages, and bac-teriocin-producing bacteria (Sofos, 2008 Sofos & Smith, 1998). Among these, ionizing irradiation is the most suitable and promising technology which involves discharge and translocation of...

Reasons for Revising the Regulatory Aspects in the EU

In the 1990s consumer confidence was severely undermined due to a number of food contamination scares, such as the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalitis in cattle initially in the United Kingdom and later in many other countries (Schreuder, 1994) and the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in animal feed in Belgium (Bernard et al., 1999). As a result, the Commission adopted the White Paper on Food Safety in 2000.2 This ambitious programme contains a number of...

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Escherichia coli O157H7

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming rod, which belongs to the Enterbacteriaceae family. Theodor Escherich first cultured 'Bacterium coli' in 1885 from the feces of a healthy individual. It was renamed Escherichia coli in 1919 in a revision of bacteriological nomenclature (Law, 2000). Many benefits have been found from E. coli in human medicine, food industry, and the water industry. Some studies suggest that E. coli can serve as a benefit to the human body by...

C perfringens Predictive Models for Cooked Meats

Several models have been developed and are currently available to predict C. perfringens germination and outgrowth in meat and poultry products. The most widely used ''tertiary'' predictive models (software graphic user interface) are the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP) and the Perfringens Predictor. These programs have an easy interface, where the user could upload the temperature profile of the product and predict the potential germination and...

References

Aberle, E., Forrest, J., Gerrard, D., & Mills, E. (1975). Principles of meat science Enhanced with color plates (4th ed.). Dubuque, Iowa Kendall Hunt Publishing Company. Acuff, G. R. (2005). Chemical decontamination strategies for meat. In J. N. Sofos (Ed.), Improving the safety of fresh meat (pp. 350-363). Boca Raton, Florida CRC Press. Ackers, M. L., Mahon, B. E., Leahy, E., Goode, B., Damrow, T., Hayes, P. S., et al. (1998). An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 H7 infections associated...

Control of Thermal Meat Processing

The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157 H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001)....

Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

Gianfranco Brambilla, Annalaura Iamiceli, and Alessandro di Domenico Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002 Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences...

Advanced Decontamination Technologies High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

Margarita Garriga and Teresa Aymerich The increasing demand for natural foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the...

GMO Detection

Jaroslava Ovesna, Katerina Demnerova, and Vladimira Pouchova Modern agriculture and the food industry are under constant pressure to produce healthier, tastier and cheaper food, while at the same time maintaining and improving safety standards. Consequently, these industries are all the time demanding still better, more efficient genotypes of crop species and farm animals suited to a wide range of usages. Farmers, in particular, are calling for species that are more resistant to disease, that...

Clinical Features of vCJD and Other Human TSEs

Human TSEs are characterised clinically by a progressive and uniformly fatal encephalopathy. Even when the disease is acquired by infection, there are no typical infection indicators there is no pyrexia, the peripheral blood white cell count, ESR and CRP remain normal and there is no detectable antibody response. Indeed, the illness is entirely neurological even when other tissues may be pathologically affected (for example lymphoreticular involvement in vCJD), there is no clinical evidence of...

Metabolism sulfoconjugated forms of AFM1 AFQ1 and AFP1 for review Guengerich et al 1998

Absorption of aflatoxin B1 administrated by oral route is rapid and almost complete (Gregory, Goldstein, & Edds, 1983). Absorption takes place in the Table 4.3 EU regulation for aflatoxins contamination (mg kg) Groundnuts + grains + dry fruits Cereals Cereal-based foods for young children Groundnuts + grains + dry fruits Cereals 2, 5 or 8 depending on the product and the processing step 2 or 5 depending on the product and the processing step 4, 10 or 15 depending on the product and the...

Regulatory Enforcement Actions

The rules of practice are described in 9 CFR 500 and define regulatory control, withholding actions, and suspension actions that can be taken by FSIS. Regulatory control actions are defined as the retention of product, rejection of equipment or facilities, slowing or stopping of lines, or refusal to allow the processing of specifically identified products. A withholding action is the refusal to allow the marks of inspection to be applied to all products or specific products produced by an...

Science Based vs Politically Based Regulations

Although FSIS speaks often of science-based regulatory policies for the meat industry, there are numerous examples where FSIS policies appear to be driven more by politics than science. When US meat hygiene regulations are not science based, it leads to challenges of meeting politically driven expectations in a world where scientific principles play a major role in the presence of hazards and their impact on human health. Sperber (2005) characterized the government approach to science-based...

Oxidative Changes and Their Control in Meat and Meat Products

Oxygen is a rather reactive molecule and is able to combine with many compounds within a living organism and food. But due to this reactivity it is also essential for animal life because reactions with oxygen provide the tissues with chemical energy. But the main constituents of muscular and fatty tissues are in a healthy live animal rather unsusceptible for unwanted oxidative changes. The reason is the presence of antioxidative substances in sufficient concentrations which despite the...

Clostridium botulinum

C. botulinum comprise a group of Gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produce a potent neurotoxin. The C. botulinum species are differentiated based upon the antigenically specific toxins that they produce. Thus, there are currently seven known types A-G, with type C having C1 and C2 toxins. All the strains of C. botulinum are at present placed in four groups. Group I contains proteolytic types A, B, and F Group II, the non-proteolytic types B, E, and F Group III,...

Predictive Modeling of Pathogen Growth in Cooked Meats

Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Nageswara Rao Korasapati, and Marcos X. Sanchez-Plata Thermal processing or cooking of food products has been adopted for centuries as a method of food preservation. Enhancement of product quality parameters such as color, flavor, and texture probably contributed to the adoption of the method for a variety of products. Today, cooking or thermal processing is one of the most commonly used unit operation in the food industry. The significant...

Chemical Dehairing

There exists a patented method for chemical removal of hair from animals after stunning (Bowling & Clayton, 1992 Schnell et al., 1995). This multi-step procedure involves application of a sodium sulfide solution, the depilatory chemical, followed by pressurized water spraying of animals to remove hydro-lyzed hair, and then spraying with a neutralizing solution, sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate in combination with hydrogen peroxide, in a washing cabinet (Bowling & Clayton, 1992 Nou...

Advanced Decontamination Technologies Irradiation

Bacterial food-borne illnesses account for an estimated 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths each year in the United States (CDCP, 2005), and 5,300 food-borne outbreaks in Europe resulted in 5,330 hospitalizations and 24 deaths in 2005 (Aymerich, Picouet, & Monfort, 2008). Major food-borne pathogens of concern include Escherichia coli O157 H7, Campylobacter jejuni coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus,...

Strategies for Spoilage Control

Expansion of muscle food shelf life can be achieved using a variety of approaches and strategies. Storage at chill temperatures (< 5 C) can expand the shelf life for days. Modified atmosphere or vacuum packaging storage can achieve it for weeks or months. Further expansion requires the use of more drastic measures such as canning, freezing, use of chemical or biological preservatives. Given that the move towards minimally preserved foods is increasing, the most attractive and promising...

Detecting Microorganisms on Meat

Food hygiene regulators and industry set microbiological guidelines for key pathogens to assure meat safety. Quantitative guidelines are set for total viable counts on carcasses, processed raw meats and ready-to-eat meats, etc. to ensure that under a particular set of defined environmental parameters the meat will have the required and predicted shelf life. The most common approach to quantify micro-organisms (total viable count) for the purposes of predicting shelf life and spoilage is culture...

Real Time PCR Methods for Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens in Meat and Meat Products

Marta Hernandez, Flemming Hansen, Nigel Cook, and David Rodr guez-L zaro As a consequence of the potential hazards posed by the presence of microbial pathogens, microbiological quality control programmes are being increasingly applied throughout the meat production chain in order to minimize the risk of infection for the consumer. Classical microbiological methods to detect the presence of microorganisms, involving enrichment and isolation of presumptive colonies of bacteria on solid media, and...

Methodologies for the Detection of BSE Risk Material in Meat and Meat Products

Soon after the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in cattle, so-called specified bovine offal were legally defined and banned (SBO-ban) in order to reduce the presumed potential BSE exposition risk for British consumers (UK, 1989). Later on the legal definition of risk material was frequently modified according to new scientific results on BSE tissue infectivity (Table 19.1). A European-wide ban on specified risk materials...

C botulinum Predictive Models for Cooked Meats

A brief overview of the models for C. botulinum growth was discussed by McClure, Cole, and Smelt (1994). The earliest models developed for C. botuli-num were for predicting the survival of the spores during thermal processing (canning). Subsequent models for probability of growth or time to toxin production have been reported in the literature. The factors that have been used for preserving foods at risk for C. botulinum growth and toxin production include pH, NaCl, sodium nitrite, and sorbate...

Insertion Sequence RFLP

IS RFLP is a type of RFLP used in Salmonella investigations that targets IS200 (Olsen, Skov, Angen, Threlfall, & Bisgaard, 1997). IS200 is located randomly in the Salmonella genome. Studies using primers targeting IS200 produced an amplicon of about 700 bp in size (Amavisit, Markahm, Lightfoot, Whithear, & Browning, 2001 Millemann, Gaubert, Remy, & Colmin, 2000 Olsen et al., 1997). Since IS200 is not present in all Salmonella spp., it cannot be considered a dependable target for...

EXp eXlnt XrnN01 t

This model was first proposed by Gibson et al. (1988) to describe microbial growth curves and reparameterized by Zwietering et al. (1990) in order to define it with classical growth parameters N0, Nmax, mmax, and 1. But the biological interpretability of its parameters is not so obvious since Eq. 21.10 does not describe a value of N equal to N0 at time t 0 and since the model is a logistic one with mmax representing the slope of the tangent of the curve at the inflection point and not the...

Zero Tolerance Standard for E coli O157H7

E. coli O157 H7 has been a concern in the US meat industry since the 1993 outbreak in the US Pacific Northwest and since FSIS declared the pathogen to be an adulterant in raw ground beef in 1994. In January 1999, FSIS expanded the zero-tolerance policy such that beef products that have been injected or mechanically tenderized are considered adulterated if E. coli O157 H7 is found and the products are not processed into RTE items. In addition, intact cuts that are to be processed into non-intact...

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Meats

Meat smoking belongs to the oldest food technologies that has been used by mankind at minimum for 10,000 years. Probably a protection against canines led a man to hung a catch over the fire and from this time the smoking has started to be widely used not only for production of smoked products with a special organoleptic profile, but also for inactivating effects on enzymes and microorganisms. So far, techniques of smoking have been gradually improved and various procedures have been developed...

Development of Spoilage Microbiota

The conditions under which the animals are reared and slaughtered determine the level, extent and type of contamination. Possible sources of contamination include the abiotic environment in contact with the animal air, soil, water, feeds , the animal itself hides, intestinal tract, faeces and the processing equipment including utensils and humans. Contamination may also vary according to specific characteristics of each animal, its geographic origin as well as the season of the year. The...

Peer Reviewed QMRAs

Since the mid-1990s peer-reviewed studies presenting QMRAs, particularly those related to meat and poultry products, have increased significantly. A number of these studies demonstrated the applicability of this methodology as a decision-making tool for different food safety issues. Significant data gaps have also been identified, thus encouraging the collection of new data crucial for the development of more accurate risk assessments. Certainly the adoption of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary...

Restriction Endonuclease Based Methods Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

PFGE has become a widely used method in molecular subtyping. It has been used extensively in the analysis of isolates associated with outbreaks such as E. coli O157 and Salmonella. PFGE was selected as the method of choice for PulseNet, the national system used for monitoring and tracking foodborne pathogens and outbreaks in the United States Swaminathan, Barrett, Hunter, Tauxe, amp The CDC PulseNet Task Force, 2001 . This database is linked to the Centers for Disease Control. A range of PFGE...

Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats

Flumethasone Structure

Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic to control infectious diseases and prophylactic to prevent against infections purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal's metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered...

Biopreservation

Environment Safety Drawing

Winkelstroter, Fernanda B. dos Reis, and Elaine C. P. De Martinis In the last decades important changes have been observed in the food science area, with increasing consumers demand for ready-to-eat RTE and minimally processed foods, as a reflection of the increasing awareness of the risks derived not only from foodborne pathogens but also from artificial chemical preservatives used to control them Castellano, Belfiore, Fadda, amp Vignolo, 2008 Parada, Caron,...

Antimicrobials Treatment

Drosinos, Panagiotis N. Skandamis, and Marios Mataragas The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to...